How to Choose the Right Binocular

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Introduction

This binocular guide takes the mystery out of choosing the right binocular. Charts, graphs and simple tests to determine binocular quality have been included throughout the text. The information presented will help clarify the various misunderstandings that seem to cloud the judgment of so many binocular buyers.

When you're ready to make your selection, in the back of this brochure you will find

a helpful summary of the current line of great, high-quality binoculars made by Nikon ... a worldwide leader in the sport optics field.

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Table of Contents

page 4

Building Better Binoculars Basics of Binocular Selection Anatomy of a Binocular

• Understanding Lens Quality . Understanding Lens Coating

,The Importance of Internal Metal Blackening Roof vs Porro Prism Design

Lens and Barrel Alignment

Evaluating Construction Quality

page 14

View From The Top

Magnification Power Understanding' Zoom" Binoculars Objective Lens

Real Angle of View

Understanding Wide-Angle Rating Understanding Field of View Understanding Exit Pupil

Detail Resolution

page 18

page 20

Focusing ljYLI;",~J.t:!M.~" Understa~!.Lu~

Long Eye

page 24

Where Are You? Comparing Bran

Size Weight and Us gl· ..... ___

What' Waterproof" Really Mean

page 25

Binocular Care/Repair

3

Building

Belter Binoculars

One of the hest things about choosing a Nikon binocular is that you never have to be concerned about quality. \l\Thether you choose an inexpensive compact model, one of the waterproof binoculars, or anything in-between, you still enjoy the highest standards of construction and quality materials in the industry.

After over 90 years of expert sport optic lens designing and manufacturing, over 40 years of creating unsurpassed multi-layered anti-reflective lens coatings, and producing some of the finest-ever optical glass in our own glassworks, Nikon binoculars continue to deliver startlingly clear, incredibly sharp images and true strain-free viewing.

The right binocular can enhance your enjoyment of spectator sports, bird-watching, concerts, boating, school events, and many more day-to-day activities. But for you to

be truly happy with your binocular, you need to consider a broad spectrum of criteria: amount of magnification' field of view' angle of view; relative brightness' twilight factor; light gathering; light transmission; detail resolution; vision correction; length of eye relief; focusing mechanics' internal and external construction integrity; size and weight; durability; and precision lens and prism fittings and alignment.

Spending just a few minutes to review the information on the following pages will result in many years of enhanced binocular enjoyment and viewing satisfaction.

BASICS OF BINOCULAR SELECTION

You use binoculars for one purpose: to improve your view of a distant subject. The truth is how you plan to use your binoculars, and when and where, are critical to the binocular selection process. Some small compact binoculars may be ideal for viewing in bright daylight. But at dawn or dusk these binoculars might not take in enough light for satisfactory viewing. Or, for nighttime viewing only full-size binoculars with their large objective lenses would be capable of delivering a satisfactory image.

Binoculars also have to be appropriate for the physical circumstances under which they will be used. If you simply cannot (or don t want to) carry a larger binocular, then you must choose among smaller, lighter models. The design of the binoculars (roof or Porro prism) may also be very important to you. And finally, if you're using your binocular in adverse weather conditions, then waterproofing, shock resistance, anti-fogging non-slip grip and other features also may become important.

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5

Anatomy of a Binocular

• • • • ••

Central Focus Control 9

• • • •

••

• •

----Prism Tube----. 3

Central ••••• Focus Control 9

Diopter Control 1

••••

••

• •

------ .... Prism Tube--- ...

• 3

Exit Pupil 6

• ••

• • • • •

Images 7

• ••••• Diopter

~_ .... ~ Control

1

• Images

7

---- Eyepiece --_ ....

