All About Good Health by Dr. Christian Barnard, C. Northcote Parkinson and M . K . Rustomji is an eminently practical book and contains downto-earth and useful suggestions for everyone. This book incorporates much of the latest thinking on health and medical subjects. People imagine that the good health they now enjoy will continue for ever. They spend a considerable amount of time looking after their cars. But just as in the case of a car, the human body also needs looking after and servicing All About Go&d Health is an excellent guide for this purpose. This book could well be the best investment you have ever made. It will help people to keep their most precious asset, their bodies, in good shape.

Extremely g o o d . U s e f u l for b o t h laymen a n d doctors. - D r . Shantilal Mehta, Medical Director, Jaslok Hospital

Dr. Christian Barnard, C. Northcote Parkinson a n d M.K. Rustomji have certainly m a d e a careful examination of matters regarding the prevention of illness and disease. People sometimes tend to forget that prevention is far better t h a n cure. - D r . K.G. Nair President, Association of Physicians of India

These are ideas of some of the best intellects in the world. Dr. Christian Barnard, C. Northcote Parkinson and M.K. Rustomji are the ultimate c o m m u n i c a t o r s . They have a knack for making the most abstract a n d complicated ideas intelligible to the c o m m o n m a n . — Onlooker

. It is for this reason that it is not at all possible for us to thank a n d acknowledge individually the very great debt we owe to each one of these numerous experts and doctors in the preparation of All About Good Health. For the layman. so much so that even medical men are finding it difficult to keep up with the new developments and the enormous amount of information that is becoming available.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The extensive research carried out on medicine and health has made it all very highly specialised. of course. we have consulted the writings of a very large number of internationally recognised experts on health and medicine. the position is much more difficult a n d he or she tends to become completely muddled and confused on these subjects. In order to m a k e all these-matters relatively clear and easy to understand.


Churchgate. N a r i m a n Point. M a n a k t a l a for IBH Publishing C o m p a n y . 212 Backbay Reclamation. Marol N a k a . C . C.K. Andheri East. Sapre) Some best-sellers in collaboration with C. Northcote Parkinson: BUSINESS IS P E O P L E CHILDREN: HOW TO MANAGE THEM N O W T H A T Y O U ' V E G O T T H E M (Co-author: S . R u s t o m j i . Bombay 400 020 Printed by D . 1982 First published: 1982 Reprinted: 1982 (twice) Phototypeset by Lettratype Services. K . Bombay 400 059 Published by P . G . M a t h u r a d a ? Vasanji Road. 412 Tulsiafli Chambers.By M. Pavri) REALITIES IN MANAGEMENT ALL ABOUT BALANCE-SHEETS The Easy Way Cover Design by Ashok Gokhale © Christian Barnard. Rustomji: GETTING A L O N G BETTER WITH PEOPLE EXCELLENCE IN MANAGEMENT T H E I N C R E D I B L E J A P A N E S E (Co-author: S. Bombay 400 021 . Mirchandani at IBH Printers. Industrial Assurance Building. Northcote Parkinson and M .A.

6. C o m m o n Sense About Food And Eating How Not To Be Overweight High Fibre Diet—A Medical Breakthrough Constipation—How To Avoid It How To Avoid Food Poisoning And Infections How To Have Good Teeth Bad Breath And Its Cause v 61 67 78 83 87 94 96 15 25 32 34 39 43 49 55 58 1 . 16. 13. Why Do People Take Cannabis And Other Such Drugs 10. 3. 15. 5. 12.CONTENTS SEX 1. 17. 14. 8. How Sex Can Contribute To Good Health PSYCHOLOGY 2. How To Overcome Tension And Stress Some Popular Medical Myths Medical Frauds How To Treat Yourself When You Are 111 Are Periodical Medical Check-Ups Necessary? What To Do About Insomnia How To Make Use Of The Unconscious Or Subconscious Mind 9. Why Some People Commit Suicide FOOD 11. 4. 7.

Backaches A n d Slipped Discs A n d H o w To Prevent Them 21. Headaches A n d Their C u r e 29. W h a t One C a n D o A b o u t Cancer 22. Massages A n d Hot Springs 38. H o w Exercise C a n Lead T o G o o d Health PHYSIOLOGY 19. H o w T o Prevent H e r n i a 27. 33. H o w to Avoid Liver T r o u b l e 25. 34. A l c o h o l — S o m e Useful Tips W h a t Smoking Does A n d How To Dea With It T h e E f f e c t Of Noise Jetlag And Night S h i f t — H o w To Deal With It The E f f e c t Of Climate On Health A C h a n g e Of Scene A n d Health The Real Value Of Saunas.EXERCISE 18. 32. C o m m o n Colds A n d C o u g h s And Their T r e a t m e n t 30. H o w To Prevent H e a r t Diseases And Strokes 20. H o w To Deal With Diabetes 23. P r o s t a t e — H o w T o Avoid A n Operation 28. How To Keep Your Kidneys Healthy 26. 36. 35. Some interesting Facts A b o u t Sun-Bathing A n d SeaSwimming 163 168 175 177 179 181 183 185 113 129 132 140 144 147 149 152 154 156 158 160 98 VI . 37. W h a t T o D o A b o u t G o u t And Arthritis GENERAL 31. Ulcers A n d H o w T o C u r e T h e m 24.

