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Note: The Kriging analysis was not used in the final analysis. We decided to use RMS errors for the interpolation (from contours to DEM) for the error analysis. I am still including the kriging steps below which was initially used for the error analysis. We realized the block kriging was not an accurate way to obtain volume errors; the RMS errors due to kriging should be used instead. So if you do use this methodology, the block kriging should not be used. Instead the RMS error is given for the kriging process; this should be used to calculate error. VI. Kriging and Error Analysis
The Kriging interpolation technique was used to determine DEM error. As stated previously this is usually done with ground control points, but these are not available for this site. I would highly suggest finding a geostatistics expert to help with the kriging process. Kriging is a complicated interpolation procedure and an expert in this field would be ideal. For this research, the kriging analysis was processed in Surfer 7.0, geoeas 2.1, and ArcGIS 9.0 Geostatistical Analysis. Point kriging can solely be done in ArcGIS, but block kriging needs to be determined in Surfer 7.0 ( I believe block kriging can now be used in ArcGIS 9.2). The image below describes each step of the kriging process. I will then go into the detail and background of each step. Overall Kriging/Error Analysis Steps:
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2 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM .geo. Add the newly created shapefile into ArcMap.html Kriging Steps: 1. A mask is used to clip the area outside of the volcanic region. To do this. first create a new shapefile which will be a polygon.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging. First the DEM difference is determined outside of the volcanic region.Kriging http://www. The steps for creating a new shapefile and editing it are found here. First I added a field in the attribute table (shown below).mtu.
in this case the field is Value. if so this process will not have to be completed. the editor toolbar is used to edit the new shapefile. Now there is a raster with 0 and 1 values. representing the masked region and the areas outside respectively.e.e.geo. You can verify this by turning off the masked region layer. Stop editing and save the edits. Now the masked region and the region outside is shown on the screen.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging. Here the input feature and the appropriate field is chosen. Be sure to search on the current version of ArcGIS to see if this tool is available for raster datasets.. Add the spatial analyst toolbar and choose convert feature to raster (shown below). and one for the region outside.mtu. Here I used the value field to distinguish the two and will apply that to a raster. Both tools are shown below. Once this difference DEM is created this will be multiplied by the raster we just created (1 and NoData values). one for the masked region. Next the raster needs to be reclassified so the masked region is represented as NoData and the region outside is 1.html Ultimately I wanted one shapefile to show both the mask and the outside region. Only the masked region is selected (highlighted in blue). Next. Click on the rows to determine the masked area (i. but the layer which contains both the masked layer and the area outside). so this process has to be done instead. 3 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM . Now copy and paste the masked region into the outline region. not the masked layer. Unfortunately there is no tool which allows the extraction outside of a masked area. Once the outline of the DEM is finished. Use the cell size of the current DEMs. volcanic area) and change this value to 0. multiply the raster by the difference DEM. To create the difference DEM. in this case that is 10 m and also specify an output raster. Also choose the row representing the DEM boundary and change this value to 1. This is done using the Raster Calculator located on the Spatial Analyst Toolbar. Next I wanted to convert this region to a raster. Select the mask region using the black arrow located on the editor toolbar. Verify that the target (on the editor toolbar) is the layer you just created (i. For this study I just used a box to identify the outline of the DEM. there should be two rows. Now open the attribute table. Once the field is added. the Raster Calculator is used to subtract the datasets. which is available on the Advanced Editing Toolbar.Kriging http://www. Now I have one shapefile with the masked region and the region outside. in this case 2001-1954. I saved the edits.
Export this file by right clicking on the layer and choosing Data. 2. But first I changed the DEM to an integer file instead of a floating point file. as shown below.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging.html Once the above steps are completed we now have a difference DEM with the volcanic region represented as no data. Integer and floating point files are discussed here. The region shown in step 1 of the overall kriging steps (above) represents the area outside of the volcanic zone. We need to multiply this value by the DEM to obtain only integer values. Note: When creating rasters using reclassify and the raster calculator. To do this we need the raster calculator again as shown below. 4 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM . Next I converted each pixel to a point shapefile.Kriging http://www. First identity areas on the DEM to determine the number of values to the right of the decimal point. Save the file with a more appropriate file name. a layer is normally created called Calculation.geo.mtu.
