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HSC Food Technology

Summary-Module 2

Module 2: Food manufacture

Students learn about:

x Quality and quantity control in the selection of raw materials for
food processing

Production and Processing

Food manufacturing is the conversion of raw materials into a finished product via
physical & chemical processes

A Raw material is ANY product used in the manufacture of another processed food

Quality control of raw materials


1) Ingredients 2) Materials 3) Food 4) Packaging

used in Additives

Examples: Examples: Examples: Examples:

Flour, sugar, steam Emulsifiers, Metal cans,
apples flavour plastic bottles

Raw material make up large % of costs, so specifications are enforced to avoid


Robert Lee Chin 1

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Raw material specification Criteria

1) Description of raw material features:

-Physical (shape, size)
-Sensory (colour, aroma, texture, flavour)
-Chemical (moisture %, nutrient %, pH,)
-microbiological limit

2) Sampling method for raw material

3) Test each specific feature needed

4) Action taken based on results:

-reject. Start method of controlling problem

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Example of a raw material specification for feta cheese in a pasta salad:

Description of Raw material Features

Raw material Feta cheese
Physical characteristics Size & shape: To be sliced into even 15mm cubes. Should
have some holes in cheese
Sensory Colour: pale white colour
Texture: firm but moist, not mushy. Creamy texture
Flavour: salty-savoury, slightly acidic
Aroma: salty, slight sour smell. No ‘off’ smell
Chemical composite Fat content: 20% minimum
Moisture content: 60% minimum
pH: between 4-6, preferably 5
Microbial load Microorganism Level

Salmonella Free per 25 g sample

Listeria Free per 25 g sample
Streptococcus 0.1g per 1g sample
E coli 0.05 “ “ “
Yeast 100 “ “ “
Mould 100 “ “ “
Sampling method
Physical characteristics Size & shape: Test one cube per 50 cube sample using
ruler and eyesight
Sensory Colour: test by eyesight
Texture, Flavour, Aroma: use a group of three trained
professionals as taste testers
Chemical composition Fat content: Use magnetic nuclear resonance (MNR)
analyser to test cube per 50 cube sample
Moisture content: Use evaporation and accurate measuring
of weight of one cube per 50 cube sample.
pH: test using universal indicator. One cube per 50 cube
Microbial load Take one cube per 50 cubes for sampling in laboratory.
Each cube must be tested individually for each
Action to be taken if specifications are breached

Reject raw material. Order a new batch. If new batch is defective, a more reliable suppler is

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Role of food additives in the manufacturing process

Food additives are substances added to foods not normally consumed on

their own

x They can improve food stability and shelf life, sensory features and fit special
dietary needs.

Additive Function Example of additive in

Flavour Restore flavour and aroma lost in Fruit flavour; lollies
Flavour Improve flavour Flavour sachet; instant
enhancer noodles
colour Restore/improve colour Egg yolk colour; Custard
Vitamin/mineral Replace lost nutrients Calcium; Soy milk
Mineral salt Improve texture/mouth feel Firm texture; canned
Antioxidant Prolong shelf-life by preventing Commercial mayonnaise
Humectant Absorb moisture, stopping food Commercial baked goods
drying out
Emulsifier Allow permanent homogenous water Commercial mayonnaise
+ oil mixtures
Preservative Inhibit growth of micro-organisms Bacon, commercial baked
Food acid Maintain acidity, giving sharp taste Bottled lemon juice
Thickener make food thicker Starch; commercial
Artificial Give sweet taste to low-joule foods Sugar-free chewing gum
Vegetable gums Consistency and texture Guar gum; salad dressing
Bleaching Whiten foods White flour

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Characteristics of equipment used in different types of production

and the factors influencing their selection
Unit Operations
Are the specific processes food undergoes during production. Handling of raw materials
is the first operation used.

Liquid + solid raw materials


separation mixing grinding

evaporation dehydration Heating



Process Used Purpose Example

Separation-filtration Passing liquid through Wine from fermented
mesh to remove solids grapes
Separation- Use of gravity to separate Whey from curds in
sedimentation solids from liquids cheese-making
Separation-centrifuge Separate solids of different Separating cane pulp from
sizes juice
Grinding and Milling Reducing particle size: Grinding peanuts for
-make it easier to handle peanut butter
-↓ size of raw material
-new product Milling wheat grains to
make flour
Mixing Ensures ingredients are custard on commercial
distributed evenly scale

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Cooling equipment Slow down microorganisms, Deli goods such as meat

enzymes and spoilage and cheese
Dairy products
Freezing Equipment Prolong shelf life, prevent Ice cream
spoilage, specific foods
Snap-frozen vegetables