Lens 5

.......------- 0 b j e c t i v e --------1 Lenses

8

Eyepiece ---- .... 4

6

7

Binoculars accomplish their task by transmitting light from the scene to your

eyes. Proper light transmission in Nikon binoculars is significantly enhanced by Nikon's precision-coated lenses. All optical glass absorbs and reflects light. The light loss affects brightness very dramatically. Light transmission can be as low as 50% with no coating or poor coating, to as high as 95% with expertly applied, full multi-coating. The average of 5% light absorption cannot be corrected. These anti-reflective "coatings" are applied to lenses to improve the color and contrast of the image and maximize brightness. The quality, type and method of coating applied to binocular lenses is of critical importance to brightness, clarity and contrast. Nikon actually 'coats" lenses in heated vacuum chambers over extended periods of time. This assures you of the very highest quality and uniformity. Only the finest sulfide materials are used and expertly applied, giving Nikon

, binocular lenses a distinctive magenta or green/magenta appearance. Whereas some other manufacturers may simply coat the outside of the front objective lens (and often improperly causing irregular surfaces), Nikon coats all lens surfaces within the

binocular for maximum light transmission and "glare" reduction. Comparing binocular performance in very dim light conditions will separate the best from the rest. Nikon quality emerges spectacularly in this type of comparison. Choose as dark

a detailed subject as you can to view in the

store. Never compare by looking through

. window glass.

Understanding Lens Quality

Understanding Lens Coating

The most critical components of any binocular are its lenses. High-quality glass is basic to binocular performance. For over 90 years, Nikon has manufactured optical glass that reduces distortion and diffraction to an absolute minimum.

Nikon s unique extra low dispersion (ED) glass lenses can focus all

the various length light waves on the same plane, creating ---~

unsurpassed resolution, color and contrast. Legendary Nikon lenses are of the highest quality, and are meticulously ground and polished to exacting specifications of smoothness, thickness, hardness, reflectivity and transparency. The result is incredibly sharp, strainfree viewing.

The Importance of Internal Blackening

FOR LENS DISTORTION:

To test for distortion caused by unequal image magnification, fOGUS on a straight edge like a shelf.or door jamb. Bowing or curving at the top or sides indicates poor correction.

"Internal blackening' of a binocular is essential. Blackening of all interior metal surfaces reduces reflections and enhances glare reduction. In Nikon binoculars, all the internal components of the lens barrels have been thoroughly painted black to reduce the tendency of light to "bounce around." If light bounces around inside

the lens barrel, reduced image quality

and annoying glare will result.

FOR FLATNESS OF FJELD (EDGE-TO-EDGE SHARPNESS):

To test for edge-to-edge sharpness, focus on a flat image like a poster. Image degradation resulting from inability to focus sharply on both the center and edges together indicates excessive curvature.

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FOR INTERNAL BLACKENING:

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Look into any Nikon binocular at a 45° angle, and what do you see? Darkness. Try this with a competing model and you may clearl y see internal metal parts. If you do, these metal parts are reflecting light that bounces around inside

the barrel causing image degradation in the form of distracting glare and reducing the overall transmission of light itself.

Other manufacturers, however may incorporate low-cost, low-index BK-7 glass into their prisms. BK-7 glass almost always causes excessive refraction of light, and tends to produce a vignetting or clouding effect which appears rn a diamond shape around the edges of the image circles.

Low-index prisms can cause vignetting as shown above. To observe, hold binocular out i~ front of you at about an arm's length, viewing through eyepiece lenses. In virtually all ~lllocu.lars ~ade with BK-7 prisms, you will experience decreased light gathering and Image mtegri ty.

Roof Prism vs Porro Prism Design

Binoculars come in two prism designs: "roof prism" and "Porro prism." The purpose of prisms in binoculars is to correc the inverted and reversed images you would see in their absence. Roof prism binoculars, chosen by those who prefer a slimline design, are costly to produce DeGaUSe their very small prisms require special grinding and polishing to maintain image integrity. However, Farro prisms provide increased image depth because of their off-set design producing a more lifeLiKe, threedimensional image.

Since Nikon uses high-index BaK-4 opti al glass for both design types, top quality edge-to-edge performance is essentially equal.

