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Phys 445 Condensed Matter Physics

Homework 3
Due to October 15th 2010, Friday 9:40 in class

1) Interplanar separation. Consider a plane hkl in a crystal lattice. (a) Prove that the
reciprocal lattice vector G = hb1 + kb2 + lb3 is perpendicular to this plane. (b) Prove that
the distance between two adjacent parallel planes of the lattice is d (hkl ) = 2π / G (c)
Show for a simple cubic lattice that d 2 = a 2 / (h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ) .

2) Hexagonal structure: Using the primitive vectors of the hexagonal space lattice
3a a
a1 = xˆ + yˆ ;
2 2
3a a
a2 = − xˆ + yˆ ;
2 2
a3 = czˆ
(a) Show that the volume of the primitive cell is ( 3 / 2)a 2 c .
(b) Find the primitive translation vectors of the reciprocal lattice and show that the
reciprocal of the simple hexagonal Bravais lattice also simple hexagonal, with
lattice constants 2π / c and 4π / 3a , rotated through 30o about c-axis with
respect to the direct lattice.
(c) For what value of c/a does the ratio have the same value both in direct and
reciprocal lattice? If c/a is ideal in direct lattice, what is its value in the reciprocal

3) (a) Prove that the reciprocal lattice vectors satisfy

(2π )3
b1 i(b2 × b3 ) =
a1 i(a2 × a3 )
(b) Prove that the volume of a Bravais lattice primitive cell is
Vc = a1 i(a2 × a3 )
where ai are the three primitive lattice vectors. Combining this with the relation
showed in (a) establishes that the volume of the reciprocal lattic eprimitive cell is
(2π )3 / Vc .
(c) Consider the primitive vectors which are constructed from the reciprocal lattice
vectors bi as in the same manner as the bi s are constructed from the ai .Prove that
these vectors are just the ai thenselves; i.e. show that
b2 × b3
2π = a1
b1 i(b2 × b3 )
and so on.