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"Available chlorine in bleaching powder" Introduction

From Wikipedia , TutorVista
Wikipedia
Percent active chlorine - Percent active chlorine is a unit of concentration used for
hypochlorite-based bleaches. One gram of a 100% active chlorine bleach has the same bleaching
power as one gram of chlorine. The term 'active chlorine' is used because most commercial
bleaches contain substantial amounts of chlorine in the form of chloride ions, which have no
bleaching properties. Liquid bleaches sold for domestic use are typically 3–10% active
chlorine, and should be diluted to 1–2% active chlorine before use. Commercial domestic
bleaching powder is typically about 40% active chlorine. Values for some industrial solid
bleaches are given in the table below. Values can be higher than 100% because hypochlorite ion
have higher oxidation state (+1) than chlorine(0) and so high oxidation power . Percent active
chlorine values have now virtually replaced the older system of chlorometric degrees: 1% active
chlorine is equivalent to 3.16 °Chl. Taking the (reasonable) assumption that all active chlor....

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What different types of Chlorine are there?

In its elemental state chlorine exists as a gas. Gas is available for swimming pool sanitation. It is very
cheap, and is the purest form of chlorine with no binders or carriers. The percentage of available chlorine
is 100%. It is also extremely dangerous and restricted in its use. It is rare to find a pool using gas as it's
sanitizer, and those that do are usually very old, very large public pools that have (we hope) enacted strict
safety procedures. Gas is very acidic, with a pH close to muriatic acid, so these pools using it add a lot of
base to counteract this.

Liquid chlorine is another type which is created by bubbling the chlorine gas through a solution of caustic
soda. The yellow liquid (stronger, but chemically identical to bleach) has 10 - 15% available chlorine, and
has a very hight pH, on the other end of the scale at 13. Liquid Chlorine is called Sodium Hypochlorite
(NaOCl), and because it is already in solution, sodium-hypo produces hypochlorous acid instantly when it
contacts water. The liquid can be poured directly into the pool but it is recommended to use a diaphragm
pump or a peristaltic pump to inject it into the plumbing. The use of liquid chlorine is more dominant in
larger commercial pools which have it delivered into 55 gallon vats. For most residential pools, the lower
cost seems to be outweighed by its difficulty in use and the amount of acid required to counteract its pH of
13. Use care when handling as this chemical is corrosive to just about everything.

Tablets of Tri-chlor are tablet forms of chlorine and is short for Trichloro-s-triazinetrione, a stabilized form
of chlorine that has achieved a great amount of use in the last ten years. "Stabilized" means that it has
cyanuric acid pressed into the tablets. Cyanuric, also called stabilizer or conditioner, is like sunscreen for
the chlorine molecule; an extender. Tri-chlor is created by combining the salts of cyanuric acid and
chlorine gas into a tablet or stick and is 90% available chlorine. The pH is somewhat low at 3, so the pH in
your pool may gravitate downward. This form is slow dissolving so it works well in floaters or in-line
erosion feeders. Using tablets in the skimmer is not recommended because of the corrosive nature of the
chemical contacting metal pipes and equipment. This becomes more of a problem when the filter pump is
operated on a timer. Tablets have been known to strip out the copper inside of a heater. They are an
effective, yet expensive, means of controlling algae. Tablets should also not be thrown directly into the
pool, they can stain and etch plaster and bleach and deteriorate vinyl.

pound per pound.3 days as opposed to gradually dissolving & maintaining their shape). The active ingredient in 3" tablets.Granular chlorine. Mix this product with water only and don't breathe the dust. you will see that the active ingredient is exactly the same in all of them. It is a good idea to pre-dissolve cal-hypo into a bucket of water prior to adding it to a pool.poolcenter. Lithium Hypochlorite. like di-chlor. Although not stabilized with cyanuric acid. Cal Hypo will ignite . and each pool supply company works hard to make their chlorine product seem new and different. For more information on different types of chlorine. so its use is safe in vinyl liner pools.com/chlor. despite a high pH value of nearly 12. There seem to be many types of chlorine on the market. sticks and in a granular form. and the calcium binders used which can contribute to higher hardness levels. Di-chlor's main drawback is it's cost per pound of available chlorine. It's main advantages are that it is calcium free and so it won't contribute to hardness levels. so it dissolves rapidly and goes right to work on contaminants. Sodium Dichloro-s- triazinetrione.htm Determine what type of chlorine you should use. Di-chlor is made in roughly the same manner as tri-chlor.wikihow. It is perhaps the most expensive form of chlorine available. and it is manufactured in the form of granules.rapidly and violently. Chlorine is available in 3" tablets. Cal-hypo is a commonly used shock treatment throughout the country. http://www. but can also be purchased in tablet form. see the tips below. cheap & "big box" slow tabs & sticks tends to have binders & fillers that keep the tablet together (you will notice the difference as they dissolve . Some other granular forms of chlorine are more powder like and thus dissolve more rapidly than the larger granules of cal-hypo. Lithium Hypochlorite can be used for either shock treating or for regular chlorination. however. The pH is a very acceptable 7.com/Properly-Maintain-Swimming-Pool-Water-Chemistry . is a very expensive product. Its pH of 11 will require additions of an acid to adjust the pool water. 1" tablets and sticks is called "Trichlor" (or Trichloro-S-Triazinetrione).the hypo-chlorites. 1" tablets. it is also dust free and non-flammable. Cal-hypo is more dangerous and unstable than other forms in that it is very dusty and becomes contaminated easily by foreign substances which can cause combustion. It can be used as a shock treatment oxidizer or for normal sanitation. however. Di-chlor has less chlorine. before it hits the floor of the pool. it lasts longer than other un-stabilized forms of granular chlorine. It's popularity is due mainly to its availability and low price. at only 62% available chlorine. and the only real difference you may find between the many brands of chlorine is the concentration of the active ingredients. Because it contains cyanuric acid. There are two other types of granular chlorine on the market . It is typically only available up to 65%. it has a quick kill rate against algae and chloramines and has 65% available chlorine per pound. You will find a very wide range of prices for chlorine. At only 35% available. and the active ingredient in granular chlorine is called "Dichlor" (or Sodium Dichloro-S-Triazinetrione). It dissolves extremely fast. You should look for a concentration of 56% to 62% Sodium Dichloro-S-Triazinetrione in granular chlorine. Keep the lid tightly secured. Calcium Hypochlorite is commonly available in is granular form. Never let any other chemicals or even small bits of leaves or other debris contaminate your Cal Hypo. clean and dry. Another member of the chlorinated iso-cyanurate family is Di-chlor. the product is much different. In the presence of foreign chemicals. http://www. it takes almost 3 lbs of lithium to equal one lb of tri-chlor. Granular Chlorine can also be in the form of Calcium Hypochlorite. and a concentration of 90% Trichloro-S-Triazinetrione in chlorine tablets or sticks. Upon inspecting the labels and comparing of all of the different brands of chlorine."cheap" tabs & sticks tend to crumble or fall apart within 2 .