# ﻿50% of ideal COP, find the heat input to the engine per unit heat output from the

pump. 10

7. Write short notes on :

3+4+3

(a) Working principle of Refrigerator (b) Principle of entropy increase

(c) Modes of heat transfer.

8. Write the different components of an Internal Combustion engine. Discuss the working principle of a two stroke engine with neat sketch. 3+7

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Totainumberof printedpages-10 B. Tech

BE 21031BENG 1103

First Semester Examination - 2009

THERMODYNAMICS

Full Marks - 70

Time - 3 Hours

Answer Question No. 1 which is compulsory and any five from the rest.

The figures in the right-hand margin indicate marks.

Use of Steam table is allowed.

1. Answer the following questions: 1 x20

(a) One atmospheric pressure is: (i) 748 mm of Hg

(ii) 10.33 m of water

(iii) 1.01325 MPa

(iv) . 760 cm of water.

P.T.O.

(b) Measuring the temperature by a mercury

thermometer is an example of _

law of thermodynamics.

(i) Zero (iii) second

(ii). first (iv) third.

(c) How much' heat (approx) is supplied to 2 kg of water to heat it from 25°C to 50°C.

(i) 210 kCal (iii) 210 kW

(ii) 210 kJ (iv) 315 kCal.

(d) 3 kg of water is heated by a 1 kW heater coil for 10 minutes in a closed container. 100 kJ of heat is lost to the environment. What is the rise in temperature of water (approx) in °C ?

(i) 40 (iii) 27

(ii) 50 (iv) 33

(e) Work done for an isothermal process is given by:

(i) PV In P1/P2 (ii) PV In T1fT2

(iii) PV In V1N2 (

iv) PV.

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Contd.

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(f) In a throttling process entropy (i) increases

(i i) decreases

(iii) remains same

(iv) cannot be predicted.

(g) When a fluid passes through a diffuser its pressure

(i) increases (ii) decreases

(iii) remains same

(lv) cannot be predicted.

Carnot engine can have a maximum efficiency of

(i) More than 100% (ii) less than 100% (iii) 100%

(iv) Infinite.

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P.T.O.

(i) 'A heat engine can convert all the heat into

work' violates law of

thermodynamics.

(i) Zero

(iii) second

(ii) first (iv) third.

(j) What is the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine operating between 12rC and 27°C?

(i) 25% (iii) 66%

(ii) 33% (iv) 81 %.

(k) Characteristic gas constant (R), Universal gas constant (R1), Molecular weight (M). Which of the following is true?

(i) R = R1 x M ' (ii) R1 = R x M

(iii) R = R1/M

(iv) R1 = RIM.

(I) If a gas of specific volume v1 is mixed with another gas of specific volume v2, the specific volume of the mixture gas will be

(i) v1 + v2 . (iii) v1/v2

(ii) v1 x v2

(iv) (v1 + v2)/2

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Contd.

(m) The use of a condenser in a power plant _____ the output.

(i) increases

(ii) decreases

(iii) remains same (iv) . is of no use.

(n) Heat transfer due to radiation is

(i) more through air

(i~ more through water

(iii) more through dense air (iv) same in all.

( 0) Heat transfer due to convection is

(i) molecular diffusion

(ii) combination of conduction and convection,

(iii) combination of conduction and radiation

(iv) only molecular movement.

(p) 'When a iron bar is continuously heated its colour changes' is an example of

(i) Stefan law

(iii) Cosine law

(ii) Wein's law (iv) Biot's law.

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P.T.o.

(t) A mass of a fluid M and specific heat C at temperature T1 is mixed with an equal mass of same fluid at temperature T2. The resultant change in entropy of the universe

is

(i) 2MC (T1 + T2)/2 (ii) 2MCsqrt(T1T2)

(iii) 2MC In {(T1 + T2)/(2 sqrt(T1T2))} .

(iv) none of the above.

2. (a) Prove that 'Energy' is a property of a

thermodynamic system. 4

(b) A mixture Of gases expands at a constant pressure from 1 MPa, 0.04 m3 to 0.08 m3 with 100 kJ heat transfer into the system. There is no work other than that done on the piston. Find the change in internal energy of the gaseous mixture. Also find change in internal energy, work done and heat transfer for the process if the same mixture expands through the same path

BE 2103!BENG 1103

P.T.O.

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(q) One Ton of Refrigeration is nearly equal to

(i) 1000 kg of ice

(ii) 1000 kg of water

(iii) 3.5 kW of refrigerating effect (iv) 3.5 kW of compressor power.

(r) In the figure the heat engine E (efficiency 0.4) and R is the refrigerator. Given o + 0 = 301, The COP of the refrigerator

2 4

is

(i) 2.5

1'ani1\e)'a)' . (iii) 4.0

(ii) 3.0 (iv) 5.0

(s) A composite slab has two layers of different materials with thermal conductivities k1 and k2. If each layer has same thickness the equivalent thermal conductivity of the slab would be

(i) k1 k2

(ii) k1 +k2

(iii) (k1 +k2) k1 k2 (iv) (2k1 k2)/(k1 +k2)

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Contd.

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a velocity of 140 m/s through an opening of 0.15 m2 cross sectional area and' the final condition (i.e., exit from the turbine) is 0.18 kPa and 150°C through an opening of 0.1 m2 cross sectional area. The power output is 3:5 kW. Calculate the net 'amount of heat added to the

air in kJ/kg. 10

.-6.' A heat onqine operates between the maximum and minimum temperatures of 571°C and 50°C

while 25 kJ of work is done on the system

0.4 kg of Helium and 0.6 kg of Nitrogen are mixed at 20°C and 100 kPa. Find (a) the volume of the mixture, (b) the partial volume of the components, (c) the partial pressure of the components, (d) the specific heats Cp and Cv and the gas constant of the mixture. 10

respectively with an efficiency of 50% 'of the appropriate Carnot efficiency. It drives a heat

P which uses river water at 4.4 °C to heat a

enters at 80 mls at a point 2 m above the pum

discharge and leaves at 40 m/s. Compute the 1~'\\t\\ey3-~bloCk of flats in which the temperature is to be

shaft power and the diameters of the inlet and maintained at 21.1 DC. Assuming that a tempera-

Steam flows through a small turbine at the rate of 5000 kg/h entering at 14 bar, 300°C and

leaving at 0.15 bar with 5% moisture. The steam

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ture difference of 11.1 °C exists between the working fluid and the river water, on the one hand, and the required room temperature on the other, and assuming the heat pump to operate on reversed Carnot cycle, but with a COP of

discharge tubes. Assume the process to be

5. In a gas turbine power plant the air is compressed, heated and expanded through a turbine. The initial condition (i.e., inlet to compressor) of air is 101.325 kPa and 20°C at

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P.T.O.

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Contd.