Christian Barnard is one of the world's most eminent doctors—his main claim to fame being the successful carrying out of the first-ever heart transplant operation. York.000 copies. he became a Fellow of the College at the age of twenty-four. Dr. including racial inequality. He has a unique knack of summarising and simplifying the ideas of world-famous experts and putting them into crystal-clear language. He is the author of ten best-sellers. Educated at St. Northcote Parkinson. Northcote Parkinson needs little introduction to his many readers.K. Cambridge. Rustomji: All About Good Health is Rustomji's seventh book in collaboration with C. His easy-to-read and informative books are wittily illustrated and have been translated into over ten languages. Rustomji's books have been published world-wide and have received universal acclaim. Northcote Parkinson is the world-famous author of several best-sellers. His Parkinson's Law and other books have sold in millions. Barnard has written extensively on various issues of public interest. A leading liberal of South Africa. C. He has taught in universities as far apart as Illinois and Liverpool. and Emmanuel College. C. the prepublication sales of his latest health book The Body Machine have already reached over 300. Harvard and Malaya. . M.ABOUT THE AUTHORS Dr. Peter's School. One of Rustomji's books on management has been made into a prize-winning film by the Government of India.


W h a t suits one person might be a n a t h e m a to another.Chapter 1 HOW SEX CAN CONTRIBUTE TO GOOD HEALTH Sex. Marriage And Sex . even educated and well-read persons. have the most quaint ideas. it is a subject about which many. is a very individual thing. like sleep. Although sex concerns everybody.

expending her pent-up and unfulfilled urges in this way. For example. Many not only project their unhappiness on to their husbands but take it out on their children. She expresses her frustration in the f o r m of nagging. Many couples are even unaware of the relationship of their sexual unhappiness to what they claim to be the grounds for divorce. This is not correct. depression. Superficially. money difficulties. Psychoanalysts. Few would admit in any court of law that sexual disharmony was the cause of their unhappiness.Many of the failures in marriage result f r o m sexual incompatibility. There exists an urgent need to educate people regarding the facts about sexual problems. report that over half the people w h o come to them for advice are experiencing problems directly related to sex. W o m e n become frigid because men have little conception about the true nature of love-making. without being aware of what makes them behave the way they do. nervousness. personality differences and the like are the main causes for dissolving a marriage. Doctors are well aware of the relationship of sexual frustrations to neurotic health complaints among their patients. however. menstrual discomfort. as well as many others ailments. chronic headaches. stomach and intestinal disorders. it would appear that in-law complications. temper tantrums and weeping spells. Impotence in men and frigidity among women are the factors mainly responsible. Very few women •2 • • . Some are completely uninformed about these matters. insomnia. irritability. She may try to compensate for her thwarted sex life by becoming fanatical about housework. while others are misinformed. The wife who is sexually unsatisfied is usually difficult to live with. fatigue. • The high divorce rate is only one of the m a j o r consequences of sexual incompatibility. many people believe that a w o m a n who is frigid does not desire sexual relations and as a consequence cannot enjoy the sex act. They know that women who suffer f r o m lack of sexual response complain of a multiplicity of psychosomatic disturbances such as backaches.

Forty per cent of the remaining couples studied reported that their sexual activity was . Research On Marital Sex A r a n d o m research study on the sex life of a group of married couples revealed that 50 per cent of the persons studied suffered f r o m an unsatisfactory sexual relationship.are frigid by nature. The vast majority have become frigid because of the way in which they have been treated. But both frigidity and impotence can be put right and sexual incompetency can be eliminated through education in the principles of sexual harmony. a relationship which was distasteful to one or both the partners.

