SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION

CHAPTER I
Introduction to the Social Dimensions of Education Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Differentiate the various social science theories. 2. Explain the relationship of the various social theories the conflict, consensus, functionalism and interactionist theories and educational systems. 3. Discuss how the various social science theories affect the functions of schools.

‡Introduction
Sociologists see education as one the major institutions that constitutes society. While theories guide research and policy formulation in the sociology of education, they also provide logical explanations for why things happen the way they do. These theories help sociologists understand educational systems. This chapter presents an introduction to the social science theories of education-consensus and conflict, structural functionalist and interaction theories as related to education.

Consensus and Conflict Theory Darendorf (1959,1968) is the major exponent of the position that society has two faces (conflict and consensus) and that sociological theory therefore should be divided into two parts, conflict theory and consensus theory. Consensus theories see shared norms and values as fundamental to society, focus on social order based on tacit arguments, and view social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion. In contrast, conflict theories emphasize the dominance of some social groups by others, see social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups,

and view social change as occurring rapidly and in a disorderly fashion as subordinate groups overthrow dominant groups (Ritzer, 2000). Consensus theorists examine value integration in society, and conflict theorists examine conflicts of interest and the coercion that holds society together in the face of these stresses. Dahrendorf recognizes that society can not exist without both conflict and consensus, which are prerequisites for each other. Thus, we cannot have conflict unless there is some prior consensus. Consensus is a concept of society in which the absence of conflict is seen as the equilibrium state of society based on a general or widespread agreement

principles. conflict is a disagreement or clash between opposing ideas. A struggle between social classes and class conflicts between the powerful and less powerful groups occur. . Conflict theorists ask how school contribute to the unequal distribution of people into jobs in society so that more powerful members of society maintain the best positions and the less powerful groups (often women. or people ± this can be a covert or overt conflict. The conflict theory.‡among all members of a particular society. according Horton and Hunt (1984) focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the differential distribution of political and social power.

. it can take the form of labor negotiations. competition between religious groups for member. or disputes over the budget. The discourse of conflict theory is on the emergence of conflict and what causes conflict within a particular human society. party politics. are allocated to lower ranks in society. It is a theory that deals with the incompatible aspects of society.racial and ethnic groups) often minority groups. The conflict perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tensions between competing groups. Such conflict need not be violent.

values. in relation to accepted norms. Consensus theory is a sociological perspective or collection of theories. and the media may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in subservient position. religion. education. in which social order and stability/social regulation form the base of emphasis. rules and regulations as widely accepted or collectively by the society-or within a particular society itself. . It is concerned with the maintenance or continuation of social order in society. government.The conflict theorists are interested in how society s institutions the family.

groups in society with similar interests and positions in the status hierarchy. those who stand above others because of their superior knowledge and reasoning abilities. They explained change as emerging from the crisis between human beings and their society. Education systems may train individuals in specialties to fill needed positions or prepare cultivated individuals. that is. They argued that Marx theory was a theory characterized by class conflicts or the conflict between the bourgeoisie (rich owners) and the proletariat (poor workers).Social theorist Karl Marx was interpreted by some social theorists as emphasizing the role of human beings in social conflict. Max Weber argues that schools teach and maintain particular status cultures. .

Parsons structural functionalism has four functional imperatives for all action systems. 3.Structural Functionalism states that society is made up of various institutions that work together in cooperation. Adaptation: A system must cope with external situational exigencies. embodied in his famous AGIL scheme. Integration: A system must regulate the interrelationship of its component parts. . It must adapt to its environment and adapt environment to its needs. Latency (pattern maintenance): A system must furnish. Goal attainment: A system must define and achieve its primary goals. 4. and renew both the motivation of individuals and the cultural patterns that create and sustain the motivation. These are: 1. 2. maintain.

The personality system performs the goal-attainment function by defining system goals and mobilizing resources to attain them. Finally. The social system copes with the integration function by controlling its component parts. the cultural system performs the latency function by providing actors with the norms and values that motivate them for action. actors who are motivated in terms of a tendency to . defined as the most elementary form of the social system. The behavioral organism is the action system that handles the adaptation function by adjusting to and transforming the external world. Parsons conception of the social system begins at the micro level with interaction between ego and alter ego.Parsons designed the AGIL scheme to be used at all levels in the theoretical system. He described a social system as something which consists of a plurality of individual actors interacting with each other in a situation which has at least a physical or environmental aspect.

. In his analysis of the social system.Interdependency One of the most important principles of functionalist theory is that society is made up of interdependent parts. is defined and mediated in terms of a system of culturally structured and shared symbols.to the optimization of gratification and whose relation to their situations. The key principles of the functionalist perspective (Farley. Parsons was not simply a structuralist but also a functionalist. Parsons was primarily interested in its structural components. Every part of society is dependent to some extent on other parts of society. 1990) include the following: 1. norms and values. In addition to a concern with the status-role. he was interested in such large-scale components of social systems as collectivities. including each other. so that what happens at one place in society has important effect elsewhere.

3. Functionalists believe that inability to cooperate will paralyze the society. and people will devote more and effort to fighting one another rather than getting anything done. Culture.This view holds that. it has reached a state of equilibrium. and its distribution of resources. including its institutions. languages. refers to a set of beliefs. Functions of Social Structure and Culture. . Social structure refers to the organization of society. Consensus and cooperation. Cooperation. Societies have a tendency toward consensus. that is toward consensus in order achieve. This principle is applied by functionalists to both social structure and culture. its social. once a society has achieved the form that is best adapted to its situation.Equilibrium. rules. values. and knowledge held in common by members of a society. and it will remain in that condition until it is forced to change by some new condition. Social system exists because it serves some function. 4.2.

Figure 1. order. The Structural-Functional Model (Source: Sociological Theory. George Ritzer. 2000) Social structures provide preset patterns Which evolve to meet human needs Stability. and harmony Maintenance of society .

Functionalists view society as a kind of machine. banks. and the like. hence the name structural functionalism (Javier et al. schools. countries. the scientist s task is to identify the various parts (structure) and determine how they work (function). neighbor. It has its roots in natural science and the analogy between a society and an organization. where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. The component parts of a social structure are families. associations. 2002). a sociologist with this perspective tries to identify the structures of society and how they function.In the study of society. In the analysis of living organism. these researchers often examine how will parts are integrated with each other. Functionalist sociologists begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system. churches.The structural functional model addresses the question of social organization and how it is maintained. ..

From this perspective. values and regulations of these various ordered institutions. norms. Thus. functionalism stresses the processes that maintain social order by stressing consensus and agreement. . democratic society. in modern societies education becomes the key institution in a meritocratic selection process. Modern functionalist theories believe that education is a vital part of a modern society. schooling performs an important function in the development and maintenance of a modern. especially with regard to equality of opportunity for all citizens. It claims that society is made up of different institutions or organizations that work together in cooperation-to achieve their orderly relationship and to maintain social order and social stability. This maintenance of society is extracted from the internal rules. Structural functionalism puts emphasis on social order and stability not on conflict.Most important.

Thus. interactionist theories about the relation of school and society are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives. views the self as socially constructed in relation to social forces and structures and the product of ongoing negotiations of meanings. It is interested not simply in socialization . The distinctive attributes of human behavior grow from people s participation in varying types of social structure which depend in turn. language. on the existence of language behavior. the social self is an active product of human agency rather than a deterministic product of social structure. The critique arises from the observation that functionalist and conflict theories are very abstract and emphasize structure and process at a societal (macro-sociological) level of analysis.Interactionist Theories In general. * Symbolic Interactionism. Symbolic interactionism. The basic idea is a result of of interaction between individuals mediated by symbols in particular.

refine our ability to think. interested not simply in socialization but also in interaction in general.Symbolic interactionists are. Beyond that. not all interaction involves thinking. However. Human beings unlike lower animals. of course. 2. In social interaction. actors must take others into consideration and decide if and how to fit their activities to others. not just interaction during socialization. The capacity for thought is shaped by social interaction. are endowed with a capacity for thought. 3. thinking shapes the interaction process. All types of interaction. PRINCIPLES OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 1. Interaction is the process which the ability to think is both developed and expressed. which is of vital importance in its own right. In most interaction. people learn the meanings and symbols .

assess their relative ad advantages. Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on distinctively human action and interaction. . of their ability to interact with themselves. People are able to make these and alterations because. which allows them to examine possible courses of action. People are able to modify or alter meanings and symbols that they use in action and interaction on the basis of their interpretation of the situation. 4. in part. 6. 5. and then choose one. 7. The intertwined patterns of action and interaction make up groups and societies.that allow them to exercise their distinctively human capacity for thought.

As a result of ongoing interact. facial expressions. nonsymbolic interaction Mead s conversation of gestures does not involve thinking. .Non-Symbolic Interactionism The first. and body postures we use in dealing with others acquire symbolic meaning that are shared by people who belong to the same culture. 1. we learn what things are by observing how other people respond to them. Third. gestures. 3. the sounds (or words). 2000). Mead s approach to symbolic interaction rested on three basic premises. 2. The second symbolic interaction does require mental processes (Ritzer. Second. The first is that people act toward the things they encounter on the basis of what those things mean to them. that is through social interaction.

. as we understand them. you will come to think of your self as an intelligent person. Blumer differentiates among three types of objects: physical objects. such as a student or a mother. such as an idea or a moral principle. If your teachers and fellow students give you the message that you are smart. social objects. The basic notion of the looking-glass self can be summed up as We see ourselves as others see us. We come to develop a self-image on the basis of messages we get from others. and abstract objects.The importance of thinking to symbolic interactionists is reflected in their views of objects. such as a chair or a tree. concept used by symbolic interactionist is the looking-glass self. Another.

both to broaden her/his knowledge.chaired by Jacques Delors. complex and interdependent world. the report of the International Commission on Education for theTwenty-first Century. skills and attitudes and adapt to a changing.CHAPTER II THE FOUR PILLARS OF EDUCATION Introduction Learning the Treasure Within. It stresses that each individual must be equipped to seize learning opportunities throughout life. and published by UNESCO in 1996 provides new insights into education for the 21st Century. .