Frozen pastries,


TV meals
Evaporation Concentrate solid content Fruit juice, tomato paste
dehydration Lower moisture content to Spray dried coffee, milk
reduce microorganisms powder

Unit Operations
Most raw materials undergo cleaning in preparation for further processing. There are
a number of techniques:

x Screening/sieving: separates particulates such as dirt from the surface of the

x Aspiration: separation of light particles from heavier particles using blast of
air e.g. removing chaff from rice
x Spray washing: spraying water onto materials under high pressure removes
unwanted debris e.g. dirt
x Flotation washing: removes materials with greater buoyancy e.g. stalks from

It is important to sort raw materials to ensure uniformity and therefore, a consistent
quality in the finished product. Manufacturers sort raw materials as follows:

x Size: is important so that heat can penetrate evenly throughout and cook the
food/destroy enzymes; oversized or undersized foods are rejected
x Colour: indicates the degree of ripeness e.g. tomatoes are bright red when ripe;
discolouration due to disease/damage results in rejection of the raw material
x Weight: many foods are packaged according to weight; In cases where the
weight is critical to a quality product, under or overweight products are

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Grading is a measure of the quality of foods. This quality is dependent on the type of
food e.g. for golden delicious apples you would want firmness, crisp taste, golden
green (not yellow) colour. Manufacturers measure quality through:

x subjective assessment: trained personnel perform qualitative measurements

e.g. process workers grade tomatoes
x objective assessment: using equipment to perform quantitative measurements
e.g. viscosity, crispness

Size reduction enables a range of different food products to be made from the same
basic ingredient e.g. instant mash potato, potato chips and canned baby potatoes.
Examples of techniques used to reduce food include:

x crushing
x grinding e.g. flour
x slicing e.g. tinned pears
x dicing e.g. diced tomatoes in a can
x pulping e.g. creamed corn
x shredding e.g. cabbage for coleslaw

Mixing combines raw materials to form a homogenous mixture. A variety of
machinery is used:

x propeller mixer for liquids

x tumbler mixer for powders
x ribbon blender for dried foods
x ‘Z” blade mixer for dough e.g. bread
x Pressure homogenise mixer for emulsions such as milk
x Colloid mixture for viscous emulsions such as mayonnaise

Separation of liquids and solids can be achieved through several ways, depending on
the product:
x Filtration: passing the mixture through a filter produces the liquid called the
filtrate and the sold called the residue. This is commonly used during the
separation of whey from curds in cheese production.
x Centrifuging: uses a spinning motion of a cylindrical vessel to force solids to
deposit in the walls of the spinning vessel e.g. separation of sugar syrup from
x Sedimentation: allowing the solids to settle to the bottom; the liquid portion
can then be decanted off e.g. wine-making

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Blanching involves immersing food in boiling water for a short period, then
refreshing using cold water. This is most commonly used to inactivate enzymes in
fruits and vegetables, whilst maintaining the quality of the product. Three types of
blanching are used:

x Water blanching
x Steam blanching
x Microwave blanching

x Production systems used in the manufacture of food, e.g. small

scale, large scale, manual, automated, computerised

Production Systems are the way food production processes are organised and applied

The system used depends on:

-nature of product
-scale of production i.e. amount required
-economics i.e. which makes more $$
-consumer acceptance e.g. use of vendor machines instead of people

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2


1) small-scale 2) manual 3) large- 4) automation 5)

scale Computerised

Large scale:
Used for larger operations based on a production line where raw materials go through
all unit operations. Capable of producing large amounts in a short time period

Small scale:
Domestic (may be household) level, less complex in operation

Manual production:
Involves physically altering food. It is usually done to maintain a certain level of
quality that cannot be attained using machinery or because the required machinery is
too costly. For example, pie cases may be filled by hand because of their delicateness.

Machines handle and process raw materials to produce the finished product. They
have set conditions in production e.g. humidity, temperature.

In automation, computerisation is achieved using sensors. This enables complex
operations to be performed on large scale. Benefits are reduced labour, consistent
quality and production levels and less wastage. Examples include production of soft
drinks such as Coca Cola.

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Flow Diagrams
Flow diagrams are used to represent food production processes. Features:
-5 basic symbols
-Written vertically down with explanation on RHS
-Joined by lines

Production process flow chart

This is where a raw material is:
-Changed in some way
-Assembled/dissembled from another material
-Prepared for another operation

Material is checked, sampled, examined,
measured or compared with a standard


When conditions do not allow next step
to take place


Combined symbols
When two activities occur at the same time e.g.
heating, measuring temperaure

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Example of production process flow chart for a packaged salad:

1) Vegetables are transported to

Salad Fresh processing

2) Vegetables are inspected.

