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Ships and Shipping Handbook 1903

Ships and Shipping Handbook 1903

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PREFACE THIS book has been compiled with the object of providing in a convenient and attractive form nautical information of the kind required by intelligent landsmen whose interest has been raised in the maritime heritage of our empire. Information of this kind has hitherto been almost entirely inaccessible, since it is contained partly in large and cumbrous books of reference, and partly in expensive technical works, or in Government publications. In the first edition of a work of this kind absolute completeness is naturally not possible, and the publisher will be very glad to receive any suggestions for correction or improvement. Though there has been no attempt to provide a monograph on any one particular aspect of maritime knowledge, it is claimed that the work covers a wide ground and contains in a condensed form the information most likely to be serviceable to the traveller and the general enquirer. It has been the aim of the Editor to obtain his facts from the most authentic sources, and in this connexion thanks are due to Lloyd's for their kind permission to print extracts from their most valuable CALENDAR, and to Messrs. Thacker & Co. for the same courteous permission to use their handy and comprehensive NAVAL POCKET BOOK, to both of which works the reader is referred for additional facts should he desire either to know more of the Merchant Service or of the Navy. Thanks are also due to the Navy League for permission to reprint the article dealing with its work, and to the various Steamship Companies who have kindly placed at the Editor's disposal the lists of their fleets, and other interesting details connected with their lines of steamers. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. THE MAKING OF THE SHIP (a) Evolution (b) Relative Size and Growth of Mercantile Steamships (c) Consumption of Coal (d) Design and Construction of Ships (e) Parts of a Full-Rigged Ship 2. THE SAILING OF THE SHIP (a) Seamanship and Navigation (b) The Rule of the Road at Sea 3. COURSE AND DIRECTION (a) The Compass (b) The Use of a Watch as a Compass (c) Tracks of Atlantic Steamers 4. DISTANCE (a) Charts (b) Meridians (c) Length of Degrees of Longitude (d) Nautical Measures (e) Table for converting Sea into Land Miles (f) Measured Miles (g) Ocean Depths (h) Method of judging Distances at Sea (i) Distances between Headlands, Harbours, and Lights off the British Coasts (j) Distances by Sea between British and Continental Ports 5. TIME (a) Chronometer (b) Ship Time (e) Time Signals in Great Britain (d) Difference in Time (e) Reduction of Longitude into Time (f) Ship's Speed


(g) Comparative Velocities 6. ATMOSPHERE (a) Weather Wisdom (b) Beaufort Notation Formula (c) Velocity of the Wind 7. THE ROYAL NAVY 8. THE MERCHANT SERVICE (a) History and Development (b) Merchant Vessels launched in the United Kingdom (c) List of the Largest Steamships afloat (d) Tonnage of the Largest Steamship Companies (e) Merchant Fleets of Chief Maritime Powers (f) Routes of Travel (g) Transatlantic Records (h) Other Records 9. EMBLEMS (a) Flags (b) House Flags and Funnels (c) Distinguishing Letters of British Fishing Boats 10. SIGNALS (a) General Signals (b) Numeral Signals (c) Sound Signals (d) Fog Signals (e) Storm Signals (f) Distress Signals (g) Pilot Signals (h) Night Signals of Steamers (i) Lloyd's Signal Station Reports (j) Wireless Telegraph Stations 11. LIGHTS AND LIGHTHOUSES (a) History and Development (b) Important Lighthouses off British Isles (c) Views of Lighthouses 12. BUOYS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM (MISSING) 13. SHIP CANALS 14. THE HIGH SEAS 15. YACHTING (a) History and development (b) Well-Known Yachts and their Owners (c) America Cup Races (d) British Yacht Clubs (e) Yachting Fixtures 16. LLOYD'S — see also Signals (a) History and Development (b) Lloyd's Signal Stations (c) Classification of Ships (d) Loadline or Plimsoll Marks


Later followed various forms of the canoe. This led to the conventional built-up boat." found in all parts of the world. remained of the open or undecked type.17.S.M. KING ALFRED (COLOURED PLATE) There are besides numerous cuts illustrating types of the Royal Navy and Merchant Services. which have doubtless been used since the dawn of the human race for carrying men and their property. however. VIKING SHIP OF KING ALFRED'S DAY 1 The Making of The Ship (a) EVOLUTION THE earliest and simplest means of water carriage employed by man consisted of the rafts or floating logs. FLEETS OF PRINCIPAL STEAMSHIP COMPANIES 22. 4 . and made from the hollowed-out trunk of a tree. This early and crude form was supplemented by the "dug-out. MERCHANT SHIPS CONVERTIBLE INTO WAR VESSELS 21. ILLUSTRATED LIST OF THE SHIPS OF THE ROYAL NAVY 20. GAZETEER (a) Of Ports (b) Of Important Shipping Events 18. often a mere framework of bone or wooden ribs covered with hides or tree-bark. VICTORY (COLOURED PLATE) SECTIONAL VIEWS OF A MODERN WARSHIP SECTIONAL VIEW OF MODERN LINER FLAGS (COLOURED PLATE) OBJECTS USED IN SIGNALLING SIGNALS (COLOURED PLATE) VIEWS OF LIGHTHOUSES ILLUSTRATIONS OF BUOYS SAILORS' KNOTS H. THE NAVY LEAGUE TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS VIKING SHIP OF KING ALFRED'S DAY (COLOURED PLATE) DIAGRAM OF DEVELOPMENT OF CUNARDER GALLEY OF COLUMBUS (COLOURED PLATE) DIAGRAM OF A FULL-RIGGED SHIP TYPES OF SAILING VESSELS A MARINER'S COMPASS H.S. NAUTICAL VOCABULARY 19. which still.M.

350 the Greeks are known to have possessed a navy and dockyards. and that they were also fitted with the conventional appliances for rowing. and Which survives to-day in the common "yawl" rig. The practical establishment of iron shipbuilding dates. the now established practice of sub-dividing these steel-built vessels into watertight compartments (which can be used at will for water-ballast) has still further diminished the chances of lives being lost in the event of a wreck or a collision. During this period the armament was increased. and the employment of steel instead of iron in the construction of the hull have. but the first iron ship (of any magnitude) to be built was the paddle steamer Aaron Manby. a type which existed among the Mediterranean nations for ships (both of War and State) until well into the middle ages. the transition from type to type being but gradual. Phoenicians. doubtless intended as an aid in steering. The use of iron for the construction of a ship was tried in a small craft as early as 1787. In B. The art of shipbuilding progressed very slowly for centuries. but are actually proved to be 50 per cent. sailing. with such modification as the development of the arts and sciences had then brought about. This heavier type may be said to have endured well into the last century. survived well into the nineteenth century. ton for ton. when this method of construction first met with unqualified favour. great progress was made in maritime affairs with regard to the transportation by ships both of men and goods. propulsion being effected by two banks of oars. capable of transporting large numbers of men. although there seems to be more distinction of this kind among those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.' and still leaves its traces in the modern appellation which is given to the crew's quarters in the fo'csle or fore-castle. and has resulted in producing a class of ships which. that these vessels were composed of keels. a demand at once grew up for the lofty castellated structures which adorned the prows and sterns of 'most mediaeval ships.C. The adapting of the steam-engine to all classes of ships. In the seventeenth century the national characteristics of build were but slightly marked. are not only stronger and more durable than vessels of wood. and rising in tiers one above the other. lighter than iron-built ships. but this innovation was generally opposed until almost the middle of the century. lighter than boats built of timber. Greeks and Romans all possessed ships of this class. or even vessels of iron.Decked craft are of unknown antiquity. in 1821. steering and anchoring. in order to give a heavier broadside. As all the early battles must have taken place at close quarters. When John Laird. The later merchant ships of the Western Mediterranean nations in general did not differ greatly from the warships of the time. a form which. first made a commercial success of iron ship-construction. which have since disappeared: a lofty and often highly decorated stern.C. but it is certain that the ancient Egyptians. to a yet further extent.. 5 . a square sail hung forward below the bowsprit. The substitution of mild steel as a substitute for iron — an invention originally introduced into this country from France — is now thoroughly established. was the first iron vessel classed at "Lloyd's". revolutionised the world's mercantile marine. however. and a diminutive lateen sail on the mizzen mast. in 1837. Finally. or at least at a range suitable for the bow and arrow. from a few years later. throughout the Mediterranean. and the ships proportionately increased in beam. in 1829. and had decks and planking secured by fastenings of metal or wood. and from this time forward. The Phoenicians were the first to construct warships (of the "galley" type) about 900 B. of Birkenhead. with some modifications. frames and beams. all the vessels of that time having the following features in common. and 15 per cent. The Sirius. The Greeks later employed oars arranged in several banks.

000 17.000 30.871 8.600 tons on the passage between New York and Liverpool.000 38. such as the Scotia. draught (loaded) 24 feet 9 inches — when making the passage in September of the above year. while the Spain. with compound machinery. or 1.500 21. consumed 95 tons per day.502 15. Previous to that time a vessel fitted with the best type of engines.499 13. and their power and carrying capacity by more than fifty.685 10.000 13. and had a midship section of 841 square feet — consumed 160 tons of coal per day. P.800 8. The City of Brussels. with a midship section of 909 square feet. d.000 25.THE EVOLUTION OF THE SHIP CHART (b) RELATIVE SIZE AND GROWTH OF MERCANTILE STEAMSHIPS In the last sixty years the duration of the Transatlantic voyage has been reduced by more than 50 per cent.000 17.040 16.150 2. a screw-steamer of the Inman line.000 30. 425 850 900 1. a screw-steamer of the National line. and at that time the longest vessel on the Atlantic — with a length of 425 feet 6 inches on the load-line.000 Tonnage 1.300 8.000 18..000 27. There are still later instances where but 40 tons of coal per day were used. of the Cunard line — which was floated in 1862. 6 . launched in 1871.128 9. Celtic Kaiser Wm. floated in 1869. consumed only 53 tons per day.000 30. beam-mould 43 feet. Built 1840 1850 1855 1862 1881 1885 1889 1889 1893 1897 1899 1900 1901 1901 1902 1902 Vessel Acadia Atlantic Persia Scotia City of Rome Umbria Teutonic City of Paris Campania Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse Oceanic Deutschland Kron Prinz Wm.500 15. All these three vessels had a similar average of speed. or 500 tons on the run. II Cedric Length Feet 228 276 300 379 560 520 582 527 625 649 705 662 630 700 706 700 Beam Feet 34 45 45 47 52 57 57 63 65 66 68 67 75 75 H. the size of the ships has been multiplied by fifteen.800 17.904 19.000 (c) CONSUMPTION OF COAL The consumption of coal in steamships has (proportionately) much decreased since the introduction of the compound engine. Enormous strides have been made in shipbuilding and in increasing the size of ocean steamships.000 20.144 8.000 14.

800 tons of coal in doing so. and elsewhere. her bunkers held nearly 4. During the middle ages the purely decorative features or what is called the "top hamper. Singapore.000 tons. without restricting shipbuilders to any very definite dimensions. but with due regard for stability and strength these gradually gave way to more serviceable plans and models. the types of our sailing craft first began to approach the forms with which we are now familiar. An enormous increase in coal consumption is necessary for a comparatively slight increase in the vessel's speed.641 tons of coal. the reserve at the latter place being about 20. and it was desired to make them turn 58.200 tons of tea. the speed being 20 knots. and consumed on the voyage 3. The Orient line. the result would be to shorten her time across the Atlantic by a bare half day only." were extravagantly increased. her coal bunkers held 2. Immense stocks of coal are kept at various coaling stations — St. Vincent. and consumed 2. It would require the burning of five additional tons of coal a day.000 tons. The reason for this was that the factors of speed and capacity in relation to size were then less paramount than at present. The steamship Austral went from London to Sydney in 35 days. by burning twice that amount (180 tons) her speed is advanced to 16 knots. enforced due regard for the rules of proportion and measurement which had proved suitable or 7 .750 tons. Port Said." GALLEON OF COLUMBUS (HENRY THE SEVENTH'S DAY) (d) THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SHIPS The earliest ship builders gave little thought or care to the design or construction of the hull. It is estimated that if the present horse-power could be doubled by extra furnaces and firemen and the burning of sufficient coal. So enormous is the cost of the gain of an hour's time to an Atlantic "greyhound. Increase the coal to 300 tons a day. Madeira. If the vessel could be driven 12 knots an hour by burning 90 tons of coal a day. with their fleet of ships running from England to Australia every two weeks. until at the latter part of the eighteenth century. The Stirling Castle brought home in one cargo 2. Certain accepted rules and formulae were eventually laid down which. the rate of gain is even less. Suppose the propellers were turning 57 times to the minute. The steamship Oregon consumed over 330 tons per day on the passage from Liverpool to New York. The Oceanic consumes from 400 tons to 500 tons of coal per day. but devoted their attention rather to the interior arrangements and the upper works of their vessels. a gain of only one-third.Ocean steamers are large consumers of coal. may be instanced. the Majestic and Teutonic about 150 tons less. The coal burned varies as the cube of the speed attained.

624. It is 310 feet long on the keel. Helens.S. is the next largest cargo carrier. In a modern rigged vessel sail is reduced firstly by the division of the total sail-area into small sails of manage-able shape and dimensions.000 square feet. 49 feet.000 R. Dutch. Numerous devices for furling sails have been used to accom-plish this from time to time.000 tons burden. She has a net tonnage of 3. 50 feet beam. under the more stringent modern conditions. so that they may be taken in one after the other as occasion requires. but the usual course is to employ several rows of "reef-points " or short ropes attached to the sail itself. with an estimated coal-carrying capacity of from 5. and the relative value of its grades is known to every shipmaster. a sail area of 49. 3I6 feet.g. Of late there has been much speculation as to the life of a ship. But the old-time sailing vessels have to wait to see what ballast they can pick up before making the homeward trip. 18. depth. or made up of smaller pieces of timber strapped or bound together with steel bands. The largest tank steamer is the St. the masts usually consisted of a single piece or "stick. and secondly by "reefing. were generally of a more or less square (lug-sail) shape. Later still. and has carried a cargo of 5. The largest schooner in existence is a seven-masted schooner (building in Maine.). at present." but the modern sailing vessel of large dimensions (1.satisfactory in practice — thus meeting the special demands that were likely to be made upon the various types of craft. 49 feet. Top masts.078 tons. and her dimensions are: over-all length." by which the masts and spars are supported. depth. have been used since time immemorial. She is 20. The second largest ship in the world is the five-masted French ship France: length. moreover. is 333 feet long. These primitive sails. United States.000 bales of jute from Calcutta to Dundee in a single voyage. but still allowing a portion of the sail to remain in position.A. and many of the modern sailing craft have tanks arranged in their holds. and "running rigging. 700 feet. constructed from the sterns of certain plants (e. with a draught of 25 feet and a carrying capacity of 6. The Pennsylvania. the latest development of which is the lateen sail still used on small craft in the Mediterranean.900 tons. whether war vessels or merchantmen. German. 345 feet over all. 3. U. French.S." an arrangement which allows of a portion of individual sail only being furled at a time. were followed by the more simple fore and aft lateen rig. beam. thereby effectively reducing the area. 20. The question of ballast has always been a serious one for sea captains making long voyages in sailing vessels. Four steamships of enormous dimensions are projected (two of which are already laid down in Connecticut. but in the tropics large palmleaves. and 28 feet deep. The earliest sails in our northern latitudes were pro-bably made from the skins of animals. This is of course a question that depends very much upon the builders. with five masts." by which the sails themselves are manipulated or trimmed. beam. the "standing rigging.500 tons. however. 26 feet. 48 feet broad. who can often dispose of such a cargo for more than the cost of loading and unloading. The largest cargo carrier is. 25. U. It is found that Norwegian vessels have a life of 30 years. Sand and common dirt are also shipped in ballast. the sails of all races seem to have consisted of woven fabrics. top gallant masts and "royals. The Palgrave is of 3. 27. When all ships were of small size. The British ship Liverpool.T. 75 feet. and the birth-rate 5 per cent.) for the Great Northern Steamship Co. Water ballast is used on large ocean steamers. and will register about 2. and later more or less roughly fastened together.000 gallons of oil in bulk. the White Star steamer Celtic. while the required height is obtained by constructing them in two or more lengths. is 394 feet long. by means of which it can be fastened down to the yard to which it is attached. 26. at first singly.750 tons net.150 tons.880 tons gross measurement.330 tons.500 to 3." are each formed of one stick surmounting another. The largest sailing ship afloat is called the Potosi. The average death-rate of the world's shipping is about 4 per cent. the one standing above the other. so that they can take on water ballast direct from the sea.'s Pacific Service.000 tons) has its masts of steel. Rigging is divided into two classes. The bow-sprit is also usually formed of a single stick.850. being rated at 20. which is built to carry 2. They are to be of 21.000 to 5. of the Hamburg American Line. She was built at Bremen. She has taken 20. The most common ballast is stone or rock. flax) or grasses. 8 . Modern improvements and developments with regard to rigging consist chiefly in the substitution of wire rope in place of the Manila or hemp rope formerly used. These. Italian. British. 22.

81. martingale-stays. 64. 43. fore upper topsail-yard. 123. 54. 104. 36. mizzentopgallant-shrouds. 11. jib-stay. 78. stern. chain-plates. 44 fore-truck. foretop. 22. foreskysail-pole.000 cubic feet of oak. mainskysail-pole. mizzentop. 27. 98. mizzentopmast-stay. 22. height of keelson. flying jib-boom. maintopmast. maintopmast studding sail-boom. mizzentopmast-head. foreyard. 32. 100. taffrail. 71. foretopgallant-stay. maintopgallant studdingsail-yard. monkey-gaff. spring-stay. 8. mainyard. 13. mainskysail-yard. 38. cat-head. mizzentopmast-shrouds. 53. deck to keelson. main-chains. 88. 28. 21. main lower topsail-yard 63. 93. main skysail yard. 12. 1. mainstay. With all sails set she spreads 15. 180 feet. keelson to bottom. 9 feet 8 inches. 94. bulwarks. 51. martingale-guys. futtock-shrouds. cable. 55 feet. foreroyalmast. 35. mizzen-mast.The biggest of wooden ships is the Roanoke. main. 4. waist.000 treenails and 550 hackmatack knees. 12 feet. foretopgallantmast.2 feet. bow. after-deck house. 17. 7. 86. I22. 65. 30. mainskysailmast.000 square yards of canvas. 112. fore-topmast studdingsail-yard. 95 feet. 9 . 1I4. 96.000 feet of yellow pine. 102. davits. 74. 107. mizzen and jigger. 10. channels. 77. 61. jib-boom. length over all. 65 feet. 31. 3. 2. foretopmast. mizzen lower topsail-yard. mizzen-truck. 77 feet. counter. 24. mainroyal studdingsail-boom. bobstays. 23. maintopgallant-mast. foretopgallant-yard. 89. 39. mizzen-chains. 49. foretopgallant studdingsail-yard. foretopmast shrouds. forward-deck house. foretopgallant-shrouds. mainroyalmast. 56. 86 feet. 72. height of fore-mast top from deck. 113. 225 tons of iron. 67. 80. 16. 69. 19. 26. 68. 105. 110. 115. 99. hull. 109. 33. foreshrouds. fore lower topsailyard. mizzen-skysail-pole. 106. out-riggers. maintopmast studdingsail-yard. 103. foretopgallant studdingsail-boom. mizzen-topmast. 350 feet. entrance. lower studding-sail-yard. 90. maintopmast-stay. 101. mizzen upper topsail-yard. spanker-gaff. bowsprit. main-shrouds. 45. 75. 79. 125. main-topgallant-yard. foresky-sailmast. bowsprit. 15. futtock-shrouds. mizzenskysailmast. foremast-head. spanker-boom. 121. 124. 300 feet. 60. 18. main-truck. She has four masts — fore. 120. 46. mizzen-skysailyard. 34.250. 42. Her dimensions are: length of keel. 5. 92. cross jack-yard. 37. 82. 118. 87. 29. mizzenstay. dolphin-striker. 108. mizzenmast-head. 76. rudder. She has four headsails with an aggregate of 646 square yards of canvas in them. built by Arthur Sewall and Co. 111. 83. stem. mizzenroyal-yard. 97. main upper topsail yard. bowspritshrouds. 20. anchor. 59. quarterboat. mizzentopgallant-stay. mizzentopgallantmast. maintopgallant studdingsail-boom. fore-royal studdingsail-boom. 6. run. foreskysail-yard. 47. 41. maintop-mast-head. fore-chains. maintop. 58. foretopmast studdingsail-boom. forestay. fore-royal-yard. 98. 66. main top-gallant yard. main upper topsail-yard. flyingjib-stay. foretopmast-head. cutwater. foreroyal-stay. 57. 91. foreroyal studdingsail-yard. 84. 117. 50. foretopmast-stay. Her main and mizzen sails contain 2. futtock-shrouds. main lower topsail yard. 119. 116. In her hull are 24. 48. 44 feet. main royal yard. 70. maintopgallant-stay. mainskysail-gaff. 62. maintopgallant-shrouds. 73. cabin-trunk. 9. 66 feet. 40. mainroyal studding-sail-yard. mizzenroyalmast. 14. mizzen-shrouds. mizzentopgallant-yard. foremast. 55. 25. mainroyal-stay. 85. 95. length of main yard. mainmast. (e) PARTS OF A FULL-RIGGED SHIP 1. maintopmast-shrouds. mainroyal-yard.424 square yards of canvas. 52. mainmast-head.

205. 136. 146 main lower topsail. 221. monkey-gaff vangs. 138. maintopmast studding sail-downhaul. mainskysail. foretopmast studdingsail-sheet. lower studdingsail inner halyards. 202. 242. spanker peak-halyards. 174. mizzenroyal-staysail. 247. 17I. foretopmast maintopsail-downhaul. foretopmast-backstays. main bowline. 144. 150. foretop-gallant studdingsail-halyards. 201. I45. mainroyal studdingsail-sheet. crossjack. 134. main upper topsail.126. 214. foreroyal studdingsail-tack. mainsail or main-course. mizzen upper topsail-brace. 224. 250. 152. maintopmast-studdingsail. 222. maintopmast studdingsail-sheet. crossjack-brace. 234. main. foreroyal brace. 155. 236. weather fore-sheet. mizzen-topgallantbrace. 168. 228. fore-topgallant studdingsail-downhaul. mainroyal-brace. 193. foretopgallant-sail. maintopgallant studdingsail-tack. 230. mizzen lower topsail. 186. fore upper topsail. 179. 191. foreroyal. 197. main lower topsail-lift. 154. 206. spanker-brails. 231. 172. mainlift. spanker-sheet. mizzen lower topsail-brace. 203. weather flying-jib sheet. mizzenroyal-brace. lower studdingsail-sheet. foretopmast studdingsail-halyards. 198. 132. 194. 237. weather crossjack-sheet. 148. 175. 244. maintopgallant-brace. maintopgallant-sail. 130. mainskysail-backstays. 166. maintopgallant-staysail. 245. 213. 223. mizzentopmast-staysail. 10 . 200. 170. 248. foreskysail-backstays. 177. foretopgallant-studding sail. 238. 161. mizzenroyal staysail-sheet. 199. foretop-gallant studding sail tack. 219. monkey-gaff lift. 156. mizzentopgallant staysail-sheet. spanker-gaff vangs. 251. maintopmast upper stay-sail. 157. mizzentopmast-backstays. 169. mizzenroyalbackstays. maintopmast studdingsail-halyards. maintopgallantbackstays. 135. maintop-gallant-studding sail. foretopgallant studdingsail-sheet. mizzenskysail-stay. forelift. mainskysail-brace. topmast lower staysail. 164. 209. main lower topsail-brace. 232. 226. mainroyal-studding sail. foretopmast-staysail. 204. weather jib topsail-sheet. 187. mizzentopgallant-backstays. lower studding-sail. mainroyal. mizzenskysail-brace. 195. fore lower topsail. 131. reef-points. 141. 153. 239. foreskysail-stay. 129. upper maintopsail-downhaul. foretop-gallant-brace. maintopmast studdingsail-tack. mainroyal stay-sail-sheet. 162. foretopgallant-backstays. 217. foretopmast-studding sail. main upper topsail brace. 225. 163. foreskysail. flying-jib. mizzen upper topsail. 176. mizzensky-sail. 184. clew-lines. signal-halyards. 229. 189. fore upper topsail-brace. 235. 241. 211. foretopmast studdingsail-tack. 143. 149. 182. 140. 160. 137. 178. 192. mizzen-royal-stay. maintopgallant studding-sail-sheet. fore lower topsail-lift. mizzentopgallant-staysail. 133. 151. 180. 183. 227. 246. 127. 240. weather jib-sheet. mainroyal studdingsail-tack. mainroyal-backstays. bowline-bridle. maintopgallant studdingsail-downhaul. 216. maintopmast-backstays. 147. 220. 218. mizzenskysail-backstays. mizzentopgallant-sail. jib-topsail. weather main-sheet. 185. 158. jib. 181. 196. foreroyal studdingsail-sheet. 159. mainroyal-staysail. 208. 139. 165. lower studdingsail-halyards. mizzen lower topsail-lift. 190. 212. upper mizzentopsail-downhaul. 210. maintopgallant studdingsail-halyards. foreroyal-backstays. 173. 188. mizzenstaysail. spanker-boom topping-lift. mizzenroyal. crossjack-lift. 215. foresail or forecourse. 128 mainskysail-stay. 207. 233. 142. clew-garnets. 243. foot-ropes. spanker. foreskysail-brace. mainbrace. forebrace. 167. 249. fore lower topsail-brace. foreroyal-studding sail.

and who keep it on the courses and under the speed set down by the captain. and may demand the entire compliance of the passengers and crew alike should he require it. as well as for the proper performance of the duties of the officers under him. are the real navigators of the ship. and indeed even then. The COMMANDER. on board ship. it is usually the Second. his proper station being. He is responsible for the safe and efficient navigation of the ship. Every such officer on duty is further forbidden to go below until his watch is ended. or in the wheel or chart-house. 11 . is the absolute authority. includes the general care and labour given towards keeping the ship in seaworthy condition and the command and control of the men exercised by the officers in each department. Whether at sea or in port. the upper bridge. by an obvious necessity. from port to port. unless he is relieved by the officer whose watch next succeeds his own. dividing the time amongst them. however. Seamanship. in the former case. or Captain. as far as possible. in order to insure. to enter into conversation. whether civil or naval. the safe and quick prosecution of the voyage. and though he may sometimes stand watches With the junior officers. one of the officers must always be on duty in charge of the ship. and for the comfort and satisfaction of the pas-sengers as well. If in the execution of his duties he should have arty reason to anticipate the arising of any immediate risk or danger to the ship from the course upon which she is being steered. whether in the old sailing ship or the modern steamship. he is required to take action at once upon his own initiative and to send word of the Whole circum-stances at once to the captain. Navigation in brief is the con-ducting of the ship as it were along a certain preconceived path or track of the ocean. usually confers with the officer then on duty.2 The Sailing of the Ship (a) SEAMANSHIP AND NAVIGATION BY the traveller seamanship and navigation are too often confounded. The CHIEF OFFICER is generally charged with the entire responsibility of the care and upkeep of the ship. who. as he is still often called. It should be added here that passengers are never allowed on the bridge. but should give his whole and undivided attention to his Work. Third and Fourth officers who. for the internal discipline down to the humblest member of the forecastle or the stoke-hold. on the other hand. The officer on duty is strictly forbidden.

and the tug-of-war and the egg and spoon race still serve to amuse. and in foggy or thick weather a look-out is also posted in the crow's nest on the foremast. safety and comfort. though in neither case do the ships follow in the same "lane" going east or West. but are always on separate tracks.. Officers and Stewards are alike required to show all possible attention and courtesy to passengers on board and to afford all possible assistance to them when entering or leaving the ship. to seek out the latent musical or histrionic talents of their fellow-voyagers and turn them to the general amusement and edification. the Commander (or some clergyman among the passengers of whom he may ask the favour) officiating. which is caused by speculation as to the length of the ship's "run" during the previous twenty-four hours. when performing their duties. sleeping. The boats are given con-stant care and attention. but at the same time it must not be forgotten that they are not entitled to any sort of fee for their services. it is as Well to remind the voyager that a fair supply of magazines and a paper-covered novel or two are sure to be found useful. Purser and Chief Steward. and if it is not he has under the same roof (as it were) nearly all the social attractions of a large hotel at a tourist resort. but as it can hardly be expected that the company would at once put on its shelves the latest sensation of the day.m. The Captain.With regard to the SURGEON. and the more southerly in winter. the number of miles to be posted on the chart being the raison d'être of the smoking-room "pool. quarrelling and grumbling. It has been said by some unappreciative person that only six occupations could be indulged in at sea — eating. Divine service is held in the saloon on Sunday morning. the steamships of the trans-Atlantic lines follow certain prescribed courses out-ward and homeward. It is generally conceded that sea air. Each day as the hour of noon approaches there reigns a mild excitement. In conjunction With the Chief Steward. if the weather is fine. Which should be rendered entirely free of charge to all sections of the community alike. Freed for the time being from the worry of daily letters and telegrams. In the Ship's Library is usually found a good selection of the Works of standard and popular novelists. Deck Quoits and Shuffle Board still hold their own in season-able weather on deck. Inspection of all parts of the ship usually takes place daily at 11 a. The CHIEF STEWARD has charge of the details for messing and berthing the passengers and crew. in which the elements of speedy locomotion. and conducive to appetite. On the other hand there is to be no familiarity between the passengers and the officers which might be in any way prejudicial to the maintenance of good discipline. the rule in the case of most companies is that they do not forbid their surgeons to accept any honoraria spontaneously offered them. and of lessening the risks of collision. the more northerly of which is to be followed in summer. They are also required to see that the crew interfere as little as possible. does not tend to encourage mental labour or study. On the modern ocean liner the traveller feels at once that he is in an admirably appointed and well-disciplined vessel. Some energetic persons usually form themselves into an Amusement Committee. healthful and invigorating as it is. quite an abnormal share. he contracts for the ship's supplies. A vigilant and careful Watch is kept by the officers on the bridge at all times of the day and night. this last being a point to which the Captain is especially required to attend. Officers on duty should be courteous enough to give a polite reply to questions which may be addressed to them by passengers. at an expense which is small indeed compared with hotel life in most large cities. Surgeon. cooks and bakers." in charge of the corps of bedroom and table stewards. in some places one hundred or more miles apart. but are strictly forbidden to converse with them." With the view of increasing the security of the voyage. and supervises the various duties connected with clerical work and accounts. 12 . hence the lightest and most whimsical of literature is that best suited to steamer requirements. flirting. by the Commander. drinking. With the passengers' comfort. and might be best described as a "Maître d'Hotel. he enjoys an ideal existence. To these he might have added smoking — of all seven we get each day. together with the appliances and attendance of a firstclass hotel are combined and placed at his command. no doubt. The PURSER may be called the "business manager" of the ship.

ready for use the moment they may be required." the cable is first drawn in by means of winch or windlass. At sea the anchors are lashed on deck. It is your duty to keep clear. and boat drill often takes place at sea. such as fire. there is nothing for it but good look-out. being used merely for signalling purposes and for rigging the tackle for handling cargo. or when two anchors are made use of at the same time. Modern steamers carry little or no sail. which in all large steamers is controlled. with the aid of steam or hydraulic gear. (2. The "stream anchor" is for light and quick work and for any sudden emergency. Thomas Gray. in clean clothes. A ship "rolls" when the port (left) and starboard (right) sides of it rise and fall alternately: until the addition of the modern "bilge keel" or "rolling chock. caution and judgment. the order is given to seize or "eat and fish" — which means that it is to be lifted inboard and stowed in its usual place. and the ship is allowed to swing with the tide. "bow") anchors are kept at the bows for ordinary work. at the bows. If to your starboard RED appear. when they have any. as soon as the requisite amount of cable or chain has been run out. their masts and yards. and are used to perform various duties.) Two Steam Ships meeting. — This is the position of greatest danger. and to its head is attached the tiller. and "scending" is a sort of combination of pitching and rolling. by the wheelman on the bridge forward. "Pitching" is the plunging of ships lengthwise into the sea's trough. When either of these lines are drawn inboard the action is.and are at all times ready to be launched at a moment's notice. In the event of anything happen-ing to the rudder. Note. and to them are attached the cables (or.) Two Steam Ships crossing. When first the anchor breaks away from bottom it is said to be "apeak." and when finally brought to its place at the bows. under supervision of an officer in charge. C. analogous to that accomplished by the rudder. and the utmost care is taken that each and every member of the crew fully knows his particular station and his duty in case of any emergency.B." steamships were wont to roll more than sailing vessels. The crew is usually mustered on deck. collision or running on shore." when it reaches the surface "a-wash. from each end of which a line is passed to the stern of the ship. RED to RED — Perfect safety — go ahead ! (3. When an anchor is " weighed. When wanted they are "unstowed" and at the right moment "let go". To act as judgment says is proper. A vessel is "moored" when it is made fast to buoys or any stationary mooring. 13 . (1. To Port — or Starboard — Back — or Stop her! But when upon your Port is seen A Steamer's Starboard Light of GREEN. it is possible to rig up a substitute by towing astern a spar. to a certain extent. the two "bower" (i. it is "bitted" or made fast. (b) RULE OF THE ROAD AT SEA Aids to Memory in Four Verses by the late Mr. A ship's anchors are of various kinds. When both side-lights you see ahead — Port your helm and show your RED.) Two Steam Ships passing. They are manned by a crew and in charge of an officer according to a list posted in a conspicuous place in the crew's quarters. the chains) which are run through the "hawse holes" out of the chain lockers. on Sunday morning. the "sheet anchor" is a spare anchor. for all of which there are special "drills" and in-spections. The rudder swings upon the stern-post.e. more usually. where it may be watched by the passengers. GREEN to GREEN — or.

Go astern. For GREEN to Port keeps clear of you. A Pole or Masthead Compass is so called from the fact that it is mounted as far away as possible from the iron hull or body of the ship in order to be removed from the magnetic influence of the latter. Upon this needle the card as described above is laid and attached. These blades. which is known as the "Lubber Line." that is.) All Ships must keep a good look-out. When it is used as a Steering Compass the inside of the bowl has a vertical black line painted upon it. Compasses vary much in size. the circumference of which is divided into 32 equal parts. these are again divided into half-points and quarter-points. For the deep sea "navigator" it is always of the first importance that he should know the exact position of his ship on the surface of the globe. Stop her. Both in safety and in doubt Always keep a good look-out. Under ordinary circumstances two steamers meeting face to face. out of sight of land. from 7½ inches to 15 inches in diameter. which (allowing for what is called "variation") always points towards the North Pole. those commonly in use at the present day being known as Patent Logs. unlike those of latitude. Navigation or piloting has always been roughly divided into (1) Common Piloting. A steamer gives way to a sailing ship. and fitted with a glass cover. to keep to the right and pass one another on the left. the steamer that has another on her own right-hand side has to get out of the way. The whole is enclosed in a brass bowl or box. of which there are ninety between the pole and the equator. and is denoted after dark by a green light. vary according to the latitude in which they are reckoned. Latitude is his exact distance north or south of the Equator.There's not so much for you to do. The general rule of the road at sea for steamers is the same as for foot-passengers in towns. and Steam Ships must stop and go astern. called points. called degrees. if necessary. or so near as to involve risk. and a registering dial which records the distance covered. The Standard Compass is the compass by which the ship is navigated. On the rotator are fixed four or five blades. and (2) Proper Piloting. Ship Logs are of various types. The degrees of latitude. as regards latitude and longitude. and is denoted at night by a red light. Longitude is his exact distance east or west of the meridian of Greenwich. or within sight of land. and finally into 360 equal parts. which consists in coasting along shore. the former being in turn balanced upon a hard pivot working in chrysolite or agate. Ease her. have to "port. with no room to turn. In danger. Their object is to indicate the speed of the ship by recording the distance covered in a given time. STARBOARD is the right-hand side. When crossing. which consists in navigating. are measured on the meridians. 3 Course and Direction (a) THE COMPASS THE Mariner's Compass consists of a circular card. (4. by the aid of the celestial bodies. No collision can happen between two passing ships whilst a Green light is opposed to a Green light or a Red to Red. PORT is the left-hand side of a ship looking to the bow. when the 14 . resembling the blades of a screw propeller." and which is in direct alignment with the ship's head. The degrees of longitude. It is generally of the Pole Compass type. They have an adjustable rotator or screw. and are equal to each other. The essential part of a compass is a magnetized needle.

the figure XI. the various divisions and sub-divisions indicated on the card of the Compass as follows: — North by East.. North-East by East. North by West. [Reproduced by kind permission from Lloyd's Calendar. the hands will direct you to the South. will point to the South. West. South-West. The smallest divisions represent degrees. to the North. East by North. West by North. the figure IX. West South-West. South South-East.m. East. East North-East. South-East by East. of which there are 360. and so on. South South-West. the figure III. Your watch must be 15 . in consecutive rotation from east to West. South. To "box the Compass" is to give.machine is towed astern. If you had a 24-hour dial. South by East. West North-West.m. South-East. the figure XII. North-West. the figure VI. North-East. and the figure III. East South-East.. If it be a. to the East. West by South. would always point to the South and the hour hand to the sun. North-East by North. Before or after noon. cause revolutions which are recorded on the dial face which is affixed to the taffrail. North. with the hour hand pointing to the sun. and indicate the distance run to great exactness. if you hold your watch horizontally. will point to the South. North-West by West. North North-East. East by South. North-West by North. the South will be indicated by a point midway between the centre of the figure XII. South-East by South.] (b) USE OF A WATCH AS COMPASS At noon. if it be p. and the hour hand. South-West by South. South by West. to the West. South-West by West. if you point the hour hand to the sun. North North-West.

correct and pointed to the sun's centre, and the compass will be true. (c) TRACKS FOR ATLANTIC STEAMERS [From Lloyd's Calendar, by kind permission.] The "tracks" of the Atlantic Liners vary in length according to the seasons of the year. The eastward course is generally longer than the westward course, though both vary Within certain limits, and hence the time occupied by any ship on a particular passage is not to be necessarily taken as a test of speed. The following routes, agreed to by the principal Steamship Companies, came into force January 15, 1899: — WESTWARD-BOUND From January 15 to August 14, both days inclusive. Steer from Fastnet, or Bishop Rock, on Great Circle course, but nothing South, to cross the meridian of 47° West in Latitude 42° North, thence by either rhumb line, or Great Circle (or even North of the Great Circle, if an easterly current is encountered), to a position South of Nantucket Light-Vessel, thence to Fire Island Light-Vessel, when bound for New York, or to Five Fathom Bank South Light-Vessel, when bound for Philadelphia. From August I5 to January 14, both days inclusive. Steer from Fastnet, or Bishop Rock, on Great Circle course, but nothing South, to cross the meridian of 49° West in Latitude 46° North, thence by rhumb line, to cross the meridian of 60° West in Latitude 43° North, thence also by rhumb line, to a position South of Nantucket Light-Vessel, thence to Fire Island Light-Vessel, when bound to New York, or Five Fathom Bank South Light-Vessel when bound for Philadelphia. EASTWARD-BOUND At all seasons of the year steer a course from Sandy Hook Light-Vessel, or Five Fathom Bank South Light-Vessel, to cross the meridian of 70° West, nothing to the northward of Latitude 40° 10'. From January 15 to August 23, both days inclusive. Steer from 40° 10' North, and 70° West, by rhumb line, to cross the meridian of 47° West in Latitude 41° North, and from this last position nothing North of the Great Circle to Fastnet, when bound to the Irish Channel, or nothing North of the Great Circle to Bishop Rock, when bound to the English Channel. From August 24 to January 14, both days inclusive. Steer from Latitude 40° 10' North and Longitude 70° West, to cross the meridian of 60° West in Latitude 42° 0' North, thence by rhumb line to cross the meridian of 45° West in Latitude 46° 30' North, and from this last position nothing North of the Great Circle to Fastnet, when bound to the Irish Channel, and as near as possible to, but nothing North of; the Great Circle to Bishop Rock, always keeping South of the Latitude of Bishop Rock, when bound for the English Channel. 4 Distance

(a) CHARTS CHARTS are constructed upon the True Meridian, or Mercator's Scale, the degrees noted on the margins being proportioned to the position charted — north or south of the equator, on Which 60 nautical miles are represented by each degree. When "Admiralty Charts" are issued by the London Chart Agent, they are supposed to have received all necessary corrections up to date. When they are once out of the agent's hands there is no guarantee that further corrections will be made before they are sold by local firms at the different ports, and purchasers should obtain some assurance that the charts are correct to date.


All small corrections of any importance that can be made by hand are notified by Notices to Mariners. Extensive corrections that cannot be conveniently made in this way are put upon the plates, after which fresh copies are issued. The Track Chart of that part of the ocean which is being traversed at the time is publicly posted, together with the observations noted at noon each day, on all regular passenger ships. The course sailed is marked as a line with figures denoting the exact latitude and longitude and the number of miles covered since noon of the previous day, together with remarks as to the state of the weather, wind and sea, according to the Beaufort notation formula, which will be found below on page 54. (b) MERIDIANS ADOPTED BY FOREIGN NATIONS* Austria, Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, the United States of America, and Holland (for all charts published at Batavia and for some published at the Hague), adopt the Meridian of Greenwich. Holland, for most charts published at the Hague, adopts the Meridian of Amsterdam (W. Tower of Wester Kerk), which is assumed to be in longitude 4° 53' 4" E. of Greenwich. France adopts the Meridian of Paris Observatory, assumed to be in longitude 2° 20' 15" E. of Greenwich. Spain adopts the Meridian of San Fernando Observa-tory, Cadiz, assumed to be in longitude 6° 12' 24" W. of Greenwich. Portugal adopts the Meridian of the Marine Observa-tory (Lisbon Castle), assumed to be in longitude 9° 8' 24" W. of Greenwich. The Pulkowa Observatory of St. Petersburg (sometimes referred to in Russian Charts) is assumed to be in longitude 30° 19' 40" E. of Greenwich. The Royal Observatory of Naples (sometimes referred to in Italian Charts) is assumed to be in longitude 14° 14' 43" E. of Greenwich. [*From Lloyd's Calendar, by kind permission.] Nautical Measures (c) LENGTH OF DEGREES OF LONGITUDE A degree of longitude at 1° of latitude A degree of longitude at 10° of latitude A degree of longitude at 20° of latitude A degree of longitude at 30° of latitude A degree of longitude at 40° of latitude A degree of longitude at 50° of latitude A degree of longitude at 60° of latitude A degree of longitude at 70° of latitude A degree of longitude at 80° of latitude A degree of longitude at 90° of latitude (d) NAUTICAL MEASURES 12 inches = 1 foot 3 feet = 1 yard 6 feet = 1 fathom 3 nautical miles = 1 league Sea or Nautical mile = one-sixtieth of a degree of latitude and varies from 6,046 ft. on the Equator to 6,092 ft. in lat. 60°. = = = = = = = = = = 60 miles. 59 miles, about 56½ miles, about 52 miles. 46 miles.. 38½ miles, about 30 miles. 20½ miles, about 10½ miles, about 0 miles.


Nautical mile for speed trials, generally called the Admiralty Measured Mile Cable's length

= = = =

6,080 feet 1.151 statute miles 1,853 metres the tenth of a nautical mile; or approximately, 100 fathoms or 200 yards.

