Job Analysis and Job Design

► Meaning ► Job

and Definition

analysis and competitive advantage of job analysis of collecting job data problems with job analysis

► Process

► Methods ► Potential ► Job

design affecting job design design approaches

► Factors ► Job ►

Job Analysis
► Process

of collecting, analyzing and setting out information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description and data for recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management or ► It is the process which provides information used for writing job description ( a list of the job entails) and job specification (what kind of

Types of information provided by Job Analysis
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Overall purpose- why the job exist and, in essence, what the job holder is expected to contribute Content- the nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations Key result area Performance criteria Responsibilities Organizational factors- reporting relationships etc Motivating factors Development factors- promotion, and career perspectives Environmental factors- working condition, unsocial hours, mental and emotional demands

Conducting a job analysis can help identify: ► Selection Procedures:
 job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions  minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants  interview questions
► Compensation:

  

skill levels responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory) required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

► Training/

Needs Assessment:

training content equipment to be used in delivering the training  methods of training (e.g., small group, computer-based, video, classroom)  
► Performance


  

goals and objectives performance standards evaluation criteria

Process of Job Analysis

Process of Job Analysis
► Strategic


   

employee involvement levels of details timing and frequency of analysis sources of data

► Information

gathering ► Information processing ► Job description ► Resulting in various outcomes

Methods of Collecting Job Data

Job analysis interviews should be conducted as follows:

to a logical sequence of questions that help interviewees to order their thoughts about the job. ►Probe as necessary to establish what people do-answers to questions are often vague and information may be given by means of untypical instances. ► asking leading questions that make the expected answer obvious

 Allow the job holder ample opportunity to

Pros and cons
 Basic method of analysis and, as such, is the one most commonly used. Obtain clear statements from job holders about their authority to make decision  Requires skills on the part of the analyst and is time consuming.  Effectiveness can be increased by the use of a checklist

► They

are helpful when a large number of jobs are to be covered. ► Can save interviewing time by recording purely factual information and by enabling the analyst to structure questions in advance to cover areas that need to be explored in greater depth ► should only be carried out on the basis of some preliminary field work ► The accuracy of results also depends upon the willingness and ability of job holders to complete questionnaires

► Pros

and cons

 Can save interviewing time but may fail to reveal full flavor of the job. if they are over generalized it will be too easy for job holders to provide vague or incoherent answers

Self description
► Job

holders can be asked to analyze their own jobs and prepare job descriptions but people do not find it easy, perhaps because what they do is so much part of themselves that they find it difficult to be detached and dissect the information into various elements. ► It is advisable to run special training sessions in which they practice

► Observation

means studying job holders at work, noting what they do, how they do it, and how much time it takes. It is appropriate for situations where a relatively small number of key jobs need to be analyzed in depth, but it is time consuming and difficult to apply in jobs that involve a high proportion of unobservable mental activities, or in highly skilled manual jobs ► Pros and cons
 Most accurate but so time consuming that it is seldom used except when preparing training specifications for manual or clerical jobs.

Diaries and Logs
► Job

holders requires to analyze their own jobs by keeping diaries or logs of their activities. These can be used by the job analyst as the basic material for a job description ► Best used for managerial jobs which are fairly complex and where the job holders have the analytical skills required, as well as the ability to express. ► Pros and cons
 Make great demand on job holders and can be difficult to analyze

Job Description and Job Specification in Job Analysis

Job Description
► Derived

from the job analysis they provide basic information about the job under the heading of the job title, reporting relationships, overall purpose and principle accountabilities or main tasks or duties.

Content and format
► Content

 Flexibility: operational flexibility and multi skilling are becoming increasingly significant. It is therefore necessary to build flexibility into the job description. This is achieved by concentrating on results rather than spelling out what has to be done  Team work: flatter organizations rely more on good team work and this requirement needs to be stressed

► Job

identification ► Job summary ► Responsibilities and duties ► Authority of incumbent ► Standards of performance ► Working conditions ► Job specifications

Job Specification

list of a job’s “human requirement”, that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on – another product of a job analysis.

Job design
► Job

design has been defined by Davis (1966) as: “ the specification of the content, methods and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder”

Job design is the conscious efforts to organize involves  identification of individual tasks  specification of methods of performing the tasks  combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals tasks, duties and responsibilities into one unit of work. It

Job Design Factors

Approaches to job design
► Job

rotation ► Job enlargement ► Job enrichment ► Self-managing teams ► High- performance work design

Job enrichment
► Aims

to maximize the interests and challenges of work by providing the employee with a job that has these characteristics
 Complete piece of work in the sense that the worker can identify a series of tasks or activities that end in a recognizable and definable product  It affords the employee as much variety, decision- making responsibility and control as possible in carrying out the work  It provide the direct feedback through the work itself on how well the employee is doing his work

► Job

enrichment as proposed by Herzberg(1986) is not just increasing the number nor variety of tasks. It is claimed by supporters of job enrichment that these approaches may relieve boredom, but they do not result in positive increase in motivation

Job rotation
► Means

systematically moving workers from one job to another ► A closer look at some Indian companies shows that job rotation is becoming an increasingly accepted practice. ► At McDonald's, cross-functional job rotations are encouraged, globally and in India. "It is a win-win situation -- win for the organization, the team and the employee," says Amit Jatia, joint venture partner and managing director, McDonald's, Western India

Job Enlargement
► Job

Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It is different than job enrichment ► Thus the worker who previously only bolted the seat to legs might attach the back as well

► Examples:

Small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions, so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.

Comparison of Five Job Design Approaches

Contemporary Issues
► Telecommuting ► Alternative ► Techno ► Task ► Skill

work patterns




Principles of Job Design
► To

influence skill variety, provide opportunities for people to do several tasks and combine tasks ► To influence task identity and form natural work units ► To influence task significance ► To influence autonomy, give people responsibility for determining their own working system ► To influence feed back, establish good relationships and open feedback channels