Dirt and insects removed

3) Vegetables are inspected

again. A sanitising wash
removes harmful bacteria.

4) A food technologist takes

samples of the vegetables
and monitors sanitising

5) Vegetables are prepared at

4˚C and production line
thoroughly cleaned

6) Salad vegetables are

packaged in MAP or active

7) Mixed salad is boxed

8) Boxed salads mixes are

kept in a cool room at 1˚C

9) Product is stored

10) Vegetables are transported

to the retailer

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Quality management considerations industrial practices to

achieve safe foods for public consumption, e.g. HACCP;
occupational health, safety and hygiene
Quality (control) Management is the ability to meet certain standards in
ALL aspects of food processing in order to produce a quality product.

x It covers:
-product development
-marketing and servicing
x Quality management techniques include HACCP and OH&S.
x Quality assurance is the co-operation of an organisation to achieve quality control
of all products
x Quality management procedures that ensure quality assurance:
-final product specification of expected quality level
-method for measuring and assessing quality
-specifications for processing areas involved e.g. clean work area
-sampling and testing of final product

Hazard analysis and critical control points

One of the most effective means of ensuring food safety, HACCP aims to control and
eliminate food hazards

1) Assess food safety hazards

2) Identify critical control points (CCP)

3) Set standards for CCP

4) Monitor CCP

5) Actions taken if CCP is breached

6) Accurate records to ensure no

deviations from CCP standards

7) Assessment of HACCP system

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Example of HACCP procedures for salad mix:

Production Steps Hazard Critical Control Measures Critical limits Monitoring Corrective Document
Analysis Control Procedures Action Procedures

1 unloading
2 inspection
3 removal of debris Biological (5) CCP Remove manually by No soil/insects should be Visual inspection reject Test results
sight present
4 inspection
5 sanitising wash (citric Biological (5) CCP Wash with sanitising Zero pathogen level and Microbial load, reject Test results
acid and sodium Chemical (5) wash sanitising wash is removed testing for residue
hypochlorite) by washing with cold of sanitising wash
6 samples taken
7 vegetables prepared Biological (5) CCP Maintain temp. at 4˚C. Temp should not exceed temperature reject Test results
Clean production line 4˚C. Production lines
between products thoroughly cleaned b/w
8 packaging Biological (3) CCP Use Packaging temp. should temperature Reject Test results
modified/controlled not exceed 4˚C.
atmosphere packaging
9 boxing
10 taken to cool room
11 storage Biological (4) CCP Keep temp. at 1˚C Temp kept at 1˚C temperature reject Test results
12 transport to retailer Refrigerated transport Must reach retailer within temperature reject Test results
at 1˚C 36 hours

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

OH&S is the responsibility of ALL workers in the workplace to be aware of

potential accidents related to OH&S.

Employers are required to:

-instruct/train about safety issues
-provide safe, well-maintained, efficient equipment
-provide a safe environment (e.g. ventilation, first aid, on-the-job training)

Employees are required to:

-take care of health and safety of others
-wear correct protective clothing
-use equipment as instructed
-Provide notification of accidents

Preservation is the processing of food to eliminate food spoilage conditions

x Reasons for preserving foods, e.g. safety, acceptability, nutritive

value, availability and economic viability

Reasons for

1) keep 3) Retain
food safe
2) Maintain food
in an acceptable nutrition
4) Make
5) ↑
state for the foods available viability by
to eat
consumer, hence all year round ↓seasonal
preventing waste fluctuations

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Causes of food deterioration and spoilage:

-environmental factors (infestation, oxygen, light and water)
-enzymatic action
-microbial contamination (mould, yeast and bacteria)

Causes of food
deterioration and

1) enzymes 2) environmental 3) microbes


Infestation by: rodents, insects Moulds

Chemical damage: Yeasts
Physical reactions: Light bacteria
Pressure, freezing, burning, Oxygen Viruses
movement water

x Principles behind food preservation techniques, such as

temperature control and restriction of moisture

Principles of food preservation refers to controlling food spoilage factors



Addition of Acidity (pH Time Temperature Oxygen Moisture

Chemicals level) level (water

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Food Preservation principle Preservation Food Example