A Knot = a nautical mile an hour, is a measure of speed, but is not infrequently, though erroneously, used as synonymous with a nautical mile. (e) TABLE FOR CONVERTING SEA INTO LAND MILES. The Sea Mile = The Statute Land Mile Sea Land Miles Miles 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 6.25 6.50 6.75 (f) MEASURED MILES List of Ports in the United Kingdom where there are "measured miles" used for speed and other trials London. Humber. Middlesbrough. Hartlepools. Sunderland. The Tyne. The Forth. The Tay. Aberdeen. Clyde. Dundee. Liverpool. Plymouth. Near Maplin Sands and in Longreach. Eight Miles below Hull. At Sandy Bay. North of Hartlepool. At Ryehope. At Whitley. At Galleon Bay. North side. North of Harbour. At Skelmorlie, Wemyss Bay. North side of River. In Crosby Channel. Whitesand Bay (Admiralty). 1.151 1.439 1.729 2.015 2.303 2.590 2.878 3.160 3.454 3.742 4.030 4.318 4.606 4.893 5.181 5.469 5.757 6.045 6.333 6.621 6.909 7.196 7.484 7.772 Sea Land Miles Miles 7.00 7.25 7.50 7.75 8.00 8.25 8.50 8.75 9.00 9.25 9.50 9.75 10.00 10.25 10.50 10.75 11.00 11.25 11.50 11.75 12.00 12.25 12.50 12.75 8.060 8.348 8.636 8.924 9.212 9.500 9.787 10.075 10.163 10.651 10.939 11.227 11.515 11.803 12.090 12.370 12.666 12.954 13.242 13.030 13.818 14.106 14.193 14.681 = 6,080 feet. 5,280 feet. Sea Land Miles Miles 19.00 19.25 19.50 19.75 20.00 20.25 20.50 20.75 21.00 21.25 21.50 21.75 22.00 22.25 22.50 22.75 23.00 23.50 24.00 24.50 25.00 21.878 22.166 22.454 22.742 23.030 23.318 23.606 23.893 24.181 24.468 24.757 25.045 25.333 25.621 25.909 26.196 26.484 27.000 27.636 28.212 28.787

Sea Land Miles Miles 13.00 13.25 13.50 13.75 14.00 14.25 14.50 14.75 15.00 15.25 15.50 15.75 16.00 16.25 16.50 16.75 17.00 17.25 17.50 17.75 18.00 18.25 18.50 18.75 14.969 15.257 15.545 15.833 16.121 16.409 16.696 16.984 17.272 17.560 17.848 18.136 18.424 18.712 18.999 19.287 19.575 19.863 20.151 20.439 20.727 21.015 21.103 21.590


say a flag on a masthead.Southampton.83 12. If he were looking at an object 44 feet in height.37 8. 44 feet.12 5.96 4.96 3.20 72.35 10. (g) OCEAN DEPTHS Name of Sea Atlantic Pacific Indian Arctic Antarctic Mediterranean Irish English German Levant Adriatic Baltic (h) DISTANCES AT SEA At Stokes Bay.61 7. At Stokes Bay.61 5.73 3.35 miles distant. its convexity limits the vision even on a level expanse like the sea.25 7. Cowes.24 miles.50 96.24 3. A carrier pigeon at a mile above the earth would only command a field of 96 miles in radius. In this case add the height of the object. 6 feet equal 50 feet.39 4. In Belfast Lough.41 59.10 19 .87 9.91 26.18 4.25 11.87 2. and find the corresponding distance in the list below.72 22. This table shows the distance from sea-level at which objects are visible at different elevations: — Height in Feet Distance in Miles 0.31 1. The line of vision on the seashore.50 83. to the height of the eye from the ground. Belfast.46 29.58 4.45 5.23 16.77 Height in Feet Distance in Miles 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 65 70 5.83 8.77 5.49 3.29 2.22 18. would be intercepted by the horizon at 3.25 13.70 93.29 5. Average 4026 4252 3658 1690 3000 1476 240 110 96 72 45 43 Depth in Yards Maximum 7750 9310 6040 5300 3950 2860 710 300 The earth being round.582 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1. the flag would seem to be on the horizon if it were 9.92 6.00 1.63 2. of a man of ordinary height (say six feet).07 Height in Feet Distance in Miles 80 90 100 150 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 1 mile 11.58 33.

Lightvessel (Liverpool) Miles 23½ 7 28 19 20 48 23 35½ 51 54½ 32 12 42 17 7 44 11 18 76 11 8 43 20 . Abb's Head St. Abb's Head to Bass Rock Bass Rock to May Island May Island to Inchkeith " " Leith Roads " " Fife Ness Fife Ness to Aberdeen Aberdeen to Peterhead Peterhead to Kinnaird Head Kinnaird Head to Duncansby Head Duncansby Head to Dunnett Head Dunnett Head to Cape Wrath Cape Wrath to Butt of Lewis Butt of Lewis to Barra Island Barra Island to Tiree Tiree to Rhynns of Islay Rhynns of Islay to Mull of Cantyre Miles 6 29 29 39 57 7½ 4 7¾ 14½ 12 4 43 21 41 81 9 60 25 7 30 22½ 36 57 14¾ 15 22½ 24½ 14 6½ 50 10 19 2 2½ 23 5½ 54½ 25 20 65 11½ 51 40 35 30 60 40 Terminal Points Skerries to Inistrahull Inistrahull to Malin Head Malin Head to Tory Island Tory Island to Arran Island Arran Island to Teelin Head Teelin Head to Erris Head Erris Head to Achill Head Achill Head to Slyne Head Slyne Head to Loop Head Loop Head to Skelligs Skelligs to Mizen Head Mizen Head to Fastnet Fastnet to Old Head of Kinsale Old Head of Kinsale to Poor Head Poor Head to Ballycotton Ballycotton to Hook Point Hook Point to Saltees Saltees to Tuskar Tuskar to Carnarvon Lightvessel Carnarvon Lightvessel to South Stack South Stack to Skerries Skerries to N. HARBOURS AND LIGHTS OFF THE COAST OF THE BRITISH ISLES Terminal Points North Foreland to Goodwin Lightvessel " " Galloper Lightvessel " " Calais " " Dunkirk " " Ostend Nore Lightvessel to Mouse Lightvessel Mouse Lightvessel to Maplin Lighthouse Gunfleet Lighthouse to Sunk Lightvessel Sunk Lightvessel to Orfordness Sunk Lightvessel to Shipwash Lightvessel Shipwash Lightvessel to Orfordness Orfordness to North Foreland Girdler Lightvessel to Prince's Channel Lightvessel Prince's Channel Lightvessel to Tongue Lightvessel Tongue Lightvessel to North Foreland " " Gull Lightvessel Nore Lightvessel to Orfordness Orfordness to Lowestoft Lowestoft to Yarmouth Roads Yarmouth Roads to Cromer Light Cromer Light to Dudgeon Lightvessel Dudgeon Lightvessel to Spurn Head " " Flamborough Head Flamborough Head to Scarborough Scarborough to Whitby Flamborough Head to Robin Hood's Bay Robin Hood's Bay to Hartlepool Hartlepool to Sunderland Sunderland to Tynemouth Tynemouth to Berwick Berwick to St.W.(i) TABLE OF DISTANCES BETWEEN HEADLANDS.

340 12.000 6.570 1.670 11.470 1.520 2.110 — — — — 6.890 2.380 1.(k) DISTANCES BY SEA BETWEEN VARIOUS IMPORTANT PORTS. Vincent Bombay to Zanzibar C.440 2.840 1.130 1.790 13.450 10.220 By Suez Canal 10. Helena to Ascension St.880 6.870 12.770 2.530 1.270 1.990 1. Vincent to Madeira Miles 5.440 1.170 1. 21 .380 4.700 4.700 5. Helena Singapore to Hong Kong " " Manila " " Yokohama Sydney to Auckland " " Vancouver Suez to Aden St. John's.030 5.260 6.300 1. Virgins to Monte Video Cape to St.310 680 1.660 5.430 4.250 2.560 980 960 610 1.090 12.910 — — — — 10.920 Miles 1. IN SEA MILES * Terminal Ports Plymouth to Melbourne Ditto Sydney Ditto Wellington Ditto Valparaiso Ditto San Francisco Ditto Esquimalt Ditto Honolulu Ditto Bombay Ditto Colombo Ditto Calcutta Ditto Singapore Ditto Hong Kong Ditto Shanghai Ditto Yokohama Names of Terminal Ports Aden to Bombay " " Colombo Ascension to St.710 8.380 11.010 6.320 2.200 12. Vincent San Francisco to Fiji " " " Hong Kong " " " Honolulu " " " Sydney " " " Yokohama Shanghai to Yokohama Sierra Leone to Canary Islands " " " St. via Madeira " " St.440 1.050 9.070 3.500 7.810 810 2.910 1.640 2.240 1.050 13.880 1.080 6.040 * Reprinted by permission from the Navy League Annual.690 4.910 11.710 8.300 14.490 7.740 6.040 940 Names of Terminal Ports Melbourne to Cape Horn " " Wellington Plymouth to Canary Islands " " Gibraltar Plymouth to Lisbon " " Cape Town.910 980 2. Vincent " " Malta " " Naples " " Madeira Hobart to Port Chalmers " " Cape Horn " " Cape Virgins Hong Kong to Shanghai Honolulu to Vancouver " " Yokohama King George Sound to Adelaide Malta to Port Said By Magellan Straits 13.560 1.560 13.240 10.410 3.870 1.410 — — — — — — — By Cape of Good Hope 11.410 1.350 12.540 14.050 770 5. Newfoundland Rio to Monte Video St.010 5.760 2. Helena " " Adelaide " " Ascension " " King George Sound " " Melbourne " " Sunda Strait " " Sydney " " Wellington Colombo to King George Sound " " Penang " " Singapore " " Sunda Strait Fiji to Thursday Island Gibraltar to St.130 1.150 11. Vincent " " Sierra Leone " " Colon " " New York " " St.640 2.490 10.

919 30 6 154 22 .022¼ 30.865 Miles 20 38 50 22 40 28 2.921 3. TRACK) Terminal Points Distance from Point to Point 11 0.699 30 6½ 15½ Total Distance from Liverpool 11 61 155 174 224½ 235½ 251½ 2.281 3.919 36½ 154 191 20 25 24 30 60 55 50 22 40 28 2.563 81 235½ 293½ 2.856½ 2.044½ Liverpool (Rock Light) to Bar Lightship Bar Lightship to Skerries Skerries to Tuskar Tuskar to Conningbeg Lightship Conningbeg Lightship to Ballycotton Ballycotton to Queenstown (Roche's Point) Queenstown (Roche's Point) to Old Head of Kinsale Old Head of Kinsale to Fastnet Fastnet to Fire Island Lighthouse Fire Island Lighthouse to Sandy Hook Lightship Sandy Hook Lightship to Sandy Hook Sandy Hook to New York LIVERPOOL TO BOSTON (N. Catherine's to Portland Bill Portland Bill to Start Point Start Point to Eddystone Eddystone to Lizard Lizard to Bishop Rocks Bishop Rocks to Fire Island Fire Island to Sandy Hook Lightship Sandy Hook Lightship to Sandy Hook Sandy Hook to New York 2351 58 2. TRACK) Liverpool (Rock Light) to Queenstown (Roche's Point) Queenstown (Roche's Point) to Fastnet Fastnet to Boston Outer Light Boston Outer Light to Boston SOUTHAMPTON TO NEW YORK Terminal Points Southampton to Needles Needles to Portland Bill Portland Bill to Start Start to Eddystone Eddystone to Lizard Lizard to Bishop Rocks Bishop Rocks to Fire Island Fire Island to Sandy Hook Sandy Hook to New York LONDON (THAMES) TO NEW YORK Gravesend to Nore Nore to North Foreland North Foreland to Dover Dover to Dungeness Dungeness to Beechy Head Beechy Head to St.931 29. Catherine's St.5 94 19 50½ 11 16 42 2.LIVERPOOL TO NEW YORK (N.

What is called the "escapement" (that is..00 4.30 9.30 9. and the balance-wheel receives an impetus only when swinging in one direction. But the navigator takes every opportunity of checking the daily rate from time to time. 4 p. looking toward the head).30 3. The hair-spring is of the cylindrical form.00 10.30 4.00 8.30 11.30 10. and of the extraordinary care taken in their manufacture.30 5. and also the extent to which it is gaining or losing per day. 8 a. and should be wound up regularly. Middle Watch. Second Dog Watch.00 11. A Chronometer should be kept in a padded box in a part of the ship where it will be as free as possible from vibration. No.00 9. noon to 4 p.00 1. The day commences at noon. which are made by dividing the hours between 4 p.00 3. hence the navigator requires to know on leaving port the error of his Chronometer as compared with Greenwich Mean Time.m..30 6.00 8. to 6 p.00 5. is that a good Chronometer will continue to go at a con-stant rate." who has exceptional facilities for doing this important work. First Dog Watch.m. First Watch. The result of all the succes-sive improvements in the construction of Chronometers. This is the reason for having Dog Watches. This information is usually supplied by an Optician or Chronometer "rater.00 2.m.30 2.5 Time (a) THE CHRONOMETER A CHRONOMETER is neither more nor less than a very superior watch. of Bells 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " Time of Day 12. 12 a.00 10. even when subjected successively to two extreme temperatures (say 50° and 90°).m.m. Morning Watch. and the balance-wheel itself is very carefully "compen-sated" for temperature. 4 a. and is thus divided: Afternoon Watch.. and 8 p.30 2. and very nearly at the same rate for intermediate temperatures. the mechanism which prevents the watch from running down all at once) is somewhat different to that of an ordinary English lever watch.00 5. and the men who have only four hours' rest one night have eight hours the next. to 8 a.30 10. This makes seven Watches.m.30 8.00 7. for the rate may change from the moment the Chronometer is taken on board. 8 p. to 8 p.. into two Watches.30 4.m.30 Noon No.00 3.. The seconds' hand only moves two steps for each second.00 6.m.m.00 4. of Bells 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " 1 bell 2 bells 3 " 4 " 5 " 6 " 7 " 8 " Time of Day 12.00 9. which enables the crew to keep them alternately. to noon.00 7.30 5. 6 p. the crew is mustered in two divisions: the Starboard (right side. The use of a Chrono-meter on board ship is mainly to keep Greenwich time from port to port.00 1.30 1.30 11. Its motive power is a spring whose varying force (as it uncoils) is accurately compensated for by the form of the drum upon which the chain is wrapped.00 2. (b) SHIP TIME For the purpose of discipline on shipboard and to divide the watch fairly.30 7. and the Port (left).30 6.00 6.30 Midnight Mid-day Afternoon Morning 1st Dog 2nd Dog Forenoon First Watch 23 . and should never be moved until taken ashore.30 1.m.m.30 8. as the Watch which comes on duty at noon one day has the afternoon next day. to 4 a. to midnight.30 7.30 3.00 11. Forenoon Watch.m.m.

40 p.50 p.m.21 p.39 a. 12.m. At most of these places no signal is made on Sundays or general holidays. 12. 8.24 a. 2.m.06 p.54 p. Locality Milan Moscow Munich (Germany) New York Odessa (Russia) Paris Pekin Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Rome St.m. 12.46 p. 8. 9.05 p. [The above is from Lloyd's Calendar.06 p.54 p. 1. with the exception of Dover.m.00 a. 2.m.36 p.30 p.00 a. 1. 11. 11.m. 7.48 p.01 p.17 p.37 p.m.06 p.m.12 p.m.m.m.53 a.m.27 p.m.39 p.m.35 p.04 p. 1. 12.24 p. NOTE (Liverpool). where the gun is fired at noon Greenwich mean time. 2.m.m.m. 9.m.m.00 p. 4.20 p. also Gun (Edinburgh Castle)* Gun (near Albert Edward Dock)* Gun (Victoria Quay)* Gun (near Military Hospital)* Ball (Port and Docks Board Building) * The signals at the above places are made at 1 p.m.53 p.m. 24 .(c) LIST OF TIME SIGNALS IN GREAT BRITAIN Place Greenwich Sheerness Deal Dover Portsmouth Southampton Devonport Falmouth Swansea Liverpool Dundee Edinburgh (Leith) North Shields Cork Queenstown Dublin Signal Adopted Black Ball (Royal Observatory) Black Ball (Garrison Fort) Black Ball (Telegraph Tower) Gun (near Drop Battery)* Black Ball (Dockyard Sema-phore Tower) Ball (South Castle) Black Ball.m.m. 12. 1. 12.m. Petersburg San Francisco San Juan (Porto Rico) Shanghai Singapore (Malay Peninsula) Stockholm (Sweden) Sydney (New South Wales) Teheran (Persia) Vienna Venice Warsaw (Russia) Yokohama (Japan) Zanzibar ( East Africa) Time of Day 12.m. 9.03 p. 10.07 a. Locality Aden (Arabia) Amsterdam Athens Auckland (New Zealand) Berlin Bombay Bremen Brussels Buenos Ayres Cairo Calcutta Constantinople Genoa Gibraltar Hong Kong Honolulu (Hawaii) Lima (Peru) Lisbon Madrid Manila (Philippine Islands) Marseilles Melbourne (Victoria) Mexico City Time of Day 3.33 p.m.19 p.m. 12.07 a. 5.37 p.m.m.00 a. 7.09 p.m. Greenwich mean time.m.m. by kind permission. 6. — Chronometers tested gratis at Bidston Observatory.m.46 p. 5.m. 7.m.24 a. 8.m.m.m. also Gun on Mount Wise * Black Ball (Pendennis Castle) Gun on Old Eastern Pier* Gun (Morpeth Dock Pier)* Gun* Ball (Calton Hill).m. 8.m.m. 1. 11.m.29 a. 2.37 p. 11. 12.51 p.] (d) DIFFERENCE IN TIME Time in different parts of the world corresponding to London time at 12 o'clock (noon).45 a. 12. 1.m. 4. 3.56 p. 2. 6.m. 12.m.

(e) REDUCTION OF LONGITUDE INTO TIME Rule 1. — Divide the number of degrees, minutes and seconds by 15, and the quotient will be the time. If longitude is west of Greenwich, the result will be the time at Greenwich when it is noon at the place. Ex-ample: Longitude 74° 48' 15" W. What is the time ? Divide by 15 — 4 h., 59 m., 15 s., slower than Greenwich. Rule 2. — To find difference in time between two places divide the difference in longitude by 15. Example: Paris, longitude 2° 20' E.; Philadelphia, longitude 75° 10' W. Difference in longitude 77° 30' divided by 15 — 5 h., 10 m., difference in time. Rule 3. — To find difference in longitude (e.g. distance sailed) when difference in time is known, multiply the difference in time by 15. (f) A SHIP'S SPEED A ship at 1 knot per hour goes about 1.69 feet per second. A ship at 10 knots per hour goes about 16.89 feet per second. A ship at 15 knots per hour goes about 25.33 feet per second. A ship at 16 knots per hour goes about 27.02 feet per second. A ship at 17 knots per hour goes about 28.71 feet per second. A ship at 18 knots per hour goes about 30.40 feet per second. A ship at 19 knots per hour goes about 32.09 feet per second. A ship at 20 knots per hour goes about 33.78 feet per second. A ship at 21 knots per hour goes about 35.47 feet per second. (g) COMPARATIVE VELOCITIES Velocities Wave 30 metres high and 300 metres in breadth Ship 9 knots an hour Ship 17 knots an hour Ordinary wind Carrier pigeon Ocean wave during tempest Storm-wind Cannon-ball Electricity in submarine wire Light A metre is equal to 39.37 English inches 6 Atmosphere Metres per Second 6.81 4.63 8.75 5 to 6 18 21.85 25 to 30 632 4,000,000 300,400,000

(a) WEATHER WISDOM THE general theory of wind depends upon two factors — heat and the earth's motion. The air near the equator, being heated and becoming lighter, gives way to a periodical inrush of heavier air from the colder regions, that of the poles pressing against that of the equator; when the air of the poles meets the air of the equator moving northward they counterbalance each other, producing calms and variable winds, such as the equatorial doldrums. Such is the general idea of the motion of the atmosphere, which is modified by certain local manifestations, the monsoons of the Indian Ocean, and the north-east and south-east "trade winds," where the wind blows from the same quarter for days at a time. Cirrus or "Mare's Tails" Cumulus Stratus Cirro-cumulus or "Mackerel Sky" Cirro-stratus Clouds which consist of wisp-like streaks and streamers. A cloud composed of dense convex mounds or masses. A continuously extended sheet of cloud. Well defined, small rounded masses of clouds separated by intervals of sky. Clouds which partake of the char-acteristics of both cirrus and stratus clouds in combination.


Cumulo-stratus Cumulo-cirro-stratus or Nimbus

Clouds formed by the blending of cumulus and stratus. The rain cloud, a combination consisting of a sheet of cirro-stratus, under which a cumulus cloud drifts.

Soft or delicate clouds foretell fine weather, a dark, gloomy blue sky presages wind, but a light blue sky indicates fine weather. Generally speaking the lighter and softer the clouds the less wind (though there may be rain), and the harder and more ragged the clouds the stronger the wind to follow. Sky Colours. — The colour of the sky, caused by moisture or clouds, is a sure indication of the weather, the principal effects being noted at sunrise or sunset. A deep blue colour of the sky, even when seen through clouds, indicates fair weather; a growing whiteness, an approaching storm. Sun Colours. — A red sunrise, with clouds lowering later in the morning, indicates rain. A gray lowering sunset, or one where the sky is green or yellowish-green, indicates rain. A light yellow sky at sunset presages wind. A gale, moderating at sunset, will increase before midnight, but if it moderate after midnight the weather will improve. If the full moon shall rise red, expect wind. Halo. — By a "halo" is meant one of the large circles, or parts of circles (also called Sun Dogs), about the sun or moon. A halo occurring after fine weather in-dicates a storm. Corona. — By a "corona" is meant one of the small coloured circles frequently seen around the sun or moon. A corona growing smaller indicates rain; growing larger, fair weather. Rainbows. — A morning rainbow is regarded as a sign of rain; an evening rainbow, of fair weather. Fogs. — Fogs indicate settled weather. A morning fog usually breaks away before noon. Three foggy mornings will be surely followed by a rain storm. Haze. — Haze is believed to prognosticate frost in winter, snow in spring, fair weather in summer, and rain in autumn. Clearness. — Unusual clearness of the atmosphere, un-usual brightness or twinkling of the stars, indicates rain. Friday's weather shows what may be expected on the following Sunday; that is, if it rains on Friday noon, then it will rain on Sunday, but if Friday be clear, then Sunday will be fine as well. The twelve days immediately following Christmas denote the weather for the coming twelve months, one day for a month. The day of the month the first snow-storm appears indicates the number of snowstorms the winter will bring. For example, the first snowstorm comes on November 29 — look out, then, for twenty-nine snowstorms. When you see northern lights you may expect cold weather. Storms that clear in the night will be followed by a rain storm. When the sky is full of stars expect rain. No weather is ill, if the wind is still. The sharper the blast the sooner it is past. If a cat washes herself calmly and smoothly the weather will be fair. If she washes herself "against the grain" take your mackintosh with you. If she lies with her back to the fire there will be a squall. Cats with their tails up and hair apparently electrified indicate approaching wind. If pigs are restless there will be windy weather. Pigs are said to be able to see the wind. The direction in which a loon flies in the morning will be the direction of the wind the next day.


Magpies flying three or four together and uttering harsh cries predict windy weather. (b) BEAUFORT NOTATION FORMULA AS USED FOR INDICATING THE DISTURBANCE OF THE SEA 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (c) VELOCITY OF THE WIND Miles per Hour 0 to 2 3 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 25 26 to 30 31 to 36 37 to 44 45 to 52 53 to 60 61 to 69 70 to 80 above 80 Calm. Very Smooth. Smooth. Slight. Moderate. Rather Rough. Rough. High. Very High. Tremendous.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Calm Light Air Light Breeze Gentle Breeze Moderate Breeze Fresh Breeze Strong Breeze Moderate Gale Fresh Gale Strong Gale Whole Gale Storm Hurricane

just sufficient for Steerage Way Ships with all sail set would sail, in smooth water 1 to 2 miles per hour Ships with all sail set would sail, in smooth water, 3 to 4 miles per hour Ships with all sail set would sail, in smooth water, 5 to 6 miles per hour in which a Ship could just carry full and by Royals, etc. in which a Ship could just carry full and by Single Reef and T.G. Sails in which a Ship could just carry full and by Double Reefs and Jib in which a Ship could just carry full and by Triple Reefs, etc. in which a Ship could just carry full and by close Reefs and Courses just carrying close-reefed Maintopsail and reefed Foresail under Storm Staysail with bare poles



Saxons and Danes was only made possible by the non-existence of a fleet. these attacks had been effectually checked.000 to £1. Sydney. In 1843 a screw propeller was fitted to H. The Spanish wars and the attempted invasion of the Great Armada in the latter part of the sixteenth century.M. they were built of wood and were classed as first. however. then followed the usual reaction and indifference.M. and the other more important ones at Malta. Gunboats.600. The First. the immediate success of which. also twelve smaller dockyards or Depots. and then only as an auxiliary to full sailing rig. but with the invention of hardened steel shot. at a cost of from £160. the final struggle with the Dutch in 1692. according to the weight and number of guns carried. and in 1860 was built (in consequence of the success in France of La Gloire.000." These are at Portsmouth." Unarmoured vessels are those that are without protective armour. a steelfaced plate. Warrior." and sometimes as "Armoured Cruisers. with regard to vessels of war. until 1848 that steam was applied to the class of warships known as battleships. H. Rattler. who is a civilian. and costs from £80. It was not. however.7 The Royal Navy THE invasion of England by the Romans. the Third Lord (or "con-troller") for the Material. A century later. Salamander (a paddle steamer). one being located in Ireland. the strength of the Navy declined once more. with the result that the American colonies were lost. in the Royal Navy came in 1832 with the introduction of steam power. Edward III. which in that year was fitted to H. after a period of immunity from further invasion the fleet was neglected. This is an increase of a very large percentage as compared with Nelson's day. 28 .S. is responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament for all the business of the Admiralty. The First Lord. Below this class ships were ranked as Frigates. Rodney. later. Pem-broke and Sheerness. Second and Junior Naval Lords are responsible for the personnel of the Navy and the movements and the condition of the fleet. Bermuda. By Henry V. second and third-raters. There are five Royal Dockyards existing in England for the building.'s time.000. or more. became necessary. and include Torpedo Boats. "Armoured" and "Unarmoured. Destroyers. the Cape of Good Hope. namely. and the modern British Navy came into being. A battleship takes from two to three years to build. At the present day the ships of the Royal Navy may be separated into two broad classes at least. Sloops and Corvettes. Gibraltar and Hong Kong. with regard to efficiency and invulnerability. and other auxili-ary craft. backed with a softer metal. but in a few years it again fell off. realized the importance of a powerful fleet. the first armour-clad iron vessel.000 to £400. an armoured vessel of great power and stability). The control and management of the Royal Navy is vested in the Lords of the Admiralty.M. Then once again the vital necessity of re-organization and development became apparent. however. In former days the largest ships were called Line-of--Battle-Ships. The great Alfred remedied this by collecting a fleet and keeping it in a thoroughly efficient con-dition. and the battle of Barfleur (which put an end to the plans of the French King) practically ended for the time any serious consideration on the part of any foreign power of being able to force through the line of the British fleet. This in turn gave way to nickel steel or other forms of specially hardened metal which obviated the defects of the compound metal armour formerly in use. equipment and repair of "Men-of-War. In 1856 the first iron-built war vessels were constructed.000 — a cruiser takes from one to two years. the result being that the French were able to ravage Portsmouth and Winchester in 1372. and the birth of an established Mercantile Marine and of that Empire may be said to have commenced with the Elizabethan Navigators. the permanent Secretary being in charge of the Secretariat under the First Lord. made its future universal adoption a certainty. when a Line-of-Battle-Ship was floated for about £70. The earliest armour for men-of-war was made of wrought iron." Armoured ships being those whose sides and guns are protected by vertical plates of armour. In the reign of John the Navy once more became thoroughly efficient. Howe and Nelson. These ships are classed as "Battleships.S. Plymouth. however.S. The greatest change.000. under the glorious guidance of Hawke. and the opportunity which came to the Conqueror again made it apparent that it was to the Navy that England must look for her first line of defence. and a small frigate for £12. the Civil Lord and the Parliamentary Secretary for the Finance. Chatham.

it is to be hoped. but powerful craft of high efficiency. Second and Third-Class Cruisers. and last (but not. A former type of vessels designed for this object — viz. and the principle of the construction is that the flames are carried through tubes which pierce the boiler with holes. are armoured vessels varying in efficiency according to size. while mounting rather heavier guns than Torpedo Boats. whether heavily armoured. being for the most part only of value when an especially invulnerable point has been left open to attack. which enable them to mount guns)." These are more substantially built than the Destroyers. according to their size. being of light draft. fitted to a large majority of our latest ships.. Coast Guard Cruisers. 29 . This apparently condemns the "Belleville" type of water-tube boilers as being wasteful and dangerous. it may be mentioned that when the stokers have got used to the boilers. and to carry dispatches and orders — in short. but are usually fitted with two or more torpedo tubes. are perhaps more efficient than either of the other two classes." which include the largest and fastest of the great "Liners" built in recent years by the leading Steamship Companies. Experiments have been in progress some time and an interim Report. Dispatch Vessels. which are propelled beneath the sur face of the water. the Torpedo Gunboat — was not successful. Surveying Ships. number of guns. as is more usual. are classed as First. as opposed to the watertubes running through the furnace. by any means least as regards value in warfare) "Merchant Cruisers. Cruisers. De-stroyers are unarmoured. The Government have now under construction a new class of Destroyers called "Scouts. Store Ships. Much discussion has taken place during the last few years as to the efficiency of the new tubular boilers of the "Belleville" type. and the vessels are now used chiefly for fishery protection duties. issued by the Committee appointed to investigate the matter. coupled with their great size and strength. which came to the front at the latter end of the nineteenth century. It appears.. Sailing Cutters. to perform scout duty. speed and age. Hospital Ships. has been issued. The first submarines to be constructed in Great Britain were five of the Holland type (called after the American inventor). Torpedo Boats and Torpedo Gunboats are classed as of small fighting power under all conditions. however. Second-Class and Third-Class Battleships — all of which. of course. and they have proved to be very "risky" craft to navigate and control. Troop Ships. Without attempting to express an opinion where experts dis-agree. notably in the long voyages of the Powerful and Terrible. and carry only the lightest guns. The earliest application of these miniature craft. to perform the same kind of services at sea as the cavalry perform on land. Other auxiliary craft are classed as Depôt or Supply Ships. to practical purposes was made by the United States and France. only partially so. weight of armour and age. The old form of steam generator — called the Scotch or locomotive boiler — has been in use for warships ever since the introduction of steam power. much good work has been got out of them. are especially valuable for river or harbour work. or even than those of the Destroyer Class. The smaller Gun-boats. and are to act chiefly as fast Cruisers. etc. and of whose efficiency there can be no doubt (in consideration of their high speed and great coal-carrying capacity. The Submarine is a development in naval engines of war. or in bombarding the coast from points of vantage where the waters may be too shallow for vessels mounting heavier guns. to obtain information of the whereabouts of an enemy. Training Ships. or. as the chief advantage claimed by the former type is in being able to get up steam quicker. as being not only of very high speed. that other varieties of water-tube boilers will be adopted and not a return made to the older Scotch pattern. Tugs. Their steel plating is of the thinnest possible description. Destroyers properly rank next in importance. and.The three main divisions are First-Class. owing to the larger heating surface. etc. well qualified to run down the torpedo craft of an enemy's fleet.


(a) HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM NAVIGATION FROM the early experiments of Watt, Fitch, Miller, Symmington, Bell and Fulton, the development of the steamship was but gradual, and the first attempts at navigating anything but inland waters were not at all successful. Not until 1819 was the trans-Atlantic steam voyage accomplished, and that by the paddle-steamer Savannah, which sailed from Savannah (Georgia) for St. Petersburg via Great Britain. This was the first true ocean steamship. She was of 350 tons burthen, and was built, sparred and fitted with steam machinery at Corlear's Hook, New York. Hence under Captain Moses Rogers she sailed to Savannah, making the voyage in seven days. The ship was full rigged, and not necessarily dependent upon her wrought iron paddles, which could be taken aboard at will. Her engine, direct acting, low pressure, had a forty-inch cylinder and a six-foot stroke of piston. Her fuel was pine wood, which, of course, could only be replenished as convenience served. When she sailed for Liverpool thousands waved her God-speed with the deepest misgivings as to the result of this novel marriage of sail and steam. Steaming and sailing, the Savannah made port in twenty-five days, having had recourse to the use of her canvas, exclusively, for more than a third of the time. From Liverpool her prow was turned toward the Baltic, and touching at Stockholm, Copenhagen and other ports, she ended her voyage at St. Petersburg, afterwards re-turning to America, where her engines and boilers were taken out, and she was converted into a sailing packet. The experiment was again followed on a large scale in 1825 by the fitting out in America of the Enterprise, for a voyage to India. By sailing or steaming alternately, as the weather and her fuel permitted, she arrived in the Hoogley in fortyseven days. Although the Savannah and the Enterprise succeeded through favourable circumstances in making long voyages, they were essentially sailing ships, and their steam power was merely an accessory. The Great Western and the Sirius in the year 1838 first really de-monstrated that it was practical to navigate a steamship without the unfurling of a yard of canvas; and the importance of the traffic which was thus inaugurated on the Atlantic was a vital and immediate factor in fostering its further development. The Sirius, 178 feet in length by 251 feet beam and 18f feet in depth, was dispatched from Queenstown for New York by the British and American Steam Navigation Company on April 5, 1838, and arrived in New York on April 21,


having been something over sixteen days upon the passage, during which she maintained an average speed of 81 knots per hour, on a consumption of 24 tons of coal per day. A few hours after the arrival of the Sirius in New York Harbour there also arrived the Great Western, which left the Bristol Channel three days later than the Sirius. The arrival of these two boats set the City of New York ablaze with excitement, some idea of which can be gained from the account printed by the Evening Post (N.Y.) on the following day. "The arrival yesterday of the steam-packets Sirius and Great Western caused in this city that stir of eager curiosity and speculation which every new enterprise of any magnitude awakens in this excitable community. The Battery was thronged yesterday morning with thousands of persons of both sexes to look on the Sirius, which had crossed the Atlantic by the power of steam, as she lay anchored near at hand, gracefully shaped, painted black all over, the water around her covered with boats filled with people passing and repassing, some conveying and some bringing back those who desired to go aboard. "When the Great Western at a later hour was seen ploughing her way through the waters towards the city the crowd became more numerous, and the whole bay to a great distance was dotted with boats, as if every-thing that could be manned by oars had left its place at the wharves. It would seem, in fact, a kind of triumphal entry. "The practicability of establishing a regular intercourse between Europe and America is considered to be solved by the arrivals of these vessels, notwithstanding the calculations of certain ingenious men, at the head of whom is a Dr. Lardner, who have proved by figures that the thing is impossible, and declared that ships would perforce be obliged to replenish their bunkers at either the Azores or Newfoundland in order to be able to complete the voyage; stating further that 'the whole project was chimerical in the extreme, and that one might as well talk of making a voyage to the moon.' The only question which now remains is whether the greater regularity and speed with which the passage is effected in steam vessels will compensate for the additional cost, or whether, in fact, on balancing all considerations, any additional cost will be incurred." The Great Western continued in the trans-Atlantic trade for about six years, during which time she made 70 voyages across the ocean, averaging 15½ days westward and 131 days eastward. The quickest passage to New York was made in 12 days and 19 hours, and the quickest passage to Liverpool in 12 days and 7 hours. From this date and from these beginnings were de-veloped the trans-Atlantic steamship lines of the present day. Among other earlier ships engaged in this trade were the Royal William, the British Queen, the President, the Liverpool and the Great Britain. The Cunard Line was established in 1840 with a fleet of four ships, the Britannia, the Acadia, the Columbia and Caledonia, each with an average horse-power of 440. William Fairbairn, of Manchester, England, built three small iron steamers in 1831, and afterwards be-came associated with the Lairds, of Birkenhead, when the latter went largely into this construction. Up to 1848 they had built more than 100 iron vessels. But not till 1855 was a great ocean steamship, the Cunarder Persia, built of this material on well-formulated and scientific principles. In France and the United States iron had only been used for the structural framework. The Persia was the turning point in a new movement. She was 360 feet long, 45 feet in breadth and 35 feet in depth, with a capacity of 1,200 tons greater than the largest of her sisters. In addition to this great increase of strength, ships wholly constructed of iron or steel are lighter than those of the same tonnage made of wood, and can carry larger freights. As they can be enlarged beyond the dimensions that limit wooden ships, they profit by the law that the larger the capacity, the less proportionate space need be devoted to the stowage of fuel, their cargo room being thus increased. This substitution of steel for iron was almost as great an advance as that of iron for oak. A still more important invention was at this time fast establishing its supremacy. It had long been seen that the paddlewheel even at its best did not by any means fulfil all requirements, and even during its best days the screw propeller had come into partial use as an auxiliary. It had been observed, for instance, that as the latter's blades work in the current following the ship, the tendency of its action was to restore its static con-dition to the agitated fluid, taking up and restoring usefully a large part of the energy which would, by reason of friction, otherwise have been lost. The screw,


too, through its complete submersion, is more continu-ously efficient than the paddle-wheel, which is only par-tially submerged at any time, and for some periods (as in a rolling sea) perhaps not at all. The rapid and smooth rotation of the screw permits the use of light, fast-running, quick-acting engines, economizes weight and space, and increases cargo room. The economy of steam in a quick-running engine, especially in one of the compound type, also means less expense of fuel, and a saving in stowage and carriage. The history of the adoption of the screw propeller is full of romantic interest. The honours already won by the Cunard were challenged about ten years later by an American Company, the Collins' Line, which, how-ever, unfortunately came to grief in the course of a few years. The first really dangerous competitors of the Cunard were the vessels of the Inman Line, a company which had experimentally adopted the principle of the screw propeller, which was destined eventually to supersede the paddle-wheel principle, upon which the Cunard Company had up to that time relied. In fact, for some years later the Cunard Company still continued to construct paddle-steamers, the Scotia, which was one of the last and finest vessels of this class, reaching a capacity of 3,870 tons. Not long after the building of the Scotia, however, the Cunard Company, spurred probably by the competition of the Inman Line, wrung from the Government of the day permission to fit their steamers with screw propellers for the carriage of the mails. The first Cunarder of this new type was called the China, and it was her success, with that of her sister boats, that finally established the superiority of the screw. The victory of this principle (of the screw propeller) was one of the great turning-points in the history of steam navigation, and from the day of its adoption by the Cunard the progressive development of the steam-ship on modern lines may be dated. Following the example of these two famous pioneer lines came the establishment of the "P. & O." Company (at first known as the Peninsular Company), in 1837; the Royal Mail, in 1839; the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, in 1847; the "B. I.," in 1855; the Anchor Line, in 1856; the German Nord Deutscher Lloyd, in 1858; the French Compagnie Transatlantique, in 1861; the building of the Britannic and the Germanic (of the "White Star" line), in 1874; the establishment of the Orient Line (to Australia), in 1877; and the first direct steamship service to New Zealand, in 1883. The year 1888 and the next following decade saw the introduction of the "twin-screw" principle in the con-struction of the famous City of New York and City of Paris (Inman Line); the Majestic and the Teutonic (White Star Line); the Lucania and Campania (Cunard); and the Celtic (White Star), the last-mentioned in 1903. The most recent development of steam navigation has been the introduction of engines on the turbine principle, but this new principle at the time of writing (January, 1903) can hardly be said to be yet established, as it is only within the present year that turbine steamers have been introduced (into the cross-channel service). It is impossible (even in the merest sketch of steamboat development) to conclude without making some reference to what is generally known as the "American Shipping Combine," or "Trust," of 1902 — a gigantic enterprise, the ultimate effect of which upon the shipping trade generally cannot at present be foreseen. The facts, however, are that this new "mammoth" Company has started with a gross capital of £24,000,000, and has bought up the "White Star," the Leyland, tho Dominion and the British and North Atlantic Companies; and that the British Government, in return, has subsidised the Cunard. Briefly summarising various stages in the evolution of the ocean liner since the days of the Savannah, we find that the factors of its progress have been developed in the following order: — (1) Substitution of the steam-engine for canvas, as the main motive-power. (2) The substitution of iron for wood in the construction of the hull, and later that of steel for iron, and the consequent development, to the best advantage, of the long, sharp, yacht-like lines which have given increased room, size and speed. (3) The adoption of the screw propeller as a means of propulsion in place of the less effective and more cumbersome paddle-wheel. (4) The adoption of the compound triple and quad-ruple engine, with surface condenser, which makes it possible to utilise the steam more than once before its final discharge into the condenser, an enormous economy of fuel and a greater speed and space for the accommoda-tion of passengers and freight being thus secured. It has hitherto been found that each decade has been distinguished by some radical improvement in steamer construction from the decade which preceded it. The accompanying table shows this progress (approximately), and at


beer and porter.the same time exhibits the most important approximate rises in boiler pressure. of coal per h. 81 95 92 181 169 98 65 53 68 46 17 12 28 48 Gross Tonnage 80.130. During a single trans-Atlantic trip on an average liner there were used — Fresh beef. 220 pints. 539 690 743 822 681 536 614 579 696 591 761 726 692 639 Gross Tonnage 838. 60 tins.959 125. Minnesota.486 1.871 23. however.277 964. and yet so closely packed that there is no space lost.480 lbs. of fish.383 1. 60 bunches.991 1.9 2. water.416. 15. and triple expansion engines Twin screws. claret. asparagus.159. 30 barrels.793 1. 14 bottles.109.. 33 . on the largest of the passenger ships.705 1. 5. 350 dozen bottles.600 1. peas. game.] * Since writing the above a yet more gigantic cargo steamer has been built in America.. leeks. 30 tins. 200 pints.976 45. 80 tins.500 lbs. cabbages.382 1.524. 100 lbs. 160 packages. 136 lbs. The amount of food that can be cooked in the various galleys is enormous.104 4.568 133.000 lbs.194. cigarettes.967 1.000 eggs.046. cigars.. and the approximate improvement in engine power.751 952.1900 Development in Construction Iron in place of wood Screw in place of paddle-wheel Compound in place of simple engines Steel in place of iron. 350 lbs. 70 tins. potatoes.582 45. is only used for the baths as a rule. 458 595 651 641 512 438 549 526 628 545 744 714 664 591 Gross Tonnage 757.2 2. 160 bunches. 170 bottles. There is seldom a scarcity of drinking-water on board passenger steamships. 400 quarts of ice cream.1865 1865 .1875 1875 .113. 1. tomatoes.361 1..501. liquors. 130 bunches. etc.. mineral waters. whiskey. In the refrigerating rooms are stored several hundred tons of ice. canned meats. and all carry a condenser.209.p. from Lloyd's Calendar. 17. 4.619 878. 650 head.920 lbs. Of the wines.950 836. tomatoes. often preparing three or more meals a day for 1. tobacco.040 1.739 [*By kind permission. and many other things.920 28. 240 dozen bottles. (b) MERCHANT VESSELS LAUNCHED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM DURING RECENT YEARS* Year 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 STEAM NO.661 TOTAL NO.1855 1855 . — champagne.367.2 to 1. all of it in such a way that it may be obtained at a moment's notice.508 950. 200 lbs.594 118. liquors.. onions. 2. 2.000 lbs. rhubarb.3 It is interesting to note the vast stores of food that are used on an Atlantic liner.816 1.318 1.791 1. tea. Salt water. parsley.081 1. 140 tins.414.463 268.9 1. sugar.017 9.926 904.9 to 1. Decade 1845 . a large quantity of fruit. as well as 16 tons of ice.432.774 1. whose carrying capacity is just about double even that of the Cedric and the Celtic. 4. flour.9 to 2..356 718. 2.570 1.1885 1885 .. 140 tons. 20 barrels of oysters in the shell.. turnips.086 252. 250 head. There are large tanks of a capa-city of five hundred or six hundred tons on nearly all the large steamships. 700 gallons of milk. coffee.600 lbs. quadruple expansion and forced draught Approximate Boiler Pressure 10 to 20 20 to 35 35 to 60 60 to 125 125 to 200 Approximate lb.5 to 2.000 lbs.363. 50 bushels. 350 head.S.100.831 924. 1. fowls.000 people.5 3.471 1. green corn. fresh mutton.442. of whom there is a host. which makes it possible to have fresh water directly from the ocean. viz. of butter.353 841.078 SAIL NO.5 to 3. the cooks.106 81. the S.000 to 2.

965 9.000 14. and O.402 13. Am.6 500 530 582 582 515 60 60 59 59 60 57 57 59 34 . Trnspt. Atl.963 13.200 10. and O.L.4 625 625 565 565 520 565 581 66 64 64 65 65 65 62 65 64 62 62 62 63 Beam 75 75 68 67 Name Moltke Carpathia Kroonland Finland Haverford Merion St. Cunard Red Star Red Star American American American American Dominion Hamb. Cunard Cunard Atl. Hamb.D.372 12.629 11.000 12.576 10.THE INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS OF A MODERN STEAMSHIP CHART (c) THE LARGEST STEAMSHIPS AFLOAT Name Cedric * Celtic * Kaiser Wilhelm II. Allan Allan UnionCastle P.274 15.664 9.635 535 11.300 11.200 11.800 13.L. Hamb.333 13. Am.L.300 11. Gen. White Star White Star UnionCastle Orient Gross Length Tonnage 12.635 530 11. Hamb.880 19.480 12.5 649 600 600 600. N. Atl. Oceanic Deutschland Kron Prinz Wilhelm Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse Saxonia Ivernia Minneapolis Minnehaha Minnetonka Pennsylvania Campania Lucania Walmer Castle Rijndam Potsdam Athenic Noordam Kaiser Frederick Blucher Line White Star White Star N. Trans.D.5 686 633. Am.406 11.500 17.L.7 600 559. Trnspt. Am. Gross Length Tonnage 700 21.248 10. Am.D. Atl.950 12. Paul St.500 12.500 12. Cunard Cunard UnionCastle HollandAm HollandAm White Star HollandAm N.500 15. N.000 580 12.000 580 12. P.000 10.400 13.576 10. White Star Hamb.000 9. Trans.5 705. Am. Cie.500 12.000 700 20.629 535 11. Atl.570 12. Gen.7 600.D. Trnspt.000 13.500 12. Cie.372 706.000 530 11.965 9.402 13. Louis New England Korea Siberia La Savoie La Lorraine Tunisian Bavarian Briton Mongolia Moldavia Majestic Teutonic Kildonan Castle Orontes Line Hamb.000 550 Beam 60 60 59 59 63 63 59 563 563 500.

