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BOOTP-DHCP

BOOTP-DHCP

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Published by: XXX on Nov 24, 2010
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11/29/2010

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BOOTP and DHCP

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Bootstrapping 

It is a process when the computer start the first operations - initializes and contains drivers for all interfaces. If the PC is connected to the network, it need to be configured. The following information will be required  IP Address  Subnet Mask  Default Router Address  DNS Address
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Bootstrapping 

A host can read this information from its internal disk but some devices have no storage. They need help from another device on the network to provide them some information. This problem of getting a new machine up and running is commonly called bootstrapping, bootstrapping, and to provide this capability to IP hosts, the TCP/IP Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) was created.
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RARP 

RARP was the first attempt to resolve this ´bootstrap problemµ created in 1984. RARP is capable of providing a diskless device with its IP address, using a simple client-server exchange of a request and clientreply between a host and an RARP server. The difficulty with RARP are :  Operates at a fairly low level using hardware broadcasts, so it requires adjustments for different hardware types.  An RARP server is also required on every physical network.  RARP only provides an IP address to a host and none of the other information a host may need. 4 

BOOTP 

Developed in 1985. It is based on a client/server exchange, but is implemented as a higher-layer highersoftware protocol, using UDP for message transport. It is not dependent on the particular hardware of the network like RARP. It supports sending additional configuration information to a client beyond just an IP address. It can handle having client and server on different networks of an internetwork.
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BOOTP 

The host broadcast BOOTP request message. message. When BOOTP server receives the request, it search the database , placed the information in single BOOTP reply message and returns the reply to the requesting computer. Main disadvantage is that manual configuration of tables mapping IP address to MAC address is required.
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BOOTP 

BOOTP messaging uses UDP. Since the client doesn't know the address of a BOOTP server, the request is broadcast on its local network; UDP supports broadcasts while TCP does not. BOOTP servers ´listenµ on port 67 for these requests sent by clients.
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BOOTP

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BOOTP Header Format 
    

OP: Type of Operation HTYPE: Hardware Type HLEN: Length of hardware address HOPS: How many servers forwarded the request. Transaction Identifier : Provides a value that a client can use to determine if an incoming response matches its request. Seconds Elapsed: Total elapsed time since the computer began to boot.
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DHCP 

DHCP automatically configures hosts that connect to a network. DHCP does not require an administrator to add an entry for each computer to the database that a server uses. DHCP work like plug and play networking. DHCP is in wide use because it provides a mechanism for assigning temporary IP address to hosts.
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DHCP 

Administrator can configure DHCP server to have two types of addresses. 


Permanent address to DHCP server A pool of addresses to be allocated on demand. 

When computer boots, sends a request to DHCP server, DHCP server checks its database to find the configuration information.
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DHCP 

When a computer discovers DHCP server, the computer saves servers address in a cache. DHCP supports the concept of a "lease" whereby a server can allocate an address to a client for a specific amount of time. If you have more devices than IP addresses, using shorter leases can help to keep you from running out of addresses. If you have more addresses than devices, you can utilize permanent leases or you can assign fixed addresses to specific devices.
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DHCP 

BOOTP supports only one model - static allocation. But DHCP supports three models:  Dynamic allocation: Server chooses and allocates an IP address with finite lease.  Automatic or Reserved allocation: Server allocates an IP address with infinite lease.  Static allocation: Server allocates IP address that has been chosen by the administrator. DHCP server manages two databases to recognize the network status: Address Pool and Binding database. database.
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DHCP Messages 
     

DHCPDISCOVER DHCPOFFER DHCPREQUEST DHCPACK or DHCPNACK DHCPDECLINE DHCPRELEASE DHCPINFORM

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DHCP process 
  

 

DHCP clients broadcast and Ask for IP address DHCPDISCOVER). (DHCPDISCOVER). DHCP server offers IP address (DHCPOFFER) (DHCPOFFER) DHCP clients will receive offers, in case of NO, it uses previous configuration. If YES, it ask selected IP address (DHCPREQUEST) (DHCPREQUEST) DHCP server sends ACK and additional configuration information. (DHCPACK) (DHCPACK) DHCP can decline the offer. (DHCPDECLINE) (DHCPDECLINE) and restart the entire process. DHCP clients can send DHCPRELEASE in case of address release.
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DHCP Header Format

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DHCP Header Format

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