Spoilage method
Microbes: Temperature Canning, UHT Tetra pack long-life milk
-bacteria Microbes need specific
-Mould temperature ranges to Pasteurisation dairy milk products
-Virus multiply.
-Yeast Sterilisation Canned baked beans
Chilling Dairy products
Freezing Frozen vegetables, ice cream
Moisture Smoking Smoked salmon
Moisture level determines Freeze drying Coffee, camping meals
whether microbe can multiply Drying Dried fruit
Salting Beef jerky,
High sugar level Marmalade, toffee, caramel
pH level Adding acid Pickled vegetables in vinegar
Most microbes will not
multiply below a pH of 4.2 Fermentation by Yogurt, sauerkraut
Oxygen level vacuum packaging Organ meats, udon & hokkien
Most microbes need aerobic noodles, fresh pasta
Excluding Air Sterile processing Canning involves sterilisation
Sterile conditions prevents conditions/packaging by steam
contamination by microbes
Chemical Handling and storage Correct handling e.g. Many delicate fruits and
reactions Agricultural practices washing & storage vegetables e.g. stone fruit,
reduces risk of food pears, cucumbers, zucchini
going off
Agricultural practise Organic farming of fresh
that reduce chemical produce
Enzymatic Oxygen level Lowering O2 levels Store uncooked foods such as
activity Temperature and temperature fruits, vegetables and meat in
retards microbe fridge, covered with cling
growth wrap
pH level acids such as vinegar Pickling in vinegar
inactivate enzymes
Handling Correct handling Preventing fresh produce from
reduces exposure to physical damage
internal tissue
Temperature High temperatures Thoroughly cooking legumes
destroy enzymes destroys enzymes that cause

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Preservation processes, including canning, drying, pasteurising,

freezing and fermenting

Lowering temperature: Raising Temperature:

-Chilling -Canning
-freezing -Pasteurisation

Biological methods:
Reducing water:
-spray drying
Chemical Methods: -vacuum dehydration
-additives Preservation Processes -binding of water
-smoking -Freeze drying
-curing & salting

Time (not preservation process as such)

Food should be removed from the danger zone (50-60˚C) within two hours wither by
heating or cooling.


Lowering temperature
Lowering temperature to 0-15˚C slows down microbe growth and enzymes

Temperature -15 to -30 ˚C. Quick freezing retains quality

Raising Temperature
Aseptic canning involves heating food before placing in sterilized can and sealed.
Conventional canning involves placing food in tin, sealing and cooking.

Milk is passed through heated metal pipes (70°C) for 15-20 seconds

UHT- (ultra-heat treatment):

Heating to 135˚C for 1-2 seconds, it kills almost all microbes without too much
compromise to quality. UHT products are suitable for dry storage if unopened.

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Immersing in boiling water for short periods

Yeasts produce alcohol that kills the yeast and inhibits microbes. Bacteria produce
acids, lowering the pH

Chemical Methods
Chemical Additives:
Chemicals such as antibiotics, benzoic acid, sulphur dioxide, antioxidants, nitrite salts
inhibit microbes

Heat and anti-bacterial agents destroy microbes

Curing & salting:

-Combination of nitrates and salt. Salt binds with water.

Reducing water (microbes require water for growth)

Spray drying:
Product is sprayed in tiny droplets and dried to powder e.g. powdered milk.

Vacuum dehydration:
Water is removed by heat in a vacuum. Food products include fruits, vegetables and

Binding of water:
Adding soluble materials like salt & sugar draws out water from microbes

Freeze drying:
Food is first frozen rapidly. Using vacuum and heat, ice is sublimed to leave
dehydrated product. Foods include fruits, vegetables and meats

Preservation Food Examples Why does this Additional

Method method work? Information
Freezing -Meat -Slows enzyme -Freezing kills over
-Fruit action 80% of microbes
-vegetables -Makes water -Blanching
unavailable for vegetables before
microbes freezing destroys
Sun drying -Meat -inhibits microbe Drying maintains
-Fruit growth through quality
-vegetables lack of water
High sugar -jams -sugar draws out Maintains food
concentration -candied fruits moisture from quality

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Bottling -Meat -kills microbes and -Cooking time

-Fruit via cooking at high depends on pH,
-vegetables heat for a food density and
prolonged period container size
-Rapid cooling
-Steam-sterilised after canning
containers prevents avoids critical
microbes entering temp. zone (1-
Salting -Meat -Salt inhibits -salting maintains
-eggs microbes by quality
binding with water
-nitrite salts inhibit
microbe growth
Fermentation -alcohol Yeast converts Acid or alcohol
-vinegar carbohydrates to produced stops
-yogurt acid or alcohol. yeast growing
-cheese These conditions
-bread inhibit microbe

x Functions of packaging and types of materials available

Packaging, storage and distribution

Functions of


Protect Preserve Inform Contain Convienience

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Functions of packaging (PPICC acronym)