S. This is possibly the main reason f o r a large number of -women remaining completely unfulfilled a n d frustrated. most significant recent finding of psychiatrists was that they had virtually 'proved' that a large proportion of women — and this might even be as high as 50 per cent — had never experienced an orgasm during intercourse. If. then. relaxed and fulfilled.I mechanical and not something which they looked forward t o J n any way. Masters and Johnson. a w o m a n has two or more orgasms. Masters and Johnson gave special courses on the art of making love and through these courses were successful in making n u m e r o u s 'entirely frigid' women normal. This discovery was in the nature of a bombshell in the knowledge of h u m a n relations. M a n y women are capable of having multi-orgasms: one coming soon after the other and each more intense in enjoyment than its predecessor. These women had become frigid because their husbands were ignorant of the techniques of making love. each following soon after the other. The multi-orgasmic nature of women was explained to the husbands by Masters and J o h n s o n and they were also shown the various techiques which aroused women and enabled them to have an orgasm. A n d this is why it is so important that men should learn the techniques of making love. The reason for this is that many men have never understood even the basics of the techniques of love-making. Many Women Unfulfilled The. Only 10 per cent of the people studied enjoyed their sex life thoroughly and f o u n d it a source of health and well-being. 4 » . The converse also applies with equal force. sexologists. The above figures explain why so many divorces and separations are taking place in western countries. have brought out the significant point that the average couple — and this goes for even the educated ones — have little real knowledge about the techniques required for making love and this has resulted in considerable unhappiness. Detailed studies of sexual behaviour by the well-known U. she becomes satisfied.

biting. It depends very much on the vigour of a person and also the age group. There should be constant change in the methods. The actual place of love-making should be varied and should not always be in the bed-room — try the garden. the sense of tou:h — all these devices must be used to make the sexual experience as stimulating and satisfactory as possible. David Reuben estimates that 70 or 80 per cent of couples in the United States indulge in oral sex. oral sex. Frequency Of Sex This again is a very individual matter. Every available sensory pathway must be explored: whispering in the ear. Some •5 . there are also women to whom sexual intercourse is distasteful. such as fellatio and cunnilingus. The most satisfactory sex can be experienced if there is total sexual stimulation.Marital Sexual Boredom Sexual boredom is a real problem with many couples and expert sexologists have suggested in no uncertain terms that sex should never be allowed to becoming boring. this is mainly because their own past sexual experience has been unsatisfactory. However. Women are generally able to have more frequent sexual intercourse than men. behaviour and dress. ide. Dr. should always appear to be seductive to her husband. the timings and the postures of sexual intercourse and no sense of shame whatsoever should be attached to any of them. the country. and the same applies to the husband — he should continue to use some of the tactics he employed when he was courting his wife or during the early years of marriage. especially after a certain age. even under the table ! Sexual Intercourse There is nothing at all shameful about any of the poses or postures of sexual intercourse. by her bearing. A woman.

Again. Physicians nowadays recommend that patients with cardiovascular disease should take regular physical exercise and sexual intercourse is an excellent way of achieving this. after the age of 45. Generally speaking. while others cannot have it more than once a week. sexual intercourse is their only exercise.couples can have sexual intercourse every day without any h a r m whatsoever. Sex And Exercise as much physical e f f o r t as about 15 to 20 press-ups. the frequency of sex is reduced to about two or three times a week for most people but there are no rules. the amount of physical effort expended in sexual intercourse is a very individual matter and the a m o u n t can be varied to suit the •6 . For many middle-aged couples.

A Heart Attack Patient and Sex It has been f o u n d that the pulse rate becomes very high during sexual intercourse. who are expected to remain celibate. Need For Sex It has been said that Church of England clergymen who are allowed to marry have a longer and healthier life than their R o m a n Catholic counterparts. An avei'age act of sexual intercourse consumes about 200 calories. It is possible that the members of the R o m a n Catholic and Protestant Churches who were involved in this survey were not fully representative of their respective Churches. In such cases. one must take these findings with a pinch of salt. In fact. It may even be advisable to keep a few nitroglycerine tablets har.inclination of the person concerned. But as the strain of sexual abstinence is sometimes greater than the strain of sexuil intercourse. a great deal of adjustment has to be made between the couple. The R o m a n Catholic Church has held that sex can make one •7 . the m a n or woman.dy in case of angina pains during intercourse. often as high as 170 heart beats per minute as against a normal of 70 to 80. However. depending on who is free f r o m heart disease. some time ago the thinking of M a o ' s regime in China was that love-making was wasteful and useless. sexual intercourse may become important for the survival of a heart patient. • It is believed that sex disperses and wastes energy and that the vital life-force of sex should be used for a more useful a n d creative purpose. In order to avoid an undue rise in the pulse rate. This point has been made to prove that regular sex helps to p r o m o t e health and longevity. would have to take the role of the active partner. For people recovering from a heart attack. this high pulse rate might be dangerous and they would have to be careful.

while others are most inspired when they have no distractions whatsoever by way of sex. The machinery is all in good order. the tests are all normal. •8 . It'would appear that M a h a t m a Gandhi also believed this. (Napoleon was an example of this) work better if they have sex regularly. In spite of all the advances made in science. there is no agreement on this important question. Impotency Most cases of impotency are psychological in origin and results from emotional causes. but erection does not take place because there is some problem in the mind and this causes impotency. And there probably never will be a clear answer.Sex in Mao's China deviate f r o m one's main purpose in life and reduce one's powers of concentration. Some people.