When adding a field the type has to be specified. Specify the field value which has elevation values. Precision represents the number of digits stored in a field. but choose accordingly for other datasets. change the output geometry to point. Here we took the DEM. and multiplied this by 100 to change the value to an integer. Next I added a field in the attribute table (see step 1 of kriging steps. in this case test2. and save the output.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging. This is done using the Spatial Analyst Toolbar>Convert>Raster to Feature.html Here the "int" is the command to change a file to an integer. which requires values for precisions and scale. and 2 for scale. Next we need to convert each pixel to a point file. For this example I chose 6 for precision. Now there should be a point at every pixel location with the elevation value specified as an integer. Once I pressed calculate values. The scale is the number of digits to the right of the decimal place. Using the field calculator I calculated the Z column to be 5 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM . I pressed yes to edit outside of an edit session. in this case the type is float. Once the field is created I chose the field calculator to calculate values for that field as shown below.Kriging http://www. above).geo.mtu.
The next menu is shown below: 6 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM . located on the y-axis. but the values used for the semivariogram need to be obtained for each data set and an expert should be consulted to ascertain these. a theoretical model needs to be defined which best fits the semivariogram. For this study I used a random sample of 1000. which is available here. and range. For this study I created a random sample of 1000 points. 1986).html Grid_Code/100.0. The Grid_Code field is the integer value that was previously created. Maune. In the next menu choose Ordinary kriging. If the toolset is not available for the version you are using. a user can choose a random sample and specify the number of features needed.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging. therefore creating a continuous function instead of a discrete one (Davies. In addition. To obtain a random sample the Hawth's tools extension was downloaded. To apply the semivariogram for any distance. The semivariogram is known only at discrete points representing distances. The semivariogram measures the spatial dependence of points. Now I have a point shapefile which has the correct elevation values. 1986. first the user would create the prediction map and then later would create the prediction standard error map. 3.geo. Step 1 in the overall kriging steps (above) shows the 1000 randomly sampled points overlayed on the difference DEM. First I will provide a background for semivariogram and what the definitions mean. some references can by found here. I needed to interpolate the region within the volcanic zone and did not want to use all of the points due to an over representation and processing time. but kriging is chosen for this study. such as Matlab. The sill is the height the semivariogram reaches when it levels off. then you will have to find another method to obtain a random sample. which includes measurements for the nugget. 2007). A model is chosen to best fit the semivariogram.Kriging http://www. The nugget represents measurement/independent error and is the deviation from 0 on the y-axis. Now that we have some basic definitions the fitting of the semivariogram and kriging techniques are shown below: After choosing the geostatistical wizard the point file needs to be used for the input data with the appropriate attribute field. 4. I will provide the basic steps. Again I highly suggest researching kriging and geostatistics prior to performing this analysis. 1000 randomly selected points were used in the kriging analysis to interpolate a surface. sill. points which are close together are more alike than points which are farther apart (Davis. and the range is the distance where the model first flattens out on the x-axis. There are various statistical methods which can be used.mtu. This toolset currently works with ArcGIS 9. Next I chose a random sample of the points outside of the volcanic zone. The above parameters are obtained from the semivariogram plot and are input into the interpolation program using ordinary kriging (OK) to create an interpolated prediction surface. an error surface was created which analyzes how accurate the prediction surface is. Using Hawth's tools.