so as to better develop one s personality and to act with ever greater autonomy. judgment and personal responsibility. as as to be able act creatively in one s environment. * Learning to do. and ability to think. that is acquiring the instrument of understanding.memory skills. . so as to participate in and cooperate with other people in all human activities. * Learning to live together.The Four Pillars of Education * Learning to know. and * Learning to be. Learning to know Learning to know implies learning how to learn by developing one s concentration.

you are doing well on the first pillar of education because you have prepared them for life in the knowledge society in which we all now live. The role of the teacher then is as facilitator. selecting and using information so that students ca become lifelong learners. note taking.listening. and accessing. data gathering. observing. .If. asking questions. catalyst. A truly educated person nowadays needs a bread general education and the opportunity to study a small number of subjects in depth. monitor and evaluator and evaluator of learning because the process of learning to think is a life long one and can be enhanced by every kind human experience. Such skills are learning to read with comprehension. processing. students need to develop learn-tolearn skills. as a teacher. you have been helping students to develop their skills that would make them independent learners. To learn to know.

personal responsibility and spiritual values. entail the acquisition of a competence that enables people to deal with a variety of situations. Education means reaching out to embrace the whole of society and entire lifespan of the individual. a feature to which education methods do not at present pay enough attention. aesthetic sense. sensitivity. often unforeseeable. . and to work in teams. Education must contribute to the all-around development of each individual mind and body. intelligence. more generally. Learning throughout life is the key to the 21st century essential for adapting to the evolving requirements of the labor market and for better mastery of the changing time frame and rhythms of individual existence.Learning to do In addition to learning to do a job or work.

country and the world. One must learn how to think creatively. community. Learning To Live Together in Peace and Harmony Learning to live together is the one most vital to building a genuine and lasting culture of peace in both the Asia-Pacific region and throughout the world. Peace must begin with each one of us.Learning to do represents the skillful. creative and discerning application of knowledge. school. critically and holistically. The teacher should help students to realize the value of being able to live together in their gradually enlarging world: home. new and creative ways can be found to foster understanding friendship and cooperation among all people. and how to deeply understand the information that is present. Through quiet and serious reflection on its meaning. . The third pillar of education implies that teacher should help the students to develop an understanding of other people and appreciation of interdependence since we live in a closely connected world.

Learning to be Learning to be refers to the role of education in developing all the dimensions of the complete person: the physical. emotional. The Faure Report. intellectual. 3) towards social commitment. Conscientization is the process of becoming aware of the contradictions existing within oneself and in society and of gradually being able to bring about personal social transformation. summarizes the universal aims of education. democracy and social justice in an ecologically sustainable environment. human rights. and ethical integration the individual into a complete man. learning to be. . 2) creativity. to wit: 1) towards a scientific humanism.Learning to live together in peace and harmony requires that quality of relationship at all levels is committed to peace. and 4) towards the complete man.

military cooperation. . tourism and also because of immigration brought about by labor shortage or political conflicts (Alwood. there is communication which needs to be as constructive as possible to avoid misunderstandings and breakdowns. This communication takes place because of contacts in the areas of business. 2003). mass media. entertainment. science. It is our belief that problems in communication can be resolved through research on the nature of linguistics and cultural similarities and differences.CHAPTER III Intercultural Communication Introduction The world today is characterized by an ever growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people with different linguistics and cultural backgrounds. In all these contacts. education.

Two types of communication: 1. and gestures and expressions of non-verbal communication. symbols. .There is therefore a need to explain the manner by which intercultural communication skills enable greater effectiveness in personal and professional life. numerals. Paralanguage behavior that may be expected from him. It includes speech. Verbal refers to use of language. and 2. Non-verbal refer to the use of gestures. facial expressions. and other body movements. Language is an abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture. written characters. in a globalized and technological social context.

Grammar refers to the structure of language through its morphology and syntax. 3. 2. 3. for without language the ability to convey ideas and traditions is impossible. The study of language is divided into four areas: 1. Morphology is the study of the language s smallest units of meaning called morphemes. 3. 4.Language is the key factor in the success of the human race in creating and preserving culture. Semantics is the study of word meanings and word combinations. Phonology refers to a system of sounds. .1.2. Syntax specifies how words are combined into sentences. Pragmatics is concerned with rules for the use of appropriate language in particular context.

. From our enormous capacity to learn and use language is derived our collective memory (myths. Every society has a culture. ballads. sayings.Relationship Between Language and Culture The most significant inventions made possible by culture is language. then it follows that linguistic diversity derives in part from cultural diversity. The linguistic-relativity hypothesis asserts that languages determines thought and therefore culture. The learning of culture takes place through language. art and all other media that shape human consciousness and store and transit knowledge. If culture can affect the structure and content of its language. no matter how simple the culture may be. In reality language and culture influence each other (Edward Sapir). and every human being is cultured in the sense of participating in some culture or other. fables. and the like) as well as writing.

2. Culture is ideational. 3. 6. Culture change. Culture is diverse. 5. values. Culture is dynamic. Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns. Culture is learned. and behavior Patterns that characterize a social group.What is Culture? Culture refers to the attitudes. The characteristics of culture are: 1. 8. 4. customs. 7. Culture is shared by a group of people. Culture is cumulative. .

It is beyond grunts and hand signals. Along with language and non-verbal signals. They condense . Knowledge . Symbols. Books .2. Beliefs . Language . sharing and conveying information The communication component are: 1. very flexible set of symbols and meanings. When people share a language.COMPONENTS OF CULTURE COMMUNICATION COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MATERIAL .Medicine . 1. Technologies . and provides the basis for symbolic interaction. symbols form the backbone of symbolic interaction. It defines what it means to be human. Transportation . It forms the core of all culture. Folkways . Norms . Accounts . Communication. Ideas . Symbols . It is the act of imparting.Tools. they share a condensed. Rituals 1. Laws . Language. Values . Mores .1.

etc. metaphors) used to organize stimulus. . statement. Knowledge. 2. systems. 2.very complex ideas and values into simple material forms so that the very presence of the symbol evokes the signified ideas and values. It is the storehouse where we accumulate representations.3. Once stored. information. etc. knowledge can support learning and can be passed down from one generation to the next. Beliefs. Beliefs accept a proposition. assumptions. These are ideas which were linked together and organized into larger sets.1. 2. These are mental representations (concepts. 2. categories. It carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture. description of facts. Explanations and predictions (cause and effect logic) rely on beliefs. they are the basic units out of which knowledge is constructed and a world emerges. facts. as true. etc. Ideas. It is the mental act of perceiving things. Cognitive Component.2. Knowledge systematically summarizes and elaborates how we think the world looks and acts.

2. religion. 5. excuse.4. goodness. rationalize. sex. They are reinforced through sanctions. It is defined as culturally defined standards of desirability. . Values change over time. Values. Behavioral Component (how we act) 3. They support beliefs. Accounts are how people use that common language to explain. Accounts. or specific statements that people hold to be true. ethnicity. which take the form of either rewards or punishment. People who share a culture share a common language for talking about their inner selves. and beauty which serve as broad guideline for social living. race. Norms vary in terms of importance. 2. Norms are rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. or legitimize our behavior to themselves and others. 3.1 Norms. and social class. justify. The values people hold vary to some degree by age.

3. Laws. tools. how we dress and other patterns that we follow. These are highly scripted ceremonies or strips of interaction that follow a specific sequence of actions. and other basic codes of human behavior. equipment. religious rituals. They refer to physical objects of culture such as machines.2. 4. clothing. . marriage and sex behavior patterns. They are formalized norms. 3. etc. It involves the way we eat. Folkways.3. 3. This includes respect for authority.4.5. They are commonly known as customs. They are behavior patterns of society which are organized and repetitive. books. enacted by people who are vested government power and enforced by political and legal authorities designated by the government. Mores. 3. Material Components. They are customary behavior patterns or folkways which have taken a moralistic value. Rituals.

it can be broken into simple units or elements called cultural traits. represents a single element or a combination of elements related to a specific situation. mores. It is the process of learning culture of one¶s own group. Example. Example of cultural traits are kissing the hands of the elders after Sunday mass and at angelus. mores. How is Culture Transmitted Culture is transmitted through: 1. values and beliefs of one¶s own group. 2. institutional patterns. A cultural trait. group together to form a culture pattern. either of a material or non-material culture. in turn. social traditions. when students from the rural areas migrate to the urban areas and gradually learn some urban . Acculturation. Learning the folkways. systems of beliefs. Enculturation. It is the process of learning some new traits from another culture. Cluster of culture traits are known as culture complexes which. For example.The Organization of Culture While the culture of a group is an integrated network of folkways.

It helps in the regulation of a person¶s conduct and prepares him so he can participate in the group life. then he has become assimilated. Through the development of culture. man can overcome his physical disadvantages and allows him to provide himself with fire.customs. 3. Assimilation. and class. Culture provides rules of proper conduct for living in a society. Importance and Function of Culture Culture is what distinguishes human beings from the lower animal forms making them unique. 4. An Ilocano who moves to Mindanao and assumes the folkways of the local group. 1. It is the process in which an individual entirely loses any awareness ho his previous group identity and take on the culture and attitudes of another group. they become acculturated. 3. It is a powerful force in the lives of all people and shapes and guides people¶s perceptions of reality. clothing. . Culture helps the individual fulfill his potential as a human being. nation. Culture also provides the individual his concepts of family. 2. food and shelter.

.Cultural Relativism It is impossible to understand what the actions of members of other groups mean if we analyze them in terms of our motives and values. For example: Practices considered immoral or taboo to a certain group of people but are accepted by other groups with a different cultural orientation. The same behavior has different meanings in different cultures and we must look at the behavior in relation to the culture of the society where it takes place. We must interpret their behavior in the light of their motives. and values. habits. The central point in cultural relativism is that in a particular setting certain traits are right because they work in that setting while other traits are wrong because they clash painfully with parts of the culture.

and communities all have cultures. explain the concepts of multiculturalism and multi-cultural education. Describe student subcultures.CHAPTER IV Cultural Changes Learning Objectives After studying this chapter. 3. Accept the diverse characteristics and needs of learners. . and 4. Introduction Whenever two or more people come together with a shared purpose. 2. identify and explain the four approaches to multicultural education. they form a culture with its own written and unwritten rules for behavior. Our families. workplaces. you should be able to: 1. These cultures have a tremendous impact upon our behavior as individuals.

Multicultural Education. One of its important goals is to help all students to acquire knowledge. especially as they relate to one another in receiving nations. There are four approaches in accomplishing the related goal of multicultural education which is to help all students develop more positive attitudes toward different racial. negotiate. It is an emerging discipline whose aim is to create equal educational opportunities from diverse racial. economic and social components and specific institutional mechanisms. with educational. . linguistic. It is a policy that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures. ethnic. ethnic. attitudes. cultural and religious groups. and skills needed to function effectively on pluralistic democratic society and to interact.Multiculturalism. and communicate with peoples from diverse groups in order to create a civic and moral community that works for the common good. It is a systematic and comprehensive response to cultural and ethnic diversity. social class and cultural groups.

It describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to develop positive attitudes toward different racial. Knowledge construction process. and perspective within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it. It deals with the extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts.Dimensions of Multicultural Education 1. frames of reference. ethnic. . Empowering school culture and social structure. 5. and social class groups. and issues within their subject area or disciplines. generalizations. investigate. Prejudice reduction. Equity pedagogy. and cultural groups. It exists when teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial. cultural. It describes how teachers help students to understand. 3. and gender groups to experience equality and equal status . It will transform ways to enable students from diverse racial. Content integration. 4. ethnic. 2. and determine how the biases.

The Growth of Student Subcultures As we have seen. occupation. They also form much smaller groups within society which we term subcultures. In turn. people¶s behavior is influenced by their cultural background (socialization) and setting (their personal experiences in society). Subculture refers to the cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society¶s population. Functions of Subcultures 1. Permitting specialized activity. Identity in mass society. 2. 3. . and many other factors. people develop cultures to provide a structured framework of rules for their behavior. It can be based on age. residence. ethnicity. sexual preference. Cultural adaptation and change.

religious leaders. By building on students¶ cultural backgrounds. . By recognizing and accepting student diversity. 3.Cultural differences imply the transmission of ideas from generation to generation by significant members of the older generation (parents. culturally responsive teaching communicates positive images about the students¶ home cultures. teachers.). culturally responsive teaching builds on students¶ strengths and use these to help students learn. 2. By being responsive to different student learning styles. 1. It does this in three important ways. What is a Culturally-Responsive Teaching? Culturally responsive teaching acknowledges cultural diversity in classrooms and accommodates this diversity in instruction. it communicates that all students are welcome and valued as human beings. etc.

3. 2. and discriminatory practices in education. Contribution approach ± The ethnic heroes and holidays are included in the curriculum. so that students are taught to view events and issues from diverse ethnic and cultural perspective. these four approaches are: 1. Additive approach ± A unit or course is incorporated (for example. a unit on women in history). Social action approach ± Students make decisions about their world and become directly involved in social actions. .According to Banks (1996). failings. 4. Multicultural education is a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings. but no substantial change to the curriculum as a whole. Transformation approach ± Curriculum is changed.

* Every student must have an equal opportunity to achieve her full potential. teaching approaches. activists and others must take a more active role in reexamining all educational practices and how they affect the learning of all students: testing methods.Several shared ideals on multicultural education which provided a basis for its understanding. first by ending oppression within their own walls. * Teachers must be prepared to effectively facilitate learning for every individual student. no matter how culturally similar or different from themselves. then by producing socially and critically active and aware students. evaluation and assessment. * Education must become more fully student-centered and inclusive of the voices and experiences of the students. * Educators. * Every student must be prepared to competently participate in an increasingly intercultural society. . * Schools must be active participants in ending oppression of all types. school psychology and counseling.

4. which goes beyond the the conscious intentions of the individual humans involved. These are called social institutions and according to functional theorists.Chapter V Social Institutions Learning Objectives: 1. institutions arise.´ may be deliberately and intentionally created by people. 2. To show the interrelationships among the social institutions. Introduction Individual. To identify and describe the characteristics and functions of different social institutions. To describe the various types of governments. develop and function in a pattern of social self-organization. perform five essential tasks namely: replacing . What is Social Institution? In any human society are social structures and social mechanisms of social order and cooperation that govern the behavior of its members. To discuss the relationship between economy and education. formal organizations. Their development and functioning in society in general may be regarded as an instance of emergence. 3. that is. commonly identified as ³institutions.

Institutions are structured. and any people or groups that you have social interactions with. They are relatively permanent in their content. preserving order. From these characteristics. performing a social role. 3. It is a society that works to socialize the groups of people in it. They are: 1. roles. producing. Social institution is a group of social positions. families. governments. Common examples include universities. 4.members or procreation. distributing and consuming goods and services. connected by social relations. it may be said that an institutions is a relatively permanent structure of social patterns. . and relations that people enact in certain sanctioned and unified ways for the purpose of satisfying basic social needs. Institutions are a unified structure. Institutions are necessarily value-laden. Institutions are purposive. 2. 5. teaching new members. Characteristics and Functions of an Institution Palispis (1996) pointed out the following characteristics and functions of an institution. and providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.

