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Variation of Conductance with Temperature in Electrolytes

Name: School: Roll No:

Eric Cartman South Park Elementary xxxxxx

1

..................................... Graph of Observation Set 1..........................6 5............ Graph of Observation Set 2........... Observation Set 1.........18 17.............www........ankurb..........................14 13..................................................................................... Factors Affecting Electrical Conductivity.................15 14......................................... Physical Constants....... Procedure..................................................................................... .... .................................................................................................7 6....................................... Aim.........................10 9........................... Precautions....4 3......... Important Terms...8 7........................................................... Certificate......................11 10..........................................................17 16...............................................13 12.... Observation Set 2...... ........................12 11...................19 2 ................... Conclusion.. Conductivity............3 2........ Acknowledgements..................16 15.....................info Index 1.....9 8..... . Result.....................................5 4............ Bibliography........ Apparatus.........

student of Class XII A. as compiled in the following pages. South Park Elementary School has completed the project titled Variation of Conductance with Temperature in Electrolytes during the academic year 2008-2009 towards partial fulfillment of credit for the Chemistry practical evaluation of AISSCE 2009. Mrs Janet Garrison Department of Chemistry South Park Elementary 3 . and submitted satisfactory report.ankurb.www. under my supervision.info Certificate This is to certify that Eric Cartman.

without which this project would not have come forth. which are of gratitude at this point of time.www. for her vital support. whose words do not express. 4 ." I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentor Mrs Janet Garrison. but only put a veneer over true feelings. guidance and encouragement . I would also like to express my gratitude to the staff of the Department of Chemistry at South Park Elementary for their support during the making of this project.info Acknowledgements "There are times when silence speaks so much more loudly than words of praise to only as good as belittle a person.ankurb.

ankurb.info Aim To find the variation of conductance with temperature in electrolytes 5 .www.

thermometer. rheostat.ankurb. battery eliminator. ZnSO4 solution. Cu electrodes. Zn electrodes. ammeter. flask. CuSO4 solution. burner.info Apparatus Glass beaker. water. voltmeter 6 .www.

Resistance: The obstacle offered to the flow of electric current is called resistance.info Important Terms  Conductance: The property of ease of flow of electric current through a body is called conductance. m = Z × I × t where..      Second Law: The mass of substance produced in electrolysis directly proportional to its equivalent mass. W1 / E1 = W2 / E2 = W3 / E3. Third Law: The mass of a substance produced in electrolysis is directly proportional to the number of electrons per mole needed to cause desired change in oxidation state.www. Ohm's Law: This law states that the current flowing through a resistance is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across it's ends.  7 . V=IxR Faraday's Laws:  First Law: The mass of a substance produced or consumed in electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of charge passing through it. Z is electrochemical equivalent. Electrolysis: The operation in which electricity causes a chemical reaction is called electrolysis. at constant temperature and pressure. Q is charge. m Q or. t is time in seconds.ankurb. I is current..

which is denoted by κ (called 'kappa').ankurb. Its reciprocal gives the conductivity of the solution. 8 . If a solution is placed between two parallel electrodes having cross sectional area A and distance L apart then the resistance is given by R=1/C ρ (called 'rho') is known as resistivity. Κ=1/R*L/A L / A is a fixed quantity for a cell and is called the 'cell constant'. and thus. ions of electrolyte move. electric current flows through the electrolytic solution. The reciprocal of resistance is called electrical conductance. both of which obey Ohm's law. The electrolytic solution and the metal conductors exhibit resistance to the passage of the current.info Conductivity When voltage is applied to the electrodes immersed into an electrolyte solution. Its unit is Siemens/meter. The unit of electrical conductance is Siemens (S) or ohm-1 or mho.www.

ankurb. Viscosity of the solvent: It depends on solvent-solvent interactions. 9 . Solvation of ions: It depends on solute-solvent interactions.info Factors Affecting Electrical Conductivity The factors which affect the electrical conductivity of the solutions are:    Inter-ionic attraction: It depends on solute.solute interactions.www.

