Six Sigma is a quality management initiative that seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. 

This concept was originally developed by MOTOROLA in U.S.A. in 1981. the concept was formulated by BILL SMITH. 

This technique was inspired by quality improvement methodologies such as quality control , TQM , and Zero Defects based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart , Deming , Juran , Ishikawa , Taguchi and others.

Six Sigma Methodologies:
Two different methodologies are :  DMAIC : DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process.  DMADV : DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs.



Define.  Measure.  Analyze.  Improve.  Control. 

Define.  Measure.  Analyze.  Design.  Verify.

Sigma levels
SIGMA LEVEL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DPMO PERCENT DEFECTIVE 69% 31% 6.7% 0.62% 0.023% 0.00034% 0.0000019% PERCENTAGE YIELD 31% 69% 93.3% 99.38% 99.977% 99.9996% 99.9999981%

691,462 308,538 66,807 6,210 233 3.4 0.019

Project Charter:

It is an authorization certificate, allowing the project manager to allocate organizational resources towards the completion of the implementation projects. 
Problem Statement:

It provides detailed information, related to the essentialities of the project. It allows project managers to ascertain the overall scope of the project and determine the roles and responsibilities of the related stakeholders. 
Mission Statement:

It allows implementation team members to understand the basic relation between the project and the business objectives of the company.

CONDITION UNDER WHICH SIX SIGMA IS APPLIED:  When the cause of the low quality performance is unknown. 

When problems are found in common places. 

When the problems found are not able to well defined. 

When the approaches made are not inappropriate. 

When all the problem solving methods fail.


Six Sigma has been described as a critical business tool for the 21st century. Like TQM and other quality initiatives, Six Sigma includes tools used to drive down defects, improve quality and profits, and thus, morale and profitability. Hence six sigma is used in business continuity, security and emergency management professions.