Institutions tend to control behavior. Major Social institutions The five major social institutions are: family. . Cultural transmission or enculturation. Providing affection and a sense of security. The family is the smallest social institution with the unique function or production and rearing the young. 1. 2) Institutions. b. Socialization of the child. It is the basic unit of Philippine society and the educational system. Functions of the Family a. The Family. school. c. provide ready-made forms of social relations and social roles for the individual.Institutions have various functions as follows: 1) Institutions simplify social behavior for the individual person. therefore. Institutions also act as agencies of coordination and stability for the total culture. Reproduction of the race and rearing of the young. 4. 3. religion. It is the institution to which we owe our humanity. economics and government. d.

promoting social and political integration. The political purposes of schooling. Providing social status. d. transmitting culture. 2002). The intellectual purposes of schooling. Education The basic purpose of education is the transmission of knowledge. f. Providing the environment for personality development and the growth of self-concept in relation to others. Purposes of Schooling a. The social purposes of of schooling.e. to wit: socialization. Schools became necessary when cultural complexity created a need for specialized knowledge and skill which could not be easily acquired in the family. The economic purposes of schooling. The manifest functions of education are defined as the open and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution. church and community. and as agent of change (Javier et al. social control. There are six major manifest functions of education in society. b. . c. Manifest Functions of the School. 2.

* A doctrine of salvation. Religion. * Matchmaking and production of social networks. unstated and sometimes unattended consequences of activities within an institution. it assumes the existence of the supernatural. * Creation of Generation Gap. 3. Characteristics of Religion * Belief in a deity or in a power beyond the individual. . thereby creating a social group. * Restricting some activities. * Religious rituals. * A code of conduct.Latent Functions of Schools The latent function of schools are the hidden. Religion as defined in terms of its social function is a system of beliefs and rituals that serves to bind people together through shared worship. It is the socially defined patterns of beliefs concerning the ultimate meaning of life. Religion may be defined as any set of coherent answers to the dilemmas of human existence that makes the world meaningful.

rituals and religions community. Religion alleviates sufferings from major calamities. They are sacred and profane. love. It promotes closeness. Religion explains events or situations which are beyond the comprehension of man. 4. cooperation. It preserves and transmits knowledge. It serves as instrument of change. 8. 9.Functions of Religion Among the many functions of religion identified by Calderon (1998) are the following: 1. 10. friendliness and helpfulness. . 5. spiritual and cultural values and practices. 2. 3. skills. legitimation of norms. The Elements of Religion There are four elements of religion. 7. It gives man comfort. Religion serves as a means of social control. Religion allays fear of the unknown. strength and hope in times of crises and despair. It provides hopes for a blissful life after death. 6. It exerts a great influence upon personality development.

4. Economic Institutions Human behavior is mainly concerned with the satisfaction of material wants. It is centered on the task of making a living, the most absorbing interest of man. To that end, man in all ages and among all classes struggle to bring about changes in the environment. The changes that have take place and are taking place are the result of the interplay of forces in our efforts to improve our material well-being. Our mode of living centers on the acquisition of wealth in order to satisfy our wants and this aspect of man¶s activity constitutes the field of economics. Microeconomics vs. Macroeconomics Microeconomics looks at the trees, while macro-economics looks at the forest. Both categories involve the construction of theories and formulation of policies-activities that are the heart of economics. Basic Economic Problems. First, what goods and services to produce and how much. Second, how to produce goods and services. Third, for whom are the goods and services.

5. Government as a Social Institution The institution which resolves conflicts that are public in nature and involve more than a few people is called government. The Supreme Court of the Philippines defines government as ³that institution by which an independent society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in a social state, or which are imposed upon the people for that society by those who possess the power or authority of prescribing them.´ The Three Branches of Government In the Philippines, there are three branches of government: the executive branch, which proposes and enforces rules and laws; the legislative branch, which makes rules and laws; and the judicial branch, which adjudicates rules and laws. Functions of Government The functions of government are: 1. The constituent functions contribute to the very bonds of society and are therefore compulsory. 2. The ministrant functions are those undertaken to advance the general interest of society, such as public works, public charity, and regulation of trade and industry. These functions are merely optional.

Where do you stand? Look at the following purposes of schools. Encircle the number that best reflects how important you think each school function is. Use the following scale. 1 Very Unimportant 2 Unimportant 3 Moderately important 4 Important 5 Very Important 1. To transmit the nationµs cultural heritage 2. To encourage students to question current practices and to promote social change 3. To prepare competent workers to compete successfully in a technological world economy

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

4. To develop healthy citizens aware of nutritional exercise and good health.

1 2 3 4 5

5. To lead the world in creating a peaceful global society, stressing an understanding of other cultures. 1 2 3 4 5 6. To nurture students in developing art, music, and writing. 7. To demonstrate academic proficiency through high standardized test scores 8. To teach students work ethics: punctuality, responsibility, cooperation, self-control, neatness 9. To prepare students for college and/or well-paid careers 10. To eliminate racism and all forms of discrimination in society 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

the social roles we play. Describe gender equality and inequality and how they affect development. Population . and the power and authority we command. gender is one of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. the schooling we receive. gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow. Unlike sex. Explain the relationship between gender and power. which is a biological concept. Discuss significant gains that have been made in woman¶s education as a result of global advocacy. 3. you should be able to: 1. Introduction In addition to age. 2.CHAPTER VI Gender and Development Learning Objectives: At the end of the chapter. Gender shapes the lives of all people in all societies. It influences all aspects of our lives.

