NATIONAL TRAINING MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STUDIES

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CCC348 - FORMWORK: SUSPENDED
DEVELOPED IN COLLABORATION BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND TAFE QUEENSLAND WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL TRAINING AUTHORITY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Produced by the Construction Curriculum Consortium, TAFE Queensland. Managing Agent : Recognition Directorate, Vocational Education, Training And Employment Commission (VETEC)

© Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) 1997

All rights reserved. This work has been produced initially with the assistance of funding provided by the Commonwealth Government through ANTA. This work is copyright, but permission is given to trainers and teachers to make copies by photocopying or other duplicating processes for use within their own training organisation or in a workplace where the training is being conducted. This permission does not extend to the making of copies for use outside the immediate training environment for which they are made, nor the making of copies for hire or resale to third parties. For permission outside these guidelines, apply in writing to Australian Training Products Ltd.(formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd). The views expressed in this version of the work do not necessarily represent the views of ANTA. ANTA does not give warranty nor accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

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Published by Australian Training Products Pty (formerly ACTRAC Products Ltd), Australian National Training Authority. GPO Box 5347BB, MELBOURNE, Victoria 3001, Australia Telephone +61 03 9630 9836 or 9630 9837; Facsimile +61 03 9639 4684 First Published October 1997 DP2120348LRG Printed by Document Printing Australia

NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION STUDIES RESOURCE PROJECT

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LEARNING PACKAGE

CCC348 - FORMWORK: SUSPENDED SLAB AND BEAM

Victoria INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER: Construction Curriculum Consortium TAFE Queensland This learning package was developed as part of the AVTS Training Program in Construction Studies This project was managed by the Construction Curriculum Consortium.PUBLISHED: 1997 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: AUTHOR: Holmesglen Institute of TAFE Batesfsford Road CHADSTONE. TAFE Queensland For further details contact: Noel Ryan Manager Construction Curriculum Consortium Yeronga Institute of TAFE PO Box 6045 FAIRFIELD GARDENS QLD 4103 Telephone: Facsimile: (07) 3892 0457 (07) 3892 0457 A S P M E L 4 .

32 4........... WORKING PLATFORMS FOR WALLS AND COLUMNS................. 56 SUMMARY................. FORMWORK MEMBER SIZES AND SPACINGS ............. 28 3.................................................... 33 EXERCISE 2: FALSEWORK .................................................................................................................................................................................. 57 A S P M E L ............................................................... 48 9.......................................................... 46 EXERCISE 6: WORKING DRAWINGS ................................................................................................................................................ DROP PANELS AND HOPPER HEADS AS COLUMN CAPITALS........................................................................................ 15 HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE ............................................................... 18 MODULE INFORMATION: FROM THE TRAINING SPECIFICATION......................................................................................................................................................................................... SIZE AND ALIGNMENT ................................................................. 41 6........................................................................................................................................................... 28 2..........................................THE PRINCIPLES OF FORMWORK DESIGN................................................................................................. 24 ASSESSMENT TASK 1:.............................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... WORKING DRAWINGS ............................................................ CONSTRUCTION WORKERS’ DUTIES................................................................ 53 EXERCISE 8: PLATFORMS................................................. 38 5..................................................................................................................... 42 EXERCISE 4: CONCRETE WORKERS DUTIES................................................................... PLANNING AND QUALITY CONTROL .......... 21 ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION......... 19 ASSESSMENT INFORMATION............................... 17 KEY TO SYMBOLS .................................................................................................................................... LOADS ON FORMWORK................................................................................................................................................................... 11 OVERVIEW .................................................................. 45 8.............. 26 SECTION 1 . 47 ACTIVITY 2: DESIGN FORMWORK ............................................................................ 16 GETTING TO “KNOW THE PACKAGE”.................. 39 EXERCISE 3: CAPITALS AND COLUMNS...................................................... 43 7............................................... FALSEWORK MEMBER SIZES AND SPACINGS..................................................................... 49 EXERCISE 7: CONCRETE CALCULATIONS ............................................................... 14 WHAT IS PROVIDED ........................................ 44 EXERCISE 5: QUALITY................................. 24 ASSESSMENT TASK 2:............... 27 INTRODUCTION.................... 27 1......................................................................................... 30 EXERCISE 1: FORMWORK CALCULATIONS.................................................................................................................... 22 ASSESSMENT TASKS.................... 52 10............................. 32 ACTIVITY 1: BASIC INFORMATION.................................................... CALCULATION OF MATERIAL QUANTITIES ................................... USE OF TABLES AND GRAPHS TO DESIGN FORMWORK................................................................................... 15 WHAT YOU PROVIDE? ................ QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES TO ENSURE CORRECT SHAPE.............................

.............................................................................................. DENAILING....................................................................................................................................... CONSTRUCTING FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK FOR A SUSPENDED SLAB AND BEAMS........................................69 3 LOCATE.. .... CLEANING AND STORING FORMWORK AND FALSEWORK ........................ REMOVAL...............................87 EXERCISE 2: FALSEWORK................................................................................95 EXERCISE 7: CONCRETE CALCULATIONS.........101 EXERCISE 11: SERVICE PENETRATIONS .85 CONCLUSION ............................................78 3......................59 INTRODUCTION... CLEANING AND STORING...............................87 EXERCISE 1: FORMWORK CALCULATIONS ................99 EXERCISE 10: SLAB AND BEAM FORMWORK ............ STRIPPING FORMWORK........................................................SECTION 2 .................................. BACKING OFF OF FALSEWORK AND ADJUSTMENT HARDWARE ..............103 A S P M E L 2 .................61 2...................................................................................................89 EXERCISE 4: CONCRETE WORKERS DUTIES ..............................................................................................................93 EXERCISE 6: WORKING DRAWINGS..... CLEANING AND STORING.........................73 SUMMARY ....................................................................................75 1............................59 EXERCISE 9: SETTING OUT .... SETTING OUT FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK.............................................................................................................................75 2................................................................................................72 4.................................83 EXERCISE 12: STRIPPING...........................................................................SETTING OUT.......................................................................................... STAIRS AND LANDINGS ...............86 ANSWERS.......................................62 EXERCISE 10: SLAB AND BEAM FORMWORK .............................................74 SECTION 3 ..............101 EXERCISE 12: STRIPPING...................................................84 ACTIVITY 3: ERECT AND STRIP FORMWORK.................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... CONSTRUCTING AND ASSEMBLING ................75 INTRODUCTION............70 EXERCISE 11: SERVICE PENETRATIONS ...............................................................................59 1.................97 EXERCISE 8: PLATFORMS.....80 4.....................................87 EXERCISE 3: CAPITALS AND COLUMNS ..97 EXERCISE 9: SETTING OUT ..................................... STRIPPING SEQUENCE AND EQUIPMENT REMOVAL..............................91 EXERCISE 5: QUALITY..........................81 SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................................................... CLEANING AND STORING OF FORMWORK....................................................STRIPPING............................................................................................................................................................................................................ ...................................... CONSTRUCT AND FIX LIFT AND SERVICE PENETRATIONS .............

.................. 50 Figure 19 CIRCULAR COLUMN ............................ 33 Figure 5 PLAN FOR SUSPENDED SLAB AND BEAM STRUCTURE SHOWING THE LAYOUT OF PROPS AND FORMWORK FOR BEAM................................................................................................................................................... 51 Figure 20 WORK PLATFORM AT TOP OF SCAFFOLD TOWER .... 40 Figure 12 HOPPER HEAD TOGETHER WITH DROP PANEL ................... 29 Figure 3 OPEN SPANDREL ARCH 1 AND ARCH 2 ................................................................................... 50 Figure 18 CYLINDRICAL PRISM ........................................................... 39 Figure 9 PARTS OF A COLUMN ........................... 40 Figure 11 FORM FACING LAYOUT FOR RECTANGULAR COLUMN ....................................... 55 Figure 23 WORK PLATFORM CONSTRUCTED ALONGSIDE EDGE BEAM OF A SLAB.......................................................................... 37 Figure 8 DROP PANEL AND HOPPER HEAD.............. 60 A S P M E L ............. 39 Figure 10 SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR PRISM........ 40 Figure 13 CORRECT DIRECTION FOR PLACING SLAB CONCRETE ............................................. 29 Figure 4 SAFE LOADS FOR PROPS IN DIFFERENT LENGTHS................... 36 Figure 7 LAYOUT OF JOISTS AND BEAMS.................................................................................... 44 Figure 15 SECTION SHOWING SLAB AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION..................................... 54 Figure 22 ANCHORAGE OF TALL PLATFORMS .................................................LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1 SLABS AND BEAMS .......................... 28 Figure 2 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF FORMWORK AND FALSE WORK FOR A SUSPENDED SLAB.............................................................................................................................................................. 42 Figure 14 ALLOWABLE VARIATION IN SURFACE OF CONCRETE (EXAGGERATED)......................................................................................................... 53 Figure 21 TUBULAR METAL MOBILE TOWER .......................................................................................................................... 49 Figure 17 RECTANGULAR PRISM ............................................................................................................................................................................. 55 Figure 24 CENTRE LINE.......... 46 Figure 16 RECTANGULAR PRISM ............................................................... 35 Figure 6 MAXIMUM SAFE AREA FOR PROPS......