Protect food:
From damage related to physical handling, storage conditions and moisture

Preserve food:
Prevent microbes, rancidity, moisture spoilage, light damage. Allow fruit and
vegetables to respire

Inform consumers:
Label enables consumer to identify the product and brand, nutritional panel,
ingredients, quantity, directions for use, use-by date

Some packaging can be used as a vessel to cook/heat the food. Examples are noodles-
in a-cup and sous vide. Packaging may allows consumers to use only the amount they
want at one time. For example, plastic and glass bottles

Contain food:
Packaging allows food to be handled and transported hygienically and easily. It would
be difficult to transport products such as flour by hand and it would be unhygienic to
carry meats by hand.

Material and packaging design criteria (SPINC

Food Must:


Suit the Protect and Easily Not react with Be Convenient

packaging preserve Identifiable packaging to use

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Primary and Secondary Packaging

Primary packaging is the package the consumer buys the food in.

Secondary packaging is used during transportation from manufacturer to marketplace

e.g. shrink wrap.

Cans are one of the cheapest and most widely used packaging in Australia. There are
two main types of metal cans: Steel & Aluminium. Steel cans are used for solids and
semi-solids while aluminium cans are used for liquids

Metal cans consist of a steel sheet coated on either side with a tin-alloy, then a layer
of plain tin. An enamel layer covers the interior. The enamel layer prevents corrosion
due to acidic contents e.g. tomatoes, pickles. The curl on the can end forms 5 layers of
metal, providing an airtight seal.

Layers of steel can:

Interior Enamel coating




Advantages Disadvantages
easy to fill, seal and package during not efficiently stored
easily displayed and stacked contents not visible
impact resistant; virtually unbreakable; expensive, compared to other forms of
impervious; non-porous packaging
Fully recyclable bulky and heavy
Ring-pull cans are convenient to open Cans without pull-rings cannot be opened
without can opener
Easily sterilised and hygienic If dented small cracks may form, thereby
risking corrosion & contamination by
Range of sizes available Shape of can is limited to a cylinder in
most cases
Widely available Opened cans have sharp edges
Provides long-term storage Cannot be reused as a container
Cannot be heated

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Glass packaging includes bottles and jars. To sterilise, glass containers are either hot-
filled or pasteurised at 85˚C for high-acid foods.

Advantages Disadvantages
Chemically inert Unsuitable for storing bulky fresh
produce e.g. large chunks of fruits and
Contents are visible Brittle- can shatter or chip if poorly
handled e.g. during transportation
Odourless and hygienic Broken glass is a health hazard esp. in
Impermeable and non-porous not efficiently stored
Strong for its weight and thickness
Variety of shapes and sizes
Provides long-term storage
Can be recycled and reused
Can be used for solids, liquids and semi-
Able to be heated

Paper and cardboard

Paper is one of the cheapest and oldest forms of packaging. Used mainly for dry foods
but laminated board can be used for milks and juice.

Wide range of sizes and shapes:

-paper bags (e.g. cookies, sugar, flour)
-paper sacks (e.g. bulk rice & flour)
-moulded cartons (e.g. egg cartons) Lindt
-board-based products (e.g. cereals, cake mixes, biscuits) Chocolate
-paperboard bricks (e.g. long-life milk & juice)
-paperboard cartons (e.g. fresh milk & custards)
-folding cartons (e.g. chocolate boxes)
-composite containers (e.g. Milo containers, snack food canisters)
-corrugated board (e.g. secondary packaging for bulk items)

Butter Pringles
Cake UH T Wheat
Milk Flour

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Advantages Disadvantages
easily and efficiently stored Not reusable- ends up as landfill if not
properly disposed of
very cheap easily damaged or tampered with
recyclable and biodegradable susceptible to vermin and mould if stored
in damp conditions
able to be combined with other packaging product not visible
materials e.g. plastic, metal
Widely available burns easily

Plastics are a relatively new form of packaging. Plastic is cheap and can be used for a
wide variety of food products including, solids, semi-solids liquids, fresh food and
dried foods.