11. Thus. The voltmeter needle pauses for a while at a particular reading which is noted down. 9. and resistance is calculated. Current is passed and when the voltmeter and ammeter show steady readings. more sets of reading are taken. 13. Proper precautions are taken to avoid evaporation and to keep other factors constant. 15. The electrolyte chosen is ZnSO4 and the electrodes are of Zn. The vessel and electrodes are removed and the vessel is cleaned and filled with ZnSO4 solution. 6. 14. they are noted. 10. 5. Thus. 8. 2. the value of conductance is calculated. The current is switched off. 12. It is seen that while the ammeter reading returns at once to 0 position. Similarly.info Procedure 1. The current through the electrolyte is changed by adjusting the rheostat and more sets of readings are taken. The electrodes are refitted in their original place so that the distance between them does not change. This reading indicates the back EMF in the electrolyte. 10 . Readings for the measurement of conductance are taken at intervals of 3 ⁰C. the mean value of resistance is calculated. The switched on circuit readings in voltmeter and ammeter are taken. Above steps are repeated for CuSO4 as electrolyte with electrodes made of Cu.www.ankurb. 7. 4. 3.

some important aspects of the electrolyte process are kept constant in the experiment as their variation might affect the conductivity of the electrolyte.info Physical Constants For the purpose of accuracy and convenience. They are:        Voltage Nature of electrodes Size of electrodes Separation between the electrodes Concentration of the electrolytes Nature of the electrolytes Resistance in the circuit 11 .ankurb.www.

63 Ω 6.160 Ω-1 0.150 Ω-1 0.80 V 0.00 Ω C=1/R 0.5 Ω 8.84 V 0.180 Ω-1 0.0 V 0.09 Ω 7.120 Ω-1 0.info Observation Set 1 For ZnSO4 electrolyte with Zn electrodes S Temperature No Reading Reading Resistance Conductance of of Ammeter Voltmeter I V 1.105 Ω-1 0.ankurb.www.75 V 0.130 Ω-1 0.100 Ω-1 0.95 V 0.89 V 0.65 V R=V/I 10 Ω 9.200 Ω-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 23 ⁰C 26 ⁰C 29 ⁰C 32 ⁰C 35 ⁰C 38 ⁰C 41 ⁰C 44 ⁰C 100 mA 100 mA 110 mA 110 mA 120 mA 125 mA 130 mA 130 mA 12 .00 Ω 7.71 V 0.66 Ω 6.6 Ω 5.

1 0.2 0.2 0.www.05 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Temperature (in degree Celsius) 13 .info Graph of Observation Set 1 Zinc Sulphate Electrolyte 0.12 0.11 0.25 0.ankurb.18 0.15 0.16 Conductance (in Mho) 0.1 0.13 0.15 0.

75 Ω 12.00 Ω 14.00 Ω C = 1/R 0.10 V 1.2 V 1.info Observation Set 2 For CuSO4 electrolyte S Temperature Reading Reading of Resistance Conductance No of Voltmeter Ammeter I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 25 ⁰C 28 ⁰C 31 ⁰C 34 ⁰C 36 ⁰C 38 ⁰C 42 ⁰C 44 ⁰C 47 ⁰C 49 ⁰C 53 °C 75 mA 75 mA 75 mA 75 mA 80 mA 80 mA 80 mA 85 mA 85 mA 90 mA 90 mA V 1.www.4 V 1.94 Ω 12.00 Ω 17.33 Ω 16.3 V 1.055 Ω-1 0.05 V 1.057 Ω-1 0.075 Ω-1 0.90 V R=V/I 18.38 Ω 13.060 Ω-1 0.072 Ω-1 0.ankurb.100 Ω-1 14 .15 V 1.069 Ω-1 0.67 Ω 15.066 Ω-1 0.25 V 1.053 Ω-1 0.67 Ω 18.080 Ω-1 0.35 Ω 11.11 Ω 10.090 Ω-1 0.10 V 1.35 V 1.10 V 1.

06 0.www.06 0.07 0.04 0.08 Conductance (in Mho) 0.07 0.02 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Temperature (in degree Celsius) 15 .info Graph of Observation Set 2 Copper Sulphate Electrolyte 0.12 0.08 0.06 0.ankurb.07 0.09 0.08 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.06 0.

ankurb. 16 .www.info Result The relevant graph shows that the 1 / Resistance of an electrolyte increases at a steady rate as the temperature increases.

the speed and movement of the ions increases. the result of the experiment agrees with reasoning.ankurb. In other words. with decrease in viscosity. it is known that viscosity gradually decreases.info Conclusion On heating a solution. the conductance of the electrolyte increases with increases in temperature. Hence.www. 17 .

18 . three readings are taken and the mean value is considered. The electrodes used in each case should always be kept parallel to each other. For each observation.www. The solution should be kept undisturbed throughout the experiment.ankurb.info Precautions     Variation of resistance due to one of the factors should be kept constant.

info Bibliography   Chemistry (Part I) – Textbook for Class XII. National Council of Educational Research and Training Concepts of Physics 2 by H C Verma. Bharti Bhawan (Publishers & Distributors) 19 .www.ankurb.

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