Blackout Area

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Pupil---.,

........ Eyepiece.,._: , Lenses

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Porro Prism

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Look for Proper

Lens and Barrel Alignment

Roof Prism

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It is vitally important that binocular lenses be properly aligned along the light path. Poor alignment of lenses (a common problem among poorly made instruments) results in partial image blackout due to the eye pupils not appearing in the center of exit pupils. Hold binocular level looking through eyepiece lenses at an arm's length. Make sure exit pupils are exactly in the center of each ocular.

If the exit pupils are fuzzy or irregularly shaped instead of round; or, they are not located exactly in the center of each eyepiece lens, the lens elements are' misaligned. It's important to note that, regardless of the entrance pupil/exit pupil correlation for light gathering as indicated on pages 16 and 17 (i.e. 5mm exit/5mm eye pupil) lens element misalignment and the resultant entrance and exit pupil misalignment will cause partial image blockout, reduction of light and discomfort.

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Exit Pupil Alignment

Binocular

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··········Exit Pupil·········· · ..

: (off center) :

• •

Binocular

~---- ----~

Eyepiece

4

• • • •

FOR LENS ELEMENT ALIGNMENT:

Carefully examine the exit pupils of the binocular. IT the exit pupils are fuzzy or Irregularly shaped instead of round, or they are not located exactly in the center of each eyepiece lens, the lens elements are misaligned, This misalignment can cause partial image blockout, reduction of light transmission and overall viewing discomfort,

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Unmatched Barrel Alignment

Objective Diameter

Having lenses in one barrel severely out of line with the lenses in the other barrel can produce an immediately perceivable double image. Worse, a slight error (not easily detectable) will cause your eyes to continually correct for the problem. Eye strain results from the constant stretching of your eye muscles to search for proper focus.

3Smm

Double Image

....

Optical glass is its sharpest in the center, while resolution decreases toward the edges in relationship to the quality level of the lens. Since virtually all poorly made binoculars have substantially blurry edges, many of these manufacturers hide the edges with a donut-like opaque retaining ring. Unsuspecting consum.ers then view a center to "false edge" image. The use of a retaining ring also means that the binocular wil1lose from

20 to 25% of its light gathering ability, again reducing performance.

EVALUATING

. CONSTRUCTION QUALITY

Signs of inferior construction include loose fittings that cause lenses to dislodge, prisms that protrude into the optical path, focusing and diopter controls that stick or slip visible glue in tube interiors, and excess lubricant on exterior surfaces. All of these and other defects will more than likely lead to unsatisfactory binocular performance. And if these signs of pOOT quality are visible, imagine the problems that are likely with the other parts of the binocular that you can t see! For superior quality, always look to the legendary reputation of Nikon .

• FOR UNMATCHED BARREL ALIGNMENT:

••••

Focus on a subjectin the store. When it's sharp, put the binocular down and rest your eyes for about 30 seconds. Bring the binocular back to your -eyes with one hand covering one of the front lenses:; then drop the hand. If the image is out of focus and then slips into focus, the barrels are misaligned and your eyes did the work by compensating. Continued use of a misaligned instrument can cause severe eyestrain and headaches!

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View from the Top

Nikon binoculars are recognized by optical experts the world over as the best quality value in every price class from popular-priced compact and full-si-ze models to their top of the line models featuring extraordinary optical superiority. In addition, Nikon has special-purpose binoculars including waterproof models and unsurpassed zoom binoculars both popularly-priced and top-of-the-line.

There are three basic descriptive and performance

numbers that appear on every binocular: these

include magnification/power, objective lens

diameter in millimeters and real angle of view.

For example, the Nikon 7x35 8.6°

model has 7x magnification/power, a 35rnm diameter objective lens, and a real angle

of view of 8.6°. You can use this data to calculate virtually every important quantitative consideration in choosing

the right binocular model for you.