There's very little that can go wrong.• Excess alcohol depresses the sexual function and is very often the cause of impotency. straightforward sexual education is all that is needed for eliminating impotency. frigidity in women and impotency in men is entirely psychological and this applies right up to a ripe old age. Even among perfectly fit and well people. touch you. But alcohol in small doses might also have the effect of intensifying sexual desire. he is not convinced that he has been fully cured. In most cases. In the great majority of cases. there is no greater measure of 'manliness' or 'womanliness' than one's ability in bed. or have relations with you. a 9 . But if he cannot perf o r m the sex act adequately. When a person has been asked to avoid physical activity because of a heart attack or some other such disabling disease. If you d o n ' t feel good about yourself. he never feels he has fully recovered until he can resume normal sexual activity. Persons who relate to others in this manner. • • • Sex Appeal Explained If you like yourself as a physical being. are said to possess sex appeal. There is convincing evidence that the source of potency is the mind and there have been excellent results in curing impotency through psychiatric treatment. You are happy to have people look at you. All men experience physiological impotence after intercourse. hours—even days. From the mechanical point of view. for others. f o r some it lasts only a few minutes. It does not matter what else he can do. this enables you to relate more readily to others. the female genitalia are a m o n g the most perfect example of fail-safe design in the world today. honest. You send out signals. if you are filled with a feeling of well-being. you can't send effective signals to another person.

Sex Necessary ' M a k e love and save your heart . does not mean •10 . This.' states Dr. a well-known American sexologist.. reducing stress and creating a general feeling of relaxation and well being.. Eugene Scheimann. A healthy night of sex is nature's tranquilliser. of course.

Alcohol. and this o f t e n does considerable damage. If one imagines that it is going to improve one's potency. it may result in doing so. In fact. Masturbation Masturbation is a common practice with both men and women. no medical basis whatsoever for the various potions that have been declared aphrodisiacs throughout the ages. if there is any. David Reuben. Nevertheless. it is a first-class release f r o m tension. and most people have indulged in masturbation at one time or another. It causes no physical h a r m whatsoever. the powdered horn of the rhinoceros is in great demand. are drugs such as marihuana and LSD. aphrodisiacs have been sold to increase sexual stimulation.that one should be indiscriminate and start hopping in and out of every other bed. can also be an aphrodisiac in that it has a relaxing effect and removes many of the tensions and inhibitions that might otherwise be present. Not at all. if taken in small amounts. The only really effective aphrodisiacs. The efficacy of an aphrodisiac. It used to be popularly believed that forty drops of blood go to make a drop of semen. Aphrodisiacs From time immemorial. as is ginseng root powder. is entirely psychological. this could have very serious psychological consequences. This. is absurd: ejaculation of semen causes no harm to the body unless it is continued after the body is already totally fatigued. of course. quite apart from it being a form of exercise. Even today. Semen was considered to be the body's most precious fluid and it was thought that frequent loss of it would lead to dissipated nerves and mental and physical exhaustion. however. There is. •11 . according to Dr. sex remains one of the few pleasures which are not h a r m f u l as long as one is reasonably fit. The problem with masturbation is the guilt felt over the practice.

The pill has also contributed. it gave some protection against V. such as artificial penises of various types.D. but it is the next best thing. There are many appliances in the market. It is specially high among young people who are often too afraid of parental wrath to go to a doctor. The result was rampant V.D. masturbation is not as much f u n as full-fledged sexual intercourse.D. Venereal Disease It is said that Americans won the last great war but lost the peace.D. is increasing faster in the United States than in any other country in the world. •12 . • Syphilis and gonorrhoea can be cured in most cases by a few injections of antibiotics. dildoes for the vagina and small electric vibrators. Mobility. that may help to make the masturbation process even more enjoyable.D. affluence and personal freedom have created perfect conditions for the spread of V. continuous sexual interest and activity after the age of 60 can even be considered therapeutic.• Certainly. But as a result people have become careless and the fact is that the rate of V. in the old days when a rubber sheath was widely used. Sex And Age No one is too old for sex. It is said that V. So everyone forgot to worry. Masturbation is naturally the only outlet for people who do not have opportunities for actual sexual intercourse. leisure. As a matter of fact. The word got round that nobody need be worried about getting venereal disease because of penicillin. such as people separated from their husbands or wives. They also forgot about wearing rubber sheaths. among all categories of persons all over the world is going up enormously.

It has been claimed by some specialists that sex may even benefit people with arthritis. Just as there is no valid reason to give up eating at an arbