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Research Design and Methodology

Research Design and Methodology

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Published by: PHILIP on Nov 26, 2010
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1 Research Design and Methodology

1.1 Research design
According to Kerlinger (1986) “research design is the plan and structure of investigation so conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. The plan is the overall program of the research and includes an outline of what the investigator will do from writing of the hypothesis and their operational implications for the final analysis of data. Cooper and Schindler (2003) summarizes the essentials of research design as an activity and time based plan; always based on the research question; guides the selection of sources and types of information; a framework for specifying the relationship among the study variables and outlines the procedures for every research activity. The researcher used descriptive research design in collecting the data from respondents. The design is preferred because it is concerned with answering questions such as who, how, what which, when and how much (Cooper and schindler, 2003). A descriptive study is carefully designed to ensure complete description of the situation, making sure that there is minimum bias in the collection of data and to reduce errors in interpreting the data collected.



The target population was from barclays the population was divided into several groups with distinct groupings as Management, staff and customers. The total population was 300 as shown below. Primary data was collected from the card centre which is located in the headquarters since this is the department that handles credit cards.


Table: 3. 1 Target population Population Category Management Staff Customers Totals (Source: Author, 2009) Population Size 40 60 200 300 Percentage 15 38 47 100

1.3 Sampling Design and Sample size
According to Trochim (2005), Sampling is the process of selecting units (people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen.

The researcher used stratified random sampling procedure to select a sample that represent the entire population but with due regard to the individual’s ability to provide the type of information sought through each research instrument. According to Kothari (2000), a stratified random sample is used when a population is not homogeneous making it the most appropriate sample to come up with the target sample


From the target population of 300, a sample size of 150 respondents were taken consisting of Management, operation staff and Customers in headquarters, as shown on table 3.2 below.

Table 3.2 Sample size Population category Management Population 40 Sample size 20 Percentage 15

Operation Staff Customers Totals (Source: Author, 2009)

60 200 300

30 100 150

38 47 100

1.4 Data Instruments and Data Collection
The researcher used both primary and secondary sources to collect data. In this case the Primary data was collected using Questionnaires and interviews. The researcher chose the self-administered questionnaire method for all correspondents as it is inexpensive and allowed the respondents to complete the questionnaire at a convenient time. The researcher administered questionnaires containing mainly closed ended questions to the sample respondents. Each respondent received the same set of questions in exactly the same way. An assumption was taken by the researcher that all respondents were literate and thus able to read and write. 3

A semi-structured interview refers to a context in which the interviewer has a series of questions that are in the general form of an interview schedule but where one is able to vary the sequence of questions. Also, the interviewer usually has some latitude to ask further questions in response to what are seen as significant replies. Face-face interviews was arranged with respondents at a convenient time and place so as to allow both the respondent and interviewer the opportunity to create rapport and facilitate the process of interviewing to be done in a relaxed atmosphere. During interview it was also made clear in the introduction the purpose of the research. By clarifying the academic purpose and that they would not experience negative affects when contributing to the research. To pre-test for reliability and validity of the research instruments expert validity views and suggestions of the supervisors were initially incorporated in the questionnaires which were aimed at capturing specific information from the respondents. Then the instrument was pilot tested with three similarly situated respondents within the Bank. As a result of the pilot test, minor changes in word selection and instructions were made to the questionnaire. Secondary data was also sourced to supplement the primary data. This was collected from the relevant sources which included reports, newsletter and unpublished data on training and development.

1.5 Data Analysis and Presentation
This involved qualitative and quantitative analysis. The data collected by use of the various instruments was first thoroughly edited and checked for completeness and comprehensibility. The edited data was summarized and coded for easy classification in order to facilitate tabulation. The tabulated data was then analyzed by calculating various


percentages where possible. Descriptive statistics especially, frequencies and cross tabulation was applied to help establish patterns, trends and relationships and to make it easier for the researcher to understand and interpret implications of the study. Presentation of data was in form of Tables, Pie-charts and Bar graphs only where it provide successful interpretation of the findings. Descriptive data was provided in form of explanatory notes.


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