REAL ANGLE OF VIEW

The real angle of view (8.6°, in our example), is the third number printed on all Nikon binoculars. It represents the segment of a 360° circle that the binocular is designed to view. The higher this number, the more of the subject you see from side to' side. This number is used to determine if the binocular can be rated as a wide-angle "Of wide field of view instrument.

UNDERSTANDING WIDE-ANGLE RATING

Real angle of view, as the name implies, is based on the actual distance of the viewer from the scene. With magnification as an added factor, the viewer appears to be (or "apparently" is) much closer to the scene than the actual distance, and the apparent angle of view is much wider at this closer proximity. This apparent angle of view is

used to determine wide-angle rating. It can be calculated by multiplying the magnification by the real angle of view. In our example, 7 (magnification) x 8.6° (real angle of view) ;;:: 60.20 (apparent angle of view). Since the result of this calculation is greater than 60°, these binoculars qualify as a wide-angle instrument.

MAG N I FI CATION IPOWE R

The first performance number, 7, indicates that the image seen through the Nikon 7x35 8.60 is seven times larger than the

human eye would see without the binocular. In other words, objects at 100 yards appear to be only 14.3 yards (100 yards divi~ed by 7) from the observer.

UNDERSTANDING FIELD OF VIEW

To determine the field of view measured laterally in feet at 1,000 yards, multiply the real

. angle of view, 8.6°, by 52.4 feet (52.4 is the linear measurement in feet that one degree represents at a thousand yards). The result, 450.6, shows that everything in the scene falling within 450 feet side to side will constitute the image you can see. The following diagram will help to clarify the above concepts.

UNDERSTANDING "ZOOM" BINOCULARS

Zoom binoculars offer changeable magnification. For example, the Nikon 1O-22xSO Action.lets you scan at lOx, then zoom-in up to a full 22x, after you have identified your subject. The magnification range of Nikon's popular-priced 7-15x35 Action is from 7x-15x.

Nikon zooms are exceptionally sharp edge-to-edge, offer bright, clear viewing, and defy the normally accepted opinions that all zoom binoculars are a compromise in optical performance.

Field of View

• ~ ...... '" ••••••• FIELD OF VIEW 1000 YARDS

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...................... APPARENT ANGLE OF VIEW

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. .. Gob · .. · .. ······APPARENT CLOSER POSITION, 7X

.0 , REAL ANGLE OF VIEW, 1X

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.... ((~

~ .. ~ .. ~··~::::=-_~-----------1--- CcfJ ACTUAL BINOCULAR POSITION

The size of the objective lens, in millimeters, is the second number appearing on the Nikon binocular specifications. It is a major factor in determining how much light enters the binocular. Other circumstances being equal a 35mm lens will capture less light than, say, a 50mm lens (when the magnification power is a constant). (See Exit Pupil Explanation Page 16)

A) WIDE-ANGLE BINOCULARS HAVE AN APPARENT ANGLE OF VIEW OF 60° OR GREATER.

B) WIDE FIELD OF VIEW BINOCULARS ARE APPROXIMATELY 400 FEET OR GREATER.

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UNDERSTANDING "EXIT PUPil"

Exit pupil describes the image that i projected to a point in space beyond the eyepiece. This is the point where your eye must be positioned in order to see the full, clearly focused image. You can see the reflection of the exit p pil circle by looking through

the eyepiece while holding the binocular at arm's length,

The relationship between the dilation and contraction of your eyes an he i:ze of the exit pupil determines light gathering potentials. The human eye pupil diameter ranges from about 2mm in bright light. to a maximum of about 7mm in total darkness. For proper light gathering potential the diameter of the binocular's exit pupils must be equal to or greater than the diameter of your eye pupils during the various light levels indicated below.

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To determine exit pupil diameter, divide the objective lens size by the power rating. In the case of the 7x35 example, the calculation is 35mm divided by 7 = 5mm indicating .

the exit pupil size is 5mm, appropriate for all lighting conditions short of :otal ~arkness. The chart below indicates appropriate binocular ratings based on the relationship of eye pupil openings to exit pupil sizes from bright to dark lighting conditions., An exit pupil size of 6.5 or above is ideal for any lighting situation, though more than likely a largersize binocular than desired will be required.