Advantages Disadvantages
wide range of shapes, sizes, colours and Melted and deformed by high heat and
forms available for a wide range of foods releases toxic fumes when burnt
relatively cheap costly to recycle

lightweight yet strong If not disposed of correctly, ends up as

landfill posing a threat to wildlife
can be made transparent so product is does not biodegrade
aesthetically appealing most come from non-renewable resources
Most types can be recycled
Inert and hygienic

Rigid-Plastic packaging
There are two types: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthlate (PETP)
PVC is used for edible oils and cordials
PETP is used for soft drinks

Flexible plastic packaging

There are two main types: Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and linear Low-density
polyethylene (LLDPE) used for cake and cereal box liners, cling wrap
Lesser used types are: Polypropylene (PP) and PVC.
Polypropylene is used for snack foods e.g. chips, biscuits
PVC used for meat and vegetable wrapping


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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Laminating involves combining two or more materials joined by adhesives or heat.

Most plastic packaging is a form of laminations.

Aluminium foils
Most foils are aluminium. They are usually combined with paper or plastic
(laminated) to add strength and rigidity. Metallising plastics involve coating plastic
with a fine coat of metal, providing a cheap yet effective barrier .It is used in MAP
packaging such as potato crisp packets.

x Current developments in packaging e.g. active packaging, MAP

Current developments in Packaging
Can be linked to ↑ in:
*technological developments
*need for food to be available year round
*urbanisation, leading to a ↓ in home-grown foods
*affluence and need for convienience
*energy costs, Environmental issues and reduction of over packaging
*ageing population, leading to need for easily opened packaging
*consumer safely leading to tamper evident packaging
*legislation Labelling requirements

Current Packaging

Aseptic Active MAP Sous vide Biodegradable Functional

canning packaging packaging plastics packaging
lighter cans

Steel-alloy cans developed over past decade have allowed stronger cans with thinner
walls. Ring-pull cans developed soon after

Conventional canning (used during past 200 years) compromises the quality of some
foods. Aseptic canning (cooking food separately before placing in sterilised can and
vacuum sealing) has largely replaced this.

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Active Packaging (AP)

In AP, the packaging atmosphere actively changes by interacting with the packaging
material to prolong the shelf life of food.

AP involves addition of sachets, films or gases. Types include:

-Oxygen scavengers (slow rancidity)
-Carbon dioxide release (anti-microbial)
-humidity control (inhibits microbes
-ethylene removal (slows ripening of fruit and veg)
-ethanol release (anti-microbial)

MAP Packaging
Modified atmosphere packaging adjusts the starting packaging atmosphere to produce
gases that prolong shelf life. Packaging atmosphere is permanently modified and does
not change.

Two forms are used:

-headspace is filled with gases that extends shelf life and will not escape
-a film that allows movement of gases and liquids in and out of package e.g.
packaging that allows O2 in and CO2 out and absorbs ethylene gas used for fruits and

Sous vide
Sous vide (aka vacuum cooking) is manufactured in 3 steps:
1) Food is cooked in vacuumed, polypropylene or polyethylene pouch
2) Blast chilled to 3˚C
3) Stored, refrigerated for up to 6 weeks

To reheat, package is placed in boiling water for 10-15 mins or microwave for 4-5
Advantages Disadvantages
easily prepared and stored high risk of overheating or underheating
(and resulting microbial hazards)
cheap Unsuitable for some products e.g. dried
enhances natural taste
healthy; no need for additional fats

maximum nutrient retention

Biodegradable plastics
Biodegradable plastics include PLA and Plantic. PLA stands for polylactic acid and is
derived from sources such as leftover whey from cheese production, cornstarch and
cane sugar. Plantic is made from modified high-amylose cornstarch. Both are
relatively new to the market (they are currently used by Cadbury as trays for boxed
chocolates) but offer an alternative to conventional plastics which are derived from
crude oil (a non-renewable resource), are water soluble and fully biodegradable (in
fact, it degrades even faster than paper).

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Advantages Disadvantages
Easily disposed of- water soluble Currently, not widely available
Fully biodegradable Currently, more $$ than conventional
Derived from widely available, renewable

Functional Packaging
Functional packaging involves packaging the functional ingredients of the product
into the packaging rather than the food. Examples are drink straws that release the
flavouring ingredient as you drink them and sealed bottles where the cap releases the
ingredient into the drink just prior to opening.

x Legislative Requirements for Packaging and Labelling

The Foods Standards Code sets labelling standards to ensure consumers are provided
with correct information and safe food through packaging.

Other acts include:

-the State Trade Measurement Act. 1989 (It enforces correct weight labelling)
-the Federal Trade Practices Act 1974 (prohibits unscrupulous activities)

The National Packaging Covenant

The National Packaging Covenant is an environmentally friendly approach to
packaging. It is based on the principle that packaging and its final destination is the
producer’s overall responsibility. The agreement spans 5 years and requires producers
to monitor all aspects of packaging, from raw materials to kerbside recycling.