403 205.917 126.335 533.-Hungarian Belgian Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Norwegian Russian Spanish Swedish Number 7.613 218.037 152.981 524.367 149.306 83.(d) TONNAGE OF THE LARGEST STEAMSHIP COMPANIES.410 657. Dempster and Company British India S. Ropner Cia Transatlantica Royal Mail Steam Packet Company J.277 242. Country United Kingdom Colonies United States Aust.036 2.207 81.366 164.000 105. N. of Italy Wilson Line Compagnie Générale Transatlantique Austrian Lloyd American Line Ocean Steamship Company Clan Line Hansa Line Allan Line Lamport and Holt Harrison Line Anchor Line Maclay and MacIntyre Cunard Line Atlantic Transport Company Dominion Line Johnston Line R.460 100.243 169.332 123.029 734. Leyland and Company Union-Castle Line Nippon Yusen Kaisha White Star Line General S.085 454.143 164.625 132.560 378. Co.036 237 118 365 307 679 1.125 810.781 222.156 462. STEAMERS. Company Peninsular and Oriental Company Messageries Maritimes F.557 451.053.936 382.426 88.786 1.818 183.436 167.407. Westoll Bucknall Brothers Chargeurs Réunis No.068.704.540 126. of Ships 202 111 120 120 58 62 55 41 69 25 102 89 59 68 25 41 46 57 36 47 31 41 51 26 17 13 24 36 23 28 38 23 26 Tons 541.395 685.361 212.105 165. N.020 35 .293 339 503 859 529 466 703 Tons 12.453 88.791 410.104 189.770 313.205 88.468 515.487 157.149 (e) THE MERCHANT FLEETS OF THE CHIEF MARITIME POWERS A.712 146.530 1.343 246. Numerical Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Name of Company Hamburg American Nord Deutscher Lloyd Elder.161 946 1.430 100.

£12 upwards. £1 17s. Cherbourg. about 6 weeks. Via Southampton. £16. Philadelphia. Country United Kingdom Colonies United States Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Norwegian Russian Spanish Swedish Number 1. GREECE. £22 to £35. £70.N. 1 to 4 hour. Cunard and Dominion Lines. about £5. Nord Deutscher Lloyd. 8 to 12 days. Calais. Marseilles. Via Hull or Harwich.259 1. via Southampton. £1 15s. about £25. 7 to 10 days. Via Southampton. 8 to 10 days.S. 3¼ hours. via Alexandria or Port Said.462 761 163 780 Tons 1. about 6 weeks from Liverpool or London. Via Liverpool. 7 to 10 days. via Liverpool. 5 to 7 days.726 62. from London. via Southampton. 10 hours. from Liverpool or London.199 (f) PRINCIPAL PASSENGER ROUTES FROM BRITISH PORTS AMERICA.B. From Liverpool. 10s.791 225. from London direct. Bremen. £10 upwards. via Southampton. Montreal and Quebec. £15 upwards. 12 to 15 days. Malo.602. GERMANY. 36 . St. West Indies. £12 upwards. Sydney. £1 upwards. via Colombo. New Orleans. 6d. Via Liverpool. G. Hamburg-American and American Lines. Cairo. Ostend.557 120. New York and Boston. Athens. 12 to 15 days. via Queenstown.372 459. Antwerp.188 97. CHINA. from London direct. 7s. £70 upwards. Halifax. via Brindisi (Italy) or Marseilles. £10 upwards. EGYPT. 8 to 10 days. 6d. £10 upwards. 16 to 18 days. Brazil and River Plate.773 989 2.847 488. via Folkestone. Bordeaux. Boulogne. Dieppe.885 256. Via the Thames. San Francisco and Vancouver. 10 hours.393. 9 hours. 8 hours. Via Montreal. 1½ to 1¾ hour. Co. Via Southampton or Bristol. via Dover.224 51. Melbourne. Via Ostend. 10 hours. via White Star and Cunard Lines. AUSTRALASIA. £26 upwards. via Harwich.539 816. Bennett SS. Boston. FRANCE Shanghai. from Liverpool or London.579 338. 8 to 10 days. Havre.. via Liverpool or London. from £14 upwards. £10 upwards. SAILING VESSELS. fares from London.250 414 116 568 493 874 882 1. 12 to 15 hours. Co. Auckland From London or Southampton.. BELGIUM. £ 7 7s. Atlantic Transport Line. via Cape. Straits and Hong Kong. 12 days. From Liverpool. Via Liverpool. via Suez Canal. New York. 10 hours. 3 to 4 days. via Newhaven.767 366. £20 to £28. Hamburg. £1 18s. thence overland.

PALESTINE. 13 hours. steamer from Hull. Jerusalem. St. upwards. from Liverpool. from Harwich. £5 5s. 6 to 7 days. Naples. 6 to 7 weeks. SCANDINAVIA. from London or Liverpool. Christiania. Leith and Hull. £50 upwards. Calcutta and Colombo. Stockholm. Odessa. 9 to 10 days. £3 upwards. about £25. via Flushing. via Alexandria. INDIA. £3 to £6. Bergen. £10 upwards. Gothenburg. 5 to 7 days. 10 to 12 days. from London. ITALY. from Southampton. £1 10s. about 7 days. about 14 days. via Hull. Copenhagen. via London or Liverpool. 4 to 6 days. £1 9s. RUSSIA. upwards. Bombay. Hours 11 10 6 2 19 13 1 17 2 20 18 15 13 11 10 8 3 23 21 18 14 9 6 5 4 1 23 22 21 20 19 19 18 16 14 13 12 9 7 Mins 15 15 25 42 45 47 48 9 50 48 11 37 53 30 50 4 37 18 51 8 31 42 55 7 50 20 39 18 5 8 31 24 23 47 29 23 Name of Vessel Savannah (Savannah to Liverpool) Sirius (Liverpool to New York) Great Western (Liverpool to New York) Africa (London to New York) Asia (Liverpool to New York) Pacific (Liverpool to New York) Baltic (Liverpool to New York) Persia (Liverpool to New York) Scotia (Liverpool to New York) Scotia (Queenstown to New York) Baltic City of Richmond City of Berlin Britannic Germanic Britannic Arizona (New York to Queenstown) Arizona (Queenstown to New York) Servia City of Rome Alaska America Oregon Umbria Etruria Umbria Etruria City of New York City of Paris Majestic City of New York City of Paris Teutonic Majestic Teutonic City of Paris Campania Lucania Campania Lucania HOLLAND. Genoa. London or Hull. l½ to 3 days. (g) OCEAN RECORDS Year 1819 1838 1851 1856 1862 1866 1873 1875 1876 1877 1877 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1887 1888 1889 Days 22 18 10 10 10 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Liverpool and Queenstown to America (New York). Petersburg. via Hook of Holland. Via Marseilles. £12 upwards. JAPAN From London or Liverpool. TURKEY. £60. 1891 1892 1893 1894 37 . 11 hours. 6 to 7 days.Amsterdam and Rotterdam. about £12. Gibraltar. from Newcastle. about 3 weeks. SPAIN. £8 to £10. Constantinople.

L. N. Southampton to New York. Am. Tilbury & Sydney Dover & Sydney Tilbury & Sydney Southampton & Sydney Marseilles & Sydney England and China (Terminal Port. Fürst Bismarck Paris New York St.00 7.55 6.10.558 12. Fürst Bismarck.37 6.11. N.611 35 38 34 0 0 0 12. Time D. Tilbury & Bombay Tilbury & Colombo Marseilles & Bombay Liverpool & Rangoon Tilbury & Calcutta Southampton & Colombo London & Calcutta . Mar .31 6. der Grosse (To Cherbourg) Deutschland (To Plymouth) Kronprinz Wm.L. 8. Ceylon.38 5.L. N. Am. & O.13. Lloyd P. D. H.L.L. Hamb.093 4. Messrs.21.22. N.259 Days 22 24 14 23 33 25 26 Hours 12 0 23 20 0 0 0 38 . Lloyd Messrs.00 6.00 7. Bibby P. Paul St.00 6. Burma. Hamb.D.259 7. Year 1881 1883 1882 1884 1885 1886 1887 1889 1889 1893 1893 1893 1894 1896 1897 1897 1897 1900 1900 1902 Name of Vessel Elbe Werra Werra Eider Eider Aller Aller Augusta Victoria Fürst Bismarck.563 10.D.068 8.D.35 5. N. Mar.10 7. Mar. Southampton & Hong Kong Tilbury & Hong Kong.L. N.D.00.07. N. Am.570 7. D.00 6.08. Hamb.00. Lloyd City Line Service England and India. American American American American N. M.20. Hong Kong) N.18.555 12.L.559 8. etc. & O.D.D.D. & O.L.D.07.L. Louis Kaiser Wm. England and Australasia Orient Aberdeen Line P.D.00 7. N. der Grosse Kaiser Wm.Note. Hamb.09.D.D.L. & O.15 N.L.14 6. D.44 6.08 5. der Grosse Kaiser Wm.112 8. — These and the subsequent lists of "Ocean Records" are reprinted from the "Daily Mail Year Book" by kind permission.18 East or West W W E W W W W W W E E W W W E W E E E E (h) Other Records Company P.00 7. Am.41 5. Am. Hamb.10.341 12. (To Plymouth) Company N. via Marseilles Marseilles & Hong Kong 10. N.18.16. N.17. Orient Mess.00 5.491 43 93 43 46 33 0 10 12 0 0 Distance 6.178 10.162 8.

636 6 d 06 h 40 m 3. which is the National Flag of Great Britain. Scotland and Ireland by means of a combination of the three respective crosses of St.981 6. 14 Southampton to Cape Town W. which is divided into four quarters by a red cross. it is flown by the Trinity Brethren.981 5. besides containing the Union Jack. is only hoisted when a member of the Royal Family is on board. St.513 15 d 04 h 00 m 11 d 12 h 00 m Distance Time Days Hours Minutes Distinguishing Emblems (a) FLAGS FLAGS are also used to signify the rank of the principal person on board. on land it is flown over Royal residences. blue or red — with the Union Jack on the upper corner next the staff. The Blue Ensign is the flag of the Royal Naval Re-serve. Patrick. 23 Liverpool & Cape Town 5. also by Yachts belonging to the Royal Yacht Squadron.265 6 d 12 h 42 m 2. containing the arms of the United Kingdom. George's Jack. Thus the Royal Standard. is flown wherever the Lords of the Ad-miralty are present. George. ENSIGNS are large flags denoting the nationality of a ship. and by all Light Ships. George's Jack consists of a white field. or (while they are at anchor) attached to the head-rail. for a Vice-Admiral at the fore. The Admiralty Flag. and has ten Royal Naval Reserve men in her crew 39 .59 knts av. The White Ensign. For a Full Admiral it is flown at the main. Andrew and St. containing the Foul Anchor on a red field. speed 8 d 02 h 31 m 3.584 6. with the addition of a ship in each of the four quarters. when it happens to be commanded by Royal Naval Reserve Captains. The Union Jack. for a RearAdmiral at the mizen. either afloat or ashore. and is only permitted on the stern of a Merchant Ship. and is flown by Admirals instead of a pennant. either attached to a small staff on the bowsprit. and are hoisted on a staff at the stern. and at the bows of all Men-of-War.100 14 d 11 h 00m 14 d 11 h 13 m 23 d 02 h 26 m 19 d 14 h 50 m 6 d 00 h 00 m 5 d 02 h 00 m 20. The St. represents England. The Trinity House Flag consists of the St. but by no other vessels. It is flown over all Ports and Barracks. 14 Dartmouth & Durban E. and is always flown by a Manof War at the stern. is divided into four by a red cross.Other Records (continued) Company Service England and The West Indies Trent Port Morant Barbados & Plymouth Bristol & Kingston Europe and America Labrador Parisian La Savoie Minneapolis New England Tunisian Moville & Belle Isle Moville & Rimouski Havre & New York Dover & Sandy Hook Queenstown & Boston Rimouski & Moville England and South Africa Scot Carisbrook Castle Buluwayo Medic 9 Southampton to Cape Town E. The British Ensign has for its field one of three colours — white.

The Quarantine Flag is a plain yellow flag hoisted at the fore. of the nationality denoted by the ensign. and by all British merchant ships commanded by officers who are on the Retired List of the Royal Navy. A White Flag is accepted in all parts of the world as a token of peace. The Red Ensign is flown by all other British Ships. A Foreign Ensign flying at the fore signifies that a distinguished personage. At night-time a blue light is burnt at the end of the bridge. with the Cross of St. The Pilot Flag is White and Red. or comes from an infected port. and a Black Flag as that of a pirate. besides the Red Ensign or the Union Jack with a white border. The Colonies use it with their colonial badge added. The Blue Ensign is worn by any vessel maintained under the Colonial Defence Act. wear any of the flags or pennants usually worn by. by means of the colour and lines or designs painted upon them. by all British Merchant Ships in receipt of any Admiralty subvention. A Green Flag flying from a boat or barge at anchor denotes that there is a wreck in the vicinity." as significative of whip-ping the seas. At long distances the painting of the funnels. and. it shows that the ship has some infectious disease on board. A few Yacht Clubs fly the Blue Ensign. The Pilot Jack consists of a Union Jack with a white border. or resembling those worn by. by all ships employed in the service of any public office. No one is allowed either to go on board or to leave such ship until permission has been received from the Local Sani-tary Authorities. It is hoisted at the fore while in harbour to denote that the ship is ready to sail. a fine of £500 being inflicted on any one who should hoist or cause the same to be hoisted without authority to do so. The Red Ensign is worn by British Merchant Ships without any modification whatsoever. and is equally divided horizontally — the white at top. signifies that a pilot is required. indicates that she is in want of immediate assist-ance. Many of these flags and funnels will be found illustrated and described in Part II. and to warn any one on shore who intends to go aboard. and is the only flag private individuals really have any right to use on land. and is intended as a warning to other ships not to come too close. The National Flag of any ship when hoisted upside down. called a Danger or Powder Flag. 40 . it is flown at the main-mast head and is called the "Whip. His Majesty's ships. or who are Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve. lastly. or vessels employed in the Surveying Service. by Hired Transports. a Red Flag as that of defiance. is a passenger on board. when hoisted at the fore. The Man-of-War PENNANT is a long-flowing narrow piece of white bunting. It is hoisted wherever it can be seen by a ship directed by a Pilot. A Plain Red Flag. serves the same purpose. when hoisted at the fore. denotes that the ship has powder or shell or ammunition on board. The Blue Peter consists of a blue field with a white square centre. (b) HOUSE FLAGS AND FUNNELS In addition to the National Flag. as does also a green buoy placed over the spot. No merchant ship shall. the ships of the Chief Mercantile Steamship Companies fly what is termed a "House Flag. but in all cases a device is added to the field. and." These are designed and adopted by the owner or owners simply as a distinguishing mark. under the headings of their respective companies. provided also that ten of the crew (officers and men) belong to the Royal Naval Reserve. The House Flag is always flown at the main on entering or leaving the harbour.besides. George at the end next the mast.

R. T. B.H. P.D. W. S.E.L.B. L. S. A. W. W. G. Waterford Westport Wexford Youghal W. R.H. P.E.G. the first and last letters of the name of the port are used. A.N. C. but there are a great many exceptions. N'lk Weymouth Whitby Whitehaven Wisbeach Woodbridge Workington Yarmouth.T. ENGLAND AND THE CHANNEL ISLANDS Aberystwith Barnstaple Barrow-in-F's Beaumaris Berwick-on-Tw Bideford Boston. Shoreham Southampton Shields. B. C. As a rule. L. S. IoM Dover Exeter Falmouth Faversham Fleetwood Folkestone Fowey Gainsborough Gloucester Goole Grimsby Guernsey C.Y.K.L.W. W. A. as well as Hull. L. Peterhead Pt Glasgow Rothesay Stornoway Stranraer Troon Ullapool Wick Wigtown P.D.G. C. S.T.K. C. C.E.T. N. N. F. Whitby. F.L. J.N. L..U. S.H. Campbeltown Castlebay Dumfries Dundee Fraserburgh Glasgow Grangemouth Granton Greenock C.O. G. T. D.R. L. W. B.N.O.W.H.O D.H. G. U.I. S. Inverness Irvine Kirkcaldy Kirkwall Leith Lerwick Montrose Oban Perth I.L.H. C.T. G S. L. which stands for Rye.E. S. Milford New-on-Ty Newhaven Newport Padstow Penzance Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Preston Ramsey Ramsgate Rochester Runcorn Rye Scarborough Scilly M. Lincs.H.R. K. N Shields.N. I. T. B. F.A. S.T M. N. N. C. F.T.N.W.H. P. B. L. B. H.A.O. R. B.R. G. Hartlepool Harwich Hayle Hull Ipswich Jersey Lancaster Littlehampton Liverpool Llanelly London Lowestoft Lyme. IoW Dartmouth Deal Douglas. and the Brixham boats D. W.K. B. B. the Hastings fishing boats are marked R.F. B.N. R.D.H.E..N. G.D.H.N.R.S.N. C. E.E. R. G.N.Y.Y. P.] The Fishing Smacks and Steamers around the British coast have their bows or sails marked with letters to distinguish the ports from which they sail.H.T. G. G. S. P.F. T.R. L. A.K. M.E. For instance.B.(c) DISTINGUISHING LETTERS OF BRITISH FISHING BOATS [*By kind permission. E. H.IoM Chepstow Chester SCOTLAND Aberdeen Alloa Arbroath Ardrishaig Ardrossan Ayr Banff Borrowstoness Broadford IRELAND Ballina Belfast Coleraine Cork Drogheda B.A.R. Y. S. A. M. G.K.N. Y.K. W. S.Y. L. W. D.S.S.S.H. e.A. S. Dublin Dundalk Galway Limerick Londonderry D.E. L. New Ross Newry Skibbereen Sligo Tralee N. D.S.Z. F.W. Bridgwater Bridport Bristol Cardiff Cardigan Carlisle Carnarvon Castletown. L. R.E. A.W.L.H.E. B.I. P.L. Colchester Cowes.O.N. W. W. from Lloyd's Calendar.Y. K. stands for Havre. F. H. C. A. for Dartmouth. R. N.Y.Y. W..M.C.E. 41 .R. The foreign boats are also marked in this way. Dorset Lynn Norfolk Maldon Maryport Middlesb'gh H. D. C. P.M.O. C.R.D. D.H. A.L.D.. D. B.g.A.H.O.H.D. O.E. H.A. B. P. D. M. S. The port from which they are registered is often that of the nearest large harbour.A. Y.S. L. S Stockton Sunderland Swansea Teignmouth Truro Wells.X. I.U.O.S.X. W.

by an elaborate system of balls and cones. by flash-light signalling. by hand-flag semaphoring. by blasts of sound on the system of the Morse telegraphic alphabet. however. by the Semaphore. 1901. a narrow triangular flag.g. The New International Signal Code consists of 2 Burgees. one for each letter of the alphabet. in all. which has been highly developed by the French. or swallow-tailed flags. Signals at sea and along the coast are also now made by various new methods. and 19 square flags. Under the newly-arranged code many important signals. in which a small number of different flags are used in 42 . e. which the code in use until 1900 had altogether failed to meet. and in its improved form came into operation throughout the world on January 1. with much less risk of its being wrongly interpreted. was then re-written. but there has been a constant demand for an increased number of signals. or by ordinary flag waving. whilst it is of course now possible to make a larger and more varied number of new signals by the use of three or more flags. It then consisted of but eighteen flags. as well as to express a message by means of an alphabetical signal (there being now a flag for every letter of the alphabet). can now be displayed in two. 26 flags. 5 Pennants. which formerly required the use of three or more flags. which are displayed from the masthead (usually by ships of the Navy). together with a "Code Flag" or answering pennant. The code.10 Signals (a) GENERAL SIGNALS THE International (Commercial) code of Signals was first introduced in the year 1857.

(2) By Balls. except French ships. 1. and upon reading or understanding the signal. see illustration. (5) Number of days out. The Ensign is kept flying until the communication is ended and "dipped" and re-hoisted as a farewell. (3) Port of starting. The meridian of Paris is Oh. and when this has been answered or acknowledged by the ship whose attention she is desirous of attracting. Each signal-flag is kept flying until the ship signalled hoists her "Answering Pennant. (2) The ship's name (in signal letters). east of Greenwich. the ship signalled hoists the "Answering Pennant" half-way. she proceeds with her message. under its initial letter in the General Vocabulary of the Code Book. For an example of distant signals. (3) By Balls. which ordinarily make use of the meridian of Paris. To express emphasis or fervour this operation is repeated "ad lib. who has succeeded in transmitting messages across the Atlantic without the aid of any kind of cable — an achievement which is bound sooner or later to revolutionize the existing systems of long-distance intercommunication. When ships pass either one another or Signal Stations on shore. hoists it close up. Three different methods of signalling are used. it is not possible to distinguish the colours of the flags which might otherwise be visible. 21s. This novel method of sending messages is called wireless telegraphy and the messages themselves Marconi-grams after the name of the inventor. Ships passing each other on the deep seas and signalling their position always use the meridian of Greenwich. (1) By the fixed Coast Semaphore. In answering a signal. The employment of the International Signal Code is practically universal." Distant Signals are required when. 43 . they usually hoist the following signals: — (1) The National Colours. and in point of time is of course proportionately slower. with the "Code Flag" under them.combination to express certain simple phrases. 56m. she hoists the Ensign with the "Code Flag" under. Om. west of Greenwich. The Ensign is said to be "dipped" when it is lowered a short distance from the masthead. and not necessarily always at the mast-head. or from the peak. The British meridian is that of Greenwich — Oh.8s. hauling down the "Code Flag" if it is required for making the succeeding signal. When a ship wishes to make a signal. 9m. In many circles it is hoped that the Post Office Department will succeed in securing for this country some of the benefits of this great invention. (6) Longitude by Chronometer. and some of them having even translated it at once into their own languages. The meridian of New York is 4h. A new chapter in the history of signalling has just opened with the marvellous invention of Signor Marconi. in consequence of the extreme distance or the state of the weather. Os. most of the foreign powers having adopted it officially immediately upon its being made effective." The letters required for the signal are readily found by looking up the first letter of the principal word in the message. and of course (in this case) Paris time. Square Flags and Whefts (a wheft being a pennant with the fly tied to the halyards). (4) Port of destination. and is computed to be 9 minutes and 21 seconds faster (in point of time). Signals are always hoisted where they can best be seen. Drums and Cones. and hauled up close again.

"I am directing my course starboard. AND WHEFT. " " " O. blows a prolonged blast every two minutes. This represents that the Numeral Signals are ended." "I am directing my course to port. Code Flag over M. USED IN DISTANCE SIGNALLING. the Signals which follow are to be looked out in the Code in the usual manner. " " " N. 44 . when the wind is abaft to beam. two blasts. A sailing ship blows on the fog-horn (when on the starboard tack) one blast. BALL. DRUM. All vessels at anchor during fog ring their bell at intervals of not more than one minute. This indicates the Decimal point. CONES. NUMERAL TABLE A B C D E F G H I (c) SOUND SIGNALS A vessel under weigh in sight of another indicates the course she is taking by the following signals: — One short blast means Two short blasts means Three short blasts means (d) FOG SIGNALS During a fog. and O. (b) NUMERAL SIGNALS Are given with the Code Flag over M." "My engines are going full speed astern." 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 J K L M N O P Q R 10 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 S T U V W X Y Z 99 100 0 00 000 0000 00000 000000 This represents that the Signals which follow are Numeral Signals. a steamer under weigh. when on the port tack.SEMAPHORE. N. three blasts every minute. with her whistle or siren.

W. The signal is frequently kept flying after a gale is over. or point up-wards (for North Cone). The drum is added to either cone when a very heavy gale is probable. to S. warning signals are hoisted in connexion with the Meteorological Office to advise as to the probability Of an approaching gale. to N. but it is hoisted again at daylight next morning. point downwards (for South Cone). at first from the northwards — from N. 45 .W. 4. a night signal consisting of three lanterns hung on a triangular frame is hoisted in place of the Cone. SOUTH CONE Gale probably from the Southward. The hoisting of either of these signals is a sign that an atmospherical disturbance is in existence. whenever a signal ought to be flying if it were daylight. round by N. which will probably cause a gale from the quarter indicated within a distance of fifty miles of the locality. The signal is kept flying until dusk and then lowered to avoid unnecessary wear and tear. unless orders to lower the signal are received previously. The International Code Signal of Distress indicated by NC. round by S.E. consisting of a square flag. and so on until the end of 48 hours from the time at which the message was issued from London. either to-gether or separately. many of which are Lloyd's signal stations. viz. 3. A cone pointed upwards means that strong winds are probable. one gale being often followed by another within a very brief interval. At dusk.: — BY DAY — 1. as the case may be. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute.E.(e) STORM SIGNALS NORTH CONE Gale probably from the Northward. (f) DISTRESS SIGNALS When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore. No drum is used at dark. or without the cone. at first from the southwards — from S. At numerous ports and fishing stations. having either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball. the following are the signals to be used or displayed by her. The distant signal. 2. A cone pointed downwards means that strong winds are probable. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal ap-paratus.

White and Blue ball. the Union Jack. ANCHOR LINE. etc. having above it two balls or shapes resembling balls. 3. Blue. 3. meaning that a vessel is on either of the adjacent sands. [By kind permission. fired one at a time. Three " Blue Lights" in a triangle half way up the rigging. Ramsgate and Yarmouth districts. flashed or shown at short or frequent intervals just above the bulwarks for about a minute at a time. The International Code Flag S. SPECIAL SIGNALS FROM LIGHT VESSELS IN THAMES DISTRICT. point up-wards. The pyrotechnic light commonly known as a blue light every fifteen minutes. at short intervals. fol-lowed by a Roman candle throwing up three groups of balls to a height not exceeding 50 feet. and each group consisting of a Red.). On and near the coasts of the United Kingdom. Harwich. Rockets or shells. having round it a white border. A Red pyrotechnic light burnt near the stern. simultaneously. Three Rockets. and on the high seas. in the county of Cork. 2.] 46 . — The signals appointed for the Lightvessels and Pile Lighthouses in the London. 2.e. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal ap-paratus. are as follows: — By Day — Two guns fired from any of these light-vessels at intervals of a minute. White and Red. and repeated every fifteen minutes. oil-barrel. or in such quick succession as to amount practi-cally to a simultaneous or almost simultaneous display. A Red light and a White light exhibited alternately from some conspicuous part of the ship. Flames (i. (h) NIGHT SIGNALS OF STEAMSHIP LINES ABERDEEN LINE. 4.BY NIGHT — 1. consisting of a cone. By Night — Two guns repeated as above. from Lloyd's Calendar. Off the coasts of Great Britain and on the high seas. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. (g) PILOT SIGNALS The following signals. with or without the Code Pennant over it. the colours following in the order specified. shall be deemed to be signals for a pilot: — BY DAY — 1.. and off Queenstown Harbour. throwing stars of any colour or description. 2. signal fires) on the vessel (as from a burning tar-barrel. when used or displayed together or separately. The distant signal. indicate that assistance is required by her or by a vessel seen in distress on the sands above referred to. 2. BY NIGHT — 1. one-fifth of the breadth of the flag. ALLAN LINE. 1. The International Code Pilotage Signal indicated by PT. Off Moville. and followed by a rocket. and at the entrance of Lough Foyle in the county of Donegal. To be hoisted at the fore. the Red light to be so exhibited as not to be mistaken for the Red side light carried under the regulations for preventing collisions at sea. 4. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute. A bright white light.

Three Roman candles in succession at stern. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. each throwing out six Blue balls to a height not exceeding 150 feet. One Green pyrotechnic light from the forecastle. a Red and a White light in succession. red. CLAN LINE. blue. DEMPSTER & Co. Three Coston lights. A Roman candle throwing six balls of the following colours — viz. Off Scilly. A White. one White and one Red. one White pyrotechnic light from the bridge. A Blue light and two Roman candles. BIBBY LINE. A Roman candle throwing four Blue and two Red Stars in succession. Water Street. followed by a red light. one Red ball. and off Queenstown Harbour. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. fired in quick succession. one Green. in the county of Cork. each throwing to a height not exceeding 50 feet. HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE. white. one Blue ball. seven stars. CUNARD LINE. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. COMPAGNIE GÉNÉRALE TRANSATLANTIQUE. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. Off Browhead. BEAVER LINE. and one Green pyrotechnic light from the poop of the vessel — the three lights to be shown at the same moment. burned simultaneously at the fore. middle and after parts of the vessel respectively. A Roman candle throwing four Blue and two Red stars in succession. and fired in quick succession. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. 47 . in the county of Cork. 2. off Lizard. off Plymouth and on the high seas. A Roman candle throwing Red and White balls in succession three times from the bridge to a height not exceeding 50 feet. BRITISH INDIA STEAM NAVIGATION Co.ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE. White and Red. one Red ball. One Red ball. A Roman candle throwing to a height not exceeding 50 feet. and to be repeated if necessary. Liverpool.. HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE. Off the North or South Coast of Ireland for steamers bound to or from Liverpool. in succession. white.. Within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. A Blue light and two rockets bursting into golden stars. 1. Blue. blue. ELDER. to be repeated once in the same order. white. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. red. one Blue ball. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. one Blue ball.

in the county of Cork. it means. Red Light on bridge. 3. IMPERIAL DIRECT WEST INDIA MAIL SERVICE. All exhibited simultaneously." If made off Dover — "I am returning to Calais. — To be burnt by a special vessel when 15 minutes off.HOULDER LINE. Off Browhead. One Red pyrotechnic light. The same as above. the balls thrown out of each of which are Blue. Blue Light aft simultaneously." One Bright or White pyrotechnic light. and off Queenstown Harbour. shown on the bridge. 48 . (AMERICAN LINE). One Red light changing to White from the poop or after-deck of the vessel. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. shown at the aft part of the ship. omitting the rockets. in the county of Cork." Two Red pyrotechnic lights and two Blue pyrotechnic lights together. throwing four Blue and Red stars in succession.Cross Channel Steamers." On the coasts of the United Kingdom and on the high seas. Blue Light forward." One Red pyrotechnic light and one Blue pyrotechnic light together. One Red light changing to White from the fore-castle head. One Red pyrotechnic light. is to burn this light. One pyrotechnic light known as a Blue light. One Red light denotes position. viz.. One Roman candle discharging six White balls in succession off the bridge. SOUTH-EASTERN AND CHATHAM RAILWAY . Red and Green. — "I am returning to Dover. One pyrotechnic light known as a Blue light. in the county of Cork. "What am I to do ?" One Red pyrotechnic light. and off Queenstown Harbour. in addition to ordinary mails. then one Green pyrotechnic light. 1. 2. All the lights and rockets to be fired simultaneously or in such quick succession as to amount to a simultaneous or almost simultaneous display. A vessel's answer to a sister vessel's signal. — "I am not going into harbour. INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION CO. — "I am temporarily disabled. — Vessels meeting or passing at sea. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. Two Blue pyrotechnic lights together. shown at the fore part of the ship." Two Red pyrotechnic lights together. A Roman candle. — "Off Deal Jetty and wish to communicate. — "Have India Mail on board. followed by a Green pyrotechnic light. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. — "I am going into the Downs. If made off Calais. in the county of Cork. but am not in want of assistance. Two variegated rockets. Off Browhead. and one wishing to give warning that there are obstructions in or off the port she has left." One Red pyrotechnic light and one Green pyrotechnic light together. One Green pyrotechnic light. when burned by a vessel not in answer to a signal.

RED STAR LINE. followed immediately by a Roman candle throwing five Blue balls to a height not exceeding 150 feet. throwing up Red stars to a height not exceeding 150 feet. and two Blue balls in succession. then a Roman candle. two Red.NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING CO. A Yellow pyrotechnic light. one Roman candle throwing three Purple and three Green stars to a height not exceeding 50 feet and fired simultaneously. For Mail Steamers only. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. exhibited simultaneously. (a) The steam whistle blown well. and one aft. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. WHITE STAR LINE. NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA. On or near the coasts of the United Kingdom. and a Roman candle throwing up White balls to a height not exceeding 150 feet. the whole constituting one signal. Co. SAVILL & ALBION. 2. Two pyrotechnic lights burned simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. Three Red lights burning simultaneously. PACIFIC S. fired simultaneously. 1. one Red light and one White light. The Chatham light. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. and off Queenstown Harbour. one on the bridge. Two White pyrotechnic lights burnt simultaneously about 50 feet apart. Lloyd. P. SHAW. NORD DEUTSCHER LLOYD. and (c) shown in lanterns simultaneously and vertically from the mizen peak — one Green light. Off Browhead. off the Old Head of Kinsale. Two Green pyrotechnic lights exhibited simultaneously. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. Co. A Blue light burned on the bridge. When this signal is acknowledged by the telegraph station at Hurst Castle. Near Hurst Castle. one forward. N. is to be burnt on any part of the ship. each of which changes from the light commonly known as a Blue light to a Red light. the rocket being fol-lowed by another Green pyrotechnic light. For use by any of the steamers of the N. A Green pyrotechnic light followed quickly by a rocket throwing two Green stars. A Red pyrotechnic light accompanied by a Roman candle throwing White stars to a height not exceeding 50 feet. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. UNION-CASTLE LINE. (b) burned simultaneously — two pyrotechnic lights described in the paragraph marked 1 above as changing from Blue to Red. WEST INDIA AND PACIFIC.-D. and each throwing up two Red balls to a height not exceeding 50 feet. One Green light forward. A Roman candle throwing two White. ROYAL MAIL S. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. in the county of Cork. 49 . Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. 1.

with a space of not less than 20 feet be-tween any two of the three lights. Inishtrahull.: one Red light forward. half a mile westward of village. are yet to be seen at Dover. (j) WIRELESS TELEGRAPH STATIONS Arrangements have been made for messages to be received at the undermentioned stations. If shipowners wish vessels reported to their own offices. in which is placed the lantern.WILSON. be reported immediately in Lloyd's List. and the light upon the bridge being at the apex of the triangle. or Lloyd's Ensign. beyond the reach of the action of the waves. without any charge. a quarter of mile westward of Lloyd's Signal Station. on the top of which wood or some other fuel was burned in a brazier or iron basket. when the famous Pharos of Alexandria was first built. Lizard. Holyhead. A signal consisting of three pyrotechnic lights arranged in the form of a triangle. an arrangement which. which may at certain states of the tide be wholly or partly submerged. When founded upon an isolated rock. Crookhaven. notice should be given to the Secretary of Lloyd's. and one Red light aft. or of the Bishop's Rock in the Scilly Islands. is the kind usually constructed. which in this case form a separate structure of themselves. a strong structure of masonry. the form usually adopted is that of a broad-based structure. the Station responds by hoisting the answering pennant sharply from dip to masthead. northern entrance to Poole Harbour. resting upon screw piles. Haven. FURNESS. three-quarters of a mile north of Railway Station. where the full force of the wind is likely to be felt. Kingsgate. it is either built of masonry. Lloyd's Signal Station. an ordinary brick or stone tower suffices. or the foundation is sunk into the rock itself. The answering pennant of the International Code of Signals. the Shipping Gazette and various leading newspapers. or upon a spit or tongue of sand off shore. which must have been built during the Roman invasion. and on the shore at the foot of a cliff. and forwarded to their destinations : — North Foreland. viz. Anywhere within British jurisdiction and on the high seas. In the British Isles some slight remains of a lighthouse. The form of the modern lighthouse varies with circumstances. whilst on the top of a cliff. similar to that of the rock-built lighthouse. 11 Lights and Lighthouses (a) HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT LIGHTHOUSES. and in this form it is continued to the top. existed in various parts of the world until well into the nineteenth century. In an estuary. which rests directly upon the rock. I. (i) "LLOYD'S" SIGNAL STATION REPORTS Vessels which on passing a Lloyd's Signal Station hoist their ensign and signal letters will. or beacons for the aid of the navigator. LEYLAND LINE. This latter form of lighthouse is usually connected with the keepers' rooms. Lloyd's Signal Station. Catherine's point. is hoisted at Lloyd's Signal Stations in fair weather. The solid foundation of the tower is carried a score or so of feet above the surface of the water. when it is surmounted by a hollow tower in which the various rooms for the accommodation of the keepers are situated. 50 . Rosslare. The vessel then immediately lowers her signals. of W.C. Malin Head. As soon as the hoist of signals made by a vessel is identified. near St. Niton. as in the case of the Eddystone. The earliest form of lighthouse was that of a tower or beacon. with but very slight modification and improve-ment. one Green light turning to Red on the bridge. have been in existence since B. in the town. 331.

The same as the preceding. Occulting. Alt. the power of which latter at first was scarcely more effective than the former. London. and Fl. Thomas Stevenson — the honoured ancestor of the famous novelist — in 1849 employed a lens in front of a reflector. Argand and Rumford. and gas has likewise been used with good results. This light. Revolving. and the fact that it is more costly than gas to operate with. Alternating lights of different colours (generally red and white). F. and Gp. however. produces a light of the "catadioptric" class as distinct from the single reflector. In Scotland the lights are under the care of the Northern Lighthouse Board (since 1786). which combined both the direct and the reflected rays into one parallel beam. Occ. by its great power. and in Ireland the Irish Lighthouse Board perform the same service. Fixed. in its improved form. by the invention and development of new appliances for the burning of mineral or animal oil. F. therefore. Rev. overcome much of the want of penetration of the earlier oil lights. in a foggy atmosphere than in clear weather. Fixed and Group Flashing. Gp. The lights of lighthouses have undergone great development from the early days of the wood flare to the electric light of to-day. are calculated for a height of 15 feet above the sea. being a combination of refractor and reflector. (b) LIST OF IMPORTANT LIGHTHOUSES AND LIGHTSHIPS OFF THE BRITISH ISLES The distances here given. comparatively speaking. Lightships belonging to the Trinity House. without any intervening eclipse. Group Occulting. surrounded by a series of annular or parabolic prisms. Fixed and Flashing. the duration of dark-ness (or eclipse) being always greater than that of the light. from which the lights are visible. which may be preceded and followed by a short eclipse. Fl. Fixed light varied by a single white or coloured flash. F. Fl. although its power of penetration has proved to be less. and first controlled the lights in 1680." In 1822 Fresnel introduced the "dioptric" system. Alternating. in which refraction only is used. the direct rays being sent forth through a spherical lens. Group Flashing. of parabolic metal reflectors. Light gradually increasing to full effect. Gp. has the advantage of being situated right over the spot against which it is desired to warn the mariner. but with groups of flashes. the duration of the light being always equal to or greater than that of the darkness. A continuous steady light. or. In somewhat more modern times. where it would be difficult to secure a foundation for a stationary structure. are coloured red. Fl. The electric light has. A single flash. A steady light with groups of two or more sudden and total eclipses at regular intervals. The lights of England and Wales are under the control of the Trinity House Brethren. The early wood or tow-burning beacons were succeeded by candles and oil-lamps. 51 . This class is known as "catoptric. To concentrate the rays of the lamp and disperse them in the desired direction. which consists of a small glass mirror. in addition to performing the function of a shore lighthouse. Groups of two or more flashes in succession (not necessarily of the same colour) separated by eclipses. A steady light with sudden and total eclipse at regular intervals. Occ. which was incorporated in 1514. are practically the only arguments that can be brought against it. A lightship. But this objection.The object of a lightship is to indicate the presence of a dangerous shoal. Flashing. effected considerable improvement. then decreasing to eclipse.

eclipse 31½ sec. LONGSHIPS (Land's End)... — White group flash every 20 sec.. ball at masthead. DOVER. visible 10 miles. and the 3rd by 78 sec. Visible 11 miles. alternate red and white. START POINT. — On Admiralty Pier. first flash. LIZARD. rev. Inverted triangle over diamond on mast.. visible 8 miles. — White group flash. eclipsed for 3 sec.). red sectors. visible 11 miles. visible 11 miles. visible 11 miles.) visible 17 miles. — White flash. — White flash. (½ min. every minute. (½ min.). 20 sec. — Bishop Rock. Red hull. SOUTH FORELAND. ST. Red Fl.. also a fixed white subsidiary in lower window. ANTHONY'S (Falmouth). DUNGENESS. 18 miles. with small ball above. Visible 20 miles.. Red hull. Red hull. Agnes. every min. (1 min. BEACHY HEAD. and one white rev. NEEDLES.. every minute.. WARNE LIGHTVESSEL. — Two fixed white. visible 14 miles. red sector. Visible 10 miles.. visible 11 miles. 2 flashes occupying ½ min. — White flash. — Rev. 52 . second flash. Fog explosive. followed by 36 sec. White F.. also fixed white in same tower. — Group flash. white.. visible 10 miles.. SEVEN STONES LIGHTVESSEL.. eclipse. 15 sec. Ball at masthead. — White group flash (3 flashes occupying 45 sec..).. — Two fixed white (74 yards apart). 16¼ sec. Pier Works Lightvessel. sec... White Rev. visible 20 miles. — White group flash (2 successive flashes of 2½ sec.. 30 sec. — One fixed white and red. 30 sec. visible 1 miles.) white. each followed by 3 sec. Visible 16 miles. ball at mast-head. St.. Fog bell. ecl. CASQUETS. visible 15 miles.. — Occ. East Goodwin Lightvessel. 385 yards apart. Visible 11 miles. visible 16 miles. White Group Flash (1 min. divided by eclipse of 4 sec. ball at mast-head. each. — One fixed white. every 30 sec. one white flash 5 sec. Fog bell. — Rev. Red hull. OWERS LIGHTVESSEL. — Red rev. — Occ. — White group flash. visible 21 miles. Red hull. Visible 17 miles. WOLF ROCK. PORTLAND BILL. Ball. 3 successive flashes of 2 sec. red and green sectors.. visible 14 miles. eclipse. sec. Round Island. ST. visible 11 miles. every 20 sec. SHAMBLES LIGHTVESSEL. Red hull. ANVIL POINT.. Red hull. 71 sec. GOODWIN. ecl. and Fl. the second flash followed by 21 sec. South Goodwin Lightvessel. CATHARINE'S (Isle of Wight). visible 17 miles. — White. — Two fixed white.. visible 18 miles. visible 21 and 18 miles.) vis. 503 yards apart . ROYAL SOVEREIGN LIGHTVESSEL. 10 sec. — White group flash. Visible 16 miles. 3 times in quick succession. — Green rev. 2¾ sec.. visible 26 and 23 miles. eclipse. followed by 17½ eclipse. dark. (½ min.English Channel SCILLY ISLANDS. at masthead. white and red alternately. one. white. ball at masthead. Fog siren. Visible 20 miles.. EDDYSTONE.

every min. occ." at Sailors' Home and Pier.. every 2 min. 3 flashes.. Two cones pointing up-ward on main and ball on jigger mast. Inverted cone at masthead. Small ball over another at masthead.. 53 . NORE LIGHTVESSEL.Gull Lightvessel (in fairway). DUDGEON LIGHTVESSEL. — Green rev. Half ball over ball at masthead.. visible 11 miles.. — White rev. for 5 sec. 40 sec. red sector. — Red rev. 30 sec. In same tower fixed red sector. every minute.. red sector. every 20 sec. — White and red group flash.. visible 11 miles. — Green rev. red sectors. SHIPWASH LIGHTVESSEL. visible 10 miles. SUNK LIGHTVESSEL. 208 yards apart. every minute.). MAPLIN SAND. — White. Visible 11 miles. Red hull. Visible 11 miles. visible 23 miles. with white sector. ball at masthead. Red hull. Ball at masthead. Red hull. every 30 sec. DOVERCOURT.. Red hull. followed by 36 sec. white.. — Occ. OUTER DOWSING LIGHTVESSEL. — White rev. every 30 sec. — White group flash. visible 10 miles. Red hull. Red hull.. disappearing every min.. — Three quick white flashes in succession. ( min. ORFORDNESS. red sector. Ball at masthead. — Group flash red and white every min. East Coast of England TONGUE LIGHTVESSEL. visible 11 miles.. 20 sec. — High Light on Cliff. — Group Occ. Red hull. INNER DOWSING LIGHTVESSEL.. Red hull. 4 flashes every min. every 45 sec. Ball at masthead. 30 sec. Visible 11 miles. visible 11 miles.. COCKLE LIGHTVESSEL. SOUTHWOLD (Centre). NORTH FORELAND. — White rev. one fixed white. — One fixed white. visible 15 miles. Ball at masthead. visible 11 miles. — White rev. Three masts. — Red group flash every 45 sec. — "Caister Leading Lights. — White. Ball at masthead. CROMER. SWIN MIDDLE LIGHTVESSEL — White rev. YARMOUTH. eclipse. Red hull. visible 9½ miles.. — One fixed white. Red hull. every minute. Two fixed red. HUNSTANTON. — Rev. OUTER GABBARD LIGHTVESSEL. Visible 11 miles. visible 17 miles. followed by 14 sec. red and green sectors. Red hull. Low light (747 yards away). alternate red and white. visible 17 miles. Red hull. LOWESTOFT. red and white sectors every 30 sec. visible 16 miles. Visible 13 and 9 miles. visible 11 miles. Visible 20 miles. — White group flash. Ball at masthead. GALLOPER LIGHTVESSEL. Half ball flat side down over another at masthead. white. White rev. visible 10 miles. visible 11 miles. visible 11 miles. visible 10 miles. North Goodwin Lightvessel. — OCC. with ball on each. KENTISH KNOCK LIGHTVESSEL. eclipse. every 20 sec. MOUSE LIGHTVESSEL. Red hull. — White rev.. occupying 30 sec. Red hull. HARWICH (JETTY). ball at masthead. visible 11 miles. visible 10 miles. Group Occ. red. 20 sec..