Exit Pupil Chart

LIGHTING CONDITIONS

BRIGHT LIGHT , '.

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2MM

DAWN AND DUSK

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-~

NIGHT OR BOATING

AVERAGE DAYLIGHT , ,

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J I •

3MM 4MM

5MM 6MM

7MM

HUMAN

EYE RANGE EXIT PUPIL REQUIREMENTS

~

APPROPRIATE 7 X 20/9 X 25 8 X 30 7 X 35 7 X 50
BINOCULARS 10 X 70
8 X 23 8 X 32 10 X 50
8 X 20 8 X40
10 X 25 8 X42 ZOOM BINOCULARS GIVE YOU A RANGE OF LIGHT GATHERING CAPABILITY AS THE EXIT PUPIL CHANGES WHEN VARYING THE POWER.

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To See the Light

liGHT GATHERING

The ability of a binocular to gather light often dictates its usefulness, Relative Brightness (RB), and Twilight Factor (TWF) are two important measurements of light gathering, They are a function of available light, combined with magnification/power ratings and objective lens sizes and the resultant exit pupil sizes,

Exit Pupil-s the objective (front lens) diameter size in millimeters divided by the power (i.e. 7x35 35/7 = 5mm), To get the maximum light gathering from your binocular, the exit pupil must be equal to or greater than that of your entrance "eye" pupil in various light conditions.

Use the following formulas to calculate these factors:

RB (relative brightness) = E. p,2 (exit pupil size, in millimeters, multiplied by itself, TWF (twilight factor) = the square root of the result obtained by multiplying power rating by the size (in millimeters) of the objectivelens,

Relative brightness numbers from 4 to 16 are best suited for daylight; 16 to 25 for daylight,. dawn and dusk; above 25 for all lighting 'conditions. However, twilight factor could be a more meaningful criteria in your selection process. Twilight factor measures imaging capability under severely low-light and very low-contrast conditions, similar to those often experienced in wildlife observation at dawn and dusk. Based on a different relationship between objective lens size and magnification power, twilight factor offers

a different perspective from the relative brightness index which is used primarily for normal daylight conditions. Twilight factor takes into account that by multiplying the objective by the power of the binocular, a higher power will provide you "With much greater detail and image identification (while of course maintaining the brightness enhancement of a 5mm exit pupil or more),

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The chart below provides a quick and easy reference for selecting the appropriate binocular based only on light gathering potential. These numbers will tell you which

of Nikon's quality models is appropriate for specific uses and lighting conditions. . Remember, this is a quantitative - not qualitative - guide. There are many other features and characteristics to consider. Obviously, if these numbers were the final word, all brands of 7x35's or 8x40's and other binoculars would be equal, and this is certainly not true. Once you have determined the desired quantitative specs that meet your needs, the important qualitative issues of sharpness, light transmission and precision separate Nikon from other brands.

Comparison Chart of R .. B.'s and TWF's

relati.ve

b ri q h t ne s s '

twilight factor

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1'.8

12.6

15.7

22.4

18.7

6.3

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8.2

25

19

7 X 20 2.9
8 X 20 2.5
7 X 35 5
10 X 50 5
7 X 50 7.1 25

50.4

Many competing brands of binoculars offer "fixed-focus" models often mistakenly called "auto-focus" or other marketing-oriented names. Factory preset at infinity, most will be "relatively" in focus from about 40 feet (at 7x) or 80 feet (at lOx) to infinity, Virtually all lack the ability to obtain genuinely sharp images with the absence of a focus knob. In addition, they can't compensate for common right-eye, left-eye vision imbalance, because they are not equipped with a diopter adjusting mechanism. Also, the absence of a focusing-control mechanism precludes the ability to adjust for myopia . Myopia is a common problem for virtually all of us over forty years of age' and many times younger. It reduces the eye s ability to focus by itself by reducing far sighting ability simultaneously with the reduction of close focusing ability.