processes ± where women and men live.. and how they die ± are shaped by gender as well (Riley. and children develop and formulate appropriate gender. 2. 1997). By the choice of toys. by urging ³boy´ or ³girl´ behavior. Theories of Gender Development 1. reinforce appropriate gender role behaviors. of what gender is and should be (Elliott et al. children develop an integrated schema ir picture. Such a schema helps a child to develop gender identity and formulate an appropriate gender role. Kohlberg believes. Cognitive development theory ± This derives from Kohlberg¶s speculations about gender development. they begin the process of acquiring gender-appropriate behavior. Gender schema theory ± A schema is a mental blueprint for organizing information. . We know from Piaget¶s work that children engage in symbolic thinking by about 2 years of age. Social learning theory ± They believe that parents are the distributors of reinforcement. Consequently. Using this ability. parents encourage children to engage in gender-appropriate behavior. 1996). 3. and reinforcing such behavior. children acquire their gender identity and then. how they bear and rear children.

The reasons for this link are not hard to understand. This process certain simplifies the ability to deal with the world. soft-spoken. the same opportunities to make choices. and the same level of power to shape the outcomes of these choices. social. From an early age. and assigning labels to those categories. obedient person is a girl. civil and political rights. including economic. Gender and Equality Gender equality gives women and men the same entitlements to all aspects of human development.What is gender stereotyping? Gender stereotyping is defined as the beliefs humans hold about the characteristics associated with males and females. . Research from around the world has shown that gender inequality tends to slow economic growth and make the rise from poverty more difficult. and that gentle. noisy person is a boy. the extent to which women and girls benefit from development policies and programs has a major impact on the countries¶ overall development success. hence. cultural. Obviously. that rough. the same level of respect. beginning to accumulate characteristics that they consider male and female. people form ideas of what males and females should be. Half of the world¶s population is female.

and opportunities for selfactualization than do men who share their social location ± be it location based on class. Specifically. All inequality theories assume that both men and women and men will respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian social structures and situations. not from any significant biological or personality differences between men and women. 4. nationality. Although individual human beings may vary somewhat from each other in their profile of potentials and traits. Men and women are situated in society not only differently but also unequally. 2. women get less of material resources. Instead. 3. education. Fourthly.Gender Inequality Four themes characterize feminist theorizing of gender inequality. Thirdly. race. occupation. all human beings are characterized by a deep need for freedom to seek selfactualization and by a fundamental malleability that leads them to adapt to the constraints or opportunities of the situations in which they find themselves. 1. religion. power. . Secondly. Firstly. ethnicity. no significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the sexes. social status. or any other socially significant factor. This inequality results from the organization of society.

Gender and Power Gender refers to the different ways men and women play in society. While gender is expressed differently in different societies. and a distorted view of sexuality and the objection of the female. experience. Women and children have often been on the abusive side of power. in no society do men and women perform equal roles or hold equal positions of power. education. roles of authority and decision making. and self-confidence. Some causes that are often referred to are: the greater physical strength that men tend to have the imbalance of power between men and women resulting from social structures and historical practices in regard to finances. and to the relative power they wield. Several factors act as determinants of the amount of power a person holds or can use in his or her relation with others: status resources. . Power is a basic fabric of society and possessed in varying degrees by social actors in diverse social categories. the abuse of power by men and the failure of cultural pressures to prevent such abuse. Power becomes abusive and exploitive only when independence and individuality of one person or group of people becomes so dominant that freedom for the other is compromised.

investment flows. (Chronicle of Higher Education. The term conveys a sense that international forces are driving more and more developments in the world. January 23. 1998). and thus crystallizes both the hopes of some people that we will finally achieve a global society and the fears of many others that their lives and jobs are threatened by forces beyond their control. Introduction Globalization is most often used to describe the growing integration of economics worldwide through increases in trade.Chapter VII Globalization and Education Globalization refers to an increasing interconnectedness and convergence of activities and forms of life among diverse cultures throughout the world. . and technology transfer.

education systems can be seen as the core of the globalization process. problem-solving. that can offer competitive training programs for students recruited from all over the world. and deploying verifiable facts or artifacts. transforming it for the betterment . Rinne (2000) emphasizes that educational policy has become an ever more important part of economic. and that education as a moral process is not part of this development. articulating arguments. These skills should be required of children and youth who will as adults. university networks and virtual universities. labor and social policy in western countries. One complete global development is the development of mega-universities. if we understand education as a part of the information business. However. GLOBAL EDUCTION AND GLOBALIZATION An education for globalization should therefore nurture the higher order cognitive and interpersonal skills required for problem finding. fully engage the larger world and master its greatest challenges. trade.One could think that globalization is only a matter of industry and business.