visible 22 miles. — One white flash every 5 sec. — One fixed white. — Two fixed white. ST. visible 15 miles. with eclipse of 2½ sec. every min. ABB's HEAD. visible 14 miles. — Rev. — Occ. visible 13 miles. visible 17 miles. — Two fixed. visible 17 miles. 54 . FIDRA ISLAND. Occ.. Visible 21 miles. TEES RIVER (Southgare Breakwater). — One white. white and red every 90 sec. — Two fixed (upper white. — White group flash every 15 sec. KINNAIRD HEAD. FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. visible 14 miles.). — Two in one tower. white and red. SCARBOROUGH — OCC. fixed red. white every 5 sec. rev. visible 21 miles. INVERNESS (Thornbush Pier).. GIRDLENESS. 1. COQUET. — Two fixed red. Visible 10 miles. visible 13 miles.... WHITBY (Ling Hill). red sector. BELL ROCK. white and red sectors. Pierhead).). — One white flash. Pierhead).. In same tower fixed White and red. Harbour).. FARN ISLANDS (Longstone). 401 yards apart.SPURN HEAD (mouth of Humber). — Rev. visible 8 miles.. with red conical cage. 12 sec. visible 18 miles. white. — Fixed white and red. — White and red flash alternately every min. — One Occ. visible 11 miles. INCH KEITH.. eclipse 18 sec. BERWICK-ON-TWEED (Pierhead). visible 6 miles. Port-on-Craig High Light and Pile Light.. visible 19 miles. — White group flash (2 flashes every 20 sec. visible 17 miles. Scotland ST.. visible 17 miles (flash 2 sec. BUCHAN NESS. visible 21 miles (2 white and 1 red to each rev.. — White rev. — White flash 20 sec. TOD HEAD.. — Fixed white and red. COVESEA SKERRIES. white and red. — One white flash every 10 sec. ABERDEEN (N. RIVER TAY. — White group flash every 30 sec. One fixed White and red sectors (same tower). visible 13 miles. every 30 sec. visible 12 miles and 8 miles. with red sector. PETERHEAD (S. lower red) in one tower. every min. — Fixed white. HARTLEPOOL (Heugh). visible 16 miles and 13 miles. red sector. NORTH CARR LIGHTVESSEL.700 yards apart.. visible 17 miles. Buddonness.. RATTRAY HEAD. visible 13 miles and 6 miles. ANDREW'S (Pierhead). visible 15 miles. visible 12 miles and 10 miles. every minute.). Red hull. every 8 see. SUNDERLAND (Inner N. visible 15 miles.. visible 4 miles. visible 10 miles. — White group flash every 30 sec. — Two fixed white. white. every 30 sec. — One fixed white and red and green.

visible 12 miles. visible 10 miles. visible 24 miles. HEBRIDES (Butt of Lewis). — White flash every 24 sec. visible 23 miles. NOSS HEAD.. SANDA. eclipse). N. with red sector.. — White rev. — White group flash. — Rev. every 30 sec. visible 25 miles. CUMBRAE (W. every minute. Hull red. N.. 2 quick flashes every 30 sec. of Little Cumbrae Island).. — White group flash every 30 sec. West Coast of England AYRE POINT (Isle of Man). PLADDA ISLAND (Fladda). SHETLAND ISLANDS (Sumburgh Head). (light 15 sec.sec. — White group flash (4 flashes every 30 sec. ARDROSSAN (S. LAMLASH (S. SKERRYVORE. visible 13 miles. 2 masts. Red hull. eclipse 7½ sec.. Noup Head. Red hull.. ball at masthead. visible 24 miles. MULL OF GALLOWAY. visible 19 miles. Lightvessel. 6 flashes in 15 sec. Red hull.. — One fixed green over red. — Group flash white and red sectors. MORECAMBE BAY LIGHTVESSEL.. DUART POINT (William Black Memorial Tower). — White group flash. ORKNEYS. visible 18 miles.). Breakwater).. visible 24 miles. red ball on foremast. alternately every 3 sec. visible 13 miles. MULL OF CANTYRE. DUNNET HEAD.). — White group flash. visible 27 miles. — White and red rev. visible 22 miles.). DOUGLAS HEAD. Ball at masthead. visible 12 miles. — White group flash every 30 sec. white and red every 2 min. — Fixed White. every 30 sec. every 30 sec. PENTLAND SKERRIES. — Fixed white and red. — OCC. — One fixed white..W. 3 flashes every 15 sec. 2 masts. — White rev.. visible 19 miles. visible 19 miles. LIVERPOOL. BAHAMA BANK LIGHTVESSEL. visible 18 miles.. point of Arran).W.TARBET NESS. eclipse 15 sec. Skroo. — Occ. visible 14 miles. CAPE WRATH. visible 11 miles. Bar Lightvessel... flash and 2 sec. — White group flash (2 flashes every 30 sec. 55 . PLADDA ISLAND (off S. visible 18 miles. eclipse 57 sec.. — One fixed white. visible 11 miles. white and red (2 sec. — White group flash.. — White rev.E. visible 18 miles. visible 11 miles. visible 11 miles. — Rev. — Fixed White. — White group flash every 30 sec. White. — White group flash every 30 sec. — White group flash every 15 sec. red ball on foremast and jigger masts. white every 221. STORNOWAY (Arnish Point). visible 17 miles. visible 16 miles. point of Holy I. visible 10 miles. every minute. AILSA CRAIG.)..

white. — White group flash every 20 sec. white shows 3 flashes every 1 min. QUEENSTOWN (Roche Point. LUNDY ISLAND... visible 20 miles.).. WATERFORD (Hook Point). — Rev. light 10 sec. RIVER SHANNON (Kilcredan). LOUGH LARNE (Farres Point). white. occ. — Rev. DAUNT ROCK LIGHTVESSEL. and one fixed white in same tower. — White group flash every 15 sec. OLD HEAD OF KINSALE. CALDY ISLANDS... red sectors. visible 21 miles. Low fixed white. visible 20 miles. with globe on main-mast. TUSKAR. — Occ. every minute. — Group occ.. white every minute. 56 .. Red sector. Visible 16 miles. RATHLIN ISLAND. 30 sec. with red sector. TORY ISLAND (N. — White rev. WICKLOW. visible 11 miles. visible 24 miles.. HARTLAND POINT. eclipsed 5 sec. S. eclipse 3 sec. — Rev. — Red flash every 7½ sec. — Group occ. visible 18 miles. visible 10 miles. every 13 sec. INISTRAHULL.. BARDSEY.). visible 14 miles.. red sector (visible 15 sec. CARDIGAN BAY LIGHTVESSEL. rev. visible 16 miles. — White occ. — Fixed white and red. visible 16 miles. Ireland FASTNET. — White. — Fixed white and red. every minute. white. every minute. — Rev. E. visible 8 miles. visible 11 miles. visible 12 miles. GALWAY (Eeragh Isle). — White group flash every minute. dark 10 sec. — White. red 10 sec. PENDEEN. — Fixed white. — White group flash and fixed red in same tower. — Fixed white and red. red and white alternately every minute.. — Fixed white. Black hull. DUBLIN (Kingstown. red sector. visible 18 miles. Anne's). BULL POINT.. every 30 sec. alternately red and white every 20 sec. visible 19 miles. White and red every 90 sec. visible 20 miles. visible 9 miles. LUNDY ISLAND.. visible 17 miles. E. SOUTH STACK. white every 30 sec. visible 10 miles.W. SKERRIES. visible 16 miles. visible 20 miles. visible 25 miles. ARANMORE ISLAND. visible 20 miles.).. HOLYHEAD (Breakwater). — One occ. Visible 16 miles. — White group flash every 30 sec. visible 16 miles. then one red). visible 18 miles and 17 miles.).). — White rev. every minute. — Fixed red and white. visible 18 miles. N. — White group flash (4 flashes every 15 sec. Pier Head). visible 21 miles. CORK HARBOUR. MILFORD HAVEN (St.GREAT ORME'S HEAD. visible 16 miles. — Red flash every 30 sec.. (2 white flashes. visible 17 miles. white 6 sec. (bright 50 sec. — Rev.

BULL ROCK — Flash white every 15 sec. (c) VIEWS OF CELEBRATED LIGHTHOUSES 57 . visible 23 miles. visible 12 miles.. — Fixed white.VALENTIA (Cromwell Point).

such as Bell buoys. They mark the ends of "middle grounds.12 The Buoys of the United Kingdom . Gas buoys. They are always Starboard-hand buoys. Like other special buoys. etc.. CONICAL BUOYS are Buoys with a pointed top above water. they are placed so as to mark special positions either on the coast or in the approaches to harbours. They are always Port-hand buoys. Shape. Can Buoys are Buoys with a flat top above water. 58 ." Pillar Buoys are buoys with a tall central structure on a broad base.Their Colour. Spherical Buoys are buoys with a domed top above water. Automatic sounding buoys. etc.. and distinctive Marks.

000 tons. and Egypt. Napoleon I.000 ships use the canal during the year. their combined tonnage approximating to 10." pre-ceded by the lightvessel's name in white letters. The first vessel made the passage in 1865. is green. recognizing the commercial value and strategic importance of a permanent ship-canal at this point.000 shares in the company are held by the British Government. Dividends have fluctuated yearly between 5 per cent.. 13 Ship Canals. 1869.000 and 4. Staffs and Cages on Port-hand buoys. de Lesseps commenced. The colour of Wreck buoys. Between 3. Nearly all of these ships pass through the canal at night. is red. The colour of "Watch" buoys. The painting of surmounting beacons such as Staffs and Globes. The official opening took place in November. Bitter Lakes North Light to South Light South Light to Guerin Guerin to Chalouf Chalouf to Madame Madame to Suez Entrance Total 25 11 3 4 4 3 5 8 8 3 6 7 87 The project Was approved in England by Lord Palmerston and by the Governments of France." and Triangles at the inner ends. Staffs and Globes are only used on Starboard-hand buoys.D. 400. Russia. of which rather over three-quarters are British. of which 176. 59 . Turkey. Distances along the canal are marked by mile-posts set up on the banks from north to south. or ships marking the position of Wrecks. The painting of Spherical buoys is always distinguished by horizontal stripes of White. Germany and France following in the order named. Diamonds at the outer ends of "middle grounds. and the work was finally completed in 1869. and the other by 1. or at night by 3 lamps from the yard-arm similarly arranged. The painting of Port-hand buoys is always in some different characteristic colour. After becoming silted up. Port Said to Kantara Kantara to El Ferdan El Ferdan to El Guisr El Guisr to Ismailia Ismailia to Toussan Toussan to Serapium Serapium to North Light. which may be either single or particoloured. The former may have perhaps been made in the time of the Pharaohs. in 1859. They are marked With the word " Watch. etc. but nothing was done until the famous M..Spar Buoys are buoys with only a mast above water. the canal which now exists. — The Isthmus of Suez has been traversed from remote times by a canal following nearly upon the lines of the present one. and actually had the land surveyed for the purpose.000. of the "Can" type.602 were bought of the Khedive in 1875 at a premium of 12½ per cent. When ships are used their navigable side is marked by means of 2 balls vertically arranged. The painting of Starboard-hand Buoys is always in a single colour only. THE SUEZ CANAL. was desirous of carrying out the project. Austria. the banks of which are brilliantly illuminated by the electric masthead lights of the steamers. is always in a single dark colour. it was re-opened by Trajan in the second century A. and 17 per cent.

S. Government. The canal itself was to be from 80 to 120 feet wide at the bottom. shortens. which took 92 days to cover the 20. — This is a Russian project which. BALTIC AND BLACK SEA CANAL. in spite of the vast sums spent upon the enterprise. the course of the rivers Dwina. the Atlantic terminus.306 knots between New York and Manila. THE NICARAGUA CANAL is another inter-oceanic project that has got rather beyond the initial stage. it was intended to follow the San Juan River through Lake Nicaragua and proceed thence to Brito.000. CALEDONIAN CANAL — This well-known waterway extends across North-west Scotland.609 emigrants of the steerage class. inaugurated by M.). battleship Oregon. and the time required for transit 46 hours. Beresina. and the average depth 26 feet.825 civilians. and it will be from 78 feet to 189 feet wide at the top. Its width is 72 feet at the bottom and its depth 27 feet. THE PANAMA CANAL. CORINTH CANAL.417 tons of coal. with a consumption of 5. and the capital invested is of no insignificant figure. the course from Sicily or the Adriatic to Constantinople and the Black Sea. would have amounted to something over 150 miles. the Pacific terminus. The estimated tonnage of the ships that will use it when completed exceeds 15. as various locks will now be made. 60 . consuming but 3." Such a canal.000 tons of shipping would annually pass either through this canal or that at Panama. Lord Nelson himself not only foresaw the utility of the plan.S. besides offering the great advantages derived from escaping the dangerous navigation off the cape. and from 29 feet to 72 feet wide at the bottom. owing to the indecision of the U. at the lake level. at a speed of 220. were it brought to completion. was set on foot and work commenced in 1881. In 1887 a New York company obtained a concession from Nicaragua for an inter-oceanic canal. while the eastern entrance was estimated to require 17 locks. 110 feet above the sea. It is intended to cut through Cape Cod at its narrowest part — from Buzzard's Bay to Barnstable Bay. Though it is less than 4 miles in length. the cutting has been carried in many places through rocks 250 feet high.000. as far as possible. which was estimated at about 169 miles. The scheme. — This project. In 1898 nearly a quarter of a million passengers were carried by the ships making use of the canal — 142. — This canal. Here it is that a canal between the two seas may most easily be formed — a work more important in its consequences than any that has been effected by human power. CAPE COD CANAL (U.6 knots per day. the lake and river. though even as yet but a project. The length of the canal is 87 miles.021 tons of coal — a saving of 40 days and perhaps £3. It was estimated that about 5. . It resulted in one of the most colossal financial fiascos that the world has known. whereas the original idea was to carry the canal through at sea level. Its projected length is 46½ miles.S. bids fair to be completed before long under the control of the U. if carried through as planned. The canal is to be 23 feet in depth at low water and 200 feet wide. As an effective illustration of the value and importance of these rival projects may be instanced the case of the U.S.660 miles to less than 5. by some 250 miles. The estimated time that will be required for transit is 14 hours. which connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Piræus (the Port of Athens). de Lesseps in 1879. It will not of course be a canal throughout. a distance of 60 miles. Beginning at Greytown. but actually endorsed it in the following words: — " . . Since colonial days the subject has continually been brought forward before the public. Out of the entire length. from the Atlantic to the German Ocean.110 soldiers. and work was actually commenced in 1886. will be over 1.400 in the cost of coal alone. starting at Riga and ending at Kherson. and 17. will be of inestimable value to the immense coasting trade between New York and Southern ports and Boston and the East.9 were to be constructed by actual cutting. By way of Nicaragua she would have accomplished the voyage in 51 days. The western outlet was to be reached at sea level by means of three locks. The present scheme for the completion of the canal involves a change of plan. a distance of somewhat less than eight miles. When it was estimated that the canal would be in operation in 1888.The voyages of full-powered steamships via the Canal to the Far East are as 100 to every 60 via the Cape. Much labour has already been spent upon the project. . authorities with regard to the development of the Panama route. This canal will shorten the route to Boston by some 90 miles. only about 28. the object of Which is to connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean. and Dnieper. . 37 miles of which are natural waterways.000 miles in length. but will follow. but the scheme appears to be stagnating at the present writing. It has a depth of 17 feet. would reduce the distance by water from New York to San Francisco from 15.000. 79.000.

In the second year of its operation there passed through its gates 23. and even half-blood subjects of their own race from sailing in the seas of Guinea and the East Indies. " No native-born Portuguese or alien. from the Mersey to the City of Manchester. or any territory conquered by us. Sea-going traffic amounts to something over 1. and it becomes mere abandoned property. i. let the forsaken hulk be met at sea.e. strictly speaking. was completed by the German Government on April 1. stand on a higher ground. or some portions of it. as well as the sea along its coast to the distance of a marine league. The qualities of a private ship which resemble rights of territory are (1). who. and on this account.180 vessels (including both steam and sailing vessels).469. 747 Swedish. and connects the waters of Lake Erie with those of Lake Ontario. it has recently attained some prominence as an alternative to the Welland Canal mentioned below. rather than on that of the ship itself. The high sea is now free and open to all nations. Its strategic and commercial value to Germany is un questioned. which runs through Canadian territory around Niagara Falls. 137 Russian. Thus the Portuguese prohibited the ships of other nations. or is there attached by the owner's creditor and becomes his property. but they are.) — This canal runs for 450 miles through New York State." So too the Spaniards formerly claimed the right of excluding all others from the Pacific. and public vessels wherever found.307 were German. 1896. Public vessels. even in foreign ports. certain rights as against foreigners. As it is now. foreign goods coming within that distance cannot be transhipped without the payment of duties. and represent the national dignity. Although. The cost approximated to £16. a part of the public organism. The estimated cost of the canal was something over £7. at its junction with the St.000. is in the first rank of commercial importance. on the high seas. and which aggregated 2. it is not a ship canal.795 tons.000. which runs from Amsterdam to the Helder. have some of the attributes of territory. The length of the canal proper. In both cases. on the other hand. — This waterway.ERIE CANAL (U. MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL. if this great waterway Were made the most of. as it were.000. without license. a private vessel. Vessels belonging to the citizens of any nation on the high seas. and estuaries. when it arrives in a foreign port. ceases to be regarded as territory.S. A difficulty is experienced further down. apart from its political value. and then becomes merely the property of aliens. 486 Dutch. were claimed as a monopoly. as being either built or bought by their Government. as against its own crew on the high seas (for its own territorial or municipal law accompanies it as long as it is beyond the reach of other law. is something over 35 miles. If a ship is confiscated on account of piracy or of violation of custom-house laws in a foreign port.000. grain boats break bulk at Buffalo and load into canal boats. Take the crew away. and (2). according to the usage prevailing in Great Britain and the United States. "shall traverse the lands or seas of Guinea and the Indias. For the policing of commerce the distance is extended to four leagues. are excluded from exercising any form of sovereignty over it. bays. 20 feet deep. but formerly the ocean.000 tons to the docks at Manchester. was completed in 1825. that they have any territorial quality. just as they would have been if the vessel in question had actually formed part of the soil of its own country. 40 miles from the sea. For a crime committed in port a vessel may be chased into the high seas and there arrested. however. 344 British. and it was against such claims. they are exempt from the local jurisdiction.000 tons per year. connecting the Baltic with the North Sea. — This important work." says one of their ancient ordinances. and 31 feet wide at bottom. they are not only public property. It is 51 miles in length. 14 The High Seas THE territory of a State includes the mouths of all rivers.000. of which 20. from Lake Erie at Buffalo. or until it comes within the bounds of some other jurisdiction). via the Hudson River. at which point it is necessary to lighten the ship before entering the Lachine Canal (which is of no great depth) in order to pass the rapids — a fault which ought not to be hard to remedy. without a suspicion that territorial rights have been violated. to New York. As already constructed it is available for sea-going vessels of moderate size carrying cargoes of grain from the ports of the great North-West Territory to Europe. 61 . NORTH HOLLAND CANAL. floating barracks. 125 feet wide at water level. it is on account of the crew. their cargo being rehandled at New York. This is a regulation dictated by the necessities of self-protection. — This canal. — This was formally opened in 1894. unless treaty provides otherwise. we never think that territory has been taken away. though on the other hand to chase a criminal across the borders and seize him on foreign soil is a gross offence against sovereignty. It is 26 feet deep by 120 feet wide at the bottom. 159 Norwegian. Yet again. 847 Danish. KIEL (NORTH SEA) CANAL. and is capable of admitting vessels of 6. and nothing more. and the barge traffic half as much more. WELLAND CANAL. on pain of death and the loss of all his goods. Lawrence River.

Selden. ambassadors.. "are the limits of the British sea-empire. or by a combina-tion of both. In Falconer's Dictionary of 1770 the word was defined as meaning — "A vessel of state usually employed to convey Princes. "The shores and ports of the neighbouring States. then. THE yacht of to-day is practically the outcome of a development which has been proceeding during the last hundred years. at a more recent date. and in 1812 a club was formed at East Cowes which was formally organized a year or two later in London. — From Woolsey's International Law. is Dutch. in 1609. has reached so great a perfection in the British Isles." as might be readily supposed. which were constructed of lighter build and fittings than these craft intended solely for cruising. The building and sailing of yachts that were designed for pleasure alone naturally excited a spirit of rivalry when the boats passed each other upon the seas. But this claim was resisted by the U. The Prince Regent and the Duke of Clarence favoured the club by becoming members. claimed property in the seas surrounding Great Britain. who had been the defenders of the liberty of the seas. while contending against the monopolising pretensions of Spain and Portugal. and with a length approximate to 80 feet and a breadth of 30 feet. and at the present day it has come to be generally recognised that the rights of all nations to the use of the high sea being the same. it is known. and soon after the latter came to the throne as William IV. The original members of the Royal Yacht Squadron were all yacht owners. racing conditions were developed by some of the boats of that day. across the Irish Sea. sought to prevent the Spaniards on their way to the Philippines from taking the route of the Cape of Good Hope. or other great personages from one kingdom to another. as well as their claims through the donation of Pope Alexander VI. who published his Mare Clausum in 1635. and the design of these boats began to take shape thus early as being the most suitable for attaining a high speed under favourable 62 . not only on account of its healthful and exhilarating nature. But the beginning of the nineteenth century saw a large fleet of yachts throughout Great Britain come into being. in the Isle of Wight. 15 Yachting (a) ITS DEVELOPMENT. Practically. The English. and was intro-duced into the English language early in the seventeenth century. contained similar concessions. but in the wide ocean to the north and west the limits are yet to be constituted. was the first recognised association formed for the promotion of yachting. upon the ground that this part of the ocean was a passage to shores lying exclusively within her jurisdiction. being cutters of from fifty to one hundred and fifty or more tons. And yet the countrymen of Grotius. and withdrawn in a temporary convention of 1824. made in 1825." Russia finally. small wonder it is that the art of yacht-building. whether propelled by sail or steam." said he. were without foundation. north of the 51st degree. the qualification for membership being the owning of a pleasure vessel of not less than ten tons burthen. as far as to the coasts of the neighbouring countries." Such were the first beginnings of yachting in Great Britain. on the ground of ancient precedent for this claim of his country..S. based an exclusive claim to the Pacific. no less than the art of sailing and handling them. Some of these boats. The origin of the word "yacht. in which he lays down the general principle of the free right of navigation. however. that Grotius.especially against those of the Portuguese. and a voyage on such a craft may be said to still carry with it some measure of the honour and distinction which it possessed in former days. the club's name was caused to be altered to "The Royal Yacht Squadron. and it was only in the eighteenth that they softened down this claim of property into one of sovereignty. and argues that the sea cannot become property. contended zealously. and such favourable conditions. Government. met habitually in the waters off Cowes. and the present luxurious aspect of this kind of vessel is but a natural development of the times." Through a very slight process of evolution the yacht has become the pleasure vessel of the wealthier classes of to-day. all yachts are pleasure-boats. owned and sailed in the south of England. Apart from the questions of pleasure and hospitality. With so extensive a sea-coast. The majority of yachts of that time were. and that the claims of the Portuguese to the discovery of countries which the ancients have left us an account of. who in these competitions often sailed his vessels himself. but by reason of the large number of people who could at one and the same time participate therein. their right to fish upon the high seas. and it is recorded that he built several yachts for the purpose of trying their speed against those of the Duke of York. or on banks and shoal places in them are equal. Charles II. and from this time forward it grew in favour. in the seventeenth century. The Cork Harbour Water Club (now the Royal Cork Yacht Club). was himself especially fond of yachting. of large size and roomy. wrote his Mare Liberum. A treaty of the same empire with this country.

. and rigging were continually im-proved.t.778 r.5 by 46 by 19. aggregate less than 60. until now the number of pleasure craft in Great Britain depending either upon steam alone. on at all equal conditions.5. schooner.) Tw. Drexel. VARUNA.) Tw. 1. Eugen Higgins. 307. to develop the schooner on lines resembling those of the since famous America. and the methods of ballasting.C. only about 60 per cent. LYSISTRATA.t.6 by 45. and which gives employment to as many as 15.7.) Paddle-schooner.t. St. the Emperor of Russia. Rt. sc. Petersburg.. so that it is now very doubtful whether any of the "crack" yachts of the past — say even as little as twentyfive years ago — could possibly compete. In Great Britain. sc. A. 4. (Dumbarton. St.. U.9 by 21. Steam-yachting.4. 439 by 50 by 18. representing a capital investment of perhaps £7.. VICTORIA AND ALBERT. 285 by 39..000 in point of numbers. 1893. 245 by 3. 336.334 r. 1899. sc. Belleville boilers. 1. which had increased by fifty per cent. London.420. POLIARNAIA ZVEZDA. SC. 1896. The United States is the only other country which has developed yachting to anything like the same pitch at which it has arrived in Great Britain. i. New York. Howard Gould. SUNBEAM. 294. K. AND THE CONTINENT. (Stettin. 63 .082 r. 2. and an enthusiasm and ingenuity capable of obtaining the highest measure of success in competitive work.e. the Czar of Russia. MAHROUSSA. and aggregated 50. 4.700 r. HOHENZOLLERN. sc. With a sea-coast that affords a well-nigh inexhaustible extent of cruising ground. THE UNITED STATES.)Tw. Altogether the pleasure craft of both these types number about 4. since which time the tonnage has practically doubled...3. in 1877.000 tons. or upon steam and sail. At the present day the predominant type of racing-craft in America.5.) Tw.780 r. 3 masts. (Birkenhead.000 tons by 1883. 1.. there were 280 registered steam-yachts. 3 masts.t.6 by 13.t.000 men...773 r.. (Greenock. sc. VALIANT. only reached a stage of assured development in the early seventies.2 by 35.5 by 36..7 by 19.p.7 by 17.1 by 13. Kiel. against any of the advanced types of the same dimensions at the present day. 1895.) Tw. NIAGARA. Petersburg.B.t.7 by 39. (Glasgow. essentially a sport of the very wealthy.1 by 36. sc.t. sc.. is a big "single-sticker" of the cutter.9. 273. 4. The sailing yachts owned in Great Britain. The first public recognition given to the pastime in the United States was in 1844. 1. Early American yachts were of the shallow centre-board type.t. is close upon nine hundred.) Tw.. schooner. 1893. 1896. 1865. STANDART.000. speed and stability. the Khedive of Egypt. 1898. Hon.4. 11. 3.15 by 17.t. various expedients were tried in order to obtain a maximum of lightness. the Americans early entered into the full appreciation of the possibilities of the sport. 159 by 27. the German Emperor. when the New York Yacht Club was founded.. 382.000..S.. MAYFLOWER. Lord Brassey. W.000 h. type. (b) A LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT STEAM AND SAILING YACHTS OWNED IN GREAT BRITAIN. (Pembroke. of the total tonnage of steam yachts.. 1900. 3. 3 masts.) Tw.1 by 36. Alexandria.200 r. New York.000 and their total tonnage amounts to 153. (St. Vanderbilt.5. Improvements and innovations were the order of the day.. though something over 3. (London. (Seacomb.1. J.. 1900.270 r.8. 1573 r. bark.t. New York. sc. James Gordon Bennett..t. (Copenhagen.) Aux. sparring.. New York. 370 by 50. from the first. 1874. 400 by 42 by 26.9 by 32. which calls for the further outlay of another million per annum to keep them in commission. 334 r. sc. (Glasgow. 1888. 288. or fin-keel.886 r. New York. 2 masts. Petersburg.) Tw. MARGARITA. Philadelphia.conditions. sc. K.) Tw. as in England.t. STEAM YACHTS.65 by 17. (Wilmington.443 r. 3 masts. 17 knots. though they had a tendency.) Tw.

CASTLE.) Aux. I891. 1895. CINQUE PORTS.057 r. NAMOUNA. BRISTOL CHANNEL. Comte de Castellane. (c) THE AMERICA CUP RACES.7. Chatham.t. nr Swansea. CLYDE CORINTHIAN. (Leith. (d) PRINCIPAL YACHT CLUBS OF GREAT BRITAIN. (Wilmington. Erith. ROYAL. 204 by 27. 239. CHANNEL ISLANDS. ROYAL. NOURMAHAL. ROYAL. ROYAL.S. Madeline beat Countess of Dufferin. Cowes.65 by 18. was beaten by the Columbia. 1. Deal. Mischief beat Atlanta.207 r. C. Edinburgh.7 by 31.. 617 r. 1893. Astor. 235 by 29. 64 . 1903. (New-burgh. (Greenock. CORK. Southsea.t. Aldeburgh. in 1901. 1896. Sir Thos. Queenstown. Liverpool. Vigilant beat Valkyrie II. ROYAL. there have been eleven contests in which the American yachts have been uniformly victorious. Shankill. Volunteer beat Thistle.4 by 18. when Shamrock II.S. 1. Port Victoria. Mayflower beat Galatea. ROYAL. Mumbles. Havre. ANGLESEY. 1885. 3 masts full rigged. ALEXANDRA. 1884. WHITE LADYE. ALBERT.15 by 16. 1886. Columbia beat Sironia. 1881. DORSET. London Dartmouth.) Sc. DART. ERIN. New York. ANCHOR SAILING. 568 r.6 by 37. 219. EASTERN. ROYAL YACHT SQUADRON. co. Puritan beat Genesta. ROYAL. STATION.t. Beaumaris. Warsash.) Sc. Cowes. (Leith. Lipton. 1892..5. Jersey. J. U. New York. Dover. CRUISING CLUB. James Gordon Bennett.t. and Was contested in the following events which have been sailed since that time: — 1870. Magic beat Cambria. Barrow-in-Furness.. ROYAL. Hunter's Quay. CLYDE.2 by 20.. ROYAL. J.* NAME OF CLUB. schooner. 1871. London. Defender beat Valkyrie III.. Lawson Johnston. Cambridge. Hants.) Sc. CORNWALL. DEE. Falmouth. Southend-on-Sea. ROYAL. BARROW. bark. ROYAL. ROYAL. 1876. ENGINEERS. Columbia beat Shamrock II. Columbia beat Shamrock I. ALDEBURGH. ROYAL. schooner. Glasgow.. Including the second attempt of Sir Thomas Lipton.A. 264. schooner. The famous Cup Was won by the America at Cowes in 1851.t.3 by 18. ALFRED. 1901. sc. U.45. ROYAL. 1882. ROYAL. Dublin.. J. Anglesey. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY CRUISING.VALHALLA. 1899. 1887.4 by 26. Challenge by Shamrock III. Weymouth. ERITH.. CORINTHIAN. 768 r.) Sc.5. ROYAL.

Penarth. LOUGH NEAGH. Monkstown. ROYAL. ROYAL. ROYAL. Kingstown. HYTHE. Ipswich. Newcastle-on-Tyne. NORFOLK AND SUFFOLK. ROYAL. SALCOMBE. NORTHERN. WELSH. Leitrim. Southport. Cornwall. ROYAL. ROYAL. SOLENT. London and Ramsgate. Dublin. ROYAL. ROYAL. STATION. Gravesend. ROYAL. Carnarvon. Lowestoft. TEMPLE. ROYAL.W. WESTERN OF ENGLAND. Rothesay. Kent. ROYAL. NORTH OF IRELAND. LORN CORINTHIAN. EXE. ULSTER. Belturbet. SEAVIEW. I. Southampton. Southampton. Ipswich. SUSSEX CORINTHIAN. 65 . ROYAL. VICTORIA. Lancs Plymouth. Brighton. FORTH CORINTHIAN. PENARTH. Torquay. WEST LANCASHIRE. Cork. POOLE. London. Poole. Nenagh. ROYAL. Ryde. NEWHAVEN AND SEAFORD. NORTHUMBERLAND. Birkenhead. Galway. ROYAL. I. Plymouth. Portsmouth. co. LARGS. LOUGH DERG. Sussex. Salcombe. Dalmally. Southampton. Oban. ROYAL. TAY. ST. Rhyl. GEORGE. IRISH. Newhaven. ROYAL. ROYAL. SOUTHPORT CORINTHIAN. ROYAL. PORTSMOUTH CORINTHIAN. FOWEY. SUSSEX. MUNSTER. Guernsey. LOUGH ERNE. Plymouth. MEDWAY. ROYAL. Fowey. SOUTH-WESTERN. SOUTHERN. GALWAY. Drumsna. LONDON. Rochester. Bangor. Yarmouth. Edinburgh. Exmouth. Oban. TORBAY. THAMES.W. co. Cowes. co. GUERNSEY. Southampton. ROYAL. HIGHLAND. Northern Ireland. Brighton. co. ROYAL. ESSEX. Southport. Broughty Ferry. Dartmouth. NAVAL VOLUNTEER CRUISING CLUB. ROYAL. Cultra. Tipperary. RHYL. OCEAN YACHT SQUADRON. NORTH SHANNON. SOUTHAMPTON CORINTHIAN. SOUTHAMPTON. NEW THAMES. START BAY. Southwick. MERSEY. Kingstown. ROYAL. Cavan. ORWELL CORINTHIAN. FORTH. HARWICH. Largs. ROYAL. Leigh. Granton. co. PLYMOUTH CORINTHIAN. THAMES ESTUARY CRUISING CLUB.NAME OF CLUB. Seaview. Ireland. ROYAL. Queenboro.

shall and will pay or cause to be paid unto the said William Dorrington the sum and sums of money which we have hereunto respectively subscribed against our names: without any abatement whatsoever. ROYAL. Southend to Harwich. down to that of the great Maritime Exchange of the present day. in which its business was transacted over two centuries ago. ROYAL. administrators. or our several re-spective heirs. and wherein a number of the habitués of the place had set forth their opinion that all "Coffee Houses" ought to make arrangements. 268 of The Tatler (Dec." 66 . engage. I. WESTERN OF SCOTLAND. a tawney Moor. ROYAL. Bowness. in case Napoleon Bonaparte shall cease to exist. It was intended to run for one month and the premium was three guineas per cent. light coloured coat. and according to that rate for every greater or lesser sum received of William Dorrington. devotes himself to the discussion of a letter. and a pair of shammy breeches. YACHT RACING ASSOCIATION. I. YARMOUTH (GREAT). administrators or assigns. Lloyd's coffee-house in Great Tower Street. 1813. In the Secretary's room is preserved the original policy which was effected at Lloyd's upon the life of the great Napoleon. "Lloyd's" is still the foremost institution in the world for the dissemination of maritime news. The following paragraph is taken from the London Gazette of 1689: — "Run away from Capt." which he had just received. 21st May. Mitchell. River Thames. I. Harwich. Heath £150 Anthony Finn Kemp £150 B. Not specified. and promise that We respectively. YORKSHIRE. dated from "Lloyd's Coffee House. 23. Dover. STATION. in No. River Thames. shall have 20 shillings reward. was from the first bound to become an eventual success. WINDERMERE. *By kind permission.W. Richard Steele.NAME OF CLUB. Bridlington Quay. bow-legged. Yarmouth.W. and do for our respective heirs and Ourselves. white waistcoat. London. or be taken prisoner on or before the 21st June. Hull. assume. for the benefit of their clientèle. to have the "news" read aloud every day and that such places of resort should be established and duly recognised as marts for the purveying of news. from Lloyd's Calendar. executors. Thus it is seen how the public function of news distribution Was identified with the institution from the very first. 1710). 1813 £100 R. 20 years of age. J. Ryde. (e) THE PRINCIPAL YACHTING FIXTURES IN ENGLAND ARE : — ROYAL DEE ROYAL LONDON NEW THAMES ROYAL HARWICH NEW THAMES ROYAL THAMES ROYAL THAMES ROYAL CINQUE PORTS ROYAL YACHT SQUADRON ROYAL VICTORIA 16 "Lloyd's" Holyhead. It was worded thus: — "In consideration of three guineas per one hundred pounds. and assigns of the other or others of us. in view of the extraordinary services which it has continually rendered to the maritime world. executors. (a) HISTORY THE development of Lloyd's from the time of the humble Coffee Tavern in Tower Street. Cowes. we have hereunto subscribed our names. And so it is to-day. River Thames. YORKSHIRE CORINTHIAN. Nore to Dover. Glasgow. Whoever gives notice at Mr. Bradlye." This allusion gives us an idea of some of the kinds of work in which "Lloyd's" was even in those early days engaged.

in a great room. as this information. The wording of the usual policy in use at Lloyd's at the present day is. and has not since been heard of. The exception consists in the substitution of the words. where the relatives of the passengers or crew may obtain without cost information concerning the movements of the vessel in which they are interested. the main duty of underwriters at Lloyd's. This formality consists simply of posting up a notice to the effect that the ship — left the Port of — on a certain day. the accidents and disasters his ships have met with. who place the insurance on behalf of the owners of the ships or cargoes. This bell was taken from H. After this posting at Lloyd's all insurances on the ill-fated ship become payable. thing that can possibly have any bearing on any case connected with him. Lutine. which sank in the Zuider Zee in 1799.000 of which were recovered as recently as 1870. which was insured for a voyage from Lisbon to Venice for £1. the same that was used in 1779. The famous bell which hangs in the Underwriters' Room is tolled twice when an overdue ship is heard from. places them in a position to determine speedily and correctly the condition of almost every merchant vessel afloat. and (2) the brokers. the whole circum-stances are recorded in the Loss Book. and once upon the announcement of a ship's being lost. A great deal of this information is pub-lished daily in Lloyd's List. which is posted up from the records supplied to Lloyd's from day to day. The duties of Lloyd's agents throughout the world may be broadly defined as follows: — In case of shipwreck: to render to masters of vessels any advice or assistance they may require. To carry on the business of Marine Insurance. sits the army of under-writers whose business it is to assist the brokers who appear before them in effecting the insurance of ships throughout the world. and it is in respect of this very important function that the members of and subscribers to Lloyd's may be classified as (1) the underwriters. and which was taken in the name of a ship. carrying down with her treasure amounting to upwards of one million sterling. with one exception. To protect the interests of members of the Society in respect of shipping and cargoes and freight.200." wherein is recorded as minutely as the history of the vessels themselves. under rules laid 67 . An "Inquiry Office" is also established at Lloyd's. To collect. The legal status of Lloyd's is that of a Society incorporated by Act of Parliament. the names of the various ships which he has commanded. contributed to the saving of life at sea." for "In the name of God. however. The Captain's Register is a marine "Dictionary of Biography. which is the legitimate successor of Lloyd's News. by means of extraordinary exertions. It is very necessary that an underwriter should be possessed of a minute knowledge of ships and of the individual and personal history of the people connected with them.S.In the Committee Room is preserved the first Insurance Policy of which there is any record. Its main objects are briefly as follows: — I. without the slightest pretence to artistic surroundings. established in 1696. every known fact regarding the seafaring life of every captain. and the crew and officers are then considered legally dead.. to report by telegraph direct to Lloyd's all casualties which may occur to vessels within their district. 1600. and a medal for "Meritorious Services" is granted to officers and others who. Here. reinforced by the reports which are constantly being received by Lloyd's Intelligence Department from its correspondents in all parts of the world. £40. III. at 4 per cent. and which. every. the Golden Fleece.M. is the oldest existing newspaper published in Europe. have contributed to the preservation of their vessels or cargoes. Amen!" The effecting of Marine Insurance is. in short. A ship is never "posted" at Lloyd's until all hope is gone. who accept the risks. "Be it known that. On January 20. In the instance of a ship that has either met with a serious accident or has been wrecked. publish and diffuse marine intelligence and information. II. then. A medal is presented by the Corporation of Lloyd's as an honorary acknowledgment to those who have. with the exception of the London Gazette. as well as any record he may have for creditable performances or for heroic service. and to otherwise report. no less than the peculiarities and conditions of the trade in which they may be (or have been) en-gaged. by extraordinary exertions.

BARBADOS.down for their guidance. 90 A1. DUNGENESS. (See also SIGNALS. SPITHEAD. BRUNSBUTTELKOOG (Elbe Entrance of the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). FLAMBOROUGH HEAD. SUEZ. The more important stations abroad are: — ELSINORE. RIVER TEES. SAND GATE. DOVER. ABB'S HEAD. BLUFF (Port Natal). 80 A1. SPURN HEAD. ST. thus — 100 A1. CAPE L'AGULHAS. DEAL. CATHERINE'S POINT. LUNDY ISLAND. Lloyd's has also. BARRY ISLAND. FORT SAN SEBASTIAN (Mozambique). MALTA. SOUTHEND. TORR HEAD. with the sanction of the various Governments interested. BUTT OF LEWIS. ST. HERNANDO NORONHA (Brazil ). MUMBLES HEAD. FAYAL. ASCENSION. GIBRALTAR. 68 . ROCHE'S POINT. or oftener in some cases. HELENA. (b) LIST OF LLOYD'S SIGNAL STATIONS [By kind permission. ST. or consignee wishes to communicate with any vessel at any Lloyd's Signal Station he has only to communicate with the head office and instructions will be given accordingly. CAPE MARIA VAN DIEMAN (New Zealand). PRAWLE POINT. RATHLIN ISLAND. Every ship must be submitted to a special survey every four years. PETERHEAD. THE DARDANELLES. with a numeral prefixed. for which they re-tain their characters so long as. on careful annual and periodical surveys. LAS PALMAS (Grand Canary). also A1 (without a numeral) for special trades. DUNNETT HEAD. BRIXHAM.] HONOLULU. Michael's). STORNOWAY. CAPE SPARTEL. from Lloyd's Calendar. OLD HEAD OF KINSALE. Michael's). PORTLAND BILL. ANNE'S HEAD. HEYST. from Lloyd's Calendar. THE LIZARD. KILDONAN. FAREWELL SPIT (New Zealand). BERMUDA. CAPE VERDE. STEEL AND IRON SHIPS are classed by Lloyd's Register as A1. MALIN HEAD. PONTA FERRARIA (St. TORY ISLAND.) (c) CLASSIFICATION OF SHIPS [By kind permission. and 75 A1. PONTA DO ARNEL (St. PERIM. CAPE POINT. ST.] United Kingdom. PORT SAID. PENZANCE. POINT DE GALLE. TYNEMOUTH. ADEN. NUGGET POINT (New Zealand). BROW HEAD. INISTRAHULL. LAMLASH. 95 A1. NO MAN'S FORT. BEACHY HEAD. 85 A1. HELIGOLAND. they are found to be in a fit and efficient condition to carry dry and perishable cargoes. charterer. GOODE ISLAND (Torres Straits). all marine happenings within their ken. ALDEBURGH. If a shipowner. HOLTENAU (Baltic Entrance of the Kaiser Wilhelm Kiel Canal). the control and working of Signal Stations in the United Kingdom and abroad. SCILLY ISLANDS. CAPE RACE (Newfoundland).

ostrich feathers. S. but carries on a great trade with Arabia. S. subject to occasional or annual surveys when practicable. WOODEN SHIPS are also classed A1 in red. after the name of their introducer. W.A. 3. (d) LOAD LINE MARKS Under the Merchant Shipping Act. rocky peninsula. Summer. consist of a disc with a horizontal line running through the centre and extending somewhat on each side of the circle. Vincent. North Atlantic. 163.000. They are eligible for continuation or restoration of the character Al for further periods upon special surveys. gold. all British ships (excepting those under 80 tons register employed solely in the coasting trade or as fishing boats and pleasure yachts) must be marked with load-lines in accordance with the "Freeboard" tables in the Act. silver. This also is a class of vessel fit for the safe conveyance of dry and perishable goods. Markings on the starboard side of a sea-going sailing ship. and hides. on steamships. wine. Winter. Markings on the star-board side of a sailing ship engaged in the coasting trade only. for the conveyance of dry and perishable goods on shorter voyages.W. 2. which are sometimes called Plimsoll marks. Indian Summer. gum. Capital of South Australia and University town. The port is seven miles distant.WOODEN SHIPS are classed A1 as first-classers for a term of years. Aden and Perim are under the Bombay Government. Exports: Coffee. 42. 69 . on Gulf St. lead. Non-productive. wheat. — Population. 17 Gazetteer (a) OF COLONIAL AND FOREIGN PORTS ADELAIDE (South Australia). and tallow. 75 miles square in extent. W. A bare. — Population. iron. tobacco. 1. Fresh water. WOODEN SHIPS are likewise classed Æ1. Exports: Wool. ADEN. copper. I. A strongly fortified coaling station on the Red Sea trade route. 1894. These ships are marked with the following initials : — F.430. Winter. In addition to this there are.N. Markings on the star-board side of a steamship. also to half-time or intermediate special surveys. These marks. which indicate the load limit for different seasons of the year and for fresh water. a number of lines at right angles to a perpendicular.