Eye-to-Eye

VISION CORRECTION

UNDERSTANDING "FIXED-FOCUS"

You are certainly aware that visual perception among individuals yaries greatly.

What you may not know is that virtually everyone has a strong eye and a weak: eye. Sometimes this difference is negligible' sometimes quite significant. All Nikon binoculars are equipped with a diopter control to compensate for this dilemma.

FOCUSING MECHANICS

. All Nikon binoculars that feature a central focusing knob have a separate diopter adjustment mechanism located at the right eyepiece (opposite side on zoom models). It is this diopter control that enables you to compensate for the difference between each individual's strong and weak eye.

To set the binocular specifically for your eyes, first move the barrels up and down until the two images merge into one. Set the diopter at zero. Then, cover the objective lens on the barrel with the diopter control, and adjust the central focusing knob until the image is sharp. You now know that the central focus knob (which moves lenses in both barrels simultaneously) produces a sharp focus for the uncovered eye at that particular distance. Now cover the objective lens on the barrel without the diopter (do not change yOUT distance from the subject). If your eyes were visually equal the subject should be sharp with this other eye since the diopter is set at zero. If not, turning the diopter control, which only moves the lenses in its tube, will change the lens positions until they match the sharp focus attained by the central focus knob for the other eye. Once done, as long as the diopter control is in this established position, and your eye prescription does not change, the central focus knob will always give you a quick, sharp, strain-free view. (See fig. A wlo diopter adjustment) (See fig. B with adjustment (forward or back). Note: this process should be done even with eyeglasses as one does not know if your corrective lenses are still effective.

LONG EYE RELIEF

Eye relief is the distance in millimeters between the glass surface of the eyepiece

on which the exit pupil is reflected and that point in space beyond it where the exit pupil actually is located. This is where the user's eye must be positioned to see the full image.

Specially designed eyepieces can provide a longer distance between the eyepiece glass and the actual exit pupil position (called long eye relief], Now even with eye

wear you can see a full image.

With eye wear on, fold the soft rubber eyecup forward prior to use.

FIG A.

FIG B.

00

00

DIOPTER AT 0 - LENSES IN EACH BARREL LATERALLY ALIGNED.

DIOPTER ADJUSTMENT USED - LENSES OFFSET TO PROVIDE VISION BALANCE.

Eye Cup

(ROLL BACK SOFT, NON-SCRATCH NEOPRENE EYE CUPS WHEN USING EYE WEAR)

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Detail Resolution

Understanding the Power, Eye Re ief, Field of View Relationship

Resolution, or ultimate sharpness, is the measure of your binocular's ability to distinguish fine details. Larger objective lenses (with quality as a constant) tend to improve resolution. This is because they have a larger amount of sharp, center objective lens area, as opposed to the amount of lesser sharpness at the edge of the lens surface. This is much like increasing the sweet spot of a tennis racket.

To maintain resolution integrity, there is an optical axiom that needs a be understood. a) increase power, ER+FOV specification levels are reduced. b) increase ER FOV decreases and vice versa, c) increase ER+FOV, power is lower. ably; the costly increase in density and number of eyepiece lenses would allow a wider latit de in these relationships, in order to maintain acceptable resolution.

Average range of normal eye relief for compacts is 9-10mm, and full-size models 9-12mm. Long eye relief constitutes 12-14mm in compacts and 15-18mm 'Or more

in full-size models.

Sweet

Doubling Objective.

Lens

Mag i cOp tic Tr ian g Ie

10xSO···

Quadruples Objective Lens Surface Ar e a

• FOR DETAIL RESOLUTION:

To test this phenomenon on various binocular models, focus on a poster with fine copy or try to distinguish the brick and mortar lines on the walls of a brick building. In general, regardless of size, the inferior glass in poor quality binoculars will not deliver the proper levels of resolution you find in all Nikon binoculars.