Food Labelling
Food labelling is determined by the Food Standards Code, a product of FSANZ.
It focuses on 3 areas concerning labelling:
-statements/words that must appear
-statements/words that must not appear
-statements/words that may appear under certain circumstances

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HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

1) Name
2) Nutrition
9) Ingredients list information panel

8) Package date/ 3) Statement of

use-by date Food labelling quality

7) Barcode
4) Alcohol content and
number of standard
6) Name and address of drinks
manufacturer 5) Details of
country of origin

Example of sports drink label:

Nutritional Information
Serving size: 8 oz (250 mL)
Amount per serving
Calories 60 Calories from fat 0
Total Fat 0g
Saturated Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0g
Sodium 0g
Potassium 130mg
Total Carbohydrate 32g
Sugars 32g 1
Protein 0g
Vitamin A PET
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Ingredients: water, cane sugar, food acid, flavours, colours (101, 102), preservative (1045)
Manufactured by: Canco’. Corp, Bega, NSW Australia
Product of Australia
Batch No.: 4062 Best before: 15/03/2010
If you are unsatisfied with the product in any way, call our free quality assurance hotline on: 0218006524

Robert Lee Chin 27

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Labelling Restrictions
*NO misleading trade names
*NO nutritional claims that do not adhere to strict guidelines e.g. no added
sugar means a food may not contain added sugars, honey, malt, maltose or
malt extract
*NO claims of therapeutic action e.g. cures cancer
*NO words/statements etc that could be interpreted as medical advice
*‘Pure’ may only be used to single ingredient foods with NO additives
*‘Health’ may NOT be used for any food

x Storage conditions and distribution systems at various stages of

food manufacture

Storage refers to:

-keeping of raw materials before processing
-a delay stage in food processing e.g. waiting for bread to proof, wine
-storage before distribution

Exposure to sunlight must be avoided in all storage conditions

Cold storage: Dry storage:

Food storage
Raw material or finished Below 24˚C with
product at 0-5˚C humidity control
e.g. fruit e.g. biscuits

Freezer storage:
-18 to -30˚C
e.g. ice cream

Distribution is the movement of goods from one site to another.

There are 3 aspects to be considered for successful packaging and distribution:

1) The type of material being transported e.g. perishable foods require
refrigerated transport
2) The packaging used to ensure maximum quality
3) $$ effective transport to benefit consumer and manufacturer

Distribution needs to be considered from the distribution channel AND the

distribution systems

Robert Lee Chin 28

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Distribution Channels
Distribution systems are dependent on the type of product and the size of the
Effective distribution channels produce less waste due to management in:
-storage space

Examples of distribution channels:

*Farmer → consumer (e.g. farmer’s market)
*Manufacturer → retailer → consumer (e.g. biscuits sold to Coles sold to consumer)
*Manufacturer → wholesaler →retailer → consumer (e.g. famers sells wheat to
Sanitarium. Coles buys Weet-Bix from Sanitarium and sells it to consumer)

Distribution systems
x A typical distribution system could be:
1) Raw materials transported and stored
2) Food processed and packaged by manufacturer e.g. Sara Lee
3) Product delivered to warehouse e.g. Warehouse receives bulk product from
manufacturer, divides it into smaller units and distributes to retailers.

“Cradle to Grave” analysis of the cost of Packaging Material


Raw Materials Product Product use recycling,
materials manufactured manufactured or incineration
acquired consumption etc.

waste waste waste waste


Product Recycling
*Energy is used at ALL stages of food production, from raw materials to recycling of
packaging materials

Robert Lee Chin 29

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

Environmental packaging Design Considerations

packaging design

Packaging Composition Probable size of market Design changes

for packaged product
Has the distribution been designed
to take into account energy use
One material or during transportation?
composite? Are What affect will market
inks for labelling size have on litter?
solvent or water-
based? E.g. If distributing heavy
packaging such as steel cans
overseas by air, energy costs
E.g. McDonalds as a multinational company will be high. It would be
needs to be very aware of what packaging cheaper to ship by ship.
materials it uses compared to a local fish ‘n’
chips shop

Impact of food manufacturing

Impacts of food

2) Social 1) 3) Nutritional 4) Appropriate

Environmental use of

Production Waste Packaging

techniques management practices

Robert Lee Chin 30

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Environmental issues e.g. waste management, packaging

practices, production techniques

Environmental Issues
Grouped under 3 areas:
1) Production techniques
2) Waste management
3) Packaging practices

1) Production Techniques
Energy is used during all stages of food manufacture. The main energy source comes
from non-renewable resources such as coal and oil. To reduce energy costs,
manufacturers need to develop more efficient transport and production techniques.