.................73 Figure 40 FORMWORK INCORPORATING PROPS WITH COLLARS TO STRIP WITHOUT REMOVING PROPS.........................................................................................................................................................73 Figure 39 DETAIL OF WHOLE STAIRCASE ..............71 Figure 38 DETAIL OF STAIR FORMS.....................................................63 Figure 28 BEAM SUPPORTS IN THIS EXAMPLE ALLOW DANGEROUS UNBALANCE TO EXIST ...............................64 Figure 31 TOLERANCE GAP WITH CLOSURE ANGLE AT BEAM SIDE ALLOWS EASY STRIPPING OF BEAM SIDE WITHOUT DISTURBING SOFFITS.........67 Figure 36 TYPICAL PENETRATIONS....................76 Figure 41 UNDESIRABLE DISTORTION OF SLAB LIKELY WHEN BEAMS ARE STRIPPED FIRST.................................................77 Figure 42 THE BACKPROPPING PROCEDURE...................................................................................................................................................66 Figure 35 THE EFFECTS OF MOUNDING ....................................65 Figure 32 TYPICAL DEEP BEAM FORMWORK WITH TIES..78 A S P M E L 4 ........70 Figure 37 STRUCTURE OF RECTANGULAR PENETRATION ....................64 Figure 30 STRIPPING BAND AT BEAM SIDE ALLOWS SLAB SOFFIT TO BE STRIPPED WITHOUT DISTURBING THE BEAM .......................................................................................................................................................................................62 Figure 27 WORK PLATFORM AT EDGE OF SLAB SUPPORTED BY PROPS ..............................................................................65 Figure 33 TYPICAL DEEP EDGE BEAM FORMWORK SHOWING TIES AND THE USE OF SPREADER BAR AND STRUT TO KEEP THE BEAM PLUMB66 Figure 34 TYPICAL TIES ARE THE ‘HE BOLT’ SYSTEM ......60 Figure 26 SLABS AND BEAMS ..............................................................................................................................................Figure 25 GRID LINES USED TO SHOW LOCATIONS ..................63 Figure 29 THE PROBLEM OF ECCENTRICITY IS AVOIDED IF THE LOAD IS ALWAYS INSIDE THE SUPPORTS ..........................................................

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK ALL STREAMS STAGE 4 (& BEYOND) SPECIALISED SKILLS • • • • • Advanced Technical Skills Supervisory Skills Management Skills Para-professional Skills Professional Skills (Currently under development) BASE TRADE Õ STRUCTURES FIELD OF WORK SKILLS CIVIL OPERATIONS FITOUT AND FINISH z z z z z z z z z z z z × CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES BASIC STREAM SKILLS A S z z z × SERVICES (NON-TRADE) z z P M × z SERVICES SERVICES E L × SERVICE TRADES OFF-SITE FITOUT & FINISH × BASIC INDUSTRY SKILLS CIVIL OPERATIONS STRUCTURES FITOUT & FINISH ××× Currently Under Development INCORPORATING INDUSTRY INDUCTION Every stage produces a range of practical skills Endorsed by Standards Committee 13/12/95 .

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CCC348 - Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

CCC348 - Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam is a module intended for use by those completing Stage 3 of a specific FIELD OF WORK within a SKILL STREAM of the National Construction Industry Competency Framework. The theoretical components of this package will enable you to complete the practical requirements of this module All set tasks, including the activities and demonstrations, will show how the theory or content can be applied in a practical manner in on-site or simulated on-site conditions Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam is a module which deals with the knowledge and skills required to set out a simple building structure and so includes specific details on: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • formwork details and drawings; formwork systems; material quantities; tools, equipment and personal protective equipment; set out points and datum lines; erection of scaffolding, falsework and handrails ; penetrations and blockouts; formwork and falsework for safety and quality; formwork: selection, cleaning and release agent; supervision during concrete pour; formwork stripping methods; falsework and formwork: cleaning, storage and removal from site; falsework alignment techniques; and back propping methods.

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Two Assessment Tasks meet the requirements of the three Learning Outcomes: Assessment Task 1 • Assessment of Knowledge

You will be given an assignment for assessment and asked to provide working drawings to demonstrate your knowledge related to the principles, planning and quality assurance procedures for construction of suspended slab and beam formwork.

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CCC348 - Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam

INTRODUCTION

Task

Complete a graphics presentation, approximately 4 hours in duration, to develop working drawings that cover the formwork and falsework required for suspended slab and beam construction. Complete an assignment, approximately 4 hours in duration, that covers suspended slab and beam formwork including:

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plan and specification interpretation; design spacings; and working drawings.

Complete a written assignment, approximately 1 hour, that covers slab and beam formwork to cover:

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strength, safety and economy; material quantities; concrete workers’ duties before, during and after concrete placement; and erection and stripping sequences.

Assessment Task 2 •

Assessment of Skills

You will be required to construct a formwork for a suspended slab and beam structure. You will be working in a team with a maximum of four people, and you must demonstrate your individual skills and knowledge as part of that team. • Task

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Set out, fabricate and position formwork for a reinforced concrete slab with intersecting and perimeter beams, that encompasses the following specifications:

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a slab of minimum size 6000mm long x 6000mm wide and 300mm thick; intersecting and perimeter beams, minimum end section size 300mm wide x 400mm deep or similar; Soffit height minimum two unit frames from floor datum point; and perimeter working platform – minimum 450mm.

This learning package has therefore been developed with three sequential sections, each being closely aligned with one or more of the two Assessment Tasks:

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CCC348 - Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam

INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1:

This contains learning resource material, self-checks and practical exercises required for the successful completion of the Assessment Criteria as shown in the Assessment Specification for Task 1. This section contains the information and practical work that will help you successfully complete part of Task 2. In a similar manner, this section will cover material, self-checks and practical work that will help you successfully complete Task 2.

SECTION 2:

SECTION 3:

As well as self-check exercises and practical activities, your instructor will schedule additional oral and/or written tests which may be similar to the self-check exercises. These tests will satisfy specific Assessment Criteria in the Assessment Tasks and will apply to your work environment. When you have achieved all the Assessment Criteria in all the Assessment Tasks, and your work has been checked and certified by your instructor, you will have successfully completed the Learning Outcomes which make up the total off-the-job component of the whole module CCC348 Formwork - Suspended Slab and Beam.

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Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam . In the next section on Module Details.A Stage 3 Module The overall competencies for this module are summed up in the purpose statement: PURPOSE: To provide building and construction workers with the knowledge and skills required to construct formwork for reinforced concrete suspended slab and beam structures including column capitals. construct and assemble falsework and formwork. clean and store falsework and formwork.CCC348 . • • Formwork Member Sizes and Spacings Falsework Member Sizes and Spacings Loads on Formwork Use of Tables and Graphs to Design Formwork Drop Panels and Hopper Heads Construction Workers’ Duties Quality Control Procedures Working Drawings Calculation of Material Quantities Working Platforms Setting Out Falsework and Formwork Constructing Falsework and Formwork Locate.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam covers: The Skills/Competencies required for this module • The ability to apply the principles of formwork in the design. CCC348 . you will find specific details about the Training Specification and how you will be assessed In general terms. Construct and Fix Penetrations Stairs and Landings Stripping Formwork Stripping Sequence and Equipment Removal Backing-Off of Falsework Removal. planning and quality control A S P M • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Theory/Content required to achieve these skills/competencies • The ability to set out. Denailing. 14 Australian National Training Authority . Cleaning and Storing Formwork E L When you have successfully achieved all the Assessment Criteria for the Assessment Tasks. • The ability to strip.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW CCC348 . you will have completed the requirements for this module.

and falsework. timber and plywood. including: • • • • plans and specifications. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 15 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam INTRODUCTION WHAT IS PROVIDED You will be provided with the essentials to successfully complete this module.to be advised by your instructor. equipment. WHAT YOU PROVIDE? • appropriate personal protective clothing etc .CCC348 .

has a nominal duration of 54 66 hours. By all means. are not part of the formal assessment of competency.CCC348 . • • • • demonstrations of practical skills by your instructor or experienced tradesperson. The module Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam. but you may take more or less time working at your own pace. fast-track any aspects/areas where you feel confident. It is suggested that you work through the three sections as they are presented. and personal progress indicators through self-check exercises and practical activities. A S P M E L 16 Australian National Training Authority . incorporating into your own learning program. These exercises. Self-Check Exercises have been included so that you can measure your own progress. instruction in. safe working practices.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam INTRODUCTION HOW TO USE THIS PACKAGE This package has been designed so that you can work and learn at your own pace. however. and application of. planned and supervised practical application of your knowledge and skills.

Read through the material.CCC348 . • Survey Scan the whole package Read the contents page and the introduction. The content relates to these tasks. terms or details that are not clear to you at this stage. you will be directed to review the main points or complete a Self-Check Exercise to indicate how you are progressing. you will be required to attend practical demonstrations and receive instruction in the use of materials. Make your own notes as well. underline or highlight. Ask your instructor if you have any problems with: P M < < < E L interpretation of content. Notice that there are set tasks to be completed. Link the information with what you know already. • Review At various stages. or availability of resources Australian National Training Authority 17 . Remember that you will need the content to complete the tasks. Jot down points. but do it actively. procedures or processes. tools and equipment. • • Ask Read Ask about any topics. Let the headings and sub-headings help you organise information.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam INTRODUCTION GETTING TO “KNOW THE PACKAGE” Here is a strategy which may help you become familiar with the contents of this package. • Instructor A S Throughout this package. then flip through the pages glance at the headings.

E L Practical Activity The seven activities allow for the application of the theory components. 18 Australian National Training Authority . your instructor will give practical advice and demonstrate the use of tools/equipment.CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam INTRODUCTION KEY TO SYMBOLS Symbols are placed in the left hand margin to draw attention to the type of information commencing at that point. These are your progress indicators. DEMONSTRATION Instructor Demonstration SELF-CHECK PRACTICAL ACTIVITY A S Site Visit Self-Check Exercise P M At times. The symbols used in this package are: READ Read This is the essential information for the module. Typical answers are also included. SITE VISIT Your instructor will schedule visits to appropriate sites.

