Bengal school of art The Bengal school arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the

academic art styles previously promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Ravi Varma and in British art schools. Following the influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havell attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures[1][2]. This caused controversy, leading to a strike by students and complaints from the local press, including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive move. Havell was supported by the artist Abanindranath Tagore, a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art, a style that he and Havell believed to be expressive of India's distinct spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West. Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata (Mother India), depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations.

Tagore later attempted to develop links with Japanese artists as part of an aspiration to construct a pan-Asianist model of art.The Bengal school's influence in India declined with the spread of modernist ideas in the 1920s. Patna School of Painting Patna School of Painting or Patna Qalaam or company painting is a style of Indian Painting, which existed in Bihar, India in the 18th and 19th centuries. [1] Patna Qalaam was world¶s first

Nurpur. People with money ± landlords and British families living in Patna became their patrons. Chamba. pahar means a mountain in Hindi) is an umbrella term used for a form of Indian painting. These hindu painters were experts of Mughal miniature style paintings. originating from Hill kingdoms of North India. during 17th-19th century. The subjects of the painting accordingly changed to scenes that portrayed normal day-to-day location and activities. The story goes that Aurangzeb (died in 1707) persecuted Hindus and as a result some of the painters fled and found refuge in Patna. The painters earlier used to paint court scenes commissioned by the ruler but in Patna the scene changed. . Mankot. Its quite incredible how influential foreigners have been in shaping Indian art and how the socioeconomic structure challenges artists to innovat Pahari paintin Pahari painting (literal meaning a painting from the mountainous regions. This movement lasted for over 200 years. There was a phase in India when art flourished under the patronage of Mughal rulers. The move to Patna brought about certain transformations. The style too evolved during this period to one where some western techniques of paintings were incorporated.independent school of painting which dealt exclusively with the commoner and his lifestyle also helped Patna Kalam paintings gain in popularity.[2] The Patna School of Painting By admin | Published: 12/15/2009 Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar. Notably Basohli. located in the North-West region of India. The refreshing change in subjects and the technical approach gave the style distinctiveness and it got a special name ± Patna Kalam or the Patna School of Painting.

Chavand having been the final capital of Amar Singh''s father. through Himachal Pradesh. For example. which became synonymous to the style before other schools of paintings developed. developed from the 17th century to the end of the 19th century. Guler. in the sub-Himalayan India. more and more paintings concentrated on portraiture and the life of the ruler. Mewar painting continued to flourish. and each creating stark variations within the genre. originating from Basohli in Jammu and Kashmir. though this was patronized mostly by the Rajput kings who ruled many parts of the region [4]. Mewar painting : This is one of the most important schools of Indian miniature painting of the 1600s and 1700s. Rawal Tej Singh (1251-1267) had shown the paintings of Radha Krishna. This vigorous and expressive style continued. During the reign of Maharana Jawan Singh (1828-1838). Bundi painting. with variations.Kangra. with Western-style portraiture of notable figures supplementing the traditional style of hunts and courtly occasions. After this. It gave birth to a new idiom in Indian painting. featured emotional appeal through simple bright colours. to the delicate and lyrical Kangra paintings. The Rajputs and Mughals inherited paintings of Sahibdin (Shahibdeen) (1628-1652). an important school of the Rajasthani style of miniatures. The Pahari school developed and flourished during 17th-19th centuries stretching from Jammu to Almora and Garhwal. through the reigns of Maharana Jagat Singh I (1628-1652). Painting in Mewar developed from the 13th century. With this style. and was done mostly in miniature forms [1][2]. The earliest dated examples of these are a series painted in 1605 at CHAVAND during the reign of Maharana Amar Singh I (1597-1620). inspired by Jayadev's Gita Govinda[3]. the foremost Court Artist was Chokha. The paintings of . artists used a single hair from the throat or tail of a squirrel to execute the finely detailed work of these exquisite paintings. more than in any other Rajasthani school. which reached its pinnacle with paintings of Radha and Krishna. Maharana Jagat Singh II (1734-1751) encouraged artists to gain recognition by adding their monogram to their works. Although religious themes continued to be popular. and Maharana JAI SINGH (1680-1698). and Garhwal. The Mewar School continued through the 1700s and into the 1800s. Mandi. ranging from bold intense Basohli Painting. in the Rajasthani style developed in Mewar. and grew out of the Mughal painting. Mughal influence became more evident. The large number of Mewar paintings. Under Maharana Bhim Singh (1778-1828). Maharana Pratap Singh I. the output being quite prolific.

