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Five Mystical Ghazals Author(s): Ruhollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini, William Hanaway Source: Iranian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3/4, Selections from the Literature of Iran, 1977-1997 (Summer - Autumn, 1997), pp. 273-276 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of International Society for Iranian Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4311068 Accessed: 12/02/2009 02:56
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twenty-threemystical ghazals. The source of this paradoxis not simply the creation of a "persona" speak the poems. even confident. 25.an authoritymanifestednot only in his teaching. The late classical style shows some traces of the sabk-e hendi (Indianor Safavid style) although these traces are not very prominent in this poetry. 1368/1989). They are taken from his Bada-ye ceshq: Ashcar-e 'arefana-ye Hazrat-e Emam Khomeini (Wine of Love: Mystical Poems by His Eminence Imam Khomeini). volume 30. 59. the 14th Century Persian poet whose ghazals are often emulated by later poets. and unrequited broadersocial relevance? Is the contemporary poet following or reactingto earlier poets? Finally. Bada-ye ceshq: Ash'ar-e 'arefana-ye Hazrat-e Emam Khomeini (Tehran: Mo&assasa- ye Tauzim va Nashr-e Asar-e Emam Khomeini. numbers3-4. When one approacheslate twentieth-centuryPersian ghazals. the intellectual climate in which we live today compels one to ask a numberof questions. In additionto the to conventionaldistancingof the pre-modernpoet from the reportingof direct experience. Here is the poetry of an individual of grat spiritualaccomplishmentand authority.Iranian Studies. a fortiori Ayatollah Khomeini. the very class of society that the mystical poet. it is difficult to imagine Ayatollah Khomeini actually doing all the things that he seems to long to do in his ghazals (see especially the ghazal from p. and power. The Ayatollah's mystical ghazals present a paradoxthat illustrates clearly the conventional natureof this rhetoric.and writing but in his public life itself as it became increasingly political. Has the contemporary that govern poet masteredand applied the formal requirements the pre-modern style? Are the poems confined to the traditionaltopics of wine. with a few direct of borrowingsfrom Hafez. a numberof quatrains. and they display a cast of characters and variety of settings familiarfrom half a millennium of mystical poetry.erotic longing. 71 and 55 . 31. what is the relationshipof the poetry to the life of the poet? RegardingAyatollah Khomeini'smystical ghazals one can answer the first questions readily:they are writtenin a competent. Human fallibility aside. and the strong emphasis on form that this implies reinforcesthe claim that strict formal require1. classical style characteristic the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. preaching. Summer/Fall 1997 RuhollahKhomeini Five MysticalGhazalsby the AyatollahKhomeini Translator's Note WERE GHAZALS AYATOllAH RUHOlUAHKHOMEINI BY THE FOLLOWING WRITTEN between 1365/1986 and 1367/1988. The poet adheres closely to the pre-modernliterarynormsfor mystical poetry.' The collection includes and some other material. 55). love in all its aspects or do they explore new areas of spring. these ghazals invoke a whole rhetoricaltraditionof casting mystical poetry in the diction of the courtly class. shuns and condemns. The ghazals at hand follow classical models in their diction and rhetoricof praise. 29.
I have in handdeath'scup but have never seen a cup of wine Years have passed but a favor from my darlinghas not come. The bird that is my soul no longer fluttersin this cage. Ayatollah Khomeini joins Shah Ismacil. It is possible that one committedto the formal (as well as the inner) aspects of Islam. Death and destruction have gone by Life with a myriadbrilliantdesigns has come again. 0 meadow bird:springhas come again The season of drinkingand kissing and hugging has come again. The termof witheredfadingand sadnesshas ended The days of dallying with the beloved have come again. lined up waiting Whom can I tell that. His verse affirms the strengthof the tradition. Naser al-Din Shah and numerous other rulersof Persiawho have writtenpoetry. 1987) Good news. which by natureare often antinomian. my soul-nourishingbeloved has not come? That lover gives life to the dead and takes the souls of lovers Even to paganssuch a belief in murderinglovers has not come.as was the Ayatollah.274 Khomeini ments are a liberatingopportunityratherthan a restricting straightjacketfor a poet. Lovers of her face are. Winter'spallorhas packedits bag and left the meadow'sface From the sun's warmththe bloom of the rose has come again.would fmd classical-style mystical poetry a convenient vehicle through which to express his mystical feelings. alas. (July. . His poems embody multiple ties to a traditionthat links the presentto the past. and The one who would breakits bars has not come. Those enamoredof the beloved'sface areall nameless Intothe heads of the famous such a desire has not come. My life has reachedits end and still my beloved has not come My tale has ended but an end to this heartachehas not come. caravan-like.and it is not surprisingthat it seems to ignore a century of modernizationand poetic change in Persia.
and dancinghave come again. has Exiled from my land.Five Mystical Ghazals 275 To celebratea beauty'scurly tresses Wine bearers. singers. whatcan I do? Bewitched. and wine and wineshops have come back Love and delight and wine now take up our sleeping time. your lovely lips have enchantedme. like Hallaj. (January. for in the Sufis' faith Your act will be fruitfulbefore God. tell the sheikh that A tulip-cheekedbeautyto teach him has come again. rose in the gardenof elegance Withouteven a glance you have turnedme againstotherbeauties. 1987) Your languideye. .grief-stricken: By a hint. The masterof the wineshop offered wine to breakmy fast I replied "Yourfast is with petals and fruit.0 beloved. 0 wine drinker.1987) The monthof Ramazanhas passed. Should you pass the schoolhouse door. and condemnedto the gallows. Close up the shop of abstinencefor this happy season For my heart'sear hears that the song of the lute has come again. You cypress in beauty'sgrove.has enamoredme The ringletsof your hair.seared. (April." Make your ablutions with wine. Wine from your overflowing cup has given me eternallife Kissing the dust of your doorstephas opened all secrets to me.wineshops. All the wine drinkershave let slip their sobriety A cup from your life-giving handhas soberedme. Love for you drove me from school and cloister. have entangledme. Love for my heart-stealer made me. and In the wine house has enslaved me.
and prayers. Invite me to a cup of wine that will relieve my longing. Turn my heartfrom purityto that predatory idol. Raise the veil from the beautifulface and hairof my beloved. Lay a strandof your curly hair in my way.276 Khomeini What roadcan one take otherthanto the beloved? Whatcan one say otherthanpraiseof her? Every word of praisethat you utteris praiseof her. asceticism. Free me from learning. (1984) OSaqi. Awake.the mosque.fromthis deep sleep! See the beloved's face clearly in every mote. Make me heedless of lessons. teaching. Make me a foreignerto the Kacbaand the land of the Hejaz. open the door of the wineshop for me. and hypocrisy. discussions. friend. bring me a jug of wine. As long as you sleep you are hiddenwithin yourself [and] The world's sun is hiddenfrom your eye. Singing like David. Make me heedless of worryover statusand its ups and downs. William Hanaway . Tr. friend!How long can you sleep? Awake. Fill my cup with that pure wine. I have become helpless from grief over the absenceof my beloved'sface.
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