For example, production of plastics releases less CO2 into the atmosphere than glass.
Plastics are also recyclable.

Solutions to these problems include:

-reusing waste materials e.g. water for irrigation
-recycling e.g. recycled cardboard packaging
-lighter, more efficiently shaped packages

Pollution comes in the form of: noise, air, land and water. Manufacturers have
developed reduction strategies and recycling programs including:
-reusing and recycling water
-reusing effluent
-minimising use and weight of packaging
-eliminating CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons) and replacing with hydrocarbons in
-eliminating CFC’s as refrigerants
-reduction of chemical pesticides and herbicides
-companies such as McDonalds have replaced Styrofoam boxes with paper.

2) Waste Management
Recycling of packaging is essential to reduce landfill in urban areas:
-70% of paper packaging is recycled
-41% of glass is recovered or recycled
-65% of aluminium is recycled

Mixed plastic waste is converted into timber substitutes for decking, fencing and
furniture. Household waste represents 30-35% of all waste. Of this, one-third is

Material minimisation is a strategy to reduce packaging weight but maintain strength

Some manufacturers employ waste management companies

Use of biodegradable packaging made from wood fibres or biopolymers e.g. Plantic,

Robert Lee Chin 31

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

3) Packaging practices

Positive practices Effect on environment

Glass manufactures recycle glass for new Less raw materials used
product Reduced landfill
Resealable plastic bags Less plastic needed to rewrap products
Lightweight plastic to replace glass e.g. Plastic is recyclable
peanut butter
Tetrapak laminates are recyclable- Less resources used; less landfill
cardboard is repulped, aluminium and
polyethylene are returned to suppliers
“BiobiN” Compositing vessel used in Waste becomes useful compost rather
McDonalds restaurants than landfill
Controls vermin and pests
Negative practices Effect on environment
Food manufacturers continue to over ↑ landfill
package More raw materials required
Pre-packaged foods e.g. pre-packaged Food wastage, as consumer may not use
vegetables all before it goes off
Packaging too large for food e.g. potato More raw materials are needed
chips ↑ landfill

x Social implications, e.g. lifestyle changes, employment


Lifestyle changes
x Convienience packaging and foods have ↑ leisure time for Australians
x Food preparation skills are becoming limited due to lack of time, so convienience
foods are becoming popular
x Food products to suit changing family needs (e.g. single serve, microwave meals)
x ↑ awareness of health has ↑ health orientated foods (e.g. low salt, high fibre, low
x Products for busy lifestyles e.g. breakfast bars, shakes, stir fry kits
x ↑ multicultural foods due to other ethnicities e.g. South-East Asian, Middle
x Scientific research has led to an ↑ in Organics foodstuffs (e.g. Coles Organic
x Caution in accepting GM foods has led to labelling laws concerning foods
containing GM to be labelled as such.

Employment Opportunities
x Improvements in packaging design, manufacturing techniques and ↑ processed
foods has led to employment opportunities
x Manufacturers with small scale level of production tend to offer more employment
due to high cost of mechanisation

Robert Lee Chin 32

HSC Food Technology
Summary-Module 2

x Other employment opportunities include: Product development, packaging design,

materials research, marketing, waste management, sales & food processing

x Nutritional implications
The nutritional implications of food manufacturing technologies are due to ↑
awareness of health effects of highly processed foods. This has led manufacturers to
develop foods that have better nutritional profiles.

Combined pressure from consumers, advisory groups, intuitionalists and health

authorities has led to corporate nutrition policies.

For example, Sanitarium has set nutrient benchmarks such as ‘low salt’ products

Salt 2x the
Calcium 99%
reduced fat free! fibre!

x Appropriate use of technology

Appropriate use of technology ensures minimal impact on the environment, sustainability

for food manufacturers and a wide range of variety and choice for consumers

*Developments in packaging design and manufacturing techniques that have reduced

*↑ use of filters to reduce air and noise pollution
*Use of irrigation systems in manufacturing plants to reuse water for plants, gardens
*Less energy used in aseptic canning, thus improving cost effectiveness
*Development of new products to substitute those in short supply e.g. imitation
vanilla and improve nutritional profile of foods e.g. omega 3 fatty acids added to other
foods such as margarines
*Organic farming to reduce use of fertilisers and soil degradation

Robert Lee Chin 33