523. AUCKLAND (New Zealand). with Which it is connected by railway.226. The town contains a Royal Palace of enormous size. — Population (including the port of Firmus) 179. — Population.000. Is well fortified and has two harbours. metals. textiles. The second sea-port of Brazil. two dry docks. coffee. coco nuts. ALGIERS. John's. AZORES (Dependencies of Portugal). St. wool.S. Exports: Petroleum. 200. see Nassau. Has an open roadstead for harbour. see Buenos Ayres. 280.558. a breakwater 2 miles long. APIA (Samoa). and Admiralty depôt. wines. still remains a centre of great commercial activity. hides tallow. Coaling station.000. esparto grass. Much resorted to by whalers. Consulate. BALTIMORE (U. 70 . possessing wide thorough-fares and fine buildings. tapioca. An island in the South Atlantic.ALBANY (West Australia). and a Consulate. — Population. gold. Legation and Consulate. ALEXANDRIA. Fayal. flax. Pico. and phosphates. rice.000. Theological Seminary. — Population. ANTIGUA. Michael. to secure pre-eminence among the ports of the U. BAHAMAS. and tobacco. chemicals. Consists of nine volcanic islands with an area of 700 square miles. 67. Public Library. and a large floating dock. Art Gallery.S. 3. Ship Building Yards. with one of the finest of harbours and two graving docks. ARGENTINA. Technical College. 508. Exports: Grain. Coaling station. AMSTERDAM. on the Cape route between Africa and South America. Principal port of Egypt. on Chesapeake Bay. Exports: Gold. timber. Tercera. From its situation on Chesapeake Bay. — Population. sanatorium. Fortified coaling station.255. — Population. Mary.700. gum. sugar. Corvo. and hides. cotton-seed. Has a dry dock 600 feet long. — Population. Exports: Cotton. hides. — The residence of the Foreign Consuls in Samoa. Naval base and coal-ing station. feathers. Capital of Modern Greece. A thriving city of some commercial importance. timber. Exports: Flour. St. Consulate. Flores. Consulate. — Population. grain. see St. The principal city lies 12 miles from the port. Consulate.).957. ASCENSION. 180 miles from the open sea. — Population. George. 120. 320. wheat. and remarkable from the fact that it stands upon 13. and mid-way between New York and Washington.000. Has a harbour of 220 acres.755. Contains the Royal Palace. resins. about 400. Natural History Museum. it is probably destined. Consulate. and diamonds. Exports: Tobacco. Strongly fortified. 262. ATHENS. pearls. One of the busiest seaports of the world. Prin-cipal port of West Australia. metals. flour. — Population. Exports: Wool. Coaling station. ANTWERP. BAHIA (Brazil). rubber. Graciosa. Very extensive quays. cork. fine woods. — Population. onions and gum. called St. Once the first commercial city of the world. as a grain-distributing centre.659 piles driven 70 feet into the ground.

and cotton. ebony.--Population.000. Small harbour and mole. fruits. Museum and Naval Academy. Exports: Rice. BERGEN (Norway). gum. Nearest port to Rhodesia. BEIRA (Portuguese East Africa). bones. fruits. etc. Important fortified city and seaport with fine harbour — deep.000. sponges. BATOUM (Black Sea). copper. coconuts. tea. University. rice. Built on three islands. Chamber of Commerce. tomatoes. Cathedral. Chief seaport of Siam. lead. magnificent natural harbour.286. wool. gums. Commercial emporium of the Dutch East Indies. pepper. 71 . The most important commercial centre of Spain. Exports: Beeswax. pepper. Principal port in the north of Spain. and liquorice. Fine harbour. 182. oils. Consulate. Coaling station and Consulate. Bridgetown. Consulate. and tobacco. BOMBAY. 50. The chief town of British Honduras. pig iron. and hides. Hamilton). English and other Schools and Colleges. BILBAO (Spain). Exports: Sugar. and Railway Terminus. Capital of the Indian Presidency so-called. is the first port of call for Royal Mail Steamers outward bound. ivory.000. sago. Exports: Petroleum and petroleum products. — Population. wines. BERMUDAS (chief town. fish. sheltered. indigo. — Population. Legation. gall. Exports: Potatoes. horses.296. and docks of over 200 acres. Magnificent museum. — Population. fish. Consulate. manganese. 55. and hides. opium." and claiming to be "the most densely populated part of the habitable globe.BANGKOK (Siam). Exports: Sugar.S. and onions. and molasses. Important naval base and naval dockyard.000. flour. Exports: Cork. Capital of Java. Exports: Cotton. Exports: Iron ore. tin. 776. soap. and quicksilver. Magnificent Royal Palace of King Chulalongkorn. teak. — Population. locally known as "Bimshire" or "Bims. and sheep.000. coffee.200. herrings. seeds. — Population. Oilrefining works. BARBADOS (West Indies). rum. iron. An island about the size of Isle of Man. 4. Exports: Mahogany. silk.055. BEYRUT (Syria). 100. Exports: Codfish. 600. much of which is exported to England. Tideless harbour. Consular Agent. madder. and wine. The centre of the corn and petroleum trade of Transcaucasia. and fruit. floating dock. oranges. wheat. 7. lemons. Lie some 600 miles east from the coast of the U. BELIZE (Honduras). skins. oil. Fishing is the principal industry. — Population. — Population. BARCELONA (Spain). 23. but rocky. 510." Its chief town. beetroot. — Population. rice. 105. BATAVIA (Dutch East Indies). Large deposits of iron ore in vicinity. 1. walnut. arrow-root. The port of Damascus. — Population. Exports: Silk.006. woods.800. cedar. — Population.000. — Population. logwood. and many fine pagodas. Consulate. ivory.

Chief French fishing port. Exports: Cattle. 75. Starting-point of direct mail and passenger route from Europe to Egypt. which is here 36 miles in width.S. Numerous docks and shipbuilding yards.200. Situated on Table Bay. almonds. — Population. CANARY ISLANDS.001. Consulate. (St. CAPE TOWN. large trade with West Indies. sugar. sheep. — Population. 35. and timber. and the East. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. — Population. about half that number Mohammedans. — Population. wheat. 1. cottons. — Population. fish. — Population. and the principal seaport in South Africa. On the River Garonne. BOSTON (U. 46. seeds.BORDEAUX (France). silver ore. vegetables. silks. and eggs. On the Rio de la Plata. Con-sulate. Exports: Wines.000. Observatory. Has large docks. — Population. fruit. the vast majority being Hindus. brandy. and lard. Botanical Garden. toys. — Population. Consular Agent. Outer and inner harbours . 900. linens. Arsenal. BRISBANE (Queensland). The centre of the wine shipping trade. Observatory. Government dockyard. BUENOS AYRES (Argentina). railway termini. petroleum.026. Is one of the Free towns of the Hanseatic League. and station of the Cape and West African Squadron. Australia. and horns.000. Coaling station. BRINDISI (Italy).428.000 (1891). grain. Consular Agent. Deep-sea harbour.111.). — Population. ore. and Newfoundland. Climate healthy and dry with uniform temperature. Principal seaport and capital of Queensland. beef. wine. both excellent. Exports: Cement. figs. Exports: Guano. A sea-port of Brittany. Principal sea-port of Peru. and chief station of the French Navy. BREST (France). tur-pentine. — Population. 28 miles distant. flax. — Population. 1I9. CALCUTTA. In 1746 it suffered from an earthquake in which 3. and wood. Capital of State of Massachusetts. 260. iron. Situated on the largest and most picturesque of the Windward Islands. The port is Bremerhaven.596. 50 miles from the North Sea. woollens. One of the chief commercial ports of Germany. Exports: Maize. steel Ware. tallow.987. hides. Exports: Woollens. West Indies). on the Atlantic.832. CAPE VERDE. fish. Capital of Bengal Presidency. oats. University. fruit. Cham-ber of Commerce. BREMEN (Germany).000. Vincent. 17. Exports: Wool. Lucia. CASTRIES or PORT ISLANDS. and an important naval and coaling station. ice. glass. and within 3/ hours of both capitals. Hamburg and Lübeck being the other two. and beer.000 of the inhabitants perished. An Imperial Garrison. on the River Weser. Canada. wines. pork. machinery. — Population. 227. and wine port. and linseed. Extensive harbour works in process of con-struction. Capital of the Argentine Republic. meat. Govern-ment dock. 500. On the direct route between London and Paris.000. and School of Art. brandy. 72 . cattle. Consulate. 55 miles from Bay of Biscay. Exports: Olive oil. Fine harbour works and docks. 8. see St. see Teneriffe. hides. and salt. 167. possessing one of the finest ports in the West Indies. CALLAO (Peru).

789. 73 . GALVESTON (U. Central America). oil-seeds.S. George's.300. Exports: Agricultural produce. condensed milk.600. Enclosed harbour and docks. CONSTANTINOPLE. Capi-tal of Norway. — Population. Exports: Timber. 5. Exports: Tobacco. Wood pulp. etc. carpets. live stock. CHRISTIANIA (Norway). GENOA (Italy). University. Observatory. and wool. Exports: Coffee. cabinet woods. — Population. margarine.). and coaling station. CHILE. arti-ficial flowers. Royal dockyard. COLOMBO (Ceylon). Arsenal. A sea-port and fortress on the Vistula. with a great trade in cotton and lumber. 154. matches. at the commencement of the Panama (Inter-oceanic) Railway. cinnamon. numerous palaces and churches.). Exports: Bananas. nearly opposite the Isle of Wight. which is 47 miles in length. tea. ice.000. GIBRALTAR. A rocky promontory 3 miles in length by mile broad. Ample harbour. — Population 55.). — Population. see Valparaiso. 227. the capital of Natal. Archbishopric. skins.000. — Population.000. Capital and chief port of the Ottoman Empire.576.100. and Botanical Gardens. by a tidal wave. and pearls. precious stones (rubies and cat's-eyes). tragacanth. and wool. vanilla. about 1.990. — Population. Until 1896 a free port. cereals. COLON (Colombia. DANTZIG (Germany). minerals. hides. Its export trade has largely de-creased of late. — Population. cocoa.539. india-rubber. now in course of construction. The Atlantic port of the Isthmus of Panama. and a great railway terminus of lines from the interior.W. The only harbour of any import-ance on the South-east Coast of Africa. cinchona.410. In 1901 nearly 4. West Indies).000. COPENHAGEN.000. valonia. fruits. Also called Port Natal. oils. carda-moms. on the Christiania Fiord. GRENADA (Windward Islands. near the Baltic Sea. Garrison. gum. The Colony is also rich in coal and iron. A Naval Station on the English Channel. mohair. On the Gulf of Genoa. — Population. Fortress. and residence of the Sultan. 31. Exports: Macaroni. DURBAN (South Africa). dye-stuffs. 20. — Population (1885). opium. and further works under consideration. silk. Wrecked. 37. Capital of Ceylon (the population of which numbers 3. though the area is but 25. Possesses a magnificent harbour called the Golden Horn. dockyard. and 1. The capital and principal port of Denmark. — Population. 48. — Population. see Roseau. Possesses a railway to Pietermaritzburg.S. a few years ago. A free port: it enjoys an extensive shipping trade. and medicinal plants. 140.807. Magnificent roadstead. metals. paper. Military port and commercial har-bour. 237. — Population.I.000 ships entered the port. which caused immense damage and loss of life. connected with the mainland of Spain by a low isthmus.486. Exports: Coffee. 408. fish. Macadam stone. to cost £4. DOMINICA (B. One of the principal cotton shipping ports on the Gulf of Mexico.CHARLESTOWN (U. etc. founded in 1849.556. and horse-shoe nails. see St.355. An im-portant southern city in the United States.365 square miles).439 feet high. vermicelli. CHERBOURG (France).

MADRAS. Apples. KINGSTOWN (St. HAMBURG. The seat of Government and largest port in the island. Annexed by the United States in 1899. in the West Indies. Universally famed for its tobacco. — Population 509. coal. on the south coast of Oaku.HALIFAX (Nova Scotia). University. Montserrat.470. and mahogany. woollens. these three being known as the Free Hanse Towns. Archbishopric. A Crown Colony. 307. The capital of the Island. Castle. HAVANA (Cuba). Fine harbour. — Population. tea. 16. Vincent. of which the chief town is Victoria). recently connected with Bristol by a direct line of steamers (Elder Dempster Line). JAVA. The capital of Nova Scotia. Aqueduct. etc. Ham-burg shares with Bremen and Lübeck the major portion of Germany's fast increasing export trade. Exports: Opium. — Population. 787. about 14. — The chief city of the British West Indian Island of Jamaica. HONOLULU (Hawaii). Cable to San Francisco. rice. LEEWARD ISLANDS. 65 miles distant. Population.661. and a portion of the main-land. HOBART (Tasmania). The scene of the terrible eruption of a volcano known as "La Soufrière.215 square miles.346. coffee. Christopher (with Nevis and Anguilla). — Population. 119. — Population. and poor anchorage. cotton. Military and Naval Station. 20 inches. about 30. 41.585. St. HONDURAS.446. which contains 26. The principal port of Palestine. at the mouth of the Seine. Principal commercial port of Northern France. Natural harbour formed by a coral reef." Which killed many hundreds of persons. HONG KONG (the name of an island off China. 250. — Population. cigarettes. Chamber of Commerce.710. 10 miles from the sea. 252½ square miles. pines. — Population. ivory. Exports: Oranges. excellent docks. White population.000. see Belize. Exports: Bananas. sugar. Capital and chief port of the Sandwich Islands. — Population. consisting of the Island of Hong Kong. Arsenal. olive oil. No har-bour. 74 . Area.000. connected with Jerusalem by railway.547. — Population. molasses. cigars. On the Elbe. see Batavia. iron. Mean annual temperature of 54 degrees rainfall. Capital and chief seaport of Portugal. 4. see Tamatave. — Population. and sesame. The island which formed one of the chief causes of the Spanish-American War. which has a population of 745. on the River Tagus. KINGSTON or KINGSTOWN (Jamaica). and fisheries. see Honolulu. which have been leased to Great Britain for ninety-nine years. Magnificent harbour. silks.000. including garrison. — Population.723. Possesses a large arti-ficial harbour.000. and the Virgin Islands make up the West Indian Colony known as the Leeward Islands. HAVRE (France). 64 Churches. in Syria. Dominica. and an area of 4.000. and retaining their own sovereignty. Has been a British possession since 1783. and destroyed crops and buildings throughout a third of the island. Exports: Tobacco. Fortifications. The ocean port is Cuxhaven.193 square miles. The capital of Cuba. JAFFA (Palestine) — the ancient Joppa. sugar. drugs and spices. dye-stuffs. LISBON. MADAGASCAR. Terminus of the Inter-colonial Railway. The chief city of the Presidency of that name. 127. HAWAII. West Indies).104. 47. — Antigua (with Barbuda and Redonda). 248. hay. and prin-cipal Naval Station in North America.

wool. and skins. — Population. and the centre of the grain export trade north of Newport.202. MONTSERRAT. Important port of call for steamers to the Far East. chemicals. from Spain in the war of 1898. — Population.).239. NASSAU (Bahamas).057. 216. NEW ORLEANS (U. hides. Hospital. wine.437. Ships large cargoes of beef and grain to Great Britain and the Continent. see Plymouth. The commercial metropolis of the United States. — Population. Lawrence. — Population.860.799. On the River St. but contains large numbers of Jews. copra. and from Montreal. fruits. 75 . it still retains much that is characteristic of the Gaul. hair. University. Castle. NAPLES. Capital of the Province of that name on the Mediterranean. Ships cotton to Manchester and Liverpool. grain. and sulphur. with Herculaneum and Pompeii. — Population. Situated on the Gulf of Naples. Exports: Oranges. the group having remained a British possession since 1783. which are seldom frozen.W. The capital of Uruguay. six hours.000. oil. coco-nuts. Fort. University.579. 544.S. and the population includes a large pro-portion of Spaniards. 125. The sea-port of Portugal. olive oil. and tobacco. Opera. 3. wool. from San Francisco and Pacific coast ports.S. valuable woods. which gave its name to the "port wines" of Douro. and Mount Vesuvius. OPORTO (Portugal). 287. flour. MALTA. An artificial harbour has been built at Leixoes. 19.000. Province of Sicily. hemp. — The chief town of the Bahamas. French seaport on the Mediterranean. Library.000. lemons. are close by. Cathedral. Botanical Garden. Mole and Light. Both commercially and strategically an important Atlan-tic port. Chief export: A sweet wine. A seaport on the Black Sea. hides. Capital of the Island of Luzon in the Philippine Islands. Population chiefly Russian. perfumery. 292. Botanical Garden. 338. and cattle. The principal commercial port on the Gulf of Mexico. and Frenchmen.651 (1891). The commercial metropolis of the Dominion of Canada. sugar. four and a half days. Exports: Wine. and flax. By Railway from Chicago.635. Possesses architecturally imposing and handsome buildings. indigo. and one of the largest and busiest ports of the world. — Population. twelve hours. Archbishopric. Originally a French settlement. MANILA (Philippines). 238. Italians. PALERMO (Sicily). on the north shore of the Rio de la Plata.MALAGA (Spain). MONTREAL (Canada). It is the nearest regular port to Sicily. Palaces. 442. — Population.). The commercial and intellectual capital of the Province of Novorossoya. In the N. MONTE VIDEO (Uruguay). Has three fine harbours. — Population. and the largest of all French ports. NEW YORK. twenty-six hours. Castle. horns. bananas.S. Bishopric. — Population. 138. Roumanians. situated upon an island called Providence. Chief Exports: Sponges. Slays. and fibre NEWPORT NEWS (U. from Washington. live stock. Cathedral. — Population. captured by the U. Exports: Hemp. It was once a Spanish possession. — Population. coffee. Exports: Grain. — Population.104. Picture Galleries. 244. MARSEILLES. Cathedral. see Valetta. ODESSA (Russia). Exports: Beef. and Tartars.

is a monument erected in joint memory of the French and English who fell in the great battle between General Wolfe and Montcalm de Saint Veran. 1. — Population. and coconuts. — Population. On the Columbia River in Oregon. The capital and chief port of Trinidad. tobacco. The most northerly trans-atlantic port of the United States. sugar. The capital of Dutch Guiana. and Brazil nuts. — Population. 54. of which it is the great seaport.000. Chief Export (forming nearly two-thirds of the total). PARAMAIRIBO (Dutch Guiana). decided Canada's future. etc.556. cocoa.697.145. cotton. Exports: Sugar. balata. — Population. see Jaffa. founded by William Penn. coffee. On the Heights of Abram. gold. on a bay of the same name. and coffee.881. Terminus of the Canadian steamship lines when the Canadian ports are closed with ice.000. rum.). Chief Exports: Limes and sugar. — Population. West Indies). Nearly a million tons of shipping cleared in 1900. At the Mediterranean entrance of the Suez Canal. of which it is thought to have formed once an integral part. possessing an electric tramway and an excellent Botanical Garden. 76 . which is the most southerly of all the West India Islands. Exports: Sugar.000.293. both for commerce and passenger traffic. on the left bank of the Surinam. 234. on September 14. PORTLAND (U. One of the most prosperous towns in the West Indies. Port of Spain is finely laid out. and is separated by a strait but 7 miles broad from Venezuela and the mainland of South America. The capital of the Province of that name in Canada. Fine harbour. which. PORT OF SPAIN (Trinidad). A growing port. PHILADELPHIA (U. RANGOON (Burma). see Colon. PERNAMBUCO (Brazil). india-rubber. Has been a British possession since 1784. The chief seaport of Brazil.S. PANAMA. 20 miles from the sea. timber. — Population. coffee. PORTLAND (U. — Population. 50. PORT SAID (Egypt). dyewoods. sugar. The most characteristically " Old World " city on the American continent. It bears a sinister reputation. Other Exports are: tobacco. — Population. with a considerable export timber trade. 111. — Population. PHILIPPINES. 1.S. A sea-port of Brazil. see Manila. bitters. 28. QUEBEC. RIO DE JANEIRO (Brazil). — Population.PALESTINE.S. on the Atlantic sea-board. Headquarters of the Columbia River salmon-canning industry. hides. PLYMOUTH (Montserrat. cassava-root. molasses. Lawrence. situated on a sandy island lying near the mainland. Exports: Cocoa. 1759.426. cotton. beans. — Population. see Callao. Situated in the State of Maine. cocoa.). At La Brea is the celebrated Pitch Lake of Trinidad. 90. The great grain-ship-ping port of the Pacific Coast. maize. in view of the St. One of the oldest cities of the United States. PERU. Fortifications. 674. bananas.824.972. ).461. 68. 42.

one of the outlets of the Rhine. — The chief town of Grenada.E. of which island it was con-stituted a ward in 1899. — The port of Dominica. ST. Roman Catholics. — Population. Japan. and the principal winter port of Canada. JOHN'S (Antigua. the residence of the Emperor. and also for its scenery. which is frozen over for about 150 days in the year. About 85 per cent. long under a cloud through mal-administration. Capital of the Russian Empire. the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles. growing cocoa.782. SAN FRANCISCO.).S.671. Academies of Art and Science. An import-ant cotton-shipping port and market on the Atlantic sea-board of the U. VINCENT (Cape Verde Islands). which belong to Portugal. 31. ST. Winter Palace. The prin-cipal port of Southern California.). and the capital of the twelfth largest island in the world. sealskins. SAVANNAH (U. numerous European estates having been recently formed there.179. see Kingstown. West Indies). Exports: Codfish. being free of ice usually throughout the year. West Indies).262. 54. The prin-cipal Pacific port on the North American continent. and population 111. It has also a considerable export trade in lumber. 39. JOHN'S (Newfoundland). 1. Exports: Sugar and cane products. Situated on the island of Tobago. 17. at the head of the Gulf of Finland. 80. Chief town of Antigua. the Philippines.000 feet). West Indies)." an island famous as the home of the last of the Caribs. it is one of the most prosperous of these islands. sugar. — Population. Morne Diablotin (5. ST. at which an English traveller with one or two native guides recently lost his life. see Apia. VINCENT (Windward Islands).S.370. — Population. situated on the Maas. JOHN (New Brunswick. A thriving city on Puget Sound.S. The island was discovered by Columbus in 1498. lying six hours by steamer from the mainland. ST. and Jews. The site of two Cathedrals. ST.700. Leeward Islands).S. Hermitage.142. Observatory and University. 318. and at the mouth of the Neva.468. Exports: Sugar. — Population. Exports: Sugar and cane products. coffee. The island. — Population.267.244.000. SAMOA. and limes. copper and copper ore. terminus of the trans-continental railways. being divided between Protestants. The principal seaport of New Brunswick. especially for its chief moun-tain. LUCIA. GEORGE'S (Grenada. and fruit. Picture Gallery. — Population. cocoa. I. SAN DIEGO (U. — Population.023.). 342. — Population." It became a British possession in 1783. tinned lobsters. cod and seal oil. Cathedral. settled by the British in 1632. molasses. 9. ST. and iron pyrites. and then named " Conception. about 18 miles N. — Chief town and port of the Cape Verde Islands. Next to Trinidad. — Population. and its Boiling Lake.ROSEAU (Dominica. cotton. is now making rapid progress. a few miles from the Mexican border. SCARBOROUGH (Tobago. — Population. One of the healthiest islands in the West Indies. Its Library ranks next to the Bibliothèque Nationale and the British Museum. and chief shipping port for China. of Trinidad. ROTTERDAM (Holland). Canada). and Australasia.490 square miles. and one of the finest harbours on the American continent. the remaining 15 per cent. The largest commercial city and port in the Nether-lands. and the chief point of embarkation for the Klondyke and the Gold Fields of Alaska. SEATTLE (U. 77 . rum. spices. ST. of the population belong to the Greek Church. named from one of the rarest of birds. ST. see Castries. their area being 1. possessing a good harbour and a fort. PETERSBURG.

shawls. it is one of the greatest ports of the world. matches. and population 300. see Port of Spain.900." The climate is healthy. The population consists of: Turks. China). and connected by canal with the Mediterranean. Strongly Fortified Military Station. and. Founded by Sir Stamford Raffles in February. sumach. extremity of the Adriatic. 78 . SINGAPORE (Straits Settlements). 80. and timber. Under French protection. in which there is a small Menagerie. which belong to Spain. 158. India. SICILY. Moors. — Population.000. SYDNEY (New South Wales). 17. but in respect of the volume and value of its trade. Africa). The Port. tobacco. see Monte Video. 228. URUGUAY. zinc. The capital of New South Wales. but is often closed by ice three months in the year. Chief Export: Tin. including 3. also otto of roses and jessamine. The capital and commercial emporium of Barbary. Madagascar became a French pos-session in 1896. wheat. wax.000 square miles. — Population. — The port of Madagascar. Capital of Sweden.356. and National Library. hides. and is well provided with docks. and machinery. Academy of Science. raw cotton. TRINIDAD.555. Situated upon a small island off the southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula.000. and fine Botanical Gardens. — Population. see Scarborough. Average temperature. and is well fortified. at the N. University. SUEZ (Egypt). TENERIFFE (Canary Islands). It has a small Museum. oil.344. wax. 380. Trieste has steam-ship communication with the Black Sea. The southern terminus of the Suez Canal. straw and bristles. Observatory. TOBAGO.E. 40 miles from the open sea. Turkey. and Christians. It suffers greatly from heat in summer. india-rubber. situated on the shores of the finest harbour in the world — Port Jackson. wine. TRIESTE (Austria). their area being 3. 487. oats.7 degrees. on the Mediterranean. and esparto grass. National Museum. Exports: Cattle. Its chief manufactures are silk and woollen stuffs. which suffered considerable losses. of Fine Arts. Fortifications. An inland port near the site of Ancient Carthage. car-pets. and fruits. Arsenals. hemp. 41. Situated in the Province of Kiangsu. and China. the fourth largest island in the world. with an area of 230. Exports: Cattle and butter. Observatory. steel. 303. gum-copal. it is without a rival among the Treaty Ports of China.000. Exports: Wine. TAMATAVE (Madagascar). tobacco. — Population.000 foreigners. Exports: Corn. timber and wood products. fezzes. and two Cathedrals. — Population. 153. TUNIS (Barbary. rice. — Population. Exports: Silk. the capital of which is Tananarive. coffee. Royal Mint. Arabs. STOCKHOLM (Sweden). mantles. skins. brandy. and rice. paper.000. The principal seaport of Austria. N. being frequently alluded to as the "Gibraltar of the East. 1819. wool. burnouses. wool. Situated on the Gulf of Suez. stone. Kabyles. Jews. has 5 miles of quays. the Malagasy Queen being deposed by a French military expedition. Exports: Grain. In respect of its shipping. generally speaking. paper.000.SHANGHAI (S. It is also of great strategical importance. — Population. on the Yang-tse-kiang. Library. wool. olive oil. see Palermo. TOULON (France). French Naval station. sugar. — Population. is not over healthy. oil. skins and furs. iron. Art Gallery. tea. Magazines.000 square miles. and Naval Hospital. Egypt. — Chief port and capital of the Canary Islands.

and the point of departure for Japan and the Far East. H. Her trade is now outstripped by that of Trieste. Exports: Silk. vanilla. First Steam Engine built. and the Grenadines. 157. drugs. and Naval College.763. — Population. copper. Grenada. Arsenal. Union of England and Scotland. 60. First English Canal. iodine.VALETTA (Malta). though included in the list. logwood. Lutine wrecked. hides. Cook's first voyage. — Population. Bridgetown). First notice of Lloyd's Coffee House in Tower Street. VANCOUVER (British Columbia). fish. First Settlement in Australia. and the most important British port of call in the Mediterranean. YOKOHAMA (Japan). matches. London Times established. WINDWARD ISLANDS. VERA CRUZ (Mexico). sugar. An "open" seaport of Japan. rice. Eighty miles from Victoria. St.785. gold. Government dry docks. First Dock opened in Liverpool. Lifeboat first used at South Shields. camphor. and terminus of the Siberian Railway. Board of Trade constituted. New Zealand discovered. Mark's. copper.000 (1889). flax and hemp. the western terminus of the Cana-dian Pacific Railway. tea.900 (chiefly Mili-tary. Gibraltar taken by the English. Bank of England founded. straw plaits. Exports: Silver and gold. 30. wheat. A great Naval and Military base.762. 79 . — Population. The chief seaport of Mexico. timber. — Population. A fortified city and port of Italy. Nautical Almanac published. indigo. VENICE. and her commercial supremacy seems to have gone the way of the Campanile of St. Sextant invented.] 1492 1508 1545 1550 1642 1666 1688 1694 1700 1704 1707 1709 1714 1758 1767 1768 1786 1788 1790 1799 America discovered. Capt. and marine pro-ducts (b) OF IMPORTANT SHIPPING EVENTS [By kind permission. cochineal. coal. Chief seaport of Chile. from Lloyd's Calendar. is a separate colony. and guano. Fire of London. and skins.S. — Population.000. Vincent. VLADIVOSTOCK. 14. Lucia.M. 193. Formerly one of the most im-portant commercial and maritime cities of the world. — Population. on the Pacific. — Population. Fine har-bour. shipbuilding yard. Barbados (v. The chief Naval station of Russia. St. iron and coal. — These include Barbados. 143. silver. First Treatise on Navigation issued. 1891). sheltered harbour. tobacco. flour. Extensive arsenal and dock-yards VALPARAISO (Chile). First London Daily Paper. Exports: Nitrate of soda. Shipping first registered in the River Thames. the most important centre of commerce on the Pacific Coast of British North America. First Marine Insurance in England.000. and throughout the Empire in 1787. skins. 24. built upon 120 islands connected by nearly 500 bridges.

Blackwall Tunnel opened. First Cunard Steamer Britannia sailed. First Steamer crossed the Atlantic. voyage 17 days. Manchester Ship Canal opened. Imperial Penny Postage instituted. Atlantic cable laid by Great Eastern. Corinth Ship Canal opened. Launch of steamship Oceanic. Royal Albert Docks opened. First Steam Ironclad launched. New London Bridge opened. Southampton Graving Dock opened. 80 . National Lifeboat Institution established. New Eddystone Lighthouse opened. First steam voyage to India. Thames Tunnel opened. First Steam Vessel on the Thames. Present Custom House opened in London. Gold discovered in California. Inman Company established. Suez Canal opened. Penny Post introduced. First Submarine Telegraph. St. Kaiser Wilhelm Canal opened. & O. War between Greece and Turkey. First regular steamboat service across Atlantic. P. Steam Navigation Company opened. Telegraphs transferred to Government. Jubilee of Queen Victoria. West India Docks opened. Tilbury Docks opened. First message by Atlantic cable.1801 1802 1805 1806 1807 1812 1815 1817 1818 1824 1825 1828 1831 1833 1838 1840 1843 1845 1847 1848 1850 1851 1858 1860 1863 1866 1869 1870 1880 1882 1886 1887 1890 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Forth Bridge opened. Gas first used in London. East India Docks opened. London Docks opened. Iron Steamships first built in Great Britain. Penny Steamers commenced. Twin screws first used. New Docks inaugurated at Cuxhaven. Great Eastern Steamer launched. Tower Bridge opened. Katherine's Docks opened. North-West Passage discovered. War between United States and Spain. First steamboat (Comet) on the Clyde. Trade with India thrown open.

— The small observation-deck occupied by the navigating officers. BINNACLE. — The rope edge surrounding a sail (to which it is sewed). BOW OR BOWS. — A ship's anchorage. BULWARKS. — On the side away from the wind. Report of Royal Commission on the Port of London issued. Vincent. AUXILIARY ENGINES. — To fasten. cleat. — A strong rope or chain. — The box containing the ship's compass. — An arrangement for assisting a ship over shoals. BELAY. BERTH. Subsidised Steamship Service with Jamaica arranged. a narrow shelf or bunk for sleeping on. Treaty of Alliance with Japan. or 1-10th of a sea mile. CABLE'S LENGTH. — An additional part laced to the foot of a sail. CARRY AWAY. or kevel. TO GO. — To fasten down with battens (i. BOWLINE. — The tackle block for hoisting the anchor. as a rope. ASTERN. — A partition in the hull.B. ABOUT. — A keel or fin attached to each side of a ship below the water-line. — To make tight the seams of a vessel. pieces of boards. CABOOSE.. BEAM. ropes to. in moderate winds. Introduction of Wireless Telegraphy into the Navy. — Strong pins in the side of a vessel. Atlantic (Morgan) Steamship Trust formed. Death of Queen Victoria. — About 200 yards. or make fast. ATHWART. — Level with the surface of the sea. Commonwealth of Australia established. — A rope attached to a boom or yard and by which they are moved. of an anchor. — Small engines for electric light-ing. CAT BLOCK. — Towards the stern. BATTEN. of the anchor. BEATING. ABAFT.1900 1901 1902 1903 18 British Pacific cable authorised. — In the direction of the stern. to keep their weather edge taut. refrigerating. CAT'S PAW. — Water lying in the bilge or bottom of a boat or vessel. CABLE. BOOM. Volcanic Eruption at Martinique and St. — Perpendicular. by taking several turns with it round a pin. CAMEL. — A rope fastened near the middle of the leech or perpendicular edge of square sails. — To take the opposite tack. etc. BLOCK. Reform of Naval Education." — An able seaman. as the hatches of a ship during a storm. — The front of a vessel. or belaying.e. etc. BILGE WATER. BRIDGE. — A kitchen on deck. — To fasten. as. — To break or lose a rope or spar. Nautical Vocabulary "A. APEAK. — The width of a vessel. and a light to show it at night. End of South African War. to bend on a rope. when the ship is close-hauled. to prevent rolling. BONNET. 81 . BRACE. — A light puff of wind. for making fast. or scantlings). CAULK. BOLT ROPE. egg. Successful trials of British Submarines. when the cable is drawn so as to bring the ship's bowl directly over it. — The spar by which a sail is extended at the bottom. First successes with Trans-Atlantic Wireless Telegraphy (Marconi). — A pulley. BEND. or in the mast. BELAYING PINS. — In a line across the ship. — Sailing against the wind by tacking. Merchant Shipping (Liability of Shipowners) Act passed. BULKHEAD. Royal tour of the Empire. BILGE KEEL. AWASH. Accession of King Edward VII. ALEE. International Exhibition at Glasgow. — The sides of a vessel surrounding and ex-tending above the deck.

DOCTOR. JAW. — Sailors' name for the cook.m. — To shift a sail from one side to the other.CHIPS. — An entrance to a ship. CLEW. JIBE. — A particular kind of storm anchor. DROGUE. — That portion of a ship's prow which first meets the water. COMBINGS OR COAMINGS. — A small engine for supplying power to work cargo. CLEW LINES. FATHOM. — The apparatus in which the returned steam from cylinders is condensed back into water. COCK PIT. 82 . the first being from 4-6 p. HEAVE TO. — The turbid bottom of a harbour when stirred up by a ship passing over it. COMPASS. — A rope for standing on which extends along and under a yard. — A cable. HATCH OR HATCHWAY. — A small piece of wood around which a rope may be made fast. COMPANIONWAY. — A small row-boat. COXSWAIN. CROW'S NEST. — A "look-out" place usually on the fore-mast 25 feet or more above the deck. JURYMAST. JIB. — TO sink. — Pieces of timber or iron. DEADLIGHT. — A small anchor. — The depth of water required to float a vessel. or of a vessel against the wharves. HALYARDS. GANGWAY. DONKEY ENGINE. FOOTROPE. CUTLASS. GRAPNEL. FURL. — A triangular sail at the bow. CONDENSERS. — To move slowly ahead. projecting over a ship's side. — The steerer of a small boat. — The steam-chest in which the steam is forced to give energy to the engines through the piston. GALLEY. — Sailor's name for the carpenter. — An instrument showing the vessel's course. — The kitchen. — The raised edges around the hatches. GUNWALE. — Ropes for hoisting sails. — An iron ring or thimble attached to the bolt rope of a sail. HOLD. — The extreme outer edge of the hull. — A temporary mast. — To roll up. DRAUGHT. FENDER. — One wherein the steam from boilers is made use of more than once. HARBOUR-ROIL. COMPOUND ENGINE. — Used of anything fixed longitudinally between bow and stern. — To stop a ship by bringing her bow to the Wind.m. FORE AND AFT. HULL. DAVITS. CYLINDER. DOG WATCH. FORCED DRAUGHT. with tackle to raise or lower a boat by. — The mast end of a boom or gaff. FOUNDER. — A room for wounded men in a war vessel. FORECASTLE. DINGY. — An opening in the deck. — The interior of a vessel. GAFF. — The mast nearest the bow. — The cabin stairway. — The upper spar holding up a fore and aft sail. FORGE. — To bind up. CUTWATER. CRINGLE. — A boom with tackle for handling cargo. CLEAT. — An iron shutter covering a port hole. — The body (only) of a vessel. — SIX feet. — A broad curving one-edged sword. — The name given to two short (two-hours') watches. — A piece of wood or other material used to deaden the impact of two vessels. — The keeping of a vessel's course with the use of log line and compass. and the second from 6-8 p. FOREMAST. — An artificial method of conveying air to the furnaces. DERRICK. HAWSER. DEAD RECKONING.. — That part of a vessel which is forward of the foremast. — Ropes for clewing.

— The inclination or curve of a mast. tapering to a point. LARBOARD. MAINMAST. — The upper and outer corner of a boom sail. or widest part of a ship. — The seaman posted in the extreme bow or in the crow's nest to give warning of approaching danger. — The lowest timber in a ship. as in a rope. telegraphs. MIZZEN-SAIL. KEVEL. RAKE . — The stern portion of a ship's side." See also Foremast. — To slacken or give out. NIP. and which hence is sheltered. — A piece of timber for belaying great ropes to. — A set of men who eat together. — A short turn. NAUTICAL MILE. — The side of a ship towards the wind. MASTER. LUFF. with a slight increase in pay. ORDINARY SEAMAN. — The part of an oar within the rowlocks. take temperature of air and water. MIZZEN-MAST. and not a measure of length. the forward or weather leech of a sail. — A small line composed of two strands a little twisted. the aft or hinder mast of a "two-master. PORT OR PORTHOLE. In sailing ships they attend to the steering. — An opening in the ship's side to admit light and air. used to separate the strands of a rope in splicing. — The rope used for measuring the speed of a vessel. — Captain. as to "pay out a rope. LOOK-OUT. — A chest or box. — A nautical mile (equal to 1. or superintend the hoisting of flags and signals. MESS. QUARTER-MASTER. — A review of all hands on duty. MUSTER. QUARTER. 83 . In the mail steamers they rank as petty officers. — A portion of the sail which is clewed up when the wind is too high to expose the whole. and Jury-mast. etc. used for winding round ropes and cables. LUFF.'s. KNOT. — The socket in which a mast is stepped. MANROPE. and care for the wheels and wheelhouses. QUARTER-MASTERS. REEF. LUBBER'S HOLE. — Head or top of a mast. — To bring a ship nearer to the wind. and in port usually attend at the gangway. through which sailors may mount without going over the rim by the futtock-shrouds. LOOM. MASTHEAD. — The same as larboard. MARLINE. — The ship's record or diary. to prevent their being fretted by the blocks.66 feet. — An old name for a midshipman. or 6. steer. Mizzen-mast.151 miles. PORT. LOG OR LOGBOOK. heave the log. PROMENADE-DECK. — To secure a Ship in any position. — The hinder mast (when there are three). LEAD. MIDDY. — A hole in the top of a vessel next the mast.-6. really a rate of speed. — The middle. PLIMSOLL MARK. — The side which looks away from the wind. MAST TABERNACLE. — The sideward motion of a ship in travelling. MARLINE-SPIKE. REEVE. etc. LOCKER. LOG OR LOGLINE. clean and polish binnacles. — Usually a covered deck amidships. so called because considered by sailors to be only fit for lubbers. the round-est part of a ship's bow. LEEWAY. — A rope used in going up or down the ship's side. PAY OUT. — A mass of lead used in sounding.08266 feet. — The central mast or "stick" of a three-masted ship. — The seaman in charge of the wheel. PINTLE. PAINTER. — To pass the end or a rope through a pulley. LEE.KEEL.082." PEAK. read the patent log. hoist. — A seaman of the second rate. — The bolt on which a rudder is hung. MOOR. — A mark on the outside of the hull indicating the load-line. — An iron tool. — A rope used for making fast a boat. — Picked A.66 feet) per hour.B. MIDSHIPS. or one geographical mile and 802. — The left hand of a ship looking toward the bow.

— A portion of time assigned to certain duties. — The general name for a mast. SMOKE-STACK. — The "joins" of a ship's planks. it is often called the boat-deck. — A rope for controlling and moving a sail. wales. WATCH. STOKER. ROSTER. — The funnel. yard. — A small windlass. SLOOP. bilge strokes. SPAR. reaching from the stem to the stern. TWIN SCREWS. WAIST. SKIPPER. — Tight. YACHT. boom. — The right side of a ship or boat. WINDSAIL. TACK. WEIGH ANCHOR. — The bar for moving the rudder. the next. THOWL OR THOLE. STEERING ENGINE. — TO go against the wind in a zigzag course. — The side which fronts towards or meets the wind. SHORE. — The point from whence the wind blows. — Duration of a sailor's duty in steering. and the lower end of which is scarfed to the keel. STRAKE. SOUND. — A boat's seats. STEM. and to change a ship's course by shifting her rudder and sails. The range next the keel are called the garboard strokes. — The rear portion of a vessel. ROWLOCK. SCUD. STEM-PIECE. — A vessel with but one mast. TACKLE. — To sail at great speed before a heavy wind or gale. — To ascertain the depth of the water. STARBOARD. SEAMS. WEATHER. — To move a vessel by means of a line or lines made fast to anything immovable at the further end. — A list of officers and crew. OR AWNING-DECK. — Either of the two halves of a "yard. etc. looking forward. — The channel cut through the waterways and side of a ship for carrying off the water from the deck. — The name generally given to the master of a small vessel. — A pillar or post of slight dimensions giving support to a deck. Usually erected over the promenade-deck. — A contrivance for giving leverage to an oar in rowing. — The forward part of a vessel. SCUPPER. gaff. — A slight movement of the vessel involving a temporary change of course 84 . — Rope and pulley (block). TAFFRAIL. — Apparatus for directing the wind into cabins. — The emigrants' quarters aboard ship." YAW. — A curved piece of timber to which the two sides of a ship are united at the fore-end. TILLER. — The rowlock. WARP. in substitution for the more usual single propellor. the next. SAWBONES. When the boats are kept thereon. STERN. YARD. TAUT. etc. — To raise the anchor. SHEET. STANCHION. TRICK. WINDLASS. — The familiar name of the doctor among sailors. — An open space of water where ships may anchor. — A machine for raising the anchor or cargo. — Two screw propellors. — A sailing vessel used for pleasure. STEERAGE. — The rail extending around the stern. — A spar supporting and extending a sail. — The steam steering-gear by which the rudder is controlled. SHELTER-DECK. STAY. — A fireman. THWARTS. WAKE. — A prop giving support to a beam. — A rope for supporting or keeping a mast in its place. — The portion of the deck between the quarter-deck and forecastle. — The track left in the water by a moving vessel. WINDWARD. WINCH. YARDARM. — A continuous range of planks on the bottom or sides of a vessel.ROAD.

Boilers.M. Albemarle (1901). 75 ft.H.CRUISER OF TO-DAY . 26 ft. Beam. 6 3-pdrs. DUNCAN CLASS.. 4 submerged torpedo tubes. 4 12-in. Armament.. 24 Belleville. Armament. 12 and 3-pdrs. Beam. (50 ton wire) in pairs in barbettes. Duncan (1901).2-in. singly in turrets. 16.. Torpedo tubes. Commonwealth (Laid down 1902). 12 6-in.000 — 19 kts. KING ALFRED 19 ILLUSTRATED LIST OF THE SHIPS OF THE ROYAL NAVY Battleships BATTLESHIPS. Draught. 24. 4 submerged. (50 ton wire) in hooded barbettes. 429 ft. 4 9. 26 ft. Maori (Projected 1902). Cornwallis (1901). Boilers. I. 78 ft. Length. 425 ft.H.000 — 18. Exmouth (1901).000 tons. Displacement. Russell (1901). 18. Torpedo tubes. 18..P. Displacement.P. I. I CLASS KING EDWARD VII CLASS. King Edward VII (Laid down 1902).S. 4 submerged. 9 in. Montagu (1901). Length.350 tons. 10 6-in. Babcock and Wilcox. and cylindrical. 14. 85 . Dominion (Laid down 1902).5 kts. 6 in. 6 in. Draught. New Zealand (Projected 1902). 12 12-pdrs. 4 12-in.H.