The Principles of formwork design. London.L. Suggested Learning Resources Australian National Training Authority 19 . constructing and assembling falsework and formwork. 1987. Setting out. AS 1657–1992 Fixed Platforms. G. and Lavan S. B. Civil Engineering Construction Heinemann. A Guide to Good Practice. planning and quality control.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS MODULE INFORMATION: from the Training Specification MODULE TITLE Nominal Duration Module Number Purpose Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam 54 . Stairways and Ladders – Design.66 Hours CCC348 To provide building and construction workers with the knowledge and skills required to construct formwork for reinforced concrete suspended slab and beam structures including column capitals. E L Erect and Dismantle Formwork Delivery Delivery methods must provide for the demonstration of competence in skills specified in all learning outcomes. National Building and Construction Industry Competency Standards: Relationship to Competency Standards Pre-requisites Summary of Content A S P M • ST 3046 • • • • • • • • Basic Stream Skills A trainee may seek recognition through the R. London 1989 Formwork.CCC348 . either in on-site or simulated on-site conditions. The Concrete Society. Fletcher. Construction and Installation. A. AS 3610 Supplement 2 (1992).P. AS 3610–1995 Formwork for Concrete. process for competencies already held. Walkways.

A. Wilshere.J. London. Walsh. P. (1974) Design of Formwork for Concrete Structures Cement and Concrete Association.CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS Suggested Learning Resources (conti) • • • • McAdam. Stuart Publications. Wynn. (1993) Formwork: A Practical Approach. & Manning.E. Brisbane. P.P. G. London. (1989) Formwork Thomas Telford Ltd. 1988. Melbourne. Use of the Australian Standard for Concrete Structures Inkata Press. A S P M E L 20 Australian National Training Authority .S. C.

practical activities. You will have completed the learning outcomes when you have successfully achieved all the Assessment Criteria in Assessment Tasks. or Not Yet Competent. One or more of the following assessment methods will be used: • • • supervised assessment in the demonstration of techniques. All learning outcomes must be successfully achieved if you are to be awarded competence in this module.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam is a module in the National Construction Industry Competency Framework. Your assessment will be recorded as: • • Competent.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS ASSESSMENT INFORMATION CCC348 . A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 21 .CCC348 . a number of written and/or oral assessments. All projects are to be carried out on-site or in simulated on-site conditions. The program focuses on the achievement of learning outcomes measured against assessment criteria based on National Competency Standards. allowing for demonstrations of your ability in the assessment tasks.

that covers suspended slab and beam formwork including: P M E L < < < plan and specification interpretation design spacings working drawings. 22 Australian National Training Authority . planning and quality assurance procedures for construction of suspended slab and beam formwork. approximately 4 hours in duration. design spacings. that encompasses the following specifications: < a slab of minimum size 6000mm long x 6000mm wide and 300mm thick.CCC348 . Complete a written assignment. The following procedures could be carried out in one or more projects: Assessment Task 1 • Instructions for the Assessee A S • • • Complete a graphics presentation. Complete an assignment. approximately 4 hours in duration. fabricate and position formwork for a reinforced concrete slab with intersecting and perimeter beams.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION MODULE TITLE Module Number Purpose of the Assessment FORMWORK: SUSPENDED SLAB AND BEAM CCC348 To demonstrate underpinning knowledge related to the principles. that covers slab and beam formwork to cover: < < < plan and specification interpretation. to develop working drawings that cover the formwork and falsework required for suspended slab and beam construction. approximately 1 hour. and working drawings. Assessment Task 2 Set out.

CCC348. However some observation of the process will be involved.2 CCC348. This is an assessment of the final product.3 A S Learning Outcome P M Assessment Task 1 Yes E L Assessment Task 2 Yes Yes Australian National Training Authority 23 . this is detailed on the checklist.CCC348 .minimum 450mm Guidelines for the Assessor This is a supervised assessment. minimum end section size 300mm wide x 400mm deep or similar soffit height minimum two unit frames from floor datum point perimeter working platform .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS < < < intersecting and perimeter beams.1 CCC348.

approximately 1 hour. to develop working drawings that cover the formwork and falsework required for suspended slab and beam construction.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS ASSESSMENT TASKS ASSESSMENT TASK 1: • Complete a graphics presentation. that covers slab and beam formwork to cover: < < < < strength. Falsework members and their spacings are incorporated into the design of suspended slab and beam structures. 3. 24 Australian National Training Authority . Drop panels and hopper heads which act as column capitals are designed as an integral part of suspended slab and beam formwork. Quality control procedures are incorporated into the construction process to ensure correct shape. Assessment Task 1 incorporates Learning Outcome 1: Apply the Principles of Formwork in the Design. Complete an assignment. The procedures above could be carried out in one or more projects. A S P M E L Item 1. 4. 5.CCC348 . approximately 4 hours in duration. Assessment Criteria Suspended slab and beam formwork member sizes and spacings are selected to withstand dead and live loads and wind forces. that covers suspended slab and beam formwork including: • < < < • plan and specification interpretation design spacings working drawings Complete a written assignment. Achieved 2. during and after concrete placement erection and stripping sequences. approximately 4 hours in duration. safety and economy material quantities concrete workers’ duties before. Planning and Quality Control. from basic formwork span tables. Construction workers duties before and after concrete placement are stated. size and alignment of concrete structures.

7.CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS 6. Working drawings for suspended slab. • Items 1 to 8 must be performed fully. All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. beam and capital formwork are produced from plans and specifications. Material quantities are calculated for suspended slab and beam formwork. Working platforms are incorporated into wall and column formwork. 8. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 25 .

datums and reduced levels. Lift and service penetrations are located. Strip. fabricate and position formwork for a reinforced concrete slab with intersecting and perimeter beams. Construct and Assemble Falsework and Formwork. Hand rails and toe boards are erected in accordance with statutory regulations. off set grids. Beam sides are constructed. 3.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam MODULE DETAILS ASSESSMENT TASK 2: Set out. 7. 5. located and braced to lines and heights specified in the plans and specifications. minimum end section size 300 mm wide x 400 mm deep or similar Soffit height minimum two unit frames from floor datum point perimeter working platform – minimum 450 mm. constructed and fixed in accordance with plans and specifications.CCC348 . Item 1. 26 Australian National Training Authority . Set Out. 6. A S P M E L Achieved Stripping sequence and equipment removal is planned. 9. • Items 1 to 9 must be performed fully. All work practices must ensure that current OH&S requirements are adopted. 3. Clean and Store Falsework and Formwork. Assessment Task 2 incorporates Learning Outcomes: 2. cleaned and relocated. Assessment Criteria Falsework and formwork for suspended slab and beam structures are set out using centre lines. 4. beam and capital components are constructed using both timber and proprietary forms. Plans and specifications are checked for designed stripping times. 2. Falsework and adjustment hardware are backed off to allow ease of stripping. that encompasses the following specifications: < < < < a slab of minimum size 6000 mm long x 6000 mm wide and 300 mm thick intersecting and perimeter beams. Falsework and formwork for suspended slab . Falsework and formwork is safely and sequentially removed. denailed. 8.

These areas include the essential information you will need to complete Assessment Task 1 which addresses the first learning outcome: Apply the principles of formwork design. and working platforms. The details required for this section will be presented under ten topics: • • • • • • • • • • Formwork Member Sizes and Spacings Falsework Member Sizes and Spacings Loads on Formwork Use of Tables and Graphs to Design Formwork Drop Panels and Hopper Heads as Column Capitals Construction Workers’ Duties Quality Control Procedures to Ensure Correct Shape. planning and quality control.CCC348 .THE PRINCIPLES OF FORMWORK DESIGN. Size and Alignment Working Drawings Calculation of Material Quantities Working Platforms for Walls and Columns A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 27 . PLANNING AND QUALITY CONTROL READ INTRODUCTION This first section of this package deals with four main aspects: • • • • design and planning. calculation of materials. quality control.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SECTION 1 .

FALSEWORK MEMBER SIZES AND SPACINGS A S P M E L SLABS AND BEAMS Falsework is the temporary structure needed to support the permanent structure while it is being erected. All slab and beam dimensions and spacing dimensions are given in full in the engineer’s working drawings for the building project. A slab is a large. 2. Figure 2 shows formwork for a suspended slab. is a long. Size and spacing will therefore vary from one job to the next and will fit in with what is known as standard good practice.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 1. thinner part of a structure used as support for some other structure such as a slab. scaffolding or work platforms. and any other stabilising structures such as wedges. Falsework also includes scaffolding and work platforms. Falsework actually includes the formwork. A beam. Usually when we speak of falsework. Figure 1 The size and spacing of beams and formwork are carefully designed by engineers who take into account the loads the slabs and beams will have to support. props. 28 Australian National Training Authority . bearers. Beams can also be built to stand alone. on the other hand. FORMWORK MEMBER SIZES AND SPACINGS In concrete construction two important structural elements are slabs and beams. The diagram does not show formwork for the edges.CCC348 . Size and spacing of slabs and beams will also follow the formwork code as laid out in AS 3610. the structure on which the formwork rests. we usually refer to the structure that supports the formwork . We mean the joists. soleplates.that is. flat piece of concrete usually in the shape of a square or a rectangle which usually forms the main part of a floor or a roof.

CCC348 . Falsework designed to carry heavy loads is sometimes made up of metal cylinders filled with dry sand supporting a plunger.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 Figure 2 Falsework may be constructed from round or sawn timbers. A S SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF FORMWORK AND FALSE WORK FOR A SUSPENDED SLAB P M E L Figure 3 OPEN SPANDREL ARCH 1 AND ARCH 2 Australian National Training Authority 29 . These cylinders are known as sandboxes. or scaffold tubing. Two styles of arch bridge are illustrated here. In bridge construction. falsework can take the form of temporary piles. steel joists. Sometimes wedges and jacks are incorporated in falsework. This is done to make it easier to dismantle a job once it is completed. Falsework is mostly used in river and harbour works and in the construction of arches.