. in some way democratizes and intensifies interdependence and in other ways creates new forms of local reaction and self-definition. shaping the environment in which we live. In doing so. Globalization¶s shifting and controversial parameters make it difficult to describe it as clearly as a dominant force. both positively and negatively. it also threatens the world with a ³universal´ economy and culture rooted in North American and Western ideals and interests. and is there really a meaningful distinction between the two. But what do we mean when we invoke each of these terms.of humanity ± regardless of national origin or cultural upbringing. Globalization has become a widespread idea in national and international dialogue in recent years. and a sense of international relatedness. While it may spread certain freedoms. higher living standards. Motivated by economic forces and driven by digital technologies and communications. globalization links individuals and institutions across the world with unprecedented interconnection. it.

human commonality and diversity. Some see global education as a vehicle for the promotion of global education that might itself be seen as the West¶s effort to destabilize fragile balances in economic and political systems. human rights and social justice. While it continues to depend on the traditional branches of specialist knowledge. as distinct from globalization. economic systems. Global education places particular emphasis on the changes in communication and relationships among people throughout the world highlighting such issues as human conflict. does what higher education has traditionally aimed to do: extend students¶ awareness of the world in which they live by opening them to the diverse heritage of human thoughts and action. and the impact of the technological revolution. literatures and cultures. . and creativity.Global education. global education seeks to weave the boundaries between the disciplines and encourages emphasis on what interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary studies can bring to the understanding of to human problems.

more study is needed about local responses to defend public education against the introduction of pure market mechanisms to regulate educational exchanges and other policies that seek to reduce state sponsorship and financing and to impose management and efficiency models borrowed from the business sector as a framework for education decision making. there is a growing understanding that the neo-liberal version of globalization.Characteristics of Globalization Linked To Education * In educational terms. These educational responses are mostly carried by teacher unions. particularly as implemented ( and ideologically defended) by bilateral. instruction and testing. often expressed as opposition to initiatives in education such as vouchers of subsidizing private schools. financing. teacher training. In the face of such pressures. new social movements. is reflected in an educational agenda that privileges. if not directly imposes. and international organizations. . standards. particular policies for evaluation. curriculum. assessment. multilateral. and critical intellectuals.

. obligation and status. rights. In political terms. a rise in internationalized advertizing and consumption patterns. and. a weakening of the notion of the citizen as a unified and unifying concepts. while also bringing more fragmentation through the rise of locally oriented movements. workers and investments across national borders. a certain loss of nation-state sovereignty or at least the erosion of national autonomy. Another theoretical alternative identifies a more conflicted and dialectical situation. correspondingly. a transition from Fordist to PostForndist forms of workplace organization.* In economic terms. with both cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity appearing simultaneously in cultural landscape. a reduction in barriers to the free flow of goods. a tension between the ways in which globalization brings forth more standardization and cultural homogeneity. new pressures on the role of workers and consumer in society. * In Cultural terms. a concept that can be characterized by precise roles. and correspondingly.

facing the boundaries between present and inset.Globalization is undoubtedly an important constitutive feature of the modern world.g. If we look at the recent developments in the education sector globally.. formal education and working life). * Continuous lifelong learning(e. 2003). we can summarize the implications of global information society in the education system as follows: * Demand for widening the education access for all. Philosophers may argue endlessly about globalization. As it has been plausibly suggested. but they can all agree that it refers to an increasing interconnectedness and convergence of activities and forms of life among diverse cultures throughout the world. One of the current interdisciplinary assumptions is that globalization necessarily amounts to the loss of cultural identity. It is transformed to accord with a world of ruptured boundaries´ (Held and McGrew. Globalization has attracted the attention of many disciplines because it affects both selfunderstanding and cultural identity. a culture ³is no longer a discrete world. .

learning skills. Core Values and Competencies for Global Education Our vision of global education was organized around the following core values: peace and non-violence.. g.g. from commanding to negotiating. . searching information. * Creation of new educational networked organizations (e.. cultural integrity. critical thinking. virtual schools. Core skills and competencies included self-worth and self-affirmation. metaskills such as problem solving. multinational educational consortiums. the affirmation of others.).. including cultural and racial differences. etc. ecological balance. social justice and human rights. economic well-being and equity.* Global versus local cultural developments. etc. and democratic participation. global virtual universities.). * Demand for more flexible and general skills (e. * Changing of educational management from hierarchical institutions to equal distributions of network organizations.

linguistic. 2001). the work of managing difference calls forth a new educational agenda. From France to Sweden. Children growing up in these and other settings are likely than in any previous generation in human history to face a life of working and networking. Brazil to Bolivia. and racial backgrounds.effective communication skills (including active listening). Managing difference ± It is becoming one of the greatest challenges to multicultural countries. loving and living with others from different national. and effective organizing (Mische. imagination (the ability to envision alternatives). nonviolent conflict resolution and mediation. . 3. 2. religious. Indonesia to Malaysia. practices and institutions. Massive migration ± Globalization and massive migrations are changing the ways we experience national identities and cultural belonging. Particularly in advanced industrial societies. Global changes in culture deeply affect educational policies. Socio-Cultural Issues on Globalization 1.

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