. Draught. 2 16. 12 6-in.000 — 18 kts. 4 12-in. Prince George (1895). 75 ft.. 400 ft. Armament. Beam. 18 12-pdrs. (111 ton) 10 6-in. Illustrious (1896). 5 torpedo tubes. 18 12-pdrs. Caesar (1896). 6 3-pdrs. Anson (1886). 4 12-in. Beam... 4 67-ton. Victorious (1895). with Belleville boilers.P. 26 ft.25-in. 4 torpedo tubes. Irresistible (1898)..LONDON CLASS. Babcock and Wilcox in Queen. Armament (Benbow). Queen (1902). Jupiter (1895). I. 330 ft. ADMIRAL CLASS.H. 6 10 3-pdrs.600 tons. London (1899). 27 ft. 86 . and 1 above water-line aft.. 10. 3 in.900 tons. Displacement. Boilers.000 tons. 12.. 12 6-pdrs. Prince of Wales (1902). Displacement. 8 each with 4 furnaces. Camperdown (1885).P.5 kts. Hannibal (1895).500 — 17. 27 ft. Bulwark (1899). 20 Belleville in others. 6 in. (Anson and Camperdown). 15.H. Armament. I. Formidable (1898). Draught. boat. Benbow (1885). Marine boilers. Beam.000 — 17. 4 submerged torpedo tubes. Implacable (1898). Venerable (1899).. and 3 sub-merged torpedo tubes and 1 above water-line aft.H. 75 ft. 10 3-pdrs.. Length.. Same as above. 68 ft. 9 in. 6 in. I.P.5 kts.. Boilers. 12 6pdrs.. Mars (1896). Majestic (1895). (50 ton wire) 12 6-in. 15. Displacement. MAJESTIC CLASS. 11. Length. Magnificent (1894). 413 ft. 4 submerged torpedo tubes. 6-in. 2 9-pdrs. Draught. 14. 12 cylindrical. Length.

26 ft. 36 furnaces. 26 ft.. Renown (1895). 27 ft.500-16.000 — 18 kts. 325 ft.P. 87 . 26 ft. Vengeance (1899). Boilers.P.7 kts. 10. 418 ft. Glory (1899). Draught.Rodney (1884). Armament.950 tons. Boilers.H. 3 67-ton). 10 3-pdrs. 72 ft. Ocean (1898). 68 ft. I.. Beam.300 tons. 6 6-in. Goliath (1898).500 — 18.. Torpedo tubes.5 kts. Boilers. 12 6-pdrs. Draught. I. 9 in. (67-ton) 6 6-in. 74 ft.H. 11. 1 69-ton..P. Draught. 68 ft.500 — 16. 380 ft. 4 torpedo tubes (Rodney)..H. 10 6-in. 4 67-ton (Rodney. 9. I. Draught.25 kts. Beam..500 tons. Beam. Armament.H. Rodney 4. 4 submerged torpedo tubes.P. Boilers. CANOPUS CLASS. 12.. Howe 5. 12 oval. 13. Length. 3 in. Displacement. cylindrical. 12. Displacement. 6 3-pdrs.. 4 12-in. 20 Belleville. Displacement. Displacement. Length. Armament. Length. 12 6-in. 9. 12. 4 10-in . 12 oval. 4 12-in. 10 in. 5 torpedo tubes (4 submerged). Armament. Canopus (1897). 14 12-pdrs. I. 12 12-pdrs. Collingwood (1882) Length. Howe (1885).350 tons. Albion (1898). 325 ft. 12 3-pdrs. 5 (Howe). (46 ton). 4 in. Beam.

Length. 10 oval. Armament. 5 in. Displacement. 25 ft. 75 ft.470 tons. I.000 — 17.. Resolution (1892). Edinburgh (1882).H. Boilers.P. 4 torpedo tubes. Draught.. boat. 4 double and 1 single ended.H. 325 and 332 ft. 4 6-pdrs. Displacement. 10 6-in. Boilers. I. 12 10in.H. 8 in. 5 6-in. Displacement.P. (minor differences).000 — 17 kts.Barfleur (1892). 8 10-in. 2 submerged. 9. Displacement. 12. I.170 tons. 2 9-pdrs. I.P. Beam.2 kts. ROYAL SOVEREIGN CLASS.. 68 ft. 25 ft. 2 above water. Length. Length. Armament. 11. 8 singleended. 413. 13. 4 12-in... (minor differences). 10. Armament.. 4 in.000 — 17 kts. Empress of India (1891). (Alexandra). Royal Oak (1892). 7. BATTLESHIPS. 10 3-pdrs. Hood (1891) — as above with minor differences. 320 ft. to be replaced by tubular.500 — 14.H. Trafalgar (1887). 75 ft.. and 59 ft.. Ramillies (1892). Displacement. Draught. 4 10in. 9. Boilers.5 kts.420 tons. Beam..P. Sanspareil (1887) Displacement. 9 in. 63 ft.6 kts. 27 ft.. 8 6-pdrs.5 kts. Revenge (1892).. 88 . Armament (Superb).H. 325 ft. Beam.. I. Nile (1888). 4 12-in. 10 6-in. 14.880 tons. 4 torpedo tubes.500-14. Boilers. each. With minor differences. 2 9-pdrs. II CLASS Colossus (1882). Draught. 7 submerged torpedo tubes. Royal Sovereign (1891). 14.000 — 18. 12.000 and 8..150 tons.P. 6.H. 360 ft. 16 6-pdrs. Inflexible (1876) Length. Torpedo tubes.. Beam. 32 furnaces. boat. Alexandra (1875).5 in. Draught.H.500 — 12. 380 ft. 12 3-pdrs. Beam. Length. 70 ft. Repulse (1892). 5. Superb (1875). 6 in. boat.500 tons. 5 6-in..490 and 9. I.940 tons.P. 2 9-pdrs. I. (45-ton).5 kts. 13. Armament. 2 torpedo tubes.2-in. 7 torpedo tubes. Displacement.. 12 3-pdrs. 10 6-in. Centurion (1892). 26 ft.P. 6 in. 26 ft.. 10. Draught. 4 9. 11.

Swiftsure (1870) (non-effective).500 — 13. 6 12-pdrs. Conqueror. 2 torpedo tubes. Boilers. Displacement. 4. 2 6-in. Beam. COAST DEFENCE IRONCLADS Rupert (1872). I. 6 in. 10 in..010 tons. 8 single-ended. Length. 7.500-15 kts. 27 ft.. 7 in. cylindrical. Hotspur (1870). 6. 2 3-pdrs. 6. Length.845 tons. 89 . 4 6-pdrs. Draught. Displacement.. Monarch (1868) Length. 59 ft.. 62 ft.000 — 15.5-in. 6 in. Draught..330 tons. Beam.P.... Draught. 2 7-in. 2 12-in. Hero (1885). in each.7-in. 4 12-pdrs. 24 ft.H...200 tons. I. Draught.. 4 6-in.. 4 6-in. 2 boat guns.5 kts.. 10 3-pdrs. 12 3-pdrs. return tube.000 — 14. 2 9. 320 ft. Armament. 8. 9. 285 ft. Displacement. 330 ft.H.. 2 Submerged torpedo tubes. Armament. Beam.... 7 6-pdrs. 300 ft. 8 10in. 13 3-pdrs. 6 torpedo tubes.P.. Bellerophon (1865) Length. 4 torpedo tubes. 56 ft. 6 6-pdrs.680 tons. 10. Boilers. 8 10-in.290 tons.H. to be sold). Beam.5 kts. 26 ft.. 4 torpedo tubes. 2 6-in. 9. (upper deck). Displacement.2 kts. 26 ft. 4 6-in. 8 cylindrical. Hercules (1868) Length. Displacement. Displacement... 57 ft. 9 6-pdrs. 4 6-pdrs. 4 12. 6 3-pdrs. Armament. 2 submerged torpedo tubes.2 kts.. 325 ft... 27 ft. 6 4.440 tons.H. 2 12-in. 3 in. Thunderer (1872)..H. 2 9-in. 2 boat guns. 2 boat guns.00014. I.. 58 ft.7-in. 2 6-in. oval. 8. 4 4. 8.. 2 torpedo tubes. Armament.P.550 tons. Beam. 2 7-pdr. 10 8-in. Displacement. 1 in. Draught. 26 ft. 9 in. 6 6-pdrs. Draught. 4 10-in. Sultan..P.. Beam. 8. 2 boat guns. 1 in.H. Boilers.2-in.. Boat-guns.Neptune (1874) (non-effective. 63 ft. Dreadnought (1875) Length.. Devastation (1871). 26 ft. BATTLESHIPS. (45-ton). I. Iron Duke (1870) (Training ship).000 — 12. I. 2 boat guns. 4 12-in. I. 6 6-pdrs. 9 6-pdrs. 59 ft. Armament. 7 in.. 325 ft. Armament. I. 7. 4 9-in.. 2 9-in. Boilers. (1870) Length. 5 3-pdrs. 13 3-pdrs. 1 7-in. 270 ft. 8.P. 2 9-pdrs. 4. 6 in. Hero. 2 boat guns.. Beam....820 tons. Armament..H. (boat).5 kts. Draught... 6 4-in. Armament. III CLASS Conqueror (1881).P. 6.P. 4 boat guns. 5. Armament. 1 in.000 — 15 kts. 4 torpedo tubes. 8 3-pdrs. 2 torpedo tubes. 6 in.

68 ft. Displacement. 4 torpedo tubes. Drake (1901). 66 ft. to be sold). 3 3-pdrs.Orion (1879). 1/5 cylindrical in each ship. 12 6-in. 3. ARMOURED CRUISERS. I. 14 12-pdrs. 2. Length. 26 ft.. Dürr in Roxb.... 26 ft.910 tons (non-effective. Devonshire (1902).. 440 ft. and Carn. 14.100 tons. Draught. 9. 4. speed. 454 ft. 43 Belleville. 1903. Glatton (1871). COUNTY CLASS (Unimproved). Displacement. Draught.. Berwick and Suffolk. Leviathan (1901). Yarrow in Hamps. being of small engine power. Aboukir (1900).870 tons. I. Draught. Armament. 6 in. Kent (1901). Boilers.H. and Babcock and Wilcox in Argyll. Beam. Bedford (1901).. Roxburgh (building). boiler capacity. Euryalus (1901). 4 6-in. Hogue (1900).. 6 in. Babcock and Wilcox. Suffolk (1902).000 — 23 kts. 10.000 tons. 22.000 — 23 kts. 2 boat guns. Length.. 10 6-in.340 tons. Cumberland (laid down 1901). 14 12-pdrs. 6 6-pdrs. 30. I CLASS COUNTY CLASS (Improved). I. 529 ft. 3 3-pdrs. Armament. Argyll (building). 4. Boilers. Armament. Armament. Displacement. Beam. Monmouth (1901). Lancaster (1902). Magdala (1870). and 2 submerged torpedo tubes. The other 4/5 will be Niclausse in Dev..800 tons.H. I. 2 9-2-in. Good Hope (1901). 6 in. about 10. 2 boat guns. 69 ft.. (120-ton).5-in. 30 Belleville.P. Two other ships projected.. Antrim (building). 24 ft. Armament. 6 in.. Hampshire (building).P. 440 ft.000 — 23 kts. 4 8-in. and Antr. 4 8-in. 31 Belleville (except Cornwall. 2. 2 submerged torpedo tubes. Boilers. Displacement.. in casemates. Armament. Sutlej (1899). and coal supply. Length. 16 6-in. 10 12-pdrs. Beam. Cornwall (1902).. 90 . King Alfred (1901).P.P. Wivern (1863). Boilers. 4 3-pdrs. Draught. 22. 71 ft.750 tons (to be sold). Berwick (1902). (120-ton). Beam. in turrets.800 tons. Carnarvon (building).000 — 21 kts. 2 submerged torpedo tubes. Armament. Donegal (1902). 10 6-in.. Niclausse). Essex (1901). 12. Length. 21. Above are for coast defence purposes only. Abyssinia (1870). Displacement. DRAKE CLASS. 24 ft. CRESSY CLASS. and only partially armoured. 1 9'2-in.800 tons. 6 in.900 tons. Bacchante (1901).H.H. 3 in. Cressy (1899).. 3 3-pdrs.. 13 smaller. 4 12-in. 2 7.

. Beam.H. Boilers. 3 9-pdrs. 7. Aurora (1887). 9 3-pdrs. Argonaut (1898).000 tons. Warspite (1884). 3 in. 4 in. Ariadne (1898).. Length.600 tons. in Warspite: 8 in Impérieuse. 280 ft. Spartiate (1898).IMMORTALITÉ CLASS.P.P. 60 ft. 22 ft.. 10 6-in. 6 in. 56 ft.2-in. 27 ft.. Displacement. (22-ton). in Warspite: 10 in Impérieuse.. Draught.. Draught. 3 3-pdrs.. I.000 — 2075 kts. 18. 62 ft. Immortalité (1887). and 2 torpedo tubes.. Narcissus (1886).7 kts.P. 6 6-pdrs. 2 boat guns in each.. 4. 3 in. 10 3-pdrs. Beam. Australia (1886). Galatea (1887). 8 9in.H.000 — 16. I. PROTECTED CRUISERS. 3 boat guns.H. 91 . 69 ft. 2 9. 4 9. 26 ft. Beam. (boat).500 — 12 kts. 315 ft. Undaunted (1886). 11.. 4 6-pdrs. 4 10-in. Armament.H. Beam. 462 ft. Impérieuse (1883). Boilers. 10. 10 6-in. Draught. Length. 8. Northampton (1876) Length. Amphitrite (1898). 300 ft. Displacement. cylindrical and oval. I CLASS AMPHITRITE CLASS. Armament.2-in. 6 torpedo tubes. 6 in. (22-ton). 8. 5. Displacement. I. 16 6-in.630. Displacement. 14 12-pdrs. 8 3-pdrs. 2 torpedo tubes. 3 torpedo tubes.P. I. Armament. 6 6-pdrs.400 tons. Orlando (1886). Length. Draught.500 — 18 kts. Armament.. 30 Belleville. 25 ft..

Theseus (1892). EDGAR CLASS. 18 12-pdrs.DIADEM CLASS. 4 torpedo tubes. 28 ft.2-in..P. 16 6-in. Europa (1897). ROYAL ARTHUR CLASS.. 12 6-in. 25 ft. 23 ft. 10 6-in.000 tons. Displacement.. 2 9. Boilers. all submerged. 6 in. Length. Andromeda (1897). Niobe (1897).P. 7. 5 3-pdrs.P. 23 ft. Grafton (1892). (boat). Draught.5 kts Boilers. 2 9-pdrs. I. Armament.000 — 19. 538 ft.000 — 22 kts. 16 6-in. St.H.. 2 submerged.. Gibraltar (1892). Endymion (1891). 6 double-ended cylindrical. Draught. 4 3-pdrs. Armament. 4 torpedo tubes. Edgar (1890). George (1892).. 3 torpedo tubes.200 tons.. Armament. Beam. Boilers.P. Length. 1 9. 16. 60 ft. 60 ft. Draught. Displacement.H. Boilers. Displacement. Royal Arthur (1891). 12 6-pdrs.. 48 Belleville. 12 6-pdrs. 9 in. Armament. Displacement.. 6 double-ended cylindrical. I. 3 cylindrical.. 4 torpedo tubes. Hawke (1891). I. Diadem (1896). 3 in.700 tons. 12. 11.H. 360 ft. Length. Crescent (1892). 14. 360 ft. 12... 69 ft. 14 12-pdrs. Draught. Beam. Powerful (1895). Terrible (1895).H. 92 .500 — 20. Length. 25. 7..5 kts. I. 71 ft. 8 in.. 462 ft. Beam. Beam. 2 9. 12 3-pdrs.. 5 3-pdrs.000 — 20 kts. 9 in. 2 9-pdrs. 9 in. 2 submerged.2-in..350 tons. 30 Belleville.2-in.

.. Diana (1895). Boilers. 6 in.H. Displacement. Arrogant (1896).. 370 ft. Furious (1896). 350 ft. Armament.. Blenheim (1890). Beam. Beam. 21. 4 torpedo tubes. Draught. (Blenheim).60019. 10. 2 submerged torpedo tubes. 8 singleended. Displacement.BLAKE CLASS. Armament. 21 ft... FURIOUS CLASS..P. 5. II CLASS CHALLENGER CLASS. 21 ft. Boilers. 2 submerged torpedo tubes. HIGHFLYER CLASS.P. 16 3-pdrs.. Draught. I. 25 ft. without economisers (Arrogant fitted to burn oil fuel in 6 boilers). Boilers (Encounter). 93 . Length.P. 65 ft. Draught. Isis (1896).000 tons. 24 furnaces. 11 6-in. Hermes (1898). (Challenger). 9 12-pdrs. Dido (1896). 5. 10 6-in. CRUISERS. 3 torpedo tubes. Armament. Armament.000-21 kts. 2 submerged. Beam. 9. Hyacinth (1898).000-20 kts.P. 10 12-pdrs.H. 7 3-pdrs.880 tons. 6 3-pdrs. 20 ft. Beam. Vindictive (1897). 57 ft. Blake (1889). I.600 tons.7-in. Draught. 6 double-ended cylindrical. 3 in. Encounter (1902). 3 3-pdrs. Boilers. 56 ft. Length. DORIS CLASS. 3 in. 6 3-pdrs. I. Length.5 kts.. Length.H. Babcock and Wilcox). Dürr. Juno (1895). Challenger (1900). Boilers.H. I. 6 in. 2 9. 2 submerged torpedo tubes.50021 kts.. Displacement. 9. Displacement.. 2 9-pdr.. Armament. 18 Belleville (Hermes. 5 6-in. 11 6-in. (Blake). 6 4.. 355 ft. Highflyer (1898). 54 ft. Doris (1896).000 — 19 kts. Babcock and Wilcox. 320 ft. 20. Venus (1895). 4 6-in.. 6 4.P. Displacement. I.400 — 22 kts. Gladiator (1896).H..7-in..750 tons. 5. 20 ft. 10. 6 in. Beam. 9 12-pdrs. Draught. (boat)... 54 ft. 9 12-pdrs. 6 in.600 tons. Length. 18 Belleville. 375 ft.2-in. 5. 12.

I. 53 ft. 16 ft. CHARYBDIS CLASS. 9. Hermione (1893). 46 ft. Boilers. Mersey (1885).. from 2 to 4. 4 torpedo tubes. I. I.. Armament. Thames (1885). Cambrian (1893).P. 300 ft. Æolus (1891)... 43 ft. 9. 10 6-in.. Forte (1893). 6 3-pdrs. Naiad (1890). Armament.. Armament. Indefatigable (1891). Displacement.. MERSEY CLASS. Rainbow (1891).5 kts. Terpsichore (1890). 6 in. Bonaventure (1892). I. 1 3-pdr.. Displacement. 3 6-pdrs. Boilers. Fox (1893). Sappho (1891). Beam..H. 8 6-pdrs. 4 torpedo tubes. 49 ft. Length.MINERVA CLASS. 300 ft. 17 ft. Displacement. 350 ft. Flora (1893). 320 ft. Boilers. Sirius (1890). Draught. 6 cylindrical..600 — 19. 6 in. Draught. I.P. Retribution (1891). Talbot (1895). Beam. Length. Draught. 3 torpedo tubes. 1 3-pdr.. INDEFATIGABLE CLASS. Length. Severn (1885). 43 ft.P. Armament.H.7-in. 6 4. Beam. Scylla (1891). 6 in. APOLLO CLASS. cylindrical. 4. Armament. Astræa (1893).P.050 tons.360 tons. Intrepid (1891). 4 torpedo tubes. 5. 9. 6 4. 8 4. Displacement. Latona (1890). 5 6-in.P. Draught. 3. 6 in.7-in. 19 ft.400 tons. Apollo (1891). 2 8-in.600 tons. Eclipse (1894). Melampus (1890).7-in.. 8 in. Spartan (1891). 94 ...000 — 191 kts. Brilliant (1891). Beam. 24 furnaces.. Torpedo tubes.H. 8 6-pdrs. 6 4.H. 4. 1 3-pdr. 300 ft. Pique (1890).5 kts.000 — 19. Length. Thetis (1890). 3. Draught.700 — 17. Minerva (1895). Iphigenia (1891). Charybdis (1893). Displacement.. 9 12-pdrs.7-in.H. Beam.2 kts.600 tons. 20 ft. 6 in. and other small guns.00020 kts. 5. 9. 2 6-in. 8 6-pdrs-.. Forth (1886). 2 6-in. 19 ft. Tribune (1891). 2 6-in. (15-ton). Length. Andromache (1890). 8 single-ended.

oval and cylindrical. 13 5-in. 300 ft. Details unknown. 40 ft. Draught. Length.75 kts. Boilers. Pioneer (1899).. 3.. 2 torpedo tubes.. Pandora (1900). Draught. III CLASS Two ships projected (1903).70019 kts.H. 41 ft. Amphion (1883). 4.. Pallas (1890). cylindrical. 8 4. Displacement. Bellona (1890). Displacement. Prometheus (1898). (Arethusa 8 3-pdrs. Barham (1889). 4 torpedo tubes. 4 3-pdrs. Thorneycroft water-tube. I.. Perseus (1897). "P" CLASS. 6 in. 300 and 305 ft. I. 46 ft. Armament. Length... 4 cylindrical. Pactolus (1896).P. Length. 12 4-in. 1 7-pdr. 1 in. 6 in. Draught.. 6 7-in. Phoebe (1890).H. 4 torpedo tubes. 6 in. Phaeton (1883).P. Draught. I. Displacement.5 kts.7-in. Boilers. Draught. Psyche (1898). 2. Length..7-in. Displacement. I.000 tons.200 tons. Philomel (1890). Pomone (1897). Armament.-15 ft.-36 ft. Proserpine (1896). 3. 360 ft. 4. Pyramus (1897).730 tons.000 — 20 kts. 9 in. 4.. Beam. 14 ft. 4 3-pdrs. 8 3-pdrs. 46 ft..200 — 15 kts.H. Boilers.LEANDER CLASS. 6 in. Wallaroo (1890). 4. Ringarooma (1889). Blechynden and Thorneycroft.). Pearl (1890). Normand. Armament. 35 ft. 265 ft. Tauranga (1889). 5.575 tons. Pegasus (1897).300 tons.P. 6. 2 3-pdrs. Yarrow. Armament. Arethusa (1882). 4 torpedo tubes. I.. 2 torpedo tubes.P. Mildura (1889). Leander (1882). Boilers. (boat). 1 boat gun. 36 ft. Displacement. 50 ft. Pelorus (1896). Inconstant (1868). 9. Laird. Beam. Displacement. Beam. 300 ft. Katoomba (1889). I. 2 torpedo tubes. Draught.H. 13 ft.830 tons. 6 in. I. CRUISERS.H. Boilers.P. 7. 20 ft. 95 .P. Topaze (building). Beam. Beam. Armament.977 — 17 kts. 280 ft. Mercury (1878).135 tons-2. 3 in. 333 ft.. Iris (1877). Amethyst (building). Beam.H. 2..000 — 16. Armament. Displacement. (Topaze).80021. 23 ft. Draught. 8 3-pdrs. 1.. 6 20-pdrs. Length. 10 6-in.000 — 17 kts. Boilers (Amethyst). Reed. Armament. Length. 22 ft. 6 4.780 tons. 13 ft. 8 3-pdrs.P. Length. 5. 15 ft. Beam. 10 9-in. "B" CLASS. 4 3-pdrs. 8 4-in.H.

Cordelia (1879) (non-effective). 6 6-in. 12 5-in. Racoon (1887). Curaçoa (1878) (non-effective)..5 kts. Melpomene (1888). Armament. (Medea).420 tons. 4 6-in.. 2. Length.1 kts.. and Laird. 4 4. 1 boat gun.. Cossack (1886). 3.400 — 13. 2 boat guns. Displacement.580 tons.000 — 14. 14 f b.7 kts. 233 ft.580 tons. 7 in. 1. I. 2. Draught. 1 field gun.. 1 boat gun.770 tons. Draught. Length.P. 2 torpedo tubes. Displacement. 6 4. 9. 1 9-pdr. Scout (1885). Beam. 6 6-in.800 tons. 41 ft.. Blonde has one fitted for oil fuel. 8 5-in. 14 ft. 16 ft. Beam. 235 ft. single-ended fire tube. Boilers. Dürr. Tartar (1886).P. 4. Comus (1878) (non-effective).. cylindrical low-pressure naval. Length. Archer (1885).5 kts. Racoon. 2 6-in. 38 ft. 6 in Displacement. 11 in. 14 ft. Displacement. (boat). Displacement. (boat). 8 3-pdrs.. Beam. 4 6-in. Armament. 4 torpedo tubes. Draught. "M" CLASS. Yarrow tube. 6 in. 6 6-in.000 — 16. Armament. 225 ft. Beam.. Draught. 10 5-in. Length. 14 ft. Medusa (1888).. Length. 9. Boilers. 1. 6 in.7-in. 4 3-pdrs. 4. Displacement.H. 18 ft. I. I.500 — 17. Calypso (1883). I. Length. 1 3-pdr. 9 6-pdrs.H. 200 ft. Beam. Displacement.000 — 19 kts. Medea (1888).Barracouta (1889). Royalist (1883). I. 240 ft. Armament. Armament.. Pylades (1884). Armament.. 1 9-pdr. Boilers.H. Boilers.H. Beam 41 ft. Displacement. I.7 kts. Brisk (1886). Length.6 kts. 265 ft. Porpoise (1886). 36 ft. Armament (Pylades). 4 3-pdrs. 220 ft.P. Calliope (1884). Fearless (1886). 34 ft.P. 6 in. 3.5 kts. I.H.950 tons. Magicienne (1888). No torpedo tubes. 6 in. Blanche (1889). 3. 4 navy type. 2. Beam.. Beam. 6 in. 1 3-pdr. Boilers.. 1.380 tons.H. Barrosa (1889). 35 ft. 2 boat guns.P. 2. Draught. 1. 1 9-pdr. Armament. 96 ... (Torpedo tubes have been removed. 9 6-pdrs. (Medusa).P. Draught.P. 2 torpedo tubes.000 — 12. 14 5-in. 19 ft. Boilers. 3 torpedo tubes.H. 8 3-pdrs. (Royalist). Blonde (1889). 4 torpedo tubes. 4 navy type.200 — 16.770 tons. single-ended fire tube.500 — 16.000 — 19 kts. 17 ft. 3 torpedo tubes. 44 ft. I. Boilers.. 44 ft. Length.P. 2. Mohawk (1886). Draught. 265 ft. Marathon (1888). Draught.7. Cleopatra (1878). (boat). 1..) Champion (1878).H.

2 4. Draught. Salamander (1889). Niger (1892). various: Belleville.282 — 19. Mumford. 9 in. Draught. Halcyon (1894). Karrakatta (1889). Sandfly (1887).000 — 19 to 20. Beam. 200 ft. Length. I. (Speedy).P. Niclausse.7-in. (Niger). 4 torpedo tubes. Renard (1892).5 kts. I. Assaye (1891). Babcock and Wilcox. 6 3-pdrs. 250 ft. 3 in. Du Temple. Sheldrake (1889). Displacement. 4 6-pdrs. Beam. Displacement.H.500 to 6.P. 2 4. Onyx (1892). 525 tons. Leda (1892). 230 ft.25 to 22. Skipjack (1889).H. Speedwell (1889). Hussar (1894). Grasshopper (1887). Displacement. marine-loco.. 3 torpedo tubes.7-in. 8 ft. others 5. 6 torpedo tubes. 30 ft. Boilers. 27 ft. Armament. I.5 kts. I.7-in. Antelope (1893). Armament. Spanker (1889). Draught. Seagull (1889). Spider (1887). 1 4-in. 9 ft. Length. 3. Jason (1892). locomotive. Jaseur (1892).500 to 6. Palmer. Beam. 23 ft.GUNBOATS.. I CLASS (TORPEDO-BOAT CATCHERS) Dryad (1893).H.H.P. Plassy (1890). Reed. Length. Boomerang (1889). 230 ft. Hazard (1894). 8 ft. Torpedo tubes (Plassy and Assaye) 3. (except Speedy and Niger). 3. Speedy (1893). Boilers. Draught. 27 ft. 2 4. Circe (1892). Alarm (1892).. 1. Gossamer (1890). 2. locomotive. 6 in. Hebe (1892).070 tons. Boilers. 4 3-pdrs. Displacement. Boilers. Rattlesnake (1886). Sharpshooter (1888). Length..500 — 18. 735 tons. 3.P.700 — 19 kts. 810 tons. Harrier (1894). Armament. 8 in. Armament.. 97 . 8 ft.. Thorneycroft water tube. 4 3-pdrs. Beam. Gleaner (1890)..5 kts.

Slaney (1877). 115 ft. Weazel (1873). Draught. Bloodhound (1871). Beam. Displacement. Insolent (1881). 254 tons. Draught. Snake (1871). Comet (1870). Scourge (1871). Beam. Cuckoo (1873). 180 tons.) Badger (1872). PROJECTED NEW CLASS OF SHIPS. Length. Ant (1873). 6 ft.P. 6 ft. 85 ft. Draught.H. I. Displacement. SCOUTS. 363 tons. 90 — 7 kts. 110 — 8 kts. Trent (1877). Bustard (1871).5 kts. Esk (1877). 110 ft. Bulldog (1872).H. Mastiff (1871). 5 ft. 34 ft. 6 ft. Beam. I. I. Four ships are projected of a new class similar to enlarged torpedo-boat destroyers. Displacement. 508 tons. Length. Sabrina (1876). Tay (1876). Draught.2 kts. 37 ft. 5 ft.P. Length.P. Length. Blazer (1870).GUNBOATS III CLASS (COAST DEFENCE AND AUXILIARY) Excellent (1883).5 kts. Plucky (1870). Bouncer (1881).P. 4 in. I. 380 — 9. 9 in. Beam. I. Pike (1872). Kite (1871). 110 — 7. Length. 25 ft. Spey (1876). Draught. Staunch (1867). 85 ft.P. Tweed (1877). 8 ft. Snap (1872). 8 in.H.H. 25 ft. 80 ft. 26 ft. 60 — 7 kts. 6 in. Don (1877). Length. 200 — 8. 26 ft. Fidget (1872). Pickle (1872). No details specified. Griper (1879). 80 ft. Tickler (1879). 195 tons. Medina (1876). Tees (1876). I. Beam. Beam. Bonetta (1871). 98 . Displacement. Displacement. Provided for in estimates (1902-3). Arrow (1871.P. Dee (1877). Displacement. Hyæna (1873). Draught. Medway (1876).H. Pincher (1879).H. 5 in. 265 tons.

000 4.200 4.000 5.P.000 4.300 5.900 4.400 8.400 6.800 6.300 6.000 4.400 5.100 4.100 5.000 6.100 6.100 5. 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 L'nched.600 5.400 6.900 3.000 3.000 4.000 5.800 4. 7.500 6.900 6.700 5.700 5.400 3.800 3.000 6.000 4.000 Guns.000 6.000 6.400 6.300 5.000 3.000 3.200 3. 370 280 365 360 290 310 355 370 295 360 355 376 350 360 374 280 360 360 295 350 280 360 280 360 280 270 280 360 365 295 365 325 360 270 270 350 295 280 295 350 365 320 383 360 383 383 350 360 370 355 360 320 360 310 280 I.400 5.000 4. Albatross Angler Arab Ardent Ariel Avon Banshee Bat Bittern Boxer Brazen Bruiser Bullfinch Chamois Charger Cheerful Conflict Contest Coquette Crane Cygnet Cynthia Daring Dasher Decoy Desperate Dove Dragon Earnest Electra Express Fairy Falcon Fame Fawn Ferret Fervent Flirt Flying Fish Foam Gipsy Greyhound Griffon Handy Hardy Hart Hasty Haughty Havock Hornet Hunter Janus Kangaroo Kestrel Lee Leopard Tons.800 5. 1898 1895 1900 1896 1894 1896 1898 1900 1895 1898 1897 1900 1896 1897 1899 1895 1895 1900 1895 1896 1894 1901 1895 1897 1894 1895 1895 1895 1899 1895 1900 1899 1896 1895 1894 1901 1895 1894 1895 1897 1900 1898 1895 1900 1895 1900 1900 1897 1895 1900 1898 1896 1895 1897 1895 1895 99 .800 5.000 4.000 3.900 6.200 4.000 6.300 6.300 5.500 6.850 5.500 6.900 4.000 4.300 5.400 6.H.400 5.400 4.800 4. 1898 1897 1901 1894 1897 1896 1894 1896 1897 1894 1896 1895 1898 1896 1894 1897 1894 1894 1897 1896 1898 1898 1893 1894 1894 1896 1898 1894 1896 1896 1897 1897 1899 1896 1897 1893 1895 1897 1897 1896 1897 1900 1896 1895 1895 1895 1894 1895 1893 1893 1895 1895 1900 1898 1899 1897 Name.800 4.500 6.000 5.600 6.000 3.300 5.900 6.800 9.200 6.800 5.100 4.300 6.900 5.200 3.250 5.000 6.800 6.000 4.900 5.300 6.850 Guns.200 5.900 5.900 4.400 5.800 4.300 6.600 6.800 4.000 6.500 4. 430 310 430 265 310 355 295 360 355 265 345 265 345 360 250 355 320 295 335 360 335 335 265 255 260 310 345 295 360 350 430 355 376 310 360 290 275 360 360 310 355 360 360 275 270 275 250 270 240 240 275 280 370 350 335 350 I.TORPEDO-BOAT DESTROYERS Name.100 4.200 3.500 5.800 4.300 4.300 6. 6.P.200 6.900 6.000 4.300 6.500 4.000 6.400 6.400 5.400 6.000 6.900 4.250 6.000 4.000 3. 6 6 6 6 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 L'nched. Leven Lightning Lively Locust Lynx Mallard Mermaid Myrmidon Opossum Orwell Osprey Ostrich Otter Panther Peterel Porcupine Quail Racehorse Ranger Recruit Rocket Roebuck Salmon Seal Shark Skate Snapper Sparrowhawk Spiteful Spitfire Sprightly Stag Star Starfish Sturgeon Success Sunfish Surly Swordfish Sylvia Syren Taku Teazer Thorn Thrasher Tiger Vigilant Violet Virago Vixen Vulture Whiting Wizard Wolf Zebra Zephyr Tons.H.

5. TORPEDO BOATS. Draught. Thistle (1899).2 kts. Curlew (1885). I. type). Slightly smaller dimensions and varying details. 100 ft. 60-64 ft. 715 tons. (1901).200 — 14. 2 in. Displacement. 33 ft. Lizard (1887).. 6 4-in. Pigeon (1888). I.P. I. Beam. R. Lapwing (1889). 11 ft. I. 5. Armament: 6 4-in. R. Beam. Displacement. Motive power. 2 4-in.900 I. 4-in. (1902). 8 ft. 4. 28-194 tons. 950 tons.H. Displacement.1903. Goldfinch (1889).H. Length. (1902). 16-25 kts.200-13.00013 kts. 190. Displacement. 1. 6. SUBMARINES (five of the Holland U.P. 27 ft. Ringdove (1889). Rattler (1886). 12-17 kts. 1.P. Dwarf (1898). 120 tons.A.). Armament. Beam. 180 ft. 1 torpedo tube in bow. Armament. Partridge (1888). Length. 11 ft.5 kts.. submerged. 1.P.T. (1902).300-13. Landrail (1886). 63 ft. Motive power. I CLASS Bramble (1898). 87-166 ft.H.H. 360-2.H. No. Armament. Plover (1888).H. 710 tons. 2. Length.S. 120-230 I. Britomart (1899). Peacock (1888). Widgeon (1889).. on surface. Thrush (1889). (1902). Sixty-three of the Second Class. GUNBOATS. Draught. Cockatrice (1886). I.P. electric motors. 1. 4 12-pdrs. Pheasant (1888). One hundred and sixteen of the First Class.. submerged speed. length. Pigmy (1888). 3. from gasoline. Displacement.5 kts. 2 3-pdrs. 6. No. Magpie (1889). 9 in. (1902).T. 7 to 8 kts.. 12-16 tons. Sparrow (1889). 1. 4 in. Yarrow. 10-12 kts. Redpole (1889).P.P. 160 ft.H. length. No. 100 .Nine others building and nine projected in naval estimates for 1902 . Redbreast (1898). 755 tons. No. No. (No. Boilers. No. surface speed. Armament various: 6.

85 tons. 150 tons. Fantome (1901). Merlin (1901). Mesaba Minneapolis Minnehaha Menominee Manitou Marquette 101 . Sandpiper (1897). Clio (1902). 6 in. Swallow (1885). Buzzard (1887).. Beam.833 13.-10 ft. and draught of 11 ft.576 5. Slightly varied details.669 8. 160 tons. 10. Kinsha (1900).-26 ft. I. 6. SLOOPS Modern unarmoured ships of approximately 1. 82 tons. Moorhen (1901).GUNBOATS.849 7.H. Beagle (1889).495 8. 125-135 ft. Draught. Torch (1894). S. 180 tons. Odin (1901).453 5. Shearwater (1900).H. 360-500. I. Length.H. now dismantled to serve as tender to Vernon. Alert (1894).000 tons and 1. 180 tons. Polyphemus (1881). ALLAN LINE.P.919 6. 85 tons. General dimensions. Robin (1897). Armament. 85 tons.8 kts.000 — 20 kts. 9. 2. 2 20-pdrs.400 I. Torpedo ram. Phoenix (1895). Mosquito (1890). Raven (1882). repairing ship for Wei-hai-Wei.500 — 17. 284 tons.5-10. in length. Nightingale (1897).620 tons. Displacement. with a beam of 33 ft. Woodcock (1897). 2 5-in. Teal (1901). II CLASS Albacore (1883).). NAV. Gross Tonnage. Racer (1884). 12. 455-560 tons. 10 ft. 85 tons. 85 tons.640 tons. Sp.395 8.P. Torpedo depôt ship. 2. Mutine (1900). 6 in. Torpedo depôt ship. Jackdaw (1897).H. 2 4-in. Woodlark (1897). Name. Skylark (1855). City of Rome Furnessia INTERNAT.607 6. Icarus (1885). Cadmus (1902). Daphne (1888). I. AUXILIARY SHIPS Vulcan (1889). Melita (1888) (condemned).P. Rosario (1898). 2 64-pdrs. Rinaldo (1900)..400 tons.9 kts. 150 tons. I. Basilisk (1889).P.Kts.401 13. 20 Merchant Ships Available for War Purposes As we are going to press comes an announcement that the Government intend to discontinue the policy of subsidising merchant vessels for war purposes. 16 16 15 17 15 14½ 14½ 14 15 15 13 13½ 13½ Bavarian Tunisian Parisian ANCHOR LINE. CO. Hecla (1878). 6. and a speed of 14 kts. Herald (1890). Nymphe (1888). 82 tons..H. Espiegle (1900). Firebrand (1877).400 6. Algerine (1895). Heron (1897). Kensington Southwark ATLANT. 85 tons. Vestal (1900).400 — 11. Snipe (1897). 5. TRANSPORT CO. 160 to 180 ft.057 Speed . 23 ft.P. (Raven.376 10.7 kts.

910 6. Gross Tonnage.901 6.823 8.298 5.405 10. Caledonia Arabia China Egypt India Persia Australia Himalaya Arcadia Britannia Oceana Victoria Oriental Peninsular Assaye Plassy Rome Carthage Clyde Shannon Massilia Ballaarat Parramatta 102 .821 7.912 7.317 5.297 5.636 5. N.527 5.911 7. 14½ 14/ 14 14 14½ 14½ 14 14 14 14½ 18 18 18 17 16 18 16½ 16½ 16½ 16½ 164 15½ 15½ 15½ 15½ 15½ 15½ 18½ 18 18 18 18 18 17½ 17½ 17 17 17 17 16½ 16½ 16 16 15½ 15 15 15 14½ 14½ 14½ PACIFIC S.380 5.303 4.748 4.756 Speed .287 7.362 5.545 5.900 6.945 6. 6.026 4.387 5. Staffordshire Derbyshire Cheshire Shropshire LEYLAND LINE.291 6. BIBBY LINE.857 6.803 4.708 5.825 8.198 4. CO.405 8.631 7.898 6.903 7.912 7.405 8.005 6. S.099 4. N.376 7.Kts.Name.857 5. Winifredian Devonian Armenian Cestrian Victorian Canadian Omrah Ophir Ormuz Austral Orient Ortona Orizaba Orotava Oroya Oruba Oravia Iberia Liguria Orissa Oropesa Orcana Orella ORIENT LINE. & O.689 4.721 10.825 10.525 6. CO P.603 6.284 5.321 4.558 7.677 5.524 5.603 6.

140 5.487 5. Atrato Clyde Danube Magdalena Nile Tagus Thames Trent Orinoco Para La Plata (ex Moor) Elbe WHITE STAR LINE.905 5. CAN.Name. N.880 5.905 5.946 5.464 3.269 7.905 12.985 Speed .652 9.274 9.028 4.465 5.573 4.Kts.380 4.537 12.392 4. Oceanic Majestic Teutonic Celtic Germanic Britannic Coptic Cymric Doric Gothic Cevic Georgic Afric Medic Gross Tonnage.356 12.984 20.676 7.965 9.958 4.626 9. RAILWAY CO. 5.952 8.815 5.570 7.004 4.545 5.128 8.645 5.645 5. PAC. Briton Carisbrook Castle Kildonan Castle Kinfauns Castle Norman Saxon Scot Dunottar Castle Dunvegan Castle Hawarden Castle Norham Castle Roslin Castle ROYAL MAIL S.077 11.948 11.946 5.071 5.140 17.800 13.120 7.664 7. CO.301 10.248 7.647 4. Empress of China Empress of India Empress of Japan CUNARD LINE. Campania Lucania Etruria Umbria Aurania Servia Ivernia Saxonia Ultonia UNION-CASTLE LINE.950 12.755 8.140 5. 16½ 16½ 16½ 22 22 19½ 19½ 16½ 16 15½ 151 13 17½ 17½ 17½ 17½ 17½ 17½ 171 16 16 15 15 15 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 17 17 16 15 15 15 15 13 13 13 13 103 .845 10.392 13.434 4.800 8.

1 kts. Sp. Sp. 12. 1. 1.. Sc.806 6. Barque-rigged. 9 kts. (Surprise) 2 6-pdrs. I. 450.P. Sp. 11.370 tons.4 kts.H.000 — 17. 14. 3. 1. 260 tons.P. 13 13 13 13½ 13½ 13½ 13½ 13½ DOMINION LINE. Discovery Wye (1873) Industry (1854) Humber (1878) Tyne (1878) Columbine Imogene (1882) Sphinx (1882) Hearty (1885) Jackal (1885) Magnet (1883) Seahorse (1880) Traveller (1883) Dart (1882) 1.231 Speed .300 tons. 3.640 tons.1 kts. Sp. Sp. Armament. 12.000 — 17. Tw.P. Martin (1890) Nautilus (1890) Pilot (1890) Liberty (1850) Seaflower (1837) Special Service Torpedo Vessel Vesuvius (1874) 245 tons.Persic Runic Suevic Name. I. I.8 kts. 501 tons. 670 tons.H.3 kts.5 kts. Barque-rigged. Surprise (1885). 700 tons. 8. WHITE STAR LINE Gross Tonnage.985 12. (Antarctic Discovery Ship). TROOPSHIPS.H.8 kts. 1.7 kts.097 11. Alacrity (1885). 11 kts.H P. 925 tons. P.Kts.130 tons. 454 tons. 430 tons. 10 kts.618 5. 8 kts. SAILING TENDERS. 508 tons. 12. (Alacrity) 10 6-pdrs.650 tons.560 tons. 1. — 10. SURVEYING SHIPS. 1. Sp..6 kts. Commonwealth New England Canada Dominion Vancouver DESPATCH VESSELS. 12. 470 tons. 700 Sp. 350 — 9. Sp.H.570 tons. I. STORESHIPS. 447 tons. 1. Sp. 104 . 460 tons.394 8.8 kts. 308 tons. I.126 tons. Sp.985 11. Sp. Cruiser (1879) Dolphin (1882) Wanderer (1883) Wave (1874) Wooden Sailing Brigs.130 tons. Sp. 3. 10 kts.7 kts.973 11. 750 tons.700 tons. 12. 925 tons. 1. 501 tons. Barque-rigged Barque-rigged.