Some of the loads described above can be calculated.before placing the concrete Stage 2 . A S P M E L 30 Australian National Training Authority . the pressure of the liquid increases the deeper you go. Concrete loads .during placement of concrete Stage 3 . Live loads . The formwork should be braced so that in the event of a serious impact it will not collapse totally. LOADS ON FORMWORK Loads are expressed as pressures which are measured in units called Pascals.is the weight of all materials used to construct the form. The formwork should not only be strong but also cross braced so that damage is minimised. The formwork should include some margin of strength to cope with these errors. Rain and run off can add loads on formwork and can soften the foundations or remove soil.are the weight of the workers. and when we talk of concrete it makes better sense to talk in terms of thousands of Pascals .because the concrete acts like a liquid the forces can be assumed to increase in the same way as liquid in a column. They will vary with climate and location. The symbol is Pa. trucks or other objects could cause damage to the formwork. Loads must be considered at three stages of the building process: Stage 1 . That is. Others are estimated because they are constantly changing and no accurate calculation can be made. Earthquake loads . Wind and water loads . until concrete is able to support the applied loads. where there is no prop directly underneath.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 3. Loads on formwork come from a number of sources: Self weight . One Pascal is about 100 grams (roughly the weight of a Mars bar) spread over an area of one square metre. Other loads may come from things like shrinkage of concrete or shifting of footings. Impact loads from concrete buckets. If the formwork needs to support further work above it such as a multi-level building then it must be strong enough. causing footings to shift.are considered important only if the formwork is likely to be erected 6 months or more. It’s a small unit. If this happens the pour should be terminated and repairs undertaken. Extra loads may be produced by mounding of concrete or by starting the pour at the wrong position.CCC348 . The pressure on the form due to concrete can be easily calculated. If the formwork is to be used as a place to store materials then it must be designed to accept it.wind will catch the formwork. The loads due to wind can be high. their equipment and building materials.After placement of concrete.Kilopascals (kPa).

0 (workers and equipment) + 3.0 (concrete) + 0.0 Mounding + 4.1 (self load) + 1.1 kPa A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 31 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 The concrete load is calculated with the knowledge that concrete weighs about 2500 Kg per cubic metre. 3.0 kPa for concrete mounding and 4. These are obtained from Australian Standard 3610. (Sometimes the figure 2400 is used). All of the loads are added to obtain the total load.0 Materials = 13. The self weight of formwork is normally fairly predictable.0 kPa for the workers and their equipment. This is called it’s density and it’s symbol is r (the Greek letter ‘rho’).0 kPa Calculate the total load on the props Total load = 5.1 kPa.0 kPa for building materials. The live loads are estimated to be 1.CCC348 . Calculation of concrete load Formula used : Load = (rho) x h / 100 Where rho is 2500 and h is the depth of the concrete Example 1: (a) Calculate the load due to a concrete slab 200 mm thick L = rho x h / 100 = 2500 x 0. It is estimated to be 0.2 / 100 = 5.

Calculate the total load on the props due to the formwork. • • • BASIC INFORMATION Draw small pictorial sketches of: A S P M E L a slab a beam a slab supported by two beams 2. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 32 Australian National Training Authority . In your own words tell what is meant by standard good practice. FORMWORK CALCULATIONS Calculate the concrete load due to a slab 250 mm thick. concrete and stacked materials.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 1: 1. Assume that the slab is to be suspended by formwork and props.CCC348 . ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ PRACTICAL ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 1: 1. live loads.

Figure 4 shows the safe loads that can be carried by props of given length. One way of doing it is to use tables which show the safe loads that can be carried by joists and props at given spacing. and the supplier may provide a design service which sets out the spacing of the props. On the job. USE OF TABLES AND GRAPHS TO DESIGN FORMWORK There are ways of deciding on the spacing of supporting falsework beams and joists. A S Figure 4 P M E L SAFE LOADS FOR PROPS IN DIFFERENT LENGTHS Australian National Training Authority 33 . props used to support the formwork are often hired.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 4. Figure 5 Shows a section of a plan for a slab and beams which shows the set out of props and working drawings for the formwork to support the beams. Table 1 gives the spacing of joists required to support given loads.CCC348 .

8 25.9 14.7 12.3 29.0 86.8 57.3 3.0 5.4 55.5 56.8 32.3 10.4 61.4 51.6 3.8 22.0 30.8 3.7 122.6 85.3 75.1 23.9 10.8 38.8 9.9 108.0 125.9 10.2 122.8 37.7 3.4 86.2 10.2 7.7 37.3 40.7 28.5 38.7 17.9 70.5 64.1 2.9 24.9 11.9 9.1 10.2 11.5 5.2 17.3 30.4 22.7 4.8 95.8 17.9 33.3 13.5 46.0 16.2 3.5 21.7 10.2 56.0 19.8 91.9 4.8 6.5 5.5 68.0 13.7 3.1 17.5 26.6 3.2 18.2 98.0 4.2 12-10-7 12-13-5 12-16-5 12-25-5 15-32-5 A S 17-10-7 17-13-7 17-14-7 Face grain parallel to span Span (l) mm 400 450 480 600 12.6 6.3 87.9 11.7 40.8 9.3 38.0 122.8 87.1 95.5 33.2 3.8 51.0 4.9 6.4 8.8 67.3 12.4 86.8 66.3 2.1 10.8 28.8 16.2 800 900 2.0 3.8 38.6 3.8 13.9 14.3 15.0 3.1 52.0 78.4 8.2 3.6 11.1 5.4 18.4 3.8 91.7 54.3 49.7 4.6 33.6 8.3 3.2 21.0 300 22.9 17.5 6.6 53.0 4.0 81.2 9.2 10.5 38.1 87.8 3.2 14.3 12.9 52.3 13.5 87.2 91.2 15.4 5.2 47.7 42.0 44.1 18.0 12.1 3.4 42.0 10.0 125.0 4.0 72.0 81.9 11.4 11.0 108.0 69.6 3.3 2.1 12.1 11.6 15.4 8.6 40.9 34.2 28.5 4.4 7.2 109.3 75.0 122.3 17.5 72.8 93.2 7.5 112.0 86.1 28.7 4.5 17.9 38.4 32.0 2.3 8.4 23.0 2.7 16.4 5.2 21.1 38.4 13.1 9.7 3.0 11.9 49.1 3.2 11.3 12.4 26.6 11.9 39.8 24.9 10.8 30.0 20.7 4.8 25.5 27.0 5.2 10.0 108.5 18.7 44.5 60.7 4.6 70.4 93.5 13.8 30.7 27.1 19.2 81.2 18.2 11.9 100.4 5.4 10.7 8.0 4.3 42.8 2.6 43.8 91.9 25.5 3.7 2.8 14.9 125.6 74.7 15.7 2.8 34.6 122.8 68.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 ID Code 12-10-5 Stress Grade F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 F11 F14 F17 F22 F27 225 39.0 10.9 21.8 60.2 108.6 30.1 16.1 16.6 5.9 21.5 19.0 3.2 46.4 5.4 48.2 5.0 38.5 65.2 34.2 10.1 20.8 50.7 12.0 2.2 2.5 26.7 8.1 18.8 27.6 44.7 13.0 4.5 5.4 61.4 84.3 15.7 42.0 15.3 39.5 15.2 77.CCC348 .5 65.5 26.1 46.5 46.4 83.2 59.6 54.0 2.4 2.9 7.3 3.4 56.3 4.5 27.6 38.6 112.8 91.2 11.4 57.2 7.3 12.1 2.3 85.1 10.3 3.8 2.2 11.1 3.8 44.6 5.7 28.9 32.9 14.0 25.1 42.3 13.0 8.8 60.4 53.0 43.9 3.4 83.2 10.9 4.4 44.5 18.9 54.6 19.3 14.5 26.4 56.4 64.9 3.8 57.6 45.6 16.8 62.3 44.8 57.1 22.1 2.0 E L 2.8 68.2 12.7 15.2 80.8 52.6 15.5 20.0 43.6 15.8 91.4 108.0 13.1 20.0 4.6 30.8 68.0 5.8 26.9 51.9 4.9 3.6 74.5 59.4 34.5 9.8 3.3 15.2 9.5 65.0 108.9 39.8 87.0 Face grain perpendicular to span Span (l) mm 300 400 450 480 600 31.2 68.5 13.6 5.3 4.7 3.3 10.9 33.9 2.4 125.1 7.1 36.8 21.1 22.2 28.5 3.6 Table 1 SPACING OF JOISTS FOR A SUSPENDED SLAB 34 Australian National Training Authority .3 18.6 51.0 4.7 13.5 24.9 122.7 40.4 63.5 15.9 49.1 30.2 11.5 25.4 122.1 48.4 18.1 91.7 2.0 3.5 18.9 33.2 2.8 9.4 60.2 15.6 39.6 8.6 5.7 49.5 43.0 16.7 91.2 37.4 61.7 16.2 64.0 122.2 71.6 14.5 31.2 9.0 78.3 15.5 33.9 86.2 29.8 93.9 48.2 58.4 22.2 32.4 63.6 14.5 6.8 122.1 8.4 3.7 4.2 32.8 31.8 6.4 5.9 66.9 86.6 5.8 2.3 2.0 66.0 3.0 7.0 3.7 14.1 17.2 2.4 23.0 122.5 96.2 14.7 4.8 59.7 40.5 4.2 24.0 2.3 3.4 50.2 3.8 2.9 26.4 19.1 28.4 4.6 3.9 32.5 26.0 3.3 85.0 35.1 10.4 8.5 44.7 48.1 39.0 4.5 10.6 P M 800 900 225 55.9 93.4 31.6 33.2 12.8 18.6 44.8 17.3 3.4 23.3 21.8 20.2 12.3 17.4 86.8 25.6 16.8 3.4 62.4 34.7 33.8 2.4 68.0 5.6 3.8 13.5 65.0 2.9 14.1 87.9 19.8 37.0 122.8 14.8 3.9 5.3 4.2 59.7 85.3 9.3 13.9 13.9 33.6 27.1 34.1 14.4 70.5 25.8 64.1 12.5 5.8 87.0 76.2 11.1 33.6 48.3 9.0 69.6 13.4 24.0 3.6 85.0 4.5 17.0 5.4 5.6 33.6 5.2 63.0 4.1 33.9 93.1 2.8 64.4 87.2 27.1 30.6 77.0 50.5 28.2 11.2 61.7 10.5 22.5 26.1 39.7 28.9 3.8 42.3 21.0 50.6 14.6 88.0 2.9 26.1 2.0 125.0 125.3 48.2 2.0 89.0 122.5 26.9 4.3 91.6 5.4 16.1 87.8 59.0 15.3 24.9 40.

CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 A S P M E L Figure 5 PLAN FOR SUSPENDED SLAB AND BEAM STRUCTURE SHOWING THE LAYOUT OF PROPS AND FORMWORK FOR BEAM Australian National Training Authority 35 .

So if distance from prop 1 to 2 is 1 m.6 m prop height. A S P M E L Figure 6 MAXIMUM SAFE AREA FOR PROPS 36 Australian National Training Authority . Step 4: Find the point where the two lines from the axes intersect Step 5: Choose the nearest curved line to the right of the point of intersection.1 KPa.CCC348 . The height will be 2.5 square metres What does the answer mean? It means that the area supported by the prop must not be more than 1. Read the figure at the end of the line. the spacing of props the spacing of joists Answer: Step 1: Calculate the load on the props. Step 3: Find 200 mm slab depth on the horizontal axis. and find 2. To decide on the spacing.5 m.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 The graphs and table are used in the following example. This is the area that the prop will safely support.6 m. Decide with the use of tables and graphs. Answer = 1. From that information we can decide how far to space the props.5 square metres. Step 2: Go to Figure 4. Combinations of distances in both directions can be used. If stronger props are chosen the distances between props can be increased. we choose one prop and look at the nearest two props and form a rectangle. so we don’t need to calculate the load. We know from example 1 that a slab of 200 mm will have a total load of 13. then distance 1 to 3 cannot be more than 1. Example 2: A suspended slab 200 mm thick is to be poured.

) Use Table 1 to decide on the spacing of the joists.1 you should see the figure 17. Step 2: Now we know the Prop spacing and the joist spacing and we can begin to design the formwork. (we already know this from previous calculation. stress grade F11. 13. Example 3: The 200 mm slab in example 2 is to be poured on 19 mm plywood identified by the code number 19-13-7.CCC348 . This is made in different thicknesses and strengths. Tables such as those supplied by the Plywood Association (Table 1) can be used to work out the spacing of joists. Step 1: Calculate the pressure of the concrete.1 KPa. A S P M E L Figure 7 LAYOUT OF JOISTS AND BEAMS Australian National Training Authority 37 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 • Spacing of Joists Plastic coated plywood is commonly used as the formface material. Find 19-13-7 and F11 in the table. Use the tables to decide how far apart the joists should be placed.6 which will be in the column under 480 mm. That means that the plywood should have joists spaced no more than 480 mm apart to avoid deflections. Then look across the table to find a figure just greater than 13.

CCC348 . What is falsework? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 2: FALSEWORK Write brief answers to these. What materials are used for the construction of falsework? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ A S P M E L 38 Australian National Training Authority . Add sketches where appropriate: 1.

A hopper head is a funnel shaped capital for a column.CCC348 . DROP PANELS AND HOPPER HEADS AS COLUMN CAPITALS A drop panel is one placed to carry a high load. usually with a shaft often in the shape of a cylinder and with a bottom piece known as a base. The top of a column is called a capital. These components are shown in the following diagram. Figure 8 A column is an upright pillar.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 5. A S DROP PANEL AND HOPPER HEAD P M E L Figure 9 PARTS OF A COLUMN Australian National Training Authority 39 . It is a part of a slab that is made thicker. Typically. a drop panel might be 100 mm thick.

A S P M E L Figure 11 FORM FACING LAYOUT FOR RECTANGULAR COLUMN In construction. Two sides of the column will have formwork the same width as the column while the formwork for the other two sides will be the width of the column plus the width of two plywood sheets to allow for overlapping as is shown below. Figure 10 PRISM SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR Formwork for square or rectangular columns is usually made from plywood sheeting with timber bearers spaced at intervals along the sheeting.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 Columns can also be in the form of square or rectangular prisms. A drop panel and hopper head may be used together. Figure 12 PANEL HOPPER HEAD TOGETHER WITH DROP 40 Australian National Training Authority . column capitals will be placed to support drop panels.CCC348 .

What is a capital? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2.CCC348 . A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 41 . Make a sketch of a hopper head.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 3: CAPITALS AND COLUMNS Write brief answers to these: 1. What are the usual shapes of columns? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

goggles. 42 Australian National Training Authority . gloves. A S P M E L Figure 13 CORRECT DIRECTION FOR PLACING SLAB CONCRETE Special care must be taken near concrete trucks particularly when they are backing and turning. winches. Cranes. • After Concrete Placement The major tasks to be performed are levelling and smoothing. The pour must be managed so that mounds are minimised and that the pour is in the right direction. The formwork should be watched for movement. levelling implements and vibrators. Compressors used for operating the vibrators will need to have been checked to see that they are operating properly.CCC348 . Tightness of the props and ties need to be checked before and during the pour.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 6. • During Concrete Placement Workers must again observe all occupational health and safety requirements. • Before Concrete Placement All workers must be on duty and in place. Ties and props in important positions should be checked for tightness. They must all have appropriate clothing including steel-capped boots. Even if the formwork is of the right strength. CONSTRUCTION WORKERS’ DUTIES The quality of concrete work depends very much on the quality of the formwork and the care taken a the time of the pour. sun protection and safety helmets. long-sleeved shirts. pulleys must all be watched carefully. The smoothness of surfaces in contact with the formwork for example depends on the formwork staying rigid as the concrete is poured. it could be overloaded and produce stress bulges. buckets. Workers must all have immediate access to necessary equipment such as trowels.

CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 4: CONCRETE WORKERS DUTIES Prepare a chart and on it list six duties to be performed on each of these occasions: (a) (b) (c) Before a concrete pour During a concrete pour At the completion of a concrete pour A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 43 .

Figure 14 ALLOWABLE VARIATION IN SURFACE OF CONCRETE (EXAGGERATED) The colour could vary from one panel of formwork to another. Smoothness is affected by the smoothness of the form face (any rubbish left on the form will be mirrored in the surface of the concrete). Samples will be taken in the form of cores of concrete which will be allowed to cure or set and then be tested in a laboratory. It must also have a suitably highquality finish with proper smoothness and be the right colour. SIZE AND ALIGNMENT Quality is an important thing to think about when placing and shaping concrete forms. This could happen if different panels are used. the result will be a ripply surface. Typically surface ripple should be no more than about 1mm per metre of length. It is also affected by the weight of the concrete itself . and quality of surface The concrete must be formed in its designed shape.particularly with a large job being finished quickly . When we speak of quality in concrete work we speak of two main things: • • correct shape. The Australian Standard sets maximum limits on surface irregularity. The dimensions of the slab or beam must be right. The concrete must be placed in its proper position.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 7. or the release agent is changed. Cores will be tested for what is known as compressive strength which is strength when compressed under load. It could also happen because of slight changes in the concrete used or the setting time. In special cases . it must be aligned correctly.if the concrete overstresses the formwork and makes it buckle. Tests of compressive strength are usually undertaken at the end of seven days when the concrete is at sixty per cent of its final strength and at twentyeight days when the concrete is expected to have reached its final strength.CCC348 . To make sure that concrete is of a proper standard or quality. In other words. tests will take place. QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES TO ENSURE CORRECT SHAPE.sample cores for testing may be taken at the end of three or four days. A S P M E L 44 Australian National Training Authority .

Concrete is usually tested at the end of ten days and at the end of sixty days _________. 2.CCC348 . Alignment is where the concrete is positioned __________. 4. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 45 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 5: QUALITY Write TRUE of FALSE after each of these statements: 1. Sample cores are often taken earlier on large jobs __________. At the end of seven days concrete has reached its final strength __________. Concrete for testing is taken in sample cores __________. 5. 3.

46 Australian National Training Authority . They will also be extensive. A S Figure 15 P M E L SECTION SHOWING SLAB AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION Drawing skills are required as is basic knowledge and ability with computer assisted drafting (CAD). These drawings will be exact and very detailed. You need to be able to find the location of slab edges and beams. Figure 15 shows a section through a suspended slab including beams. but often the design of formwork for simple slabs and beams is up to the formworkers. WORKING DRAWINGS When a building is being designed the designers and draftsmen will produce a set of drawings which will show how every part of the building will be constructed.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 8. All building workers will need to be able to refer to and understand the working drawings that are being used in a building project. For specialised formwork the detail might be drawn.CCC348 .

CCC348 . slab area perimeter beam intersecting beams You should be able to draw working drawings for formwork. 2. identify the following: 1. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 47 . This will be checked by your instructor. 3.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 6: WORKING DRAWINGS From Figure 15.

Your instructor will choose the part of the plan for you. A S P M E L 48 Australian National Training Authority .CCC348 . Your instructor may ask you to construct the formwork.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 PRACTICAL ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 2: 1. DESIGN FORMWORK Design the formwork for a section of the plan in Figure 15. 2. The section should contain both beams and slab and the beam forms should be designed for easy stripping.

