Operators

# By Zara Maryem

Operators
It is mathematical entity which when operated on a function, the function changes to another function. It is denoted by Ô,Â or d /dx , d ²/dx ². is another entity.

Example
Now we operate operator Â which is function of x and / x. Â( x, / x)= Â / x . X Now operating above operator on certain function . Â( x, / x) = ( / x . X) Â( x, / x) = x / x . + x / x Â( x, / x) = +x / x is an arbitrary function. So Â( x, / x) = (1+x / x ) Â( x, / x) = (1+x / x ) This is operator equation.

Eigenvalue & Eigen Function
When operator is applied to any function, it gives us a constant value. That constant value is called eigen value. When operator is applied to any function it also gives us a function along with eigenvalue , is called eigen function. We can solve the eigenvalue equation as,

Ö ; ]n ! Zn]n

We obtain

eigenfunctions and eigenvalues

Degenerate Eigen value If same operators operates on different functions and gives same eigen values then these same eigen values are known as Degenerate eigen values, Example,

Degenerate eigen value

Simultaneous Eigen Function

If two different operators operate on same function and functions come out to be same, then those functions are called Simultaneous eigen function. Example:

Simultaneous Eigen Function

The Momentum Operator The operator that corresponds to linear momentum is called momentum operator . We can construct the corresponding operator from the substitution :

Classical Mechanics Quantum Mech x y z px py pz Ö Ö x " x ; px  "

cs

JH i Hx JH Ö Ö y " y ; p y  " i Hy JH Ö Ö " z ; pz  " z i Hz

Derivation of momentum operator
The wave function in space can be defined as,

=A e (kx-

t)