000 tons. MOORING LIGHTERS.8 kts.470 tons. 360 — 9 kts. 4. Sp.P. wooden schooner sailing yacht. In completing the foregoing list of Ships in the Royal Navy. TRAINING SHIPS.5 kts. COAL DEPÔTS. non-effective.130 tons.H. 160 tons. 105 .Penguin (1876) Rambler (1880) Research (1888) Stork (1882) Triton (1882) Water Witch (1878) Egeria (1873) YACHTS. I. COASTGUARD STEAM CRUISERS.P. 40 ft.850 tons.400 — 15. 500 — 11 kts.700 tons. 1. AUXILIARY CRAFT. 1. 620 tons. 9. Beam.H. I. TANKS. 11.P. 10 kts.H. 338 ft. I. 3 in.P. 446 tons.H. 453 tons.. 940 tons. 550 tons. I. 3. Comprise some hundreds of vessels stationed in various home and foreign ports. 370 tons. 9. CARGO BOATS. I.Four coastguard watch vessels. 520 tons. 1.100 — 12. 1855.P. the publishers of the "Naval Pocket Book. 425 — 11.360 — 15 kts. 10 kts. HULKS. Cost £512. Nine vessels of approximately 300-500 tons and 150-650 I. I. LAUNCHES AND MINERS.000 — 13 kts.P. 2. Sp. 1899.5 kts. 18 ft. 2." for kind permission to use their valuable Work. Sp. Victoria and Albert (old). MAGAZINES. I. Displacement.H.P. Thacker & Co. 836 tons.000 — 20 kts.7 kts. Length. Osborne (1870) Alberta (1863) Enchantress (1865) Vivid (1883) Fire Queen (1881) Wildfire (1887) Mavourneen (1900) 1. Thirteen vessels of 30 to 130 tons .Six coastguard station tenders . STATIONARY SHIPS.P. I. 11 in. 16 ft. Boilers. COAL LIGHTERS. Sp. 439 ft. Draught. NAVAL ORDNANCE STORE SHIPS. Draught. COASTGUARD SAILING CRUISERS. HOSPITAL SHIPS. Length. 10 kts.034.H. 10 kts.H.H. 50 ft. Victoria and Albert (new). Sp. 1.H.P. Beam. TUGS. Displacement. the Editor desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Messrs.7 kts. 410 tons. 18 Belleville. Sp.

H.659.0 X 44. — R. 427. Ds. 390.2 X 28. 4.000 — 13 knots. SOPHOCLES. overtopped by a Pennant.H. Ds.800 — 13 knots. DAMASCUS.T.P. — Glasgow. — Glasgow. 1881.662.T.H.H. TUNISIAN (Tw. then White and Blue. 2. — Aberdeen. 10.2 X 25.6 x 44.2 X 29. — Glasgow. ABERDEEN LINE FUNNELS: Yellow.8 X 46.T. So. HOUSE FLAG: Red next mast. 3.576.7 X 47. Ds.000 — 15 knots. 1887. Sc. R. R. — R. 4.3 X 31. 10. LONDON — AUSTRALIA (via THE CAPE). I. 5. Ds.508.6 X 44. I. Blue.700 — 13 knots.2. PARISIAN. NINEVEH. 4. 1881.2 X 39. BAVARIAN (Tw. Ds.000 — 14 knots.0 X 29-5. Ds. SALAMIS.T.T. 1883.573. 2. 440. 3. 3. — Glasgow.808.P.T.2.). 3. 365. R.6. 3. 392.P.8. 362.6 X 59. 3. — Belfast.1 X 28-5. ABERDEEN. R. R.21 Fleets of Principal Steamship Companies. I. I.4 x 31. AUSTRALASIAN.P.T. HOUSE FLAG: Red and Blue Stripe with White Star in centre.2 x 29.H. 361.T. FUNNELS: Red with White Band and Black Tops. 1900. 3. R. I.000 — 15 knots. Ds.595. ALLAN LINE LIVERPOOL — MONTREAL (via MOVILLE). — Glasgow.).9.5. 1899. — R.5 X 44.P.2 X 39.1.P.T.4 X 47.0 X 45.784. Red.000 — 13 knots.T.576. Ds. 1884. I. R. 500. 106 .8. MORAVIAN.H. 4. I. 4. 500 X 59. Ds. Ds. Red.H. 362.P.609.

SARDINIAN.T. R.T. R.546. 3. R.P. R.T. STATE OF NEBRASKA.306.8. 530-0 x 59.T. 3.).).T. R.T. R. CORINTHIAN.163. Ds. PAUL (Tw. LIVONIAN.T. Sc. R.425. 4.436. 4.P.845. 11500.T. 107 .T. Sc. I. CARTHAGINIAN. 20.T. — Glasgow. R.T.T. MONGOLIAN. — Same as Philadelphia. COREAN.523. CANADIAN.P.986. 8. WALDENSIAN. 20.704. 11. R. R. NUMIDIAN.T. 2. R. R.T.2 X 32. BRAZILIAN. 535. 4. 1888. R. AMERICAN LINE (1) SOUTHAMPTON — NEW YORK (via CHERBOURG). — American built. 2. ORCADIAN. R.T. — American built.950. 4. NEW YORK (Tw. R. 1895. 3.T.).T.). 9.T. 2. R. FUNNELS: Black with white bands.ASSYRIAN. 4.H. Ds.0. SARMATIAN. ONTARIAN.0 x 26. — Same as Haverford. R. GRECIAN. ST. ST.0 x 39. R. R. IONIAN (Tw. PHILADELPHIA (Tw. with Blue Eagle.).T. R. NORWEGIAN.487.000 — 21½ knots. CALIFORNIAN.629. 4. R. 4. R. LAURENTIAN. R.0 X 26. R. 3. 10.522.000. Sc. AUSTRIAN.257. 2.T.000. BUENOS AYREAN. R. 3. PRETORIAN. 535.T.T.T. R. 4.000 — 20½ knots. 2.0.920. 6. R.T.6 X 63. R. 4.T.481.T. MERLON (Tw. HAVERFORD (Tw.951. Sc.309.T.T. Sc.T.017. 3.). ROSARIAN. R.H. 3. R. R. PERUVIAN.837. — Belfast. I. 20.T.8. 11.017. R.348.629. Sc. SICILIAN.T. POMERANIAN.). 3.H. SIBERIAN. HOUSE FLAG: White.996. 3.T. R.910.T.187.285.835.T. MONTE VIDEAN.262. I.5 X 63.961. 527.803.T. Sc. Ds. PHOENICIAN. 1895. HIBERNIAN. 2. 4. LOUIS (Tw.5 X 63.046. 2.000 — 21½ knots. R. 5. R. Ds. 4.

SAN FRANCISCO — HONOLULU & SYDNEY. — AMERICAN-AUSTRALIAN LINE FUNNELS: Black.783. BELGENLAND. 3. 1881.T. 419. CITY OF ROME. NOORDLAND.0 X 17. Ds.2 x 52. — Glasgow. 1900.453.0.T. 5.P.086. — Philadelphia. FURNESSIA. 455.3. Ds.0. 3. ASSYRIA.0 x 47. 16 knots. 398.AMERICAN LINE (2) LIVERPOOL — PHILADELPHIA (via QUEENSTOWN) WESTERNLAND. 5.500. 8. R.0 x 47. 6. 4. I. SIERRA. — R.755.H. ALAMEDA and MARIPOSA. VENTURA. 3. 560. — Glasgow.H.T.7. 1870.0 X 30.T. HOUSE FLAG: (not specified).T. 1900.2 X 41.212.0. Ds. AUSTRALIA.867. Ds.158. 1883.T. — R.P.0 X 50-0 X 38. — Barrow.T.200. R. 108 . D. 2.0 x 41. MEDITERRANEAN — NEW YORK. — R.4 x 18. PENNLAND. 8.1 X 26.9 X 37. ANCHOR LINE GLASGOW — BOMBAY. R.T.T. ASTORIA. 450 0 X 55. COLUMBIA.-Philadelphia. R.856. R. Ds.0. — R.0.T. — Glasgow. Ds. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red Anchor. — RHYNLAND. 5. 5. R.495.T. 314.0. SONOMA. 376. GLASGOW — NEW YORK (via MOVILLE). FUNNELS: Black. — R.3 x 37. 5. 361. Ds.280. I.000. 1875.

R. 600. 10.833.500. — Glasgow.653. 1. MANITOU. MINNEAPOLIS. ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE LONDON — NEW YORK. ATHOS.200. 2. 1.510.000 — 13½ knots. Ds. ANCHORIA. I.000-13½ knots. SCINDIA.478.3.598. VICTORIA. 5. 2. ALBATROSS.P. R. Ds. HESPERIA.P.189.864. 3. 3.T. 6. R.T.T. 109 .100.680.P. Ds. R.725. CO. HOUSE FLAG: White Square. H.480. H.T. FLEET. SCOTIA.5 X 56. SCHWAN.350. 1. 2.111.P. CALABRIA. R. 4. CALIFORNIA. 1.T.P.T. MINNEWASKA. PERUGIA (building) H.156.596. 3. 1. White and Blue horizontal Stripes with Stars of alternate colours.312. R. ETHIOPIA.T. H.611. FUNNELS: Buff. R. H. 1. H. ADIRONDOCK. SPERBER.T. R.P. R.T. H. FALKE. AR-MENIA. 4.494. KARAMANIA.P.256. 1. REIHER.T. SAVANILLA. MARQUETTE. R. LONDON & HULL — BREMEN FUNNELS: Red with Black Top. H.T. — R.938.920.H. R. — Belfast.000. R.T. 1.395. R.595. 1725.P.T. NUBIA. 3. 13. 1900. R.P.P.000.T.994.T.924. H.744. BAVARIA. I.T. 475. — Glasgow.ALGERIA.P.T. BRITANNIA. HISPANIA. CONDOR. 4.H. SCHWALBE.803.358.069. ARABIA.P. H.7.792. H. 3. 2.928. FLEET.P. 6. 1.293.920. 486. H. MENOMINEE. ALSATIA. MINNEHAHA.999.T.993.T.T. — R. 5. 3. 1.25 X 35. 6. R.5 X 39.5 X 52.P. 1. I. BOHEMIA.402. 4. ATLAS LINE (Hamburg-American Line Owners) NEW YORK — KINGSTON.T. 3.25 X 31.P.P. 1. 3. R.3. I. OLYMPIA (building) H.000-13½ knots. 2.T.P. — R. 6.849.318.T.T.T. 3. MOWE. 475 X 34.846. 3. — R. R.004.P. I. R. 482. BOLIVIA. 1.P. 2. — Hartlepool.919. H.P.0. 4. — R. MINNETONKA. NUMIDIA.380. Ds.T. H.T.T.914. — R.920. 2. ANDES. 4. H.3 X 34. H. R. R. H. 1. R. R. ALTAI. R.T. ALLEGHANY. ARGO S. 3. H.P. 3.T. — Belfast.P. COLUMBIA (building).P. H.1 X 52.854. ALPS.S. R.P. STRAUSS. 3. 3.T. PERSIA.413. Ds.000 — 14 knots.P.T. 4. 3.7 x 65. R.451. 7. 1.T.5. H.T.700.000.T. R. 1. MESABA.H. 2. 2. 5. H. PORT LIMON & GREYTOWN. 1. H. 3. ASIA.H. 3.15.551.P.P. 4. H. CARTAGENA.057.711. ADLER. R.000.P. 2. H. H.148. R.P. H. 3.000.T. R.766.846.P. ALINE. — R. AUSTRALIA. 3.P.399. DALMATIA. HOUSE FLAG: Red.8 X 52.

).P. 3. 800.T. G.T. 2.T. DAPHNE. 1. G. SATURNO. G.500.P.T. H. ESPERO. G. 3. BACQUE-HEM.T.T. 4. H.T.417. 1. 5.T. BAILEY & LEETHAM LINE LONDON — ST.839. G.P.371.T.P. STYRIA. 2. 3. G.P.329. 2. 751. APOLLO. SEMIRAMIS. HELIOS. H.000. H. 2.P. G.P. 6.956.800. MEDEA.T. G. G. MARIA VALERIE. G. MORAVIA.P. PERSIA (building). FUNNELS: Black. ETTORE. 5.P.200. MARQ. G.T.760.P.P. 2.T. G.P. GORICIA. Red Centre. GALATEA.147. H.T. JUNO.000. 2.P. 4. THETIS.400: ERZH.P. H. 1. H. H.194.000. 1.710. 4.T.P.950.476.400. 1. AURORA. 5. G. Sc. 1. 1. H. 1. G.P.337. H. 370.850.P.291. with two White Bands. 4.400. 3. 3. G.P. G. SILESIA. G.132. CONSTANTINOPLE & BLACK SEA FUNNELS: Black HOUSE FLAG: Blue with anchor and motto in gold.T.P. 2.P.P.T.T. H.600. H. FLEET.409. G.300. 859.T.P. 4. 1. H. 1. VINDOBONA.P.500. 650.T. H. 1.P.000. 4.243.T. Sc. 5. G. 2. 2. H. 1. 4. 952. 3.800. GRAF WURMBRAND (Tw. VENUS. H. H.017.T.850. 1. 1.554. H.P.291. CASTORE. G.014.T.P. H. 1. — R.P. URIA. G.560.043.351.P. 1. ORION. THALIA. G. G. G.T.T. 3.T. G. G. 1. VESTA. H. 1. G.T. George Cross. 1. H.769.826.T. H.T.300.T. 1.P. 5. G.200. 2. G. 4. H. 1.850. HABSBURG.P.990. H. H. IMPERATOR.P. H.850. H.685. LEDA.147.T.P. 2. 3. 1. G. perpendicular Black Stripe and Black Top.P.990.T.950. — R.517. 6. 2. G.771. EUTERPE. H. HUNGARIA.702. G.560. 1.T. ZARA. 800. 1. H. FUNNELS: White. G. G. 700.P.822. 817.812. G. H. H. H. 1. G. H. ASIA (Tw.339. G. G.T.000.P. BOSNIA.P. INDIA.235. H.T. G. H. H.P.P. POLLUCE.000. G. 2. 2.291. H.850.P.400. H. 1. H. 2. 2.633.P. G. JUPITER. 1. H.000. 1.P. H. H.P.T. 5. 2. 812. G.P. G. H.AUSTRIAN LLOYD LINE TRIESTE — MEDITERRANEAN PORTS. 2. G.800. POSEIDON. GISELA.P. 3. H. 2. MARIA TERESA.200. 1.). 3.T. H.500. 3.902.407. AMPHITRITE. CARNIOLIA.011. 1. H.T. 1. 2.878.200.T.). 752.P. Sc.898.T.T. HOUSE FLAG: Square White.507. 1.P. CHINA.841. 5. BUCOVINA.T. 4. G. H P.T. URANO. SULTAN.159.771.P. 1.P.618.968.T.771. 879. 1. 2.253. 2. 2.T.771. 4. 4. G.T.P.499.T.859. 4. DANUBIO. 800. G. G. G.T.T.964. H.133.T.771.T. 1.950. G.P.800.P. 685.300.P. 1.566.T.T.T. H. H.829. ISTRIA. H.T.P. G.P.P.T.296. 1.T. MELPOMENE.T.T. G.T.P. 1. G. 1.T. 1. 2.T.P. 4. G. TEBE.119. 3. G.500. H.P. G.372. H.T. H.810. 2.P. 1.517.T.T.P. H. 1.P. AUSTRIA.P. SELENE. GALICIA. 4.T.594. G.T. 2. CLEOPATRA. 1.P. G. G. FRANZ FERDINAND. SALZBURG. TIROL. VORWÆRTS. G. H.732.P. — R. H. H. H. 2.T. H. 1. BOHEMIA. G. DALMATIA.684.854.070. 1.T.P. ACHILLE. ALMISSA.000.771.P. G. AFRICA (Tw.T. 2. ELEKTRA.500. H.095. G.P. 2. 1.811 H. G. G. 1. NIPPON.300. 910. 5. G. 1.T. 1.000. 1. JAFFA. TRIESTE. G.708.850.185. BEAVER LINE LIVERPOOL — QUEBEC & MONTREAL. 4. 700.800. G. 751. 1. CALIPSO. H. G.046.650.P.P. 892.347. 2. H.337. 110 . G. Red St. 1.820.T.417. 1. H.T. FLORA. 4.243. 3.042. 1. METCOVICH. H.504. 6.521. H. H. H.600. H.P. FLEET. 1. IMPERATRIX. 2. 1.935. G. CARINTHIA.T.T. H. PETERSBURG. AGLAJA.

439. 1894. LAKE ONTARIO. Ds. 1884. 6. 111 . — Middlesboro'.289.T. Sc. BIBBY LINE LIVERPOOL — RANGOON & TUTICORIN.). — Newcastle. LAKE CHAMPLAIN (Tw. PRINCESSE HENRIETTE.T. 760. BENNETT LINE GOOLE & LONDON — BOULOGNE. STAFFORDSHIRE (Tw.635.H.T.H. — Not specified. 1884.000 — 14 knots. 5. 445. FUNNELS: Yellow with horizontal Red Stripes. 446.445. — Glasgow.8. containing a Beaver in Black. BURMA. R.T.3 X 28. — Glasgow.T. HOUSE FLAG: Black with Red Cross.T. — Dumbarton. Ds. R. R. R. Sc.6 X 46. Sp.). Ds.955. Sc. R. RAPIDE. 1900. 1897. 444. 1901. I.0 x 27.0 x 58. LEOPOLD II. BELGIAN STATE RAILWAYS FLEET. Sc. 4.T.5. — Belfast.9. — R.).2 X 27.2. 446.7.T. LAKE SUPERIOR. — Belfast. — Not specified. 1897. PRINCE ALBERT.0 X 35.0 X 27. MONTEAGLE (Tw.T. 5. Sc. 7.T. — Glasgow. R.5. Ds. Sp. 445. R.5 x 49. Ds.3 X 52. LAKE ERIE (Tw. COREA. HOUSE FLAG: Square Red. 6. — Belfast. WARWICKSHIRE. — Not specified. DERBYSHIRE (Tw.0 x 30. Ds.H. — Sunderland.562. MONTROSE. 6. 13 knots. 400.546.0 x 44. MONTEREY.9.P.000 — 14 knots. 4. Ds. 400.005.1 x 29. INDIA.2 X 24. I.0 X 52.P.T.HOUSE FLAG: Blue with White Centre. LAKE SIMCOE. 6. MARIE HENRIETTE. DOVER — OSTEND. FLEET.5 X 52.T. 4. PRINCESSE JOSEPHINE. 760.5.). CHINA. — R. Ds.0 X 52.2 X 29. R.2. 7.0 X 52.500 — 14½ knots.060. PRINCESSE CLEMENTINE. Black Top.). 13 knots.T.9. I.550.0 x 44.2 X 24.P. 760. 1899. R. Ds.440. 5.820. 5. 1900. LA FLANDRE. R. LAKE MEGANTIC. Ds. FUNNELS: White with Blue Border and Red Cross. — R. 1887. 470.

P. R. 2. 5. R.000.T.516. R. R.T. 3. R. MAYUMBA.T. Ds.P.244.000.T. 455. R. MONROVIA. R.000.1 X 29. COOMASSIE.T.261.200.764. R. 2. R.800 — 14 knots.T.T.000.000.T.T. — Middlesboro'. R. HAUSSA. SOBO. 500.T.000. ACCRA. & THE CANARIES.T.000.000. 3. R. R. R.523.T. 3.860. 5. 3. BOMA. AKABO. 3.402.500. TENERIFFE. R. JEBBA. 3.T. R. EKURO. R. R. R. BIDA. CONGO. R. ROQUELLE. 2. Ds. R.T.T.H. R. FUNNELS: Black with Red B on White Band. TARQUAH (building). R. BULUWAYO.T.T. LAGOS. MONTREAL. ORON. 112 .000. LANCASHIRE.T. R. 812. 400. 5.T. MADEIRA. KWARRA. BATHURST. BENIN. R.000.410.T. R. AKABO (building). 2.2 X 23. YORKSHIRE. LOANDA. R.000.T.T. R. LAGOON.T. ILORIN. R.000.223. 2. I. — Belfast.000. 1. 400. BORNU.1 x 29. 3. 2. 5. R.T.T. R. R. MONMOUTH. AKASSA.5 X 49. De.T.T. AXIM. 4. 5.T. R. PALMAS.H. 1.SHROPSHIRE (Tw. R. HOUSE FLAG: Blue Burgee with White Cross.000 — 14 knots. 500. R. 4. I. R. 5.T. R. 4.T. LYCIA. 500.T.200. NIGER.T.500. LOANGO.T.300. 1895 — R.T. SEKONDI. ETHIOPIA. 720. 3. 1.000. OLENDA.176. WHYDAH. ILARO. 4.T. R. 2.800. 1889. R. R. 7.T.T.T.000. 1. 3. 351. BRITISH & AFRICAN STEAM NAVIGATION CO. LIVERPOOL — WEST AFRICAN PORTS.T. NIGERIA. R. 5. 332 X 43. 1. 3.2. 2.000.T.P.000.800 .T.T.000.T. 5. 3.T. IDDO.6. 3.000. I. 7. 3.282. 3. CABENDA. 1.T.P. 1. R. VOLTA.428. 1. 2. 4.H.T. ANGOLA. R. R. JOHANNESBURG. 1891. ETOLIA.860.000 — 12 knots.T. BENGUELA. 1. 4.P. R. R. BAKANA.T.T. 4. R. R.T. 3. 3. 1.T.T. R. T.). R. EGGA. 1. 1. MONTAUK.T.000. CAMEROON. Sc. R. BRITISH & COLONIAL LINE LONDON — NATAL (via MADEIRA & CAPE). SHERBRO.000. I. — Middlesboro'. 1891. BIAFRA. 1.000. 3.T. R. BATANGA. MEMNON. 445. R. HOUSE FLAG: Red Border with Red B on White ground. 3. 400. R. 1.466.T. R.T. KANO. 1. BIAFRA.T.777 .2 X 28.T.1. MONMOUTH. 2. Ds. — Belfast.000.200. DODO.000. FANTEE. FLEET. ELMINA. 2. MANDINGO. I. R. 2.T.5 x 19. 3. R. R.805. R.000.T. R.500.7. R. 3. R. R.T. R. — Belfast.000. ALBERTVILLE. 1897 — R. Ds. WARRI.363. R. ANCOBRA. — Belfast.625 .000. 5. MADEIRA. 4. R. SANGARA.H.7 X 45.P. PRAH.H.000.T.200.200.T.2 X 28.500. DAHOMEY. Ds.H. 3. R. R.T.9 x 39.T.958.T.T. R. BURUTU (building). R.500 .T. 445. FORT SALISBURY.775. R.7 X 45.935.5 x 49. R. R. BONNY. 3.800 . 4. SOKOTO.000.T. ASABA.T.T.500 — 14 knots.T. 5. 1. 3.721. R. R.100 — 11 knots. CHESHIRE.T.T.000 — 14 knots.800. 2. R. MONTROSE. 2. ALBERTVILLE.T.T. R. FORCADOS.800.T. 2. FUNNELS: Black. EKO. R.200. R.T.T. 3.700. 1.7. I. 4. 5. DELTA.

— Glasgow. R. 14 knots. 389 X 46 X 33. 390. 12.0 X 42. INDIA.6.5 X 48. 5. 420. Ds. Sp.BRITISH INDIA LINE FUNNELS: Black with two White Bands. 1894. Ds. I. 1892.T.T. 13 knots.874. 425. 4. — Dumbarton. (And a large fleet employed in the Intercolonial trade.0 X 47.P.2 X 30. 4100 X 45.107. R. MIOWERA. 5. Dc. — Sunderland.5.T. WARRIMOO. 4. — Dumbarton.2 X 28. 12½ knots. 4. 14½ knots. Sp.6. R. 1886.697. 1891.T. JUMNA.2 X 30. R. Sp. Ds.T. 422. DIMERA. 13 knots.T. 14 knots. 12½ knots. VANCOUVER — YOKOHAMA.H. Ds. 1889.324.1 X 24. Sp.662. Sp.326. — Newcastle.500 — 17 knots. R.T. DILWARA. knots. Ds. 1890. VANCOUVER — SYDNEY (via HONOLULU).0 X 42. Sp.6. MOMBASSA. Sp.T. 1881.074.4.4 X 48. 1883.2 X 22.0 X 48. 113 .393.7.P.5 X 48.186.H.2 X 21. 3. 5. 4. — Sunderland. 12½ knots. R.2 X 30. — Glasgow. 5. Sp.1 X 29.268. R. Ds. — Dumbarton. Ds.T.922.0. REWA. 4. R. 4.1. CANADIAN-PACIFIC SS.6 X 27.4. Ds. 3. — Dumbarton. HOUSE FLAG: Divided into Six Squares. 1883.H. 1887. 13½ knots. GOORKHA. CO. 3.T. R. Ds. — Dumbarton. Ds.5. 404. GOLCONDA.2 X 21. 1892.500 — 15 knots. 360 X 42. — Not specified.441. Sp. Ds.0 X 43. AORANGI. R.T. 1882.2 X 21. 360 X 42-2 X 28.4 X 49. — Glasgow. 4.6. I. Sp. 5. 5. — Dumbarton. R.3 X 20. Ds. MATIANA. FUNNELS: Yellow. HOUSE FLAG: White Burgee with Diagonal Red Cross. Sp. Ds. R. AVOCA.264.0 X 48. 390. 1891. 1882.T. — Glasgow. R. 13½ knots. I.T. 4.T. — Newcastle. 390.P.) CANADIAN-AUSTRALIAN LINE FLEET. alternately Red and White. MANORA. JELUNGA.749. 410.000 — 16 knots. 410. 420. R.6.

T.4 X51.1 X X 35. 446. VALENTIA.518. Sc. — St. — R.-R. EMPRESS OF JAPAN. I. — 1890. — R. R. 1. COMPAGNIE BELGE MARITIME DU CONGO FLEET.T. Ds.T.722. 1.T.H. Sp. 6. — Barrow.T. — R.1. 114 .T. 1900. R.8 X 34. R. SKERRYVORE. — Glasgow.229. — R. COMPAGNIE GEN. FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops HOUSE FLAG: White Square with Red Ball and Name as above in Red.283.0 X 57. 1. PHILLIPVILLE.T.EMPRESS OF INDIA. — R. — R. 1.).T. — R.169.T. 1. 1. — R. ALBERTVILLE. R. L'ACQUITAINE (Tw.158. SANDA.T. CARRON. 1890.T. CLYDE SHIPPING CO.9.226. 8.0 X 34.T.000 — 18 knots. BRUXELLESVILLE. Ds. — R.T. Nazaire. — R. 563.905. 929.T.). 500.1. 459. — R. — Barrow.183.P. 485 x 51 X 33. R. 1. — R.6. I. 1. CARRON LINE LONDON — BO'NESS & GRANGEMOUTH.154.T. LA LORAINE & LA SAVOIE. Sc.184 DUNGENESS.036. FORTH. — 1885. FUNNELS: Black. R.T. Ds. SALTEES.0. — R.242. TOWARD. AVON. 7. FASTNET.T. LIZARD.T. 21 knots. HOUSE FLAG: Square Red with Company's Device in centre. — R. LA NORMANDIE.5. RATHLIN. LA CHAMPAGNE.T.159. LA TOURAINE (Tw. 945. 1. Ds. — R.T. GARMOYLE. FUNNELS: Black. 1. 1. EMPRESS OF CHINA. 10.T.170 COPELAND.T. 11.087. 695. — R. 1. 674.T. TRANSATLANTIQUE HAVRE — NEW YORK. 8. 1891. CAROLINE.T. PORTLAND. 1. 19 knots.T. ARANMORE.-R. ANTWERP & CONGO PORTS. — R. 5. 1.T. GRANGE.T. LONDON — GLASGOW (via BELFAST). Ds.5 X 34. — R. EDDYSTONE. PLADDA. 929. 1.138. Ds. THAMES. Sp.893. 1882. FLEET. — R.200. 520-2 X 56. — R. TUSKAR.176.2 X 34.3 X 49. 493.T.

R.2 X 38. 1893. FUNNELS: Red with Black Band and two Black Lines beneath.T.8 X 34. 501. — (Same as Umbria).5 X 36. 1884. R. COMPANIA TRANSATLANTICA FLEET. — Glasgow.395. P. LIVERPOOL — NEW YORK (via QUEENSTOWN). DE SATRUSTEGUI.H. — Glasgow. R. Ds. ISLA DE LUZON. — (Same as Campania). 7. 15.5. 115 . 495 4 X 52. CUNARD LINE MONTE VIDEO. CAMPANIA. 4954 X 51.6 X 57. 7. — 1892. Sc. LIVERPOOL — MANILLA (via SPANISH PORTS). R. 12. Ds.0 X 50.128. 8. ALICANTE. Ds.T. — 1886. UMBRIA. Ds.T. ISLA DE PANAY. 28.000 — 22 knots. — 1886.4.000 — 20 knots. HOUSE FLAG: Red with Lion holding Globe in Gold. ETRURIA.950. 6.2. LA NAVARRE (Tw.LA BRETAGNE.P.2 X 37. BUENOS AIRES.648. 601 X 65.T. LUCANIA.P.8. LA GASCOIGNE. R.8. I. I.2 X 34.112. 471.). Ds.H.T.

9.T. 12.427.P. 4. — Glasgow. So. 3. REICHSTAG.H. — R. 1881. BUNDESRATH.T.6. Ds. HOUSE FLAG: Red with initials SS in white.P. KANZLER. — Clydebank. 3.700 — 13 knots. FUNNELS: Yellow Black Tops.T. 4. 5.963. CITY OF OXFORD. 13. 600. — R.845.). CITY OF KHIOS. 6. KAISER. 3. & SUEZ CANAL). CITY OF DUNDEE. 10.T. I. CITY OF LUCKNOW. 10. CITY OF CAMBRIDGE.443.800. FLEET.500 — 13 knots. 2. R. ROTTERDAM. CATALONIA.H. R.496.T.IVERNIA.6 X 43. CITY OF VIENNA.T.443. — R. CITY OF PERTH. 4.200.0 X 57. SAXONIA (Tw.844. ULTONIA (Tw. 5. 3.456.548.H. 4.P. HOUSE FLAG: Yellow with Black. 500. KOENIG. 5. 4.6 x 41.427. White and Red Diamonds in centre. CITY OF BOMBAY. R. — R. 1898. — R.--R. 429.0 X 33.T.T.4 X 33.0 X 64.T.P. HERZOG. — R. SULTAN. CITY OF CORINTH. — Wallsend.T. CITY OF MADRID. FUNNELS: Yellow with Black Tops and Red Band.-R. — R.T. I. I. CITY OF ATHENS.T.000 — 15 knots.160.672.).T.6.000.T.H. Sc. 13. 116 .669. — R.3 X 41. — R. CARPATHIA.8. Ds. DEUTSCHE OST-AFRIKA LINE HAMBURG — NATAL (via ANTWERP. CITY OF BENARES (building). 8. Ds. 3.T.T. — Wallsend. CITY OF SPARTA. 3. PRÆSIDENT. CITY OF DELHI. 600 X 64. Ds. — 1902.179. R. CITY LINE GLASGOW & LIVERPOOL — BOMBAY & KURRACHEE.841. — R.019. — R. — R.T. I. CITY OF VENICE. 4. R. — R. 4.899.000 — 15 knots. 1900.T.T.T.

). R. DOMINION LINE SETOS. 8. — R.9 x 46.T.618. Sc. FLEET. 1896.4 X 58. 1. — Belfast.000. Ds. LABRADOR (Bldg. Sp. 3.T. LIVERPOOL — QUEBEC & MONTREAL FUNNELS: Red. H. CANADA. H. 117 . HOUSE FLAG: Square Blue.3 X 59. FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. PERTH & LONDON SHIPPING CO.700. HOUSE FLAG: Red Pennant with White Diamond enclosing Blue Ball.3 x 30. DOMINION (Tw.). LONDON — DUNDEE.T. GOUVERNEUR. 445. NEW ENGLAND (Tw.P. with Black Tops and White Band.T. 1894. 429. Ds.T. PERTH. DUNDEE.5 X 50.9. 6.1. COLUMBUS. CAMBROMAN. Sc. Ds.3 X 35.000. R. Ds. 16 knots.P.000.9. 3. SAFARI. COMMONWEALTH. — Birkenhead.700. PETERS. — Belfast. 550. R. — R. GENERAL. — Belfast. LIVERPOOL — BOSTON. ADMIRAL. 1. — Belfast. R. 2.394. H. Sp.T.P. 500. 4.000.2 X 31. LONDON. FINLAND LINE (NO details specified. VANCOUVER. 11.2 X 29.806.300. 1.) HULL TO FINLAND (via COPENHAGEN). ETC.T. 16 knots.KRONPRINZ. — R. 1898. 600 X 59'3 X 40.). DUNDEE. 1892. 13. Ds.T. R.920.1.


6 X 34. Ds. alternately Blue and White & Shield with Letters H. 16.502.). 13.2 X 30.).0 X 40.T. — Belfast. Ds.7 X 33. R.8. PENNSYLVANIA (Tw.T.). Sc.). 1889.0 x 62. A. PRETORIA (Tw. 8. 119 . AUGUSTA VICTORIA (Tw.4 X 62. SOUTHAMPTON — YOKOHAMA. DS. IBEX. FLEET.3 X 55.9. 1897. R.430.333.T.148. 504. Sc. 13.T.1. 18. 1890.4 X 57. ROEBUCK. — Stettin. — Stettin.7 X 67.190. — Hamburg.T. Sc. HAMBURG — NEW YORK (via BOULOGNE). 459. — Stettin. Ds. FUNNELS: Bug on Express Steamers. superimposed on an anchor. A.). P. Co. Black on Intermediate. 1896. R. 559. 1900. knots. FUERST BISMARCK (Tw. 662. 561. R.GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY CO.8.0. DEUTSCHLAND (Tw. R. 7. Sc. SOUTHAMPTON — AUSTRALIA. HOUSE FLAG: Square divided diagonally into quarters.2 X 37. Sc. GENOA — NEW YORK. Ds. HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE WEYMOUTH — GUERNSEY & JERSEY. HAMBURG — NEW YORK (via CHERBOURG & SOUTHAMPTON). Sp.

R.T.176.T.T. R. R. SPARTA.T.T.500.T.T. X 62. R.T. R.3 X 37. R. R.T. ASTURIA.T. NAUPLIA. — Stettin. 450. 10. FUNNELS: Yellow with White Stripe and Green Bands.437.458.T. FLANDRIA. LYDIA. 7. R.T. ARTEMISIA.719. 5. R. BLUCHER. BENGALIA.922.T. MARKOMANNIA. 5.T.751. R.911. 2. 2.044. 5.738.T. 5. 5. 1. 2.T.679. BELGIA. R. RHENANIA.T. SAMBIA. ADRIA.734.558. 1.T.250. 7. R. R. DORTMUND. R. 5198.T. R. R. Ds.T. 4.500.194.454. HUNGARIA.T. 1. 2. SCOTIA.T. 12.).441.T.T. 5.335.T. 2.595. — Birkenhead.206. 11. R. 2.T. R. GEORGIA.046 .T. R. R.700. 3. 6. KIAUTSCHOU. ALLEMANNIA. R. 5. R. 2.T. R. 7. ANDALUSIA.825. 3.412.T. 3. 2.820.T. 3. 2. 5.095. R. 4. R. CROATIA. 7. KARTHAGO. R.150.T 5. 1. R. HOLLAND-AMERICA LINE ROTTERDAM — NEW YORK (via BOULOGNE).623. 2. OTHER TWIN-SCREW PASSENGER STEAMERS. 3.T.T.T. R. 4. 5.872.T.661.T.600.T.T.T. HELLAS.T.T. 5. 3. GRANADA.991.T. 7.727.176. CANADIA.T. 3. SERBIA. 7. 3. CONSTANTIA. 4.T.143. R.T.T. Sc. SILESIA. BATAVIA. FRISIA. BELGRAVIA R.349. ASSYRIA.T. R. R.697.T.004.304. TROJA. 2.T. R.T. R. 5. NICOMEDIA.997. ARCADIA.697.991. NICARIA.630.858.T.T. SITHONIA. 3. 5. 5. 2.125. R. HOUSE FLAG: Green Stripes. 10. — (Cruising Yacht). R. R.T.601.424. 2.818. POLARIA.T.T.135. HELVETIA.T.T.000.511.268.254. 2. R. R.607.T. R. R. 4. BOLIVIA.T.507. NUBIA. 1899. 13.T. PHOENICIA. 3. R. R. MACEDONIA. R. SAVOIA. 13.290. 2. R. ALESIA. R. Ds. 5. 5. DACIA.419. ATHESIA. TEUTONIA. R. MOLTKE.492. HOLSATIA. NUMIDIA. R.646. OTHER STEAMERS. R. R. R. R. R. Ds.T. R.494.148 . R.832. SUEVIA. 6. 120 . ACILIA. R. R. R. R. AUS-TRALIA.). 5. SYRIA.408. ARAGONIA. GOUVERNEUR JAESCHKE. R. R.167. SEVILLA.T.6 X 35.T. NASSOVIA. R. R. LAEISZ. 5. 2. R. 5. 3. R.041. R.PATRICIA (Tw. PARTHIA. ASCANIA.581. 2. 2. R. 1889. R. AMBRIA.911. 584. 2.T.T. ITHAKA.T. R. Sc. ATHEN. 2.066. R. R.T.T. 5. R. R. NUMANTIA. 3. R. R. CHERUSKIA.T. 1. — 1902.5. R.199.150. BOSNIA. ETRURIA. VALESIA. 2. SICILIA.T.T.0. SEGOVIA.861.295.347. R.811.697. ARMENIA. 2. SIBIRIA.T. R. R. 2.151.T.472. R. R.T. R.694.250. 2. 2. VALENCIA.T. CHRISTIANIA.T. 2. R.T. HISPANIA.860. 5.404. ABESSINIA.T. Sc.673. 3. 7. 10. ALEXANDRIA. POLYNESIA.T. COLUMBIA (Tw.193. SILVIA. 2. 3.T. R.471.T. R.T.T. VALDIVIA.872. HOERDE. CALABRIA. R.979.171. FERD. C.). 6. R. 4.982. CASTILIA.697.372. with NASM on White Stripe. R.149.0 X 47M X 30. SARDINIA. 2. R. R.T.T.T. WESTPHALIA.5 X 55. R. SAXONIA. GALICIA. 3.T. 3. BRISGAVIA. PRINCESSIN VICTORIA LUISE (Tw. FRANCIA. 463. R. R. PALATIA. R. R. 3. HERCYNIA. R. 3.578. HAMBURG. 3. R.T. 7. 2.860.T.T.700. R.T.T. BETHANIA.T.T.T.T. R. SARNIA.T. R.241. 5.T.T. PONTOS.T.738.

ROYSTON GRANGE. HERACLIDES.T.300 — 13 knots. — Belfast. 420. 12.629. 121 .P. ROTTERDAM (Tw. Ds. 2. HERMINIUS. 6. I.3 X 19. R. Ds. R. 420. Ds.2 X 18. 565. Ds.0.P.444.T.000. 4. 3. HELIADES. H.6.P.803.200.T. — Middlesboro'. — Belfast.P. FUNNELS: Red with White Maltese Cross. 3.H. R. STATENDAM.6 x 30.).720 — 13 knots.0.P.600. Ds.720 — 13 knots. I.250 — 13 knots.T.5 X 17.050. 1892.T. 3. — Belfast.6. 1894.9.3 X 59.POTSDAM. 6.000 — 10½ knots. I. R.T. Ds. HERMES. 10. — Belfast.930. 1892.0 X 28. I.H. HOSTILIUS. 400.0 x 62. 6. 1871.500. 2.4.0 X 54. — T.0. DRAYTON GRANGE (Tw. 2.3 X 39. I. — 13 knots.T. — Belfast. — 15 knots.413. 1896.H.8. 4. 2. R. R.984. 420.2 x 33. 1.500 — 12 knots. RT. — R. 5. HIPPOMENES.0.P. R. 3.0 X 46. R. 513.P. — Belfast. Sc. 6. HORTENSIUS. RIPPINGHAM GRANGE. 8. — Newcastle.H.P. Sc. — Belfast.1 x 29.475.P. 12. RIJNDAM and NOORDAM (Tw. — Belfast. HORNBY GRANGE. I. — Sunderland. Sc.P.T. surmounted by letter H. MAASDAM. HORATIUS. Ds. Ds. HELIOS. 370 X 47.400.H.9.0 X 33.T. 5.500. — Belfast. R. OVINGDEAN GRANGE.H. 1901. 340. HOUSTON LINE LIVERPOOL — RIVER PLATE (BUENOS AYRES). Ds. Ds.0 X 30.T.H.T.). R.9 X 53.9.0 X 40.4. 300. — Belfast. AMSTERDAM. I. Sc.). 3.0 x 55. R. R. 2.T. URMSTON GRANGE. 1900. — 13 knots.0 X 55.473.T.H. Ds. 450. 2. 467.P. Ds. HOULDER LINE LIVERPOOL — RIVER PLATE.000. 1881. HYADES. 365. 427. HILARIUS.P.P. HOUSE FLAG: Red with White Maltese Cross.3 X 40. HESPERIDES.0 X 54.0 X 22.9 X 32. LANGTON GRANGE.P.4 X 48. OSWESTRY GRANGE (Tw. 297.000 — 10 knots.9 X 31.500 — 13 knots. — Belfast. 1897. 3700 X 47. ELSTREE GRANGE. 2. R. 1901. I.H. H.0. 3. Ds. 450. — Belfast.0 X 40. HYLAS.7. HELLOPES. BEACON GRANGE. I. 410.0. 3.H. 1890.250 — 13 knots. I.0 x 45.T.500 — 13 knots. HYANTHES.T. R. 2. FUNNELS: Black.8 X 23. 3.539.0.880 — 14 knots. I. H.T.P.8 X 41. HONORIUS.0 X 33.0. — 13 knots.2 X 33. Ds. FLEET. 1890.H.0 x 46. H. Ds. Ds. SPAARNDAM.500. R. 1879.6 X 30. Ds. SOUTHERN CROSS. HOUSE FLAG: White Union Jack and Red Cross in centre.).

P. — Middlesboro'-on-Tees.T. NEW YORK.418. CAVOUR. — 17 knots. — Middlesboro'-on-Tees. HELLENES.P.0 X 41. Ds.).0 X 24. 552. 4.T. LIVERPOOL — BOSTON. PORT MARIA (Tw.900. LEYLAND LINE GARRICK. R. 122 . CANOVA.6 x 22.0 X 59.1 X 17. — 15 knots.) DEVONIAN. Sc. R.0. 2.). PORT ROYAL. 1901.455. FLEET. in Red.6. 1901. 334. 10. H.P. 385. BELLAGIO. — Glasgow. — Belfast. HOMER.) BRISTOL — JAMAICA. SALLUST. — RIVER PLATE.T. 1900. White Band. Ds.6 X 22. Ds.P. R. — 15 knots. LAMPORT AND HOLT LINE LIVERPOOL — RIVER PLATE & CALLAO. & H. FUNNELS: Black Tops. Sc. HOUSE FLAG: Two Red Stripes with White Band and initials L. R. H. Ds.0 X 40.0 x 46. — R. H. 1901. 330. CANNING. CERVANTES. ROMNEY.T.7 X 35. HOUSE FLAG: (Not specified. IMPERIAL WEST INDIA MAIL SERVICE FUNNELS: Yellow. 4.). FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. — 15 knots. 385 X 46.0.900. Ds. PORT ANTONIO (Tw. PORT MORANT (Tw.T.455. H.0. Sc.HARMODIUS. HOUSE FLAG: (Not specified. Blue Base. 2.

T. VICTORIAN. 2.P. R. R.T. R. R. R. 4. 4.T. BOSTONIAN. LIVERPOOL — PARNAHIBA. LIVERPOOL & MARANHAM STEAMSHIP CO. LIVERPOOL — MARANHAM. COLONIAN (building). — H. 8. 5. — H. 9. R.T. R. 5. I. R.T.T.P.35 X 36. ARUNDEL. AMERICAN. MAPLEMORE. LOUISIANIAN. BOHEMIAN.P. 6. NICARAGUAN. 2. TAMISE.678. R. BOURBON.T.T.352. Ds. 4.613. PINEMORE.T.000.642. 7.T. GEORGIAN.362. 7. SEINE. 13. R.816. ALEXANDRIAN (building). 4. LANCASTRIAN .300. 2. R. 2. CALEDONIAN.T.803.T.000.T.T.T. CANADIAN. R. R. 5. — Belfast. R.P. INDIAN. 9.300. 6.194. 4. 4. R. 3. R. R.251.500. FLORIDIAN. — Newcastle-on-Tyne.301.T. R. 4.642. R. BRUNSWICK.T. HANOVERIAN (building). 5. I. 5. BARBADIAN. ARMENIAN.438.T. VIRGINIAN. MANCHE. 8. CHICAGO.T.803. CAMBRIAN.405.T. NEWHAVEN — DIEPPE & CAEN. 9. BRITTANY. PARIS.H. 5. WILLIAM CLIFF.257. FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops.T. R.833.T. 123 . Ds. 7.P. R. ROUEN.T. 5.257. IBERIAN. R.000. R. 5. FLEET. ANTILLIAN.000. 3. 5.2 X 59. R. 3.P. BERNARD HALL.T.P.T.T. 5. LONDON. 3.0 X 32 8. — H.T. 1899.000.T. 4.T.000.T.T.T. — H. ATLANTIAN. 482. 4. R. FRANCE. 8. R.700. R.195.120.T.825.825.T. KINGSTONIAN. — H.WINIFREDAN. — H. YUCATAN. — H. NORMANDY.823. R.T. R.088. BRIGHTON AND SOUTH COAST RAILWAY CO.H. R. 3.600.P.548. COSTA RICAN. 6. 5. R. R.986.000. R.532. 5. 552.626. ANGLIAN. R. 3.T.600. RT. two new steamers (building).500 — 14 knots.121.668.P. 5. TEXAN.000 each. 3.608. — H. R. — H.501.120.P. CALI-FORNIAN (building).T.500-12 knots.600. R. R. COLOMBIAN. TAMPICAN.T. SUSSEX. PHILADELPHIAN.0 X 573. R.T. CUBAN. COLUMBIAN. 3. 3.000. JAMAICAN. EUROPEAN. 12.T.P.T.85. R. 5.P.223.088.195. DARIEN. 10. HOUSE FLAG: White with White and Blue Squares alternately.202. CESTRIAN. R. R. 5.501.500. — H. 8. 3. R.T. 8. 8.