However you must be able to calculate approximate quantities of materials so that you know what to expect and know when there is too little or too much. This works for any regular shape. Example: Calculate the quantity of concrete required for a slab length 20 m. Material quantities are calculated by basic arithmetic. width 10m.CCC348 .25 m) = 20 x 10 x 0. you follow this method: The basic method for any slab or beam is to calculate the area of one end and multiply it by the depth or length. Volume = Length (20 m) x Width (10 m) x Depth (0. To assess the quantity of pre-mixed concrete for a slab or a beam. For a rectangular prism. and thickness 250 mm.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 9. CALCULATION OF MATERIAL QUANTITIES Quantities of materials used in major building projects are calculated by special workers called quantity surveyors and estimators who are highly trained specialists. the area of any side is length times width . for instance. Figure 16 A S P M E L RECTANGULAR PRISM Formula used is: Volume (V) = Length (L) x Width (W) x Depth (D) All measurements are metric.25 cubic metres = 50 cubic metres The same formula will be used for measuring square and rectangular beams and columns. Australian National Training Authority 49 .

60 cubic metres The same method is used for circular columns but the formula is different.0 = 0.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 Example: Calculate the volume of concrete in a beam of width 400 mm. Volume = Area of end x height The formula used is: Volume = (∏) x R2 x H A S Figure 18 P M E L CYLINDRICAL PRISM 50 Australian National Training Authority .CCC348 . Figure 17 RECTANGULAR PRISM Volume = area of the end x length V=LxWxD = 0. The volume of a circular column will be calculated by multiplying the area of the end (radius of the column squared by 3.3 x 0. depth 300 mm and length 5 m.142 or pi (∏) by the height.4 x 5.

3 x 4 = 1.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 Example: Calculate the volume of concrete required for a circular column of diameter 600 mm and 4 m high.13 cubic metres A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 51 .CCC348 .142 x 0. Figure 19 COLUMN CIRCULAR Volume = (∏) x R2 x H = 3.3 x 0.

Calculate the concrete required for these columns: 6m high x 1m in diameter 4m high x 600mm in diameter 10m high x 2m in diameter A S P M E L 52 Australian National Training Authority . CONCRETE CALCULATIONS Calculate the amounts of concrete required for these slabs: 7m x 12m x 300mm 8m x 20m x 250mm 15m x 30m x 500mm 2.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 7: 1.CCC348 .

The platform is fitted with a handrail and a toe board and an access ladder is fitted either inside or outside the tower.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 10. At the level of the platform. a plank flooring is fitted. (See Figure 20).CCC348 . WORKING PLATFORMS FOR WALLS AND COLUMNS The simplest kind of platform used with concrete construction is on a simple scaffolding frame or tower. A S Figure 20 P M E L WORK PLATFORM AT TOP OF SCAFFOLD TOWER Working platforms can be part of towers that can be mobile or static. Australian National Training Authority 53 .

Both of these are necessary for safety as are the locking devices fitted to the wheels. in this case. A S Figure 21 P M E L TUBULAR METAL MOBILE TOWER Static platforms are held permanently in place and will not be moved. Other steps are taken to make sure that the towers supporting static towers remain rigid. Note too. If a tower is more than ten metres high it must be tied to the main structure.CCC348 . This kind of platform is used mainly for light work such as inspection and painting. They are used as working or observation platforms.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 A mobile platform will be set on wheels and contain a single working platform. 54 Australian National Training Authority . is on the outside. Ladders are also sometimes internal. It must also be braced so that it remains rigid. Note the ladder which. A typical mobile platform is shown in the following diagram. the handrail and the toe board.

Cherry pickers can also be used. A S ANCHORAGE OF TALL PLATFORMS P M E L Figure 23 WORK PLATFORM CONSTRUCTED ALONGSIDE EDGE BEAM OF A SLAB Australian National Training Authority 55 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 Tie wires are fitted for every ten metres in height. Note that it does not show a toe board which is required in order to meet the requirements of AS 1657.CCC348 . The figure below shows a work platform constructed next to the edge beam of a slab. Work platforms are often included as part of the formwork. Figure 22 Note that sometimes working platforms are attached to hoists. especially at the edge of slabs. These are set at 45º from the ground and fixed to anchorage points as shown below.

3.CCC348 . Mobile towers and platforms are usually used for ___________ work. Tie ropes are attached to ____________ points. Bracing is used so that a tower remains __________.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 8: PLATFORMS Read the section carefully and find the words missing from the following sentences: 1. 5. 2. A tower designed not to be moved is said to be _______________. A S P M E L 56 Australian National Training Authority . 4. Tie ropes are set at an angle of ______________ from the ground.

The knowledge you have gained so far will be used each time you begin work on a building site.CCC348 . This exercise has been designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far. The importance of this information will become more evident when you begin work on various sites.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SUMMARY So far you have covered the information required to complete Assessment Task 1. You may find it useful to make your own brief summary below on the following topics: Formwork Member Sizes and Spacings: Falsework Member Sizes and Spacings: A S P M E L Loads on Formwork: Use of Tables and Graphs to Design Formwork: Australian National Training Authority 57 . Self-check exercises in this package are on yellow pages. Answers to the self-check exercises are on the blue pages at the end of the package.

CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 Drop Panels and Hopper Heads: Construction Workers’ Duties: Quality Control Procedures: Working Drawings: A S P M E L Calculation of Material Quantities: Working Platforms for Walls and Columns: 58 Australian National Training Authority .

CCC348 .SETTING OUT. This is done using: • • • • • centre lines. off sets. and reduced levels. CONSTRUCTING AND ASSEMBLING FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK READ INTRODUCTION This section of this package deals with two main aspects: • • set out falsework and formwork. A centre line is a line across the centre of a project. construct and assemble formwork.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 SECTION 2 . grids. SETTING OUT FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK Before formwork and falsework are commenced a job has to be set or marked out. and construct and assemble falsework and formwork. datums. Construct and Fix Lift and Service Penetrations Stairs and Landings A S P M E L 1. Australian National Training Authority 59 . The measurements are not made from an external side or what is called a face. The information relating to set out and construct formwork will be presented under four topics: • • • • Setting Out Falsework and Formwork Constructing Falsework and Formwork for a Suspended Slab and Beams Locate. Measurements are made from this centre line. These areas contain essential information you will need to partly complete Assessment Task 2 which addresses learning outcome 2: Set out.

Points in a project can be identified using the grid. in working drawings. The surveyor will also mark horizontal datums which are measured from grids or coordinates of longitude and latitude. too. The drawings are over a grid with lines marked with numbers and letters just as in a suburban road map. A column. These coordinates are recorded as the Australian Grid System or AGS. Grids are used. Reduced levels are height levels expressed in terms of relation to AHD. Heights on a structure or a building are measured from an AHD. in other words. are calculated from a datum. might be set at F5 while a tower may be located at D7.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Figure 24 CENTRE LINE A datum or datum point is a reference point used in measuring. The AHD will be marked at the commencement of the job by a land surveyor. Vertical datums are set with reference to sea level and what are known as the Australian Height Datum (AHD).CCC348 . They are not necessarily measured from ground level. Distances. A datum can be horizontal or vertical and will be fixed or immoveable. for instance. A S P M E L Figure 25 GRID LINES USED TO SHOW LOCATIONS 60 Australian National Training Authority .

AHD _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. AGS _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Coordinates _____________________________________________________________________ A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 61 .CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 9: SETTING OUT Give a brief explanation of each of the following: 1. Centre line _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Datum _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

The plywood can be cut to fit but this means that the plywood might not be reusable and some will be wasted. A S P M E L 62 Australian National Training Authority . Instead.CCC348 . Generally a small section of a soffit form will be completed. The beam however is usually less wide than the sheet of plywood.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 2. Therefore the formwork for a slab is often constructed at the same time as the formwork for beams. The formwork for edge beams usually includes a work platform which is cantilevered off the edge of the beam. The formwork for beams and slabs is commonly constructed using plywood. This is unsafe if it is not properly supported and could distort the formwork. If the formwork can be extended to include the platform. that may be safe enough but sometimes that cannot be done. Extra props might be needed as shown in Figure 27. Usually a slab will have an edge beam and internal beams. This section will then be used as a base for further work with tools and equipment stored on the section that is completed first. There is more than one way of supporting the work platform. The formwork and falsework for these is different. CONSTRUCTING FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK FOR A SUSPENDED SLAB AND BEAMS Slabs and beams are usually constructed together. Generally soffit forms are designed to be level or near level. For economy. the formwork is built up on a whole sheet of ply which can then be reused. They will always incorporate safety rails for workers. The beams add strength to the slab. Figure 26 SLABS AND BEAMS Formwork for a beam is usually supported by a soffit form. Soffit forms are those used for the underside of concrete structures like slabs and beams. the plywood is not cut.

A S P M E L Figure 28 BEAM SUPPORTS IN THIS EXAMPLE ALLOW DANGEROUS UNBALANCE TO EXIST Australian National Training Authority 63 . The formwork has to be strong at the bottom edges and it must be constructed so that it resists tipping over as the concrete is poured. This will tend to push the sides of the beam forms out of shape. Beam forms must be correctly supported by props widely spaced.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Figure 27 WORK PLATFORM AT EDGE OF SLAB SUPPORTED BY PROPS Beam Forms Beams are deeper and heavier than the surrounding slab. Therefore the pressure of the concrete will be greater as it is poured.CCC348 . An unstable design can be improved by moving the supports beyond the edges of the beam.

A S P M E L Figure 30 STRIPPING BAND AT BEAM SIDE ALLOWS SLAB SOFFIT TO BE STRIPPED WITHOUT DISTURBING THE BEAM 64 Australian National Training Authority .CCC348 . and tolerance gap.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Figure 29 THE PROBLEM OF ECCENTRICITY IS AVOIDED IF THE LOAD IS ALWAYS INSIDE THE SUPPORTS The detail of formwork can also include features which make stripping easy (a stripping band. Figure 31). Figure 30.

Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Figure 31 TOLERANCE GAP WITH CLOSURE ANGLE AT BEAM SIDE ALLOWS EASY STRIPPING OF BEAM SIDE WITHOUT DISTURBING SOFFITS Deep beams need ties to hold the sides in place.CCC348 . A S P M E L Figure 32 TYPICAL DEEP BEAM FORMWORK WITH TIES Australian National Training Authority 65 . Typical beam formwork with ties are shown below.

Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Figure 33 TYPICAL DEEP EDGE BEAM FORMWORK SHOWING TIES AND THE USE OF SPREADER BAR AND STRUT TO KEEP THE BEAM PLUMB A S P M E L Figure 34 TYPICAL TIES ARE THE ‘HE BOLT’ SYSTEM 66 Australian National Training Authority .CCC348 .

At the formwork construction stage the major problem lies with keeping the soffit rigid. concrete.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Soffit form construction proceeds in three stages -.CCC348 . The pouring stage is when the soffit form must bear its heaviest load. and impact. Australian National Training Authority 67 . mounded concrete. This is particularly important with high level forms which can be subject to strong wind forces. To deal with these strong wind forces soffit forms can be tied with guy ropes. At the strengthening stage the concrete gradually becomes able to support itself and other loads and structures. Extra stress on a form can also be caused by allowing buckets to swing against the structure. materials.the formwork construction stage. construction activity . Figure 35 A S P M E L THE EFFECTS OF MOUNDING Every care MUST be taken to avoid mounding and heavy contact from swinging buckets. This load should not be increased by mounding – that is allowing a mound of concrete to be gathered in a small area (Figure 35). Both of these can cause serious damage to a form. Loads that bear down on the newly laid slab or beam will include: • • • • • • self weight. the pouring stage and the strengthening stage. Supporting scaffolds are also braced.

CCC348 . impact. AS 3610 provides standard figures for some of them. Forces that will cause lateral or sideways load or stress will include: • • • • wind. and water. The concrete pressure is dependent on the thickness of the concrete.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Each of these loads is accounted for in design of the formwork. construction activity. A S P M E L 68 Australian National Training Authority .

2. 3. Soffit form Mounding Guy ropes Scaffold bracing A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 69 .CCC348 . 4.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 10: SLAB AND BEAM FORMWORK Prepare rough sketches with appropriate notes to explain the following: 1.

A S P M E L Figure 36 TYPICAL PENETRATIONS 70 Australian National Training Authority . This is done simply by forming edges around where the penetration is to be located. in fact. For small penetrations plastic foam or plastic tubes can be used. Edges are often made from plywood braced with metal or timber. These are marked on the working drawings and located from drawing grid references.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 3 LOCATE. stairwells. The figure below shows what they might look like. lift wells and so on.CCC348 . holes left in a structure for pipes. Formwork is constructed so that concrete will not cover a penetration. CONSTRUCT AND FIX LIFT AND SERVICE PENETRATIONS In constructing slabs and beams allowance must be made for what are known as penetrations which are.

rectangular penetrations can be made from plywood as shown below. Overlapping like this makes stripping or removal easier.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 Larger.CCC348 . Figure 37 STRUCTURE OF RECTANGULAR PENETRATION A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 71 .

____________ Penetrations are located from working drawings from grid points._________ (d) (e) Plywood forms are always braced with timber.__________ Timber penetration forms have overlapped edges so they can be dismantled easily.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 11: SERVICE PENETRATIONS Write TRUE or FALSE after each of these sentences: (a) (b) A penetration is a place in a beam or slab where concrete is laid. ____________ (c) Edges of penetrations in formwork are always constructed from wood.CCC348 .___________ A S P M E L 72 Australian National Training Authority .

the sides of the stair and the risers. The detail of riser forms and sides is shown below.CCC348 . A S DETAIL OF STAIR FORMS P M E L Figure 39 DETAIL OF WHOLE STAIRCASE Australian National Training Authority 73 . Formwork must be constructed for the soffit. STAIRS AND LANDINGS Stairs can be cast off site and placed in position or cast on site. Figure 38 The soffit to the stair must be propped adequately. One method of propping is shown below.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 4.

Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 2 SUMMARY In this section of Formwork .CCC348 . Before progressing to Section 3. you may like to make some notes on the following topics covered in this section: Setting Out Falsework and Formwork: Constructing Falsework and Formwork for a Suspended Slab and Beams: A S P M E L Locate. fabrication and erection of slab and beam formwork.Suspended Slab and Beam you have covered: • • set out and construction of falsework and formwork location of lift and service penetrations A practical activity at the end of Section 3 will cover: • • set out. cleaning and storing formwork and falsework. Construct and Fix Lift and Service Penetrations: Stairs and Landings: 74 Australian National Training Authority . and stripping.

As McAdam points out: “The general rule in stripping is that it will be done so there is no thermal or physical shock. After the formwork is removed from a beam the props can be put back.” What this means is that stripping should be avoided if extreme weather changes are expected and on days that are expected to be either extremely hot or extremely cold. A S Stripping Formwork Stripping Sequence and Equipment Removal Backing off of False\work and Adjustment Hardware Removal. It should also be done so sudden transfers of load don’t happen. and there shall be a gradual transfer of the load. STRIPPING FORMWORK The stripping or ‘striking’ of formwork can only be done when concrete is able to support itself and the loads that are to be placed on it. cleaning and storing formwork and falsework These areas contain the essential information you will need to complete Assessment Task 2 which addresses learning outcome 3: Strip. Stripping should take place without knocks or jolts.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 SECTION 3 . This is especially important for the stripping of beams. One way of protecting the concrete from shock is to remove some of the formwork but leave the props in place.CCC348 . the entire weight of the concrete and the structure transfers to the concrete. Cleaning and Storing of Formwork P M E L Australian National Training Authority 75 . which are heavier than slabs. Denailing.Suspended Slabs and Beams. As stripping or striking takes place. the formwork is designed so that the props stay in place without being moved. The information covered will be presented under four topics: • • • • 1. clean and store formwork and falsework. CLEANING AND STORING FORMWORK AND FALSEWORK READ INTRODUCTION In this final section of Formwork . or preferably. you will cover stripping.STRIPPING.

CCC348 . Figure 40 shows the detail of this kind of setup. 76 Australian National Training Authority . therefore it is better to strip the slab first. The minimum periods for striking formwork used with Portland cement are as follows: Formwork Vertical forms to columns. Because beams are heavier than slabs. will be stripped before beams. they may cause the slab to bend. Figure 40 FORMWORK INCORPORATING PROPS WITH COLLARS TO STRIP WITHOUT REMOVING PROPS The time for removing formwork is set out in AS 1509 but on the job no formwork may be removed without the written permission of the site engineer. which have collars to support the formwork beams as well as platforms to bear directly on the plywood.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 Special props can be used. the longer the formwork must stay in position. With these props in place the beams can be dropped and the plywood removed without moving the props. walls and large beams Slab soffits Beam soffits (beams left under) Props to slabs Props to beams 12 hours 4 days 10 days 10 days 14 days Surface temperature of concrete 16º C 18 hours 6 days 15 days 15 days 21 days 7º C A S P M E L Note carefully that the colder the weather. then the beam. In general slabs. as the table indicates.

CCC348 - Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam

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Figure 41 UNDESIRABLE DISTORTION OF SLAB LIKELY WHEN BEAMS ARE STRIPPED FIRST

Checking plans and specifications for stripping times

The conditions to be met for stripping will be written out by the design engineer for the project. Documentation or written instructions should specify: • • • • concrete age and minimum strength at time of stripping; the effectiveness with which the curing procedures are carried out; limits on the loads that can be placed on the structure; and the method and order of stripping.

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CCC348 - Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam

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STRIPPING SEQUENCE AND EQUIPMENT REMOVAL

Stripping is usually a two stage process. The first or preliminary stage, involves removing the relatively short spans between the props, and can usually be done well before the development of the full concrete strength. The second or final stage is the removal of all remaining formwork. • Backpropping

Sometimes in stripping sections of formwork backpropping is used. Backpropping involves using a jack or other support under a beam or slab after the formwork has been removed.

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Figure 42 1. 2. 3. 4.

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THE BACKPROPPING PROCEDURE

Stripping plywood and timber formwork takes place in the following sequence: The soffit framing is lowered 50 mm or more. The plywood and metal edging strips will come down. The joists can then be lowered onto beams. The plywood can now be fully removed by sliding it out from the edges of the form

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5. 6.

The joists are then removed The bearers are removed – taking care particularly with telescopic steel posts which by now will have become unstable and potentially dangerous.

Note that in following this procedure care should be taken to protect plywood and other timbers from falls. These can either smash the timbers or cause damage that may be hard to detect but may cause difficulties when the timber is used on a new project. • Reshoring

Reshoring is simple - all the formwork and falsework is removed and then props are replaced at specified spacings. These are called reshores and they protect the uncured concrete from damage. This method is not preferred when large beams and slabs are involved. Reshoring is usually carried out on small sections at a time.

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A S P M E L 80 Australian National Training Authority . In other words. backing off and stripping must be done in such a way as to avoid shocks and sudden transfers of load. (that is loosened) and removed. Removing adjustment hardware is generally a matter involving unbolting or unlocking rotary locks.CCC348 . Adjustment hardware must be backed off. Invariably adjustment hardware is built so that it can be adjusted for fitting and removal. giving attention to the rules that apply for other stripping. Sometimes it is made from aluminium and often it is made from steel. These include what is known as adjustment hardware.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 3. BACKING OFF OF FALSEWORK AND ADJUSTMENT HARDWARE A number of metal appliances are used in formwork. and to make sure that as little damage as possible occurs to the equipment.