When finished with the geostatistical wizard a surface will be created from the interpolation of 1000 points. When finished with this menu continue through the rest.Kriging http://www. sill. unless additional parameters are needed.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging.geo. The kriging prediction surface and the 1000 randomly sampled points are shown below: 7 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM .mtu. The semivariogram is analyzed by a geostatistics expert and the following parameters: model. and nugget are determined and input into the above menu. range.html The above menu shows the semivariogram on the left.
0. Exporting a textfile is done by opening the attribute table. which smoothes the data. and Z values. which is an extension in ArcGIS 9. I clipped the kriging prediction surface to the masked region. We have now completed step 3 in the overall kriging steps (shown above) 5. Block kriging was used as the final step for the kriging/error analysis. For block kriging the semivariogram calculates the covariance between blocks instead of points. blocks are needed. Y. Otherwise if 1000 8 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM . To add the X and Y values I used the XToolsPro toolbar. To recall how to extract an area by a mask refer here. Next. and export. In order to interpolate in the volcanic zone. Prior to block kriging. If this extension is not available another method will have to be used to obtain these values. 1000 points need to be converted to a text file.html .geo. with a large gap in the volcanic zone.mtu. The text file should include X. For this study. This new surface represents the DEM difference with the error removed. which represent the spacing (area) of the volcanic zone. To determine the volume change error estimate we need to use a comparable density of points. the kriging prediction surface is the DEM error. The text file will then be input into the kriging menus. Block kriging uses an average number of points within a specified area. For this study the dome region has elevation change outside of the volcanic zone. choosing options. in this case the dome.Kriging http://www. More detailed information is located within the thesis. Here you are able to save the file as a text file. Once the kriging prediction surface is clipped to the area of interest the raster calculator is then used to subtract the kriging surface from the original DEM difference as shown in the overall kriging steps part 4-6. 6.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging.
thus we can use the elevation changes outside of the volcanic region to determine an error surface inside the volcanic region. geostatistical analyst. In this menu the x. For this study the dome had a block spacing of 2500 m. the kriging method and spacing are also chosen.geo. These values were then averaged for the volcanic region. Many resources are available on the web related to geostatistics. and z columns are assigned. an over representation of points (or blocks) would occur outside of the volcanic zone. A standard deviation error surface is then created (overall kriging step 7. 9 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM . The region outside of the masked volcanic region should only be affected by regional uplift. For example the average elevation change of 8 m outside of the dome volcanic zone(see thesis ) is assumed to be solely related to DEM error and not to actual elevation change.y. That areas outside of the analysis masks have 0 m elevation change. as well as changing the kriging type to block kriging. we obtain an error estimate with 95% probability. Again I would suggest consulting a geostatistics expert before performing the block kriging. DEM error is represented by the deviation from 0 m elevation change outside of the masked volcanic zone. Therefore blocks were chosen to represent the volcanic area. giving a standard error of the estimate. Since the underlying DEM data was obtained in the same way (aerial photographs and maps converted to digital contour lines). of the volcanic region. shown above).0® by inputting the model parameters determined from the semivariogram as shown below: Using Surfer 7. therefore multiplying by 2.0® the data is gridded using Grid Data available under the Grid tool. Using the advanced options. the model and other kriging parameters are assigned. 3. resulting in an area of 6. 2. .Kriging http://www. Please be aware of these assumptions if you plan on using the same analysis. This value is then multiplied by the volcanic area to obtain a standard error for the volume change (overall kriging step 8. kriging.html points were used for example. shown above). we can make the assumption that the same errors should apply to the entire DEM including volcanic and non-volcanic areas.edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging. We assume the errors of estimation are normally distributed.25 km2.mtu. Conclusions For this study three assumptions were made: 1. Block kriging was performed in Surfer 7. The errors for the DEM are the same. which we assume is negligible compared to the other DEM errors. both inside and outside. and surfer with some available here. which would incorrectly interpolate the region within the volcanic zone.
geo.Kriging http://www.html 10 of 10 11/26/2010 3:20 PM .edu/rs4hazards/ksdurst/website/Thesis/Kriging.mtu.
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