SAXONY. with M M in. R.-1899.1.379.586. MANCHESTER CORPORATION. Ds. I. TARTARY. AUSTRALIEN. MANCHESTER CITY.7. R.467. 2.P. 423 X 51.542.0 X 50. PACIFIQUE. 3. — R. Black Tops. 1898.8. — 1889.428.8 X 47. TAYLOR. 312. — R. 2.210. 482 x 49. 124 . MANCHESTER — QUEBEC & MONTREAL. I.T. 2.6 X 50. BURGUNDY. R. — Sunderland. FLEET. I.200.635. McIVER LINE LIVERPOOL — BUENOS AYRES. FUNNELS: Red.2 X 34. 5. 6.878. 431.506.T. 431.T. HOUSE FLAG: Square White. MANCHESTER MERCHANT. 7. I-H. HOUSE FLAG: Square White with Red Diamond.T.538. Ds. R. MANCHESTER LINE FLEET.461. AMERICA MARU.048. Ds.P.TOYO KISEN KAISHA SAN FRANCISCO — HONG KONG (via YOKOHAMA). R.T. — Sunderland. MARSEILLES — AUSTRALIA (via COLOMBO & NEW FUNNELS : Black.9 x 36.7 x 29.T. NORMANDY.444.2 X 34.T.T. — R. ARMAND BEHIC. MANCHESTER SHIPPER.136. — R.3 X 38 X 29.3 X 49.000. VILLE DE LA CIOTAT. 482. 3. 7. — R. R.T. Red corners. MANCHESTER COMMERCE. — Newcastle. MANCHESTER IMPORTER.5. Ds. R. LOMBARDY.1 X 29. — 1892.T.200. 6. 3.1 X 36. Ds.H. — 1892.7 X 29. centre. 6. 6. BRITTANY. NIPPON MARU (Tw.7.0 x 50.1. 6. — R. 1898. R.200. — R. 6.7. W. 2.8.).P. POLYNESIAN--1890. 7.P. 485.T. Building — BARBARY.H. Ds. 1898. J.H.T. 7. PATAPSCO.T. HONG KONG MARQ (Tw. Ds. MESSAGERIES MARITIMES CALEDONIA). Ds. 3. I. MANCHESTER TRADER.T.H. 2. Sc.P.727.). Sc. 486.200.T.

100. I. 399. — R. Ds.P. UMTATA.T 1. K. 2.H. 3. NATAL LINE ANUBIS. BATAVIER II.134. 1882.000. 1. I.8 X 25. HOUSE FLAG: Red with White Cross.P.T. 1.3 X 44.T. 2. George's Cross with word Postale in Black.4.000.662.1 x 28. 1873. ETC. — Newcastle.T.7. & Co.H.T.7 X 36. FUNNELS: Black.T . — R.6 x 31. 3.3 x 44 x 31. — R.) NETHERLANDS STEAMBOAT CO. I.000. (And a very large fleet of subsidiary steamers. 1. 1. UMBAZI.T. R.633 — 14 knots. 2. R.1.H.406. UMBILO.5 x 42.T. I.H. I. 400.641. R.P. I.T.T. UMKUZI.555.T.1 X 40 X 26.T. 2. ARCHIMEDE. — R.000.T. GUIENNE. ALEXANDRIA & CONSTANTINOPLE. BATAVIER III. I. Ds.134. — R.H. SINGAPORE.685. 1876. R.923. — Newcastle.827 — 14 knots.P. I. 4.P. R.625. — R. FUNNELS: Yellow with Black Band and Black Top. I. FLEET.406.H. I. MANILLA. 731.683 — 14 knots. 1.096.H. GENOA — MEDITERRANEAN PORTS. 1874. — Glasgow. RAMESES. I. T.910. NAVIGAZIONE GENERALE ITALIANA GENOA — BOMBAY. 350.P. — R. MEULS. HOUSE FLAG: Red Pennant with White Maltese Cross. 3.580. 2. Ds.H. I. 3. — R. 2. I. 2.T.H.000.T. — R.300.000.5 x 42.P. 1. FLEET.096.T. LONDON — DURBAN. 1881.173. 389. 1. 2. I. 1.370. TABOR. 2. FUNNELS: Black with White Band.H.H.580.H. 1. UMTALI. 2.P.9.P. I.T. FLEET.P.T. — R. 1. 1882. 2.P.000.P. Ds. UMFULI — R.T.000. GASCONY. 2. 2. FLEET. UMHLOTI.489. — R. — R. UMVOTI. DOM BALDUINO. 350.T.495.802. — R.P. 2.495. RAFFEL RUBBATIONO. — Glasgow.853. LONDON-ROTTERDAM.T. — Newcastle. 399. R.P.H.T. UMZINTO.H. MARCO MINGHETTI. — R. — R. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red St.793.2.T. 1. Ds. — R. Ds. 2.050.2 x 28.4. 2. 4.MOSS LINE LIVERPOOL — BORDEAUX. 2. BATAVIER I. 125 . — R. in centre. UMGENI. — Newcastle. and letters B.T.655. 2. — R. 2.

0 X 44.000 — 10 knots. Sc. I. — (Tw.H. Ds. 420.808. 4.7. KONING WILLEM I. Ds.1.H. RUAPEKU.H. — Newcastle.P. RIMUTAKA (TW.661.000 — 10 knots.T.T. OTARAMA. I.P.000 — 10 knots. R. 420. 3. Red Dagger in upper corner.765.P. — R.767. 2. PRINS HENDRIK. 126 . Ds. FUNNELS: Yellow. Co.T. FUNNELS: Black. in each corner. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red St. R.P.4. I.610. Ds.0 X 28. 457. 400.H.). 4. Ds. TEKOA.0 X 28. PAPAROA. R.0 X 28. Ds.-12 knots.1 X 47. WAKATANE.372. R. 4.000 — 14 knots.0 X 54.000 — 14 knots.P.). 5.628. 5. Z.T.6. Ds.P. I. 4000 X 48.1 X 26. 5.25 X 30. — Newcastle. HOUSE FLAG: White with Red Cross.365. RUAHINE. FLEET. 5. H. 457 X 58 X 34. I.0 X 54. — R. I.2 X 19. KONING WILLEM II.0 X 54. 1895.5. KONINGIN WILHELMINA PRINSES AMALIA.H. 3. PAPANUI.T. Ds.000 — 14 knots. Sc.NEDERLAND STEAMSHIP CO.-12 knots.500 — 12 knots.1. WAIKATO.0 X 28.8.P. SOUTHAMPTON-STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.0 X 54. H.7. PRINSES SOPHIE. 430. 5. I.700. I. I.H.T. Ds. 4200 X 54. Ds. Ds. LONDON — NEW ZEALAND. — R. George's Cross and letters N. WAKANUI.P.T. — R. KONINGIN REGENTES.0 X 21.P. 3.563. S.P. TONGARIRO. 365.050.0 X 54.T. — 1901. NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING CO.6. 7.6. 5.706. 7.T. — R. 6.H. WAIMATE.0 X 30. 6.T.P. 420. NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA LONDON & ANTWERP — YOKOHAMA. 2. 1896.000 — 14 knots. R.T. 2.H. KONING WILLEM III.7 X 58.500 — 12 knots. 4. RAXAIA.H.0 X 30. BURGEMEESTER DEN TEX. — R. — 1901.

Length 630.0 x 43. 6.3 X 34. 1901. 1902. R.0. — Danzig. SADO MARU. 19. FUNNELS: Yellow. 6. I. 8. R. GROSSER KURFUERST.4. 14 knots.0 ft. 38. — R.T.T.000. 6.T. — Stettin. 1897. — Stettin. BINGO MARU.T.000. KAISER WILHELM DER GROSSE. 6. HITACHI MARU.000 — 17 knots. 648. R.350. I.000. 6. KAISER WILHELM II.0 X 49.000. 1897. 6.T. R. HAKATA MARU.000.500.1 X 60.000. 1899. TAMBA MARU. R. R. 12. KRONPRINZ WILHELM.T.T.000. 10. 445. R.000.T. 33.000. INABA MARU. Ds.T.T. I. Length 706. 6.H. 6. R. 14.000. NORD-DEUTSCHER LLOYD BREMEN — BALTIMORE.T.AWA MARU.H. 28.000. KAWACHI MARU. 525. 6. WAKASA MARU.P.000.T.H. R. 15.000. BREMEN — AUSTRALIA (via SOUTHAMPTON). — Stettin.T.P. BREMEN AND BARBAROSSA. BREMEN — RIVER PLATE (via SOUTHAMPTON). Sp. SANUKI MARU. R. KANAGAWA MARU. R. HOUSE FLAG: White with crossed Key and Anchor under Wreath in Blue.P. 127 . Ds.H. R.000. — Danzig.000. R. SHINANO MARU. 6.T. 6. R. 6. R.4 X 30.T.6 x 66.500. I.000 2235 knots.T.5 ft. Ds.500.T.8. R.P.

LAHN.4 X 490. Ds. 5. X 34.P.T. 1897.217.000 — 18 knots. MAINZ.9. R.). I.0 X 34. 1886.351.000 — 17½ knots.P.P. R. 1896.000 — 181 knots. TRAVE. Ds.000-16 knots. — Glasgow.566.). Sc. R. — Glasgow. 7.000 — 22 knots. KOENIG ALBERT (Tw. 9. 523 X 60M X 34.H. 438 X 48 X 34. 528. R. 1890.T.9 x 44.T.T.P. 128 . 1886.P.P.204. 525.T.8. — Elbling. Ds. Sc. 1896. I. 438 X 48 X 34.7 X 63.000 — 16 knots.P. 12. 10.T.000. 581. 1899. 5.). 8.500.H. 5. — Stettin.H.). 27.6. 10. 1.P. — Stettin. I. R.500 — 19 knots. R. FRIEDRICH DER GROSSE (Tw.H.T. 7. 10.536.T.T.H.H.H. 17. Ds.0 x 60. R. KAISERIN MARIA THERESA (Tw. — R.9.4 X 5F8 X 36.480.H.286. 3. KAISER FRIEDRICH.8. 448. KOENIGIN LOUISE (Tw. Sc. 9. I. — Stettin. I.6. ALLER. Sc. — Glasgow.222. I. R. Ds. I. I. 7. — Stettin. Ds. 1887. Ds.


460X 49. ORTONA.P. 17.OPHIR. R.0 X 41. — Barrow. Ds. AZTEC. (1) ORIENT-PACIFIC LINE.H. HOUSE FLAG: Square.T. 7. 3.061.T. SAN FRANCISCO — HONG KONG (via YOKOHAMA). 4. NEWPORT. 1899. 8.508. ORONTES. R. R. 430.T.857. S. SARMIENTO. 7. 6.297.T. 3. Ds.P. I.524.000 — 15 knots. 7. BARRACOUTA. 1889. I.10. ANTISANA.6 X 46.P.T. R.H.0 x 37. 339. 1901-2.0 X 56. 3.250. Ds.T.1. — R.000 — 18 knots. SAN FRANCISCO — PANAMA (via MEXICAN PORTS). PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION CO. CHINA. Ds. ORUBA. Sc. CITY OF SYDNEY. — (Pacific Mail).4 X 48.9. — R. 5. OROYA. I. N. 4560 X 48. R.1 X 32.P.500. 10.3 X 19. 4. 1891. R. R.P.T. R. MAGELLAN. Ds. 3. Other ships are: — PERU.0 X 40.4 x 34. Ds.P.2 X 33.).P.H. HOUSE FLAG: White with Blue Cross surmounted by Gold Crown and letters P. R.P. ORIZABA.000 — 16 knots. CORCOVADO. 490. 6. Sc. Ds. 1875.P. SAN JUAN. 5. KOREA.3 X 35.S. 440. — Newport News. — Barrow.T. I. I.590.000. — Barrow.T.2. I. 465. R.945.T.H.1 X 34.T.P. I.H. CO. R.593. 9.T.3 X 35. I. — Glasgow. 3.H. — Glasgow.T.000 — 18 knots.T. 1889. 16½ knots. OMRAH (Tw.0 X 49.1.4. COSTA RICA. — Barrow. — Chester (U. 4. 3.T. CUZCO. C.017.T. 7.500.3. — Glasgow. I.735 . two White and one Blue. 4. 1871. R.568. I. 1886.P.572.H. 3.500-17 knots. FUNNELS: Black. 4. PACIFIC MAIL SS. 3. — R.T. in corners. 2. 3. R.P. 7.). Sp. — 16½ knots. 3.T.H. 445. R. INCA. 3. 1886.5 X 52. CITY OF PANAMA.898.0 X 20. 1886. R. 1879. FUNNELS: White.P.T.2. R. ORMUZ. 3.H.H.0.8. 5. 1889. I.T.291. SIBERIA. two Red Stripes. 6. Ds.528.584.P.910. I.H. 2. Glasgow. FLEET. — R. SAN BLAS.631.H.298.T.000.000-18 knots.550.000. Ds. 2. I.T. I.H.0 X 53. R. ORIENT. 4980 55. I.5.250. — Glasgow. R. 10. COLON. GALICIA (Tw.465.603. Ds.H. SAN JOSE. 6. 12. — Glasgow.686. 130 . Ds. 4600 X 49. 572.). — Building.4 X 35.P.T. AUSTRAL.H.P.H. — R. 9.T. Ds. 3812 X 41.4 x 63.P. R. 1881. ACAPULCO. R. — R.000 — 18 knots. I.T.1. 10. — Glasgow.H. Ds.581. I. SORATA.0 X 34. — 1902.7 X 34.000 — 15 knots.3.000. 5. 3.387.T.

— R. 4.P. TABOGA.500. 4. 649. AGIA SOFIA. 5. CHILE (Tw.P.000.250. 4. 170. 3.).P. I. 2.000. PLANTAIN. Tug). 3. — Building.500.500. TALCA (Tw.H. — R.T. 1.T. 6. ECUADOR. 5.H.P.160. PERICO (Tw. 2.689. — Building.P. 3. 4.250. I. I.P. 2.500.000. VICTORIA (Tw.T.768.T. — R.H. HOUSE FLAG: Blue Pennant.T.H. 1. 3.000. MANAVI. — R.H. Sc. I. MEXICO (TW.P.T.H.500. 6.H.H.T. I.000.P. I. I. 5.P. PUNO. 1.000. — R. 1.T. 1. — R.P. — R. SANTIAGO.H.160. 5.).P.H. I. 4. — R. I. — R. 1. — R.600. — R.H. 1. R. I.H.000.803. Sc. 643. I. Sc. PENINSULAR AND ORIENTAL S.H.T. I. — R.P.000. 3.T. 5. — R. 5.H.H. ARARAT. 4. I.T. ADALIA.000.T.T. 2.T.P. 4. — R. ORCANA.303.500.H.). 50. I. R.000.P. — R.P.000.P. 500.T. — R. Sc. — Building. LACONIA.P.T. 6. ROUMELIA.H.P.T.T. 2.500. QUITO. 1.H.000.600. COAST S.H. ORELLANA. I. I. I. 2.T. 3. CO. — R.T. I.T.H. — R.T. ).H.H.500.000.T.P. ASSISTANCE (Tug). — R. R.000.041.225. — R.P. ANATOLIA. CALIFORNIA (Tw. Sc.T. ). 120. IBERIA. 100.P. 4. — R. — R.T. PAPPAYANNI LINE FUNNELS: Black. 1.953. T. I.000.780.T.T. Sc. — R.T.317.500. 4. — R.000. ).T. Sc. PANAMA (Tw. OROTAVA. CHIRIQUI.000.(2) LIVERPOOL — W. 131 . COLOMBIA (Tw. I H.000. — R. — R.P.394. — R.196. I. Sc. ORISSA (Tw.857.953. 3. 1. PERLITA (Tug).P. — R.398.500. I. I.H. I.T. 3. N. 6. AREQUIPA. 2.771. 5.000.018. GUATEMALA (Tw. 2.P. 400. FLEET. LIGURIA. Sc. 5. — R. I. 4. — R. PIZARRO.P.T. AMERICA (via STRAIT OF MAGELLAN).T. I.089. ). Sc-). 2.H.000.H. SERENA.P.321.P.H.). 2. Sc.H. 2.P. I.H. 4. — R. — R.P.170. 2.). PERU (Tw. 2. MENDOZA. ARICA. — R.). — Building.000. LIVERPOOL — MEDITERRANEAN.H.T. ORAVIA (Tw. I. I.T. — R.P. I. R. OROPESA (Tw. 3.P.225.455.).H. 49. — R. 7.T.821.T.T. 214. 2. Sc. 4.H. 3.650. 5. I.T. 4. Sc. 2. — R.500. I.T. BRITANNIA.P.677.

4. — Greenock.H.884. 4997 X 54. 11. 4. 6.P.527. 6.500. SOUDAN.500. I. 6. 7.2 X 26.P.T. Ds.H. — R.P.P.T. Ds.600. 6. CHINA.H.T.T.500.656 X 52. 10. OCEANA.603. ASSAYE.H.250.H. I.T. R. HIMALAYA .482.000. 11.250.500. — R. 4. I. ROME. SOCOTRA.H.525.FUNNELS: Black.H. ARCADIA. 5. — Greenock. — R.603. 4. I.500. 1899. 7.901.T.H. 11. — R.--Greenock. PERSIA. ]1.H.P. EGYPT.951. 11. 4.T.500. MALTA. — R.708.H. 6. Ds. 7.H.545.P.500 CANDIA. 4.000 — 17½ knots.048. I. I.T.911. 11. 450.H. 7.P. HOUSE FLAG: Square divided into quarters diagonally. 2.650. 6. — R.P.376.P.H. — R. 5.H.T.T. 465.T.8 X 52.T. CALEDONIA.P. — R.T. I.P. — R. — Building. I. — R. 1887. VICTORIA.000.P.4. I.P.P.T.H.4.0 X 31. — R.H. 5. 10. 6.903. 6.000.H.H.T. — R.898.P. MOLDAVIA.P.0 X 54.500.H. ARABIA. — R.000.P.T. 4.P. 5.000. 4.000. — R. 4. — R. BANCA.009. 7. 1894.H.T. colours White.H. 7. 6. R. INDIA.T. 10. ORIENTAL.5 48. 6.198.0 X 36. I.000 — 18½ knots. — R.P. I. — Greenock. 5. 132 .500.284. 7. 1892.912.0 X 18. — R. T. 1892. I. I. Ds. DS. Blue and Yellow.500. 6.T.H. — Greenock. R. R.T.T. 11.696. — R. I. 6. 1897.500. PLASSY.H. — R.T. I. 6. 7. MASSILIA. 5.680.T. I. SICILIA. SARDINIA.000 — 17½ knots.000 — 16 knots.T. 5. 7.7. I.0 X 54-2 x 26.T. 4. 486. BRITANNIA.3. 5. 11.500.P. I. I. CARTHAGE.000. 6.P.000.000. — R. 6. 6. I. AUSTRALIA.P. I.2. SIMLA. SOMALI.H. 5.500.500.500.P. 465.P. I. 5. I.7.500. I.914. 4. T. 7.H. I. — R. I. MAZAGON.000. R. PENINSULA. — R. Red.P. 4.H.H.026. 5.6 X 522 X 26.P. — Greenock.000 — 18 knots.T.H. T. Ds. 410. SYRIA.H.H.T. 3. — Building. I.H. I. — R. VALETTA. 7. Ds. NUBIA.P.P. I. — R.P. MONGOLIA. R. I. 6.T.287.995. 10. I.H.P.064. — Building.T. 7.912. 5.P.R. — Greenock.500.0 X 18.6.P.P. I.P. I. 1888.H.405. 6. T.H. I. 6.558.T.250.500 — 16½ knots.997.

FLUMINENSE.---R. — South Shields.H. Sp. 3.T. R. 6. FUNNELS: Red with White Prince's Feather. Sp.H. SHANGHAI.0 X 44.8. Sp.P. SUMATRA.T.886.950. I. Ds.299. Sp.P.500.9. 4. MADEIRENSE. 3. — R.000.7 X 14.3. SYRIAN PRINCE. I.317.H. — R.500. I. CARIB PRINCE. — R.T.T.P.H.T.T.H.P.P. I.7 X 14.H. — R.0 X 37. — R.4 x 44. 3.P.094. I.T.890. 5.045.674. 4.P.000. CAMETENSE.T.500.T.9. 4.686. COROMANDEL.P.P. 3. PARAENSE.T.P.H.T.P. 1. — Sunderland. PARRAMATTA.273.T. RED CROSS AND BOOTH LINE LIVERPOOL — MANAOS (via HAVRE. 3. CEYLON. I.T. — R. OSIRIS. I. 3. LISBONENSE. I.9. MARANHENSE.319.636. 277. 4.H. 342. 12 knots. 4. SOBRALENSE. — R.000. — R. SPARTAN PRINCE. 1895. 4. — R.T. — Sunderland. 282. 3.000.H.H.H.H. 12 knots. 5. FUNNELS: Black. — R. I.H.T.6 X 17.H.047. I. MALACCA.T. 3.T.500.500.P. I. 2. Sp.T. I.P. NANKIN.T. HOUSE FLAG: Square White. GRANGENSE. — R. 3.H.P. JAVA.T. 4.000. R. CHUSAN. I. I. 4.914. I. 10 knots.8. — R.000. DS. — R. 3. I. 2.H.0 X 37.H.P.T.P.315.957. — R. Andrew's Cross and initial B. HOUSE FLAG: Red with White Prince's Feather. 4.P.048.656.5 X 17. Ds. CREOLE PRINCE.000. 3. — R. 4.T. 1893. OPORTO & LISBON). 282. OBIDENSE. 4. 351. 4. 133 . 10 knots.500. in Blue.500.P. 3.T.500. 4.P. ISIS. Ds.0 X 37.000. 4. 3. — R. T.T.H. TARTAR PRINCE. PRINCE LINE MANCHESTER & LONDON — MEDITERRANEAN. 4. 2. 1897. R. AMAZONENSE. BORNEO. 3. 3. TIENTSIN. — R. I.7 x 43.652.H. — Sunderland.607. BOMBAY.045.573.093.2 X 18. I. 1. 3.500. 12 knots. 3. FORMOSA. I. 1893.000. 6.500. 4. CEARENSE.BALLAARAT.P. 4.P. 3. 2. JAPAN. I. 2. R. BENGAL.272. — R. — R. PALAWAN.000. GENOA — NEW YORK.728. I.H.500. I.000.168.H.960.T. 351.H.2 X 14. SUNDA. St.500. CANTON. R. 3. — Sunderland. 1893. R. 4. 1896. — Sunderland.T. 1. MANILA. — R.T. 3.210. Sp.P. Ds.P. DS. TROJAN PRINCE. 3. — R. — R.H.T. 12 knots. PE KIN.728. I. 3.

Sc. ANTWERP — PHILADELPHIA.T. 5. Ds. R.3 X 50.T. 1. — R. Ds.1. Ds.116. 338.0. Ds. Belfast. PENNLAND.496. 3.0. Sc. 5. — Glasgow.T.000. FUNNELS: Black with White Stripe.T. Ds. 7. Ds.0. HOUSE FLAG: White with Blue Eagle. 11. 2. 1. SWITZERLAND. — R.A. 1893. FINLAND (Tw. 1902.0 x 33.T. ZEELAND (Tw.723. HOUSE FLAG: White.).700. THAMES.T. 374. 1890. NILE. 3.0. 338.000.T.607.T. 1.0 x 25.500. PRINS WILLEM IV. R.T. PRINS WILLEM V.0 x 39.). 8.RED STAR LINE ANTWERP — NEW YORK.867. 12. — R. — Glasgow.T.).208 — 12 knots. — R.S. 1889.P. Sc. TAGUS.S.0 X 39. ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET CO. NEDERLAND.0 X 42. — R.304. 580. 580. — R. AMSTERDAM--WEST INDIES. — R. 1.0. — and VADERLAND (Tw.T. R. — R. 436.839.). Ds.0 x 32. Sc. I. Ds. 455. FRIESLAND.T.898. 1. Ds. SOUTHAMPTON — BRAZIL & RIVER PLATE (via CHERBOURG). 580. Sc.T. R.4.0 X 60.0 X 57.T. ORANJE NASSAU.5. PRINS WILLEM II.). 420.0 X 60.T.0. PRINS FREDERIK HENDRIK. KENSINGTON (Tw. ROYAL DUTCH WEST INDIA MAIL SERVICE FLEET.0 X 60. PRINS WILLEM I.642. 1902. 1893. 494.A. — R.T.0 X 50. red diagonal cross and gold crown.0 x 51. PRINS WILLEM III. R. R. 2.645.0. 5.4. — R.).682. — Dumbarton. 134 . Ds. 410. — Philadelphia (U. 1.). — Glasgow. — Philadelphia (U. 12.0 X 31.641. 1890.T.H. — R. 1. KROONLAND (Tw. R.) and SOUTHWARK (Tw.T.741.839. FUNNELS: Black. Ds.0 x 52. Sc.

CARMARTHENSHIRE.ATRATO. 4.P. KUMARA. 5.2 X 50. — R. SOLENT. R. EBRO. AOTEA. 2.5.T.T.500.P. EDEN. R. 5.T.500.P. — R.500. — R.T. 6. 5.140. R. 180. DANUBE. 421.500.T.400. Ds. PEMBROKESHIRE. KARAMEA. DENBIGHSHIRE.3 X 50.H.T. AVON. DEE.145. — Glasgow. R. — Glasgow. MERIONETHSHIRE.T. R.000. I.P. WALTHAM.563.000. 3.T. ELBE. R.H.445. DON.908. — R.0 X 25. R. TYNE.T. ORINOCO. 420.T.T. 410. 135 .237. R.H.362. I. 1889. Ds. 421. 5.581. RADNORSHIRE.H.034. DERWENT. WEAR. 1899. 4.H. R.T.T.317. ESK.0. R. — R.645. 2. Red Cross on White Square Flag. LA PLATA.T. 3. HOUSE FLAG: Blue in corner with White Stars.T.T.P. 3.P. I.H. I.000. 3.T. 180.H. 2. I. PAKEHA. 1893. 3. — R. 3.500. 436. — Glasgow. I. R.P.4. — Glasgow.831. 3. EIDER.366. R.T.T. 4.364. 1. MAMARI. 470.4.2 x 25. I. I. CLYDE.T. 5.T. 4. TOKOMARU.T. MAGDALENA.0 X 25.045. 4.T.T.P. GLAMORGANSHIRE. 3. PARA.162. R. SPEY.T. 6. R.T.P. 2. R.T.902.T. MAORI. 1. 180. SHAW SAVILLE AND ALBION CO. MINHO. — R.4. 1888. FUNNELS: Yellow with Black Tops.028.T. 4.0 X 50.H. 6. 4.000. R.T. 4. R. R. R. — Glasgow. MONMOUTHSHIRE.H. 4. 2. — R. 2. 3. R. 2. 238. 1. TRENT. 5. SHIRE LINE FLEET.466.T. TEES.0 x 32. R. LONDON — YOKOHAMA (via STRAITS). Ds.322. R.P. TAW.T.200. Length. 4. I.445. R. 3. SEVERN. MATATUA.0 X 52. I.331.864. Ds. R. 425.H. TYNE.T. ESSEUIBO.0 X 33.946.T.960.028. Ds. 4. 5. — R.145.445. 1890. — R.T.2 X 50.0.T. R. R. FLINTSHIRE. RANGATIRA.583. WAIWERA. EXE (not specified). 6.760.


6.7. 450. AVONDALE CASTLE.).1.) WHITE STAR LINE HARWICH & NEWCASTLE — COPENHAGEN. 1889-90.570.H.25 X 34. TINTAGEL CASTLE. 1899. R.P. Ds.0 x 68. 10. OF COPENHAGEN (No details specified. — Belfast. 705. 1898. R. Ds. GASCON. I.000. 10. Sc. GAUL. I.0 x 39. 10. Ds. R. I. 8.P. I.--Glasgow.7. 485. R. GOORKHA. TITAN. GUELPH.T. 9. HOUSE FLAG: Red Burgee with White five-pointed Star.0 X 49½. I.500 — 17½ knots.652.T.0 X 49. NATAL.T.T.9 X 31.P. — Glasgow.T. OCEANIC (Tw.P. UNITED STEAMSHIP CO. 9. 7.H.P. Se.0 X 52. DUNOLLY CASTLE.000 — 16½ knots. 1890. PEMBROKE CASTLE.H.00017 knots. (1) LIVERPOOL — NEW YORK (via QUEENSTOWN). 8.3 X 30. 515.0 X 32.000 — 17½ knots. I.P. 7.958.626. 17. LISMORE CASTLE. ROSLIN CASTLE. Other Ships ALNWICK CASTLE. GOTH. R.H. I.H. R. 137 .T. Ds.000 — 17½ knots. 1899.3. GARTH CASTLE.0 X 56.T.0 x 58. Ds.H. MOOR. RAGLAN CASTLE. 1899. 18. HAWARDEN CASTLE.200. 450.5 X 50. SUSQUEHANNA. NORHAM CASTLE. 12.). R. KILDONAN CASTLE. Ds. 515. GREEK.H. BRAEMAR CASTLE.T. SABINE. 28. HARLECH CASTLE. 1898.5 X 59. KINFAUNS CASTLE.P. — Glasgow.500 — 15 knots. Ds. GAIKA. — Belfast. GERMAN. — Glasgow. R. 5.5 X 59. CARISBROOK CASTLE.DUNOTTAR CASTLE. 420.T. DOUNE CASTLE. — Glasgow. 1896.H. FUNNELS: Buff with Black Tops.P.8 X 33.0. 5. — Glasgow. 582.7. GALEKA. I.664.465. 4.000.25 X 34. MAJESTIC and TEUTONIC (Tw.000. ARUNDEL CASTLE. WALMER CASTLE.2.274. R. DUNVEGAN. — 1902.

MEDIC.T.P. and CÉDRIC. Sc.T.).-1900. 1895.T. 21.T.P. 6. 456. 12. 6. GEORGIC (Tw.40. DS. Sc.000.0 X 75.). 600. CORINTHIC. R. CONSUELO (Tw. 474.0 X 31. 4.CELTIC (Tw. I. 1891. Ds.). — Belfast.0 X 34.500.0. CEDRIC. WILSON LINE (1) HULL — NEW YORK.0 x 60.0. ATHENIC.0. R.). 20.T. Ds. 700. 1898. CYMRIC (Tw. 1894. I. R. NOMADIC (Tw.H. Ds. — Belfast. 1875.).0 X 31. Sp.H. I. — Belfast. R. 6. 10. R. 3.647. Ds.). 12. R. T. HOUSE FLAG: White Burgee with Red Ball. 5.).0 X 31. — Belfast. 474. R. 8. 700.T.0 X 32. Ds.800 — 13½ knots. Se.0 X 49. Sc. SHEVIC. — Belfast. — Belfast. — Belfast.T.0 x 64. 3. 515.077. 11.H. 1892.T.700.). 1899. TAURIC (Tw. Ds. R.H. R. — R.0. IONIC (Tw.004. Sc.0.T.0. 1901. Sc. 14.T.700.727.1. 484. I.). Sc. 550.P. 138 .0 X 52.0 x 75. — Belfast.T.904.H. 5.P. 461.H.P. 1891.583.).). Sc. 6.0 x 34. — Belfast. 3.0 X 36. Ds. Ds.0 x 38.000. BRITANNIC (Tw. R. BOVIC (Tw.0 X 60. 468.0.5 x 52.T. (2) LIVERPOOL — AUSTRALIA (via CAPE TOWN).P. Sc.T.0. I.H.0 x 494. 1874.H.0. FUNNELS: Red with Black Tops. 12.0 X 49. R.H. I. CEVIC (Tw. — Belfast. HULL — BOSTON. — 1902.500.P. TORONTO (Tw.0 X 53. 5. ATHENIC.025.500. 5.0.). R. 3.P.070. Sc.0 X 45. I. RUNIC. Ds. — 1900. BRITANNIC. I.P.1 x 31. Ds.0 X 45. AFRIC (Tw. Sc. Sp.0 X 63. PERSIC.035. I. 573.749.500 (building).H. GERMANIC. Ds. I. Sc. 12 knots. 12 knots.000.P.T. 6.0 X 34.984.301.700.0 X 49. R.000. 5. Ds. 4.500. 468.

R. MIKADO. TOKIO. R. R.197.T.308. GITANO. MONTEBELLO.T.400. R.T.T. 12½ knots. 1.076.. R.T.T. KURT WOERMANN. 2.T. 1. — MEDITERRANEAN. CAIRO.T.581. 1. Ds.663.0 X 45. HIDALGO. 2.T.400. ANNA WOERMANN. COMO.T. 1. FINLAND. BRAVO. 1.T.057.1 X 31. 1. 2.T. BRUNO.T.396. 1.429. 2. R. R. JEANNETTE WOERMANN. 1. 1.059. 820. ARGO. R. WOERMANN LINE FLEET. IDAHO.083.191. IRMA WOERMANN.769. 1. R.T.T. 3. — R.695.094: CICERO. Sp. OHIO.T. 1. SCIPIO. 1.467. GERTRUD WOERMANN. CATO. 1.635. ROLLO. R.008. 1.0 x 50.235.541.T. 1. 2. Sp. 6.828.T. HORATIO. Sp.6. R. R.470.735.T. R. 1.T. 2. 3.T. R. 836.T. 1. CASTELLO (Turret Steamer). R. R. HANS WOERMANN.T. R. OTTO.337. ALEXANDRA WOERMANN.T.522. Ds. 12 knots. OTHELLO. R. MARTELLO. HERO. R.140.T. R. CITO.T. R. R. 1895. 2.083. 4. 1. 1. R.497.T.T. DRACO. R. CLARO. R.9. HINDOO. R. LEO. JUNO.9. 487.557. ERATO. R.T. 275.T.193. R. R. R. VASCO. ALINE WOERMANN. 1.T. KOLPINO. R.T.T.T.T. 504. 2747 X 32. R. GRODNO. R.729. BORODINO.T.T.T. ZERO. R.T. R. R.671. 12 knots. EBRO. R.6 X 19.T. R. 1. VOLO. LULU HAMBURG-MADEIRA. R.862. ANGELO. NERO. 3. ORLANDO. ERNST WOERMANN.T. R. 4. HULL.841. 2. CONGO. R. 4.289.377.T. R. R. 4. ROSARIO. 3. ELLA WOERMANN. 1.036. 1. 139 . R. 850. FIDO. 385.T.T.T. 3. (2) HULL.T. R.906. SPERO.T. GALILEO. 1. KOVNO. HELENE WOERMANN.T.T. R. VOLTURNO.T. 841.914.T. Sp.800: COLORADO.427. 1. R. ALEPPO.535.850. 2. TRURO. 2. 3. YEDDO. SALMO. R. 1. R. ALECTO. 510. 1.733. WILSON.T.T.T.T. R.T. R. CANARIES & WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 1.352.T. MOROCCO.T. R. R. R.514. LORENZO. 905. 775. TORPEDO. R. 3.T.419.0. COLENSO. 1. R. R. MILO.244.735. 1.T. R.T. R. ROMEO. 3.T. R. DYNAMO. IAGO.967. 1. ADOLPH WOERMANN.827. — 1881. 954.243. LOTHAR BOHLEN. R. R.0 X 34. GRETCHEN BOHLEN.T.834. URBINO. TOLEDO.BUFFALO.721.3 x 19.T.102. THOS. R. R.T. R. R. TASSO.T.T. DOURO. POLO. 3. R.T. R. — Yarrow.T. EDUARD BOHLEN. R.264. 460.T.T. 3.607. CAMEO.T. 1. DIDO. 3. 1. R. CLIO. Ds.T. RINALDO. 14 knots. Ds. — R.3 X 27.855. HEDWIG WOERMANN. R.T.700.T. 2. CALYPSO. R. — NORWAY & BALTIC. 1.T. 1.442. R.713. 2. SALERNO. 3. ONTARIO. 1. R.132. R. 1.546.464.721.610.T.720. 5. MURILLO.T. CARL WOERMANN. ARIOSTO. R. R.870.T. 3. SILVIO. 1. ELDORADO.

It therefore seems timely to consider what has been accomplished by it for the Navy and Nation in its brief life. by kind permission. have been of au eminently satisfactory nature. Chairman of the National Defence Committee. but of both parties. 1895. and the practice of taking Navy League members down to Portsmouth to visit the establishments there was initiated. and it was in that year that the influence of the Hong-Kong branch commenced to make itself felt. EPE. Natal. Windsor.BOHLEN. 1895. January. and that whatever happened we would maintain our supremacy. attracted a very great amount of attention. and it is pleasant to notice that with one exception these earlier branches are now more active than ever. the Admiralty. — A return published by Mr. In the same year a memorial prepared by the Toronto branch for presentation to His Excellency the Governor-General of Canada was widely circulated among Chambers of Commerce in Great Britain. 1902. that it was " the policy not merely of one party. 1896. The Nelson column was in the same year decorated from Summit to base. That work has been continued up to the present time. The Navy League was doubtless largely instrumental in drawing the declaration from the Duke of Devonshire. and of preparing a scheme under which these ships might be worked. and the Board of Trade. The Committee. and an association was formed (in 1901) for the purpose of securing the establishment of training-ships for boys of good character and physique desirous of entering the mercantile marine and Royal Naval Reserve. and consisted of a single sheet. Bath. The communications that have since passed between the Association. OGUN. Cape Town. Taken. so that in the month of January. This matter was brought to the 140 . 1895. In that year also Lord Charles Beresford made his first appearance on a Navy League platform at the Cannon Street Hotel. KONINGEN WILHELMINA." This was followed by the significant pronouncement of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. — The first year was largely occupied in organizing the work of the League. SEVEN YEARS' WORK THE Navy League was founded in January. and that the loss was unfortunately most marked and serious in the class knOwn as young seamen and boys. Sir Michael Hicks Beach. From this Blue Book it appeared that the number of British seamen employed in British Sea-going merchant vessels had steadily decreased for many years. The first branches were formed in Bristol. from the Navy League Journal. 1902. 22 The Navy League. addressed a letter to various county councils who had control of the money available for technical education. ZEELAND STEAMSHIP CO. QUEENBORO' — FLUSHING. FLEET. Admiral of the Fleet Sir Geoffrey Hornby. PAUL WOERMANN. the Registrar-General of Shipping and Seamen. HEKLA BOHLEN. KONINGEN REGENTES. of everybody in the United Kingdom. to maintain our supremacy at sea. that "the maintenance of sea supremacy has been assumed as the basis of the system of Imperial Defence. Clark Hall. 1897. which at the very outset sustained a cruel loss in the death of its first President. The memorial dealt with the formation of a Colonial Naval Reserve to consist of Canadian seamen and fishermen. and the Navy League seeks to impress them upon the mass of our countrymen. Malta and Hong-Kong. after careful consideration of the figures. MARIE WOERMANN. — In the same year the Trafalgar celebration was also inaugurated. — Eleven branches of the League were established. inquiring whether they would feel disposed to devote some portion of it to the establishment of training-ships. OYO. MELITA BOHLEN." These were brave Words. and the Trafalgar celebration was general throughout the Empire. it completed the first seven years of its existence. with a view to increasing the facilities for boys to enter the British mercantile marine. The journal was first commenced in July of that year. PRINS HENDRICK. PROFESSOR WOERMANN. Toronto.

in conjunction with the proprietors of the National Review. Captain Sir John Colomb. increased its membership very largely. In the same year the League convened a Conference at the United Service Institution to consider the probable position of the country if involved in war.M. who with the Right Hon. (2) of the food supply.P. it is perhaps not an altogether regrettable incident. 1898. was also issued. The second edition of the handbook to the Navy League Map. and the effect of this may be judged by the reduction of the number of ships on the active list of the Navy that are still armed with muzzle-loading guns. the Government having failed to invite the Colonial troops to visit Portsmouth on that occasion. The same year was notable in the League's history for the adverse response given by the Right Hon. as it cleared the air. who stated that if North America would furnish a tithe of its magnificent sea-faring population to the Naval Reserve it would produce a force in quantity and quality unsurpassable anywhere. M. Mr. who had been President of the League since the death of Sir Geoffrey Hornby. which met with considerable pecuniary success. Influential gentlemen now began to take their proper place in the movement. Ritchie. The Liverpool branch in the same year made enormous strides. The League also. His place was filled by Mr. Mr. — In the following year the Executive Committee adopted the plan of drawing attention to certain serious defects in the fleet by means of sandwich men. offered a prize of £50 for the best essay giving a forecast of the probable effect upon the United Kingdom of an indecisive war between two first-class Powers. however. — There was a great accession in that year to the number of Vice-Presidents of the League. H... and became a powerful organization. Special arrangements were made for members of the League to witness the Review. by the light of past experiences. It may fairly be considered that the movement which took place to establish a reserve of Newfoundland fishermen was the outcome of this work of the League. and a barge was established on the Thames at Windsor. To say that this work is invaluable would be to give it small praise.notice of Admiral Hopkins. Robert Yerburgh. and still further efforts were made to increase the number of British merchant seamen. of Tonbridge. Goschen received a deputation from the League on the manning question. and the proceedings were of much interest. Mr. the Admiralty decided to act as hosts. K. M. In the same year was published a Guide to the Naval Review. The Conference was attended by very many influential gentlemen. and. — The Windsor and Eton branch initiated a scheme for giving elementary instruction in seamanship to boys who wish to go to sea. The League in that year carried its educational propaganda still further by the publication of the Navy League Map. acted as judge.P. the Navy League opened a fund and organized an expedition for that purpose. Mr. notably headmasters of some of the great public schools.G. A deputation from the Executive Committee also waited upon the Colonial Premiers when they were in England. however. This pamphlet has since been circulated in thousands of schools throughout the country. expressed a wish to resign his position as he was setting out on an extended foreign tour. and the second edition of the map taken in hand. written by Mr. Crofts. 1899. and the League arrangements were cancelled. Looking at it. with regard to the adequacy (1) of the Navy. The lecture programme was energetically carried out. At the last moment.C. F. 141 . for boys in elementary schools. then commander-in-chief on the Mediterranean Station. 1900. In the same year the Earl of Drogheda. which has since run to more than one edition. and that this would have the effect of binding in closer union Britain and a very important portion of Greater Britain.. McHardy in the same year published for the League a book entitled The British Navy for 100 Years. This undertaking is notable for having received the support of the late Queen Victoria. Wyatt also produced a pamphlet entitled The Use of the Navy to You. and the League may justly consider that the offer of the Cape Colony to provide a battleship was largely due to the action of its Cape Town branch.

N. to support the Admiralty by public meetings should it protest against these reductions. under the presidency of Admiral the Hon." and though this article was bitterly attacked. a member of the Executive Committee. Yer-burgh. was satisfied that the position of that fleet left much to be desired. Arnold White.The Southern County Councils held a Conference at the League Offices. — The work of the year 1901 will be familiar to most of our readers. as the result of inquiries which he made in the Mediterranean. and. the expenditure considered necessary by the Admiralty for the maintenance of the Fleet in a condition of efficiency has been reduced. Owing to current reports that. there is now great need for the Navy League to watch the Estimates with vigilance. 1901.). THE END 142 . through the interference of the Treasury. His conclusions were embodied in an article entitled "A Message from the Mediterranean. Mr. continued the work of propaganda by means Of lecturing in the schools. and to be prepared. In the month of March a meeting was held at the Queen's Hall to protest against retaining battleships armed with muzzle-loading guns on the active list. Knox (late R. accompanied by Mr. visited the Mediterranean fleet. The honorary secretary of the League. if necessary. and further steps were taken towards the establishment of training-vessels. The net result has been a considerable increase in the strength of the Fleet. his facts were confirmed by the admissions of Ministerial speakers in Parliament. Lieut. Thomas Brand.

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