Over application may result in the staining of the concrete. adapted from Fletcher and Lavan. Especially recommended for use with timber. Causes severe retardation and discolouration. Expensive if not used carefully. REMOVAL. Not to be used where appearance is important. Inexpensive. Suitable for high-quality finishes. CLEANING AND STORING OF FORMWORK Release agents are painted on to formwork so that it will move away easily from the completed concrete surface. including steel. Safer to walk on than oily film and will not be carried on shoes from the formwork onto concrete. DENAILING. Becomes scratched. Needs to be used with a release agent. Coverage greater than for oils.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 4.CCC348 . Can be used where concrete is later to be covered. Not to be used for visual concrete. Wax Barrier paint Neat oil (without surfactant) Water-phased emulsion (oil-in-water) Australian National Training Authority 81 . encourages the use of blowholes. For use with all kinds of formwork. Recommended for moulds made of concrete. Oil film may be affected by heavy rain. Release Agent Type Neat oil with surfactant Mould cream emulsion (oil phased) Chemical release agent A S P M E L Comments A useful general purpose release agent for all kinds of formwork. Widely used agent recommended for all formwork except steel. Can be used if concrete is not exposed to view. Difficult to apply evenly. Some release agent types are shown in the table below. Cheap and easy to apply. Storage life may be limited. Different kinds of formwork require different kinds of release agent and it is important to see that the correct release agent is used. Suitable for high quality finishes. It is also important to make sure that the release agent that is used does not contaminate the reinforcement. Resistant to washing off by rain.

Large panels are best stored vertically with the concrete faces together. formwork must be cleaned thoroughly generally using water and heavy brooms. With all wooden form components it is essential to remove all nails. In the case of steel forms these should also be lightly oiled before storage. Soldiers and waling. Plywood can be treated with sealing compounds. They can also cause fitting difficulties when being used in new forms. Unremoved nails can be extremely dangerous to workers. Steel and iron components should be lightly oiled. Most formwork components.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 Some formwork components such as the cardboard forms used especially under floor slabs are not destined for re-use or recovery.CCC348 . Storage should be in weatherproof sheds or containers. A S P M E L 82 Australian National Training Authority . all formwork components need to be dry and properly waterproofed. Panels and plywood sheets should be stored horizontally on a flat level base. Metal components must also have all dirt and traces of concrete removed. As they rust they can damage timber. can be removed. which are loose. With nails removed. As soon as the formwork has been struck. it should be cleaned to remove grout and dust. For storage. are best stored in boxes or drums. however. cleaned and stored for re-use.

Answers to the self-check exercises are on the blue pages at the end of the package. You may find it useful to make your own brief summary below on the following topics: Stripping Formwork: Stripping Sequence and Equipment Removal: Backing Off of Falsework and Adjustment Hardware: A S P M E L Removal.CCC348 . Self-check exercises in this package are on yellow pages. Denailing.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 SUMMARY You now have the necessary information to complete the Practical Activity 3 which relates to Assessment Task 2. This exercise has been designed to test your understanding of the information you have covered so far. Formwork and Related Equipment: Australian National Training Authority 83 . Cleaning And Storing of Falsework.

Backpropping 2. Add sketches where you think they are necessary: 1. Backing off A S P M E L 3. Release agents 84 Australian National Training Authority .CCC348 . CLEANING AND STORING Write brief notes to explain what is meant by each of these.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 12: STRIPPING.

SET OUT. minimum end section size 300mm wide x 400mm deep or similar. denailed. 2. Australian National Training Authority 85 . All work must be carried out according to the criteria and tolerances specified in Assessment Task 2 on pages 16 and 17 and AS 3610. A S P M E L 2.minimum 450mm wide. you will need a partner to assist you in the construction. and Falsework and adjustment hardware are backed off to allow ease of stripping. FABRICATE AND ERECT FORMWORK Set out.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 PRACTICAL ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 3: ERECT AND STRIP FORMWORK To carry out this activity. Specifically concrete surface deflection ± 3mm and formwork member position ± 10mm. Soffit height minimum two unit frames from floor datum point. Falsework and formwork is safely and sequentially removed. STRIP. erection stripping and handling of the falsework and formwork. 1. that encompasses the following specifications: • • • • NOTE: A minimum slab size of 6000mm long x 6000mm wide x 300mm thick. CLEAN AND STORE FORMWORK AND FALSEWORK The structure is to be dismantled to demonstrate safe and effective stripping and storing procedures. with intersecting and perimeter beams. Perimeter working platform .CCC348 . cleaned stored. 1. All tolerances are to comply to AS 3610 or those specified on the plans and specifications for the project. Intersecting and perimeter beams. fabricate and position formwork for a reinforced concrete suspended slab.

Having successfully completed the requirements of this module. Those who developed this package hope that you have found its style and preparation easy to use. setting out. constructing and assembling formwork.Suspended Slab and Beam 86 Australian National Training Authority . A S P M E L Congratulations you have successfully completed the Module CCC348 Formwork . you now understand: • • • applying the principles of formwork in the design.Suspended Slab and Beam. and stripping. You can expect to apply your knowledge and skills again and again on a range of building sites.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 3 CONCLUSION This learning package has combined the theoretical and practical components for the module CCC348 Formwork . planning and quality control.CCC348 . cleaning and storing falsework and formwork.

Calculate the total load on the props due to the formwork. What materials are used for the construction of falsework? Falsework is constructed from timber.CCC348 .Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 1: 1. FORMWORK CALCULATIONS Calculate the concrete load due to a slab 250 mm thick. _________________________________________________________________ 14. The name is particularly used in bridge and harbour work and longer construction work.35 kPa EXERCISE 2: 1. live loads. What is falsework? Falsework is support for concrete forms.25 kPa 2. A S FALSEWORK P M E L Australian National Training Authority 87 . __________________________________________________________________ 6. 2. Assume that the slab is to be suspended by formwork and props. ply and various kinds of metals and fabricated metal components. concrete and stacked materials.

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CAPITALS AND COLUMNS What is a capital? A capital is the top part of a column. 3.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 3: 1. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 89 .CCC348 . rectangular. Make a sketch of a hopper head. What are the usual shapes of columns? ________Cross-sections across columns may be square. Sketch. circular and oval. _________________________________________ Show your instructor for verification. 2.

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Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 4: (a) (b) (c) CONCRETE WORKERS DUTIES Before a concrete pour During a concrete pour At the completion of a concrete pour Chart Answers should stress efficiency and safety. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 91 .CCC348 . Show your instructor for verification.

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5.CCC348 . False. 2. Alignment is where the concrete is positioned False. At the end of seven days concrete has reached its final strength False. Concrete is usually tested at the end of ten days and at the end of sixty days Concrete for testing is taken in sample cores True. 4.Formwork: Suspended Slab and Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 5: QUALITY Write TRUE or FALSE after each of these statements: 1. 3. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 93 . Sample cores are often taken earlier on large jobs True.

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This will be checked by your instructor.Suspended Slab Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 6: WORKING DRAWINGS From Figure 15. identify the following: 1. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 95 . slab area perimeter beam intersecting beams You should be able to draw working drawings for formwork.CCC348 Formwork . 3. 2.

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42m3 E L PLATFORMS Australian National Training Authority 97 .13m3 = 31. 2.CCC348 Formwork . Tie ropes are attached to Anchorage points. Mobile towers and platforms are usually used for Light work. 4. Bracing is used so that a tower remains Rigid.72m3 = 1. CONCRETE CALCULATIONS Calculate the amounts of concrete required for these slabs: 7m x 12m x 300mm 8m x 20m x 250mm 15m x 30m x 500mm = = = 25.2 m3 40 m3 225 m3 2. A tower designed not to be moved is said to be Static. Calculate the concrete required for these columns: 6m high x 1m in diameter 4m high x 600mm in diameter 10m high x 2m in diameter EXERCISE 8: Read the section carefully and find the words missing from the following sentences: 1. Tie ropes are set at an angle of 45º from the ground. 3.Suspended Slab Beam SECTION 1 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 7: 1. A S P M = 4. 5.

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A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 99 . 3. 5. AHD ________________________________________ AHD means Australian Height Datum.Suspended Slab Beam SECTION 2 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 9: SETTING OUT Give a brief explanation of each of the following: 1. AGS ___________________________________________ AGS is the Australian Grid System. Datum ____________________________________________ A datum is any set point in height. Coordinates Coordinates are grid lines. 2.CCC348 Formwork . Centre line ____________ A centre line is a line drawn through the centre of a proposed structure. 4.

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EXERCISE 11: a. Edges of penetrations in formwork are always constructed from wood. 4. False A S SERVICE PENETRATIONS P M E L False True d.CCC348 Formwork . Timber penetration forms have overlapped edges so they can be dismantled easily. Soffit form Mounding Guy ropes Scaffold bracing See Figures 31. 2. b. c. True Australian National Training Authority 101 . 32 and 38 See Figure 35 See Figure 22 See Figure 23 See your instructor for verification. e.Suspended Slab Beam SECTION 2 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 10: SLAB AND BEAM FORMWORK Prepare rough sketches with appropriate notes to explain the following: 1. A penetration is a place in a beam or slab where concrete is laid. 3. False Plywood forms are always braced with timber. Penetrations are located from working drawings from grid points.

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Backing-off Backing-off is loosening or adjusting hardware prior to stripping formwork.CCC348 Formwork . Backpropping STRIPPING. CLEANING AND STORING Backpropping is propping slabs and beams after formwork has been removed.Suspended Slab Beam SECTION 3 SELF-CHECK ANSWERS EXERCISE 12: 1. A S P M E L Australian National Training Authority 103 . 2. Release agents Release agents are chemicals applied to formwork components so they will move away easily from set concrete. 3.

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