Typical characteristics of Kishangarh Paintings are portraits of women with sharp profiles. while in Nathdwara. Kishangarh Paintings usually depict two themes ± religious (especially of Radha-Krishna) and social (predominantly hunting and court scenes). slanted eyes and aquiline noses. long necks. Unlike other Folk Paintings for example Madhubani Paintings and Warli Paintings.Kundanlal Mishri (1866-1926) were famous in Udaipur and Mewar. the work of permanent value to society through the medium of painting. Pichhavai paintings were the most famous. It developed in the mid-eighteenth century under the patronage of Raja Sawant Singh of Kishangarh (1748-1757). Today. meeting the tourist demand for exquisite originals and reproductions of Mewar''s famous miniatures. The Kishangarh school excels in its Bani Thani . The annual MAHARANA MEWAR FOUNDATION AWARDS recognise outstanding artists with the Maharana Sajjan Singh Award. The Kishangarh school of miniature painting is known the world over for its sensuous portraits. Udaipur has an extraordinary number of accomplished artists in pokey ateliers scattered throughout the city. in part. soft colors and fascinating landscapes. which honours. The colours used are almost jewel-like and green is one of the predominant shades used.

only Natural Dyes were employed. and declined from ninteenth century onwards. but today. An advanced culture like Kashmir that had well organised style of architecture. However. New Delhi. Now all that has been forgotten and commercially available paintbrushes are being used. Commercial considerations have also changed the way Kishangarh Paintings are executed today. It is true that Kashmir yields no archaeological remains of paintings nor do we know anything regarding the painting to reorganise the chronological history of painting in Kashmir. After Sawant Singh¶s death. Some of these exquisite masterpieces are now on view at the National Museum. paintings being fragile in nature have completely disappeared from Kashmir on account of its unsuitable climatic conditions and ravages of wars. Today. of course.paintings that depict a beautifully-dressed (bani thani in Hindi) Radha. Kashmiri craftsmen. most painters of the Kishangarh school merely reproduce older works instead of doing original work. This paucity of archaeological material. But the paintings created by the medieval artists of Kashmir have fortunately survived in the Trans-Himalayan region where climate preserved them. long-famed in the North Western Indian peninsula. the brushes used were made by the artist himself from the hair from squirrel tails. Paintings discovered from Gilgit represent a highly developed style which did not appear overnight. These paintings belonged to the rulers of Kishangarh and were first seen by the outside world in the 1940s. All the earliest monasteries of Tibet and Western Tibetan provinces used their services and their artifacts were in ever greater demand. Originally. sculpture and other arts would never ignore the art of painting as it has been a most expressive and lively medium of human feelings and creative impulse. although much has been written about the ancient Kashmiri architecture and sculpture in recent times. Kashmir School of Painting The Kashmir school of painting is an obscure topic in the otherwise scholarly field of Indian art history. the Kishangarh school lost much of its originality. . The earliest surviving examples of Kashmiri painting come from Gilgit which date from about 8th century A. used to be invited to Central Asia and Tibet to decorate Buddhist monasteries. Traditionally. these have been replaced by poster colours. poses a severe lacuna in reorganisation and interpretation of the history of painting of Kashmiri people in early days but nevertheless it means that painting was an unknown or omitted discipline of fine arts to the Kashmiri society. D.