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Meet

Your Match

for waterproofing. Beware of false claims. Always request proof of claims and warranty especially with regards to waterproofness. Rubber coating is for the benefit of grip, non-slippage and higher damage resistance.

Wherever you are, or whatever you're doing, there is a Nikon binocular model with precisely the right features for your purposes.

WHERE ARE YOU?

Whether you're observing birds and wildlife on a boat, hiking through mountains, traveling, participating in or watching sports or musical events, photographing outdoor subjects, or a myriad of other applications different situations call for different binocular requirements.

Now that you know all the important parameters for choosing the binoculars for your primary application, you are ready to select exactly the right binocular from ikon's broad line of quality products.

Care and Repair

SIZE, WEIGHT AND USAGE

Nikon's line of compact binoculars will meet the needs of any occasion where

a compact instrument is desirable. Lightweight, compact models are perfect for a broad range of applications, but their small size limits their performance. To avoid a dissatisfying experience carefully assess the conditions under which you plan to use your binocular. They can't duplicate the performance of full-size models under all conditions, like very low light for example. Compare side by side if pas ible.

WHAT "WATERPROOF" REALLY MEANS

There is a vast difference between "fogproof," "weather resistant," 'splashproof" and "waterproof" designations. Splashproof and weather resistant usually means an exposure to a brief sprinkling is tolerable. Fogproof means the instrument has been purged of virtually all moisture. air and gaseous water molecules while in a special chamber in

an almost-perfect vacuum state. Then the instrument is filled with nitrogen gas and sealed securely with a-rings. Waterproof has the same specifications of fogproof with the additional benefit of water immersion capability.

A common mistake is to assume tha binoculars encased in rubber are waterproof. Rubber casing alone can never provide waterproof integrity and also is not required

Binocular care is simple, but if you do damage your binocular, always make sure to seek assistance from a professional photographiclbinocular technician. Contact the store where you purchased your binocular for expert advice.

To keep your binocular in top working condition, follow these few tips:

• Avoid dropping or impacting your binocular.

• Do not expose binocular to moisture. Some binoculars are waterproof and can withstand exposure but others, even some rubber-clad models are not. Check your instruction manual.

• Before wiping any glass, carefully remove any harmful debris which could scratch the glass surfaces. For small particles, a blower brush or a compressed air device should be used.

• Using a clean soft lint-free cloth or lens tissue with lens cleaning solution applied, gently wipe the glass surfaces. Household window cleaners or a water bath should never be used.

• Avoid touching the lens surfaces with your fingers. Oil or perspiration from your fingers could eventually damage the lens surfaces. Smudges of this or any sort should be quickly removed.

• Always return your binocular. to its case after use replacing any lens caps.

• Store your binocular in a clean dry place, away from dust and dirt. A good idea is to save the silica gel packet which came with your binocular when new. Placing it in with the binocular when storing will help to retard moisture.

Special note: water damage to non-waterproof binoculars is not covered by manufacturers warranty. Always be aware of product specifications. Check with the manufacturers product Literature or owner's manuals.

COMPARING BRANDS AND MODELS

Remember, the best environment for making comparisons is a detailed subject in very dim light-i.e. a photo, or poster or ceiling structure in a dark corner of a store. (Never through poor window glass.)

The comparisons and guidelines in this brochure will help you choose the right binoculars from the Nikon line. You cannot assume that other manufacturers apply

the same high standards a Nikon's. In other words, a "Brand X" 7x35 model will rarely be the exact equivalent of a Nikon 7x35 model, etc. There are too many other deciding factors.

If you do accidentally expose your non-waterproof binocular to water, get them to a qualified technician immediately. A technician will disassemble your binocular and clean all surfaces to prevent fungus growth which, if left unchecked, could render the binocular worthless. Salt spray should be wiped off metal surfaces with alcohol to prevent surface deterioration. A soft, clean cloth, damp with fresh water (not wringing wet) should be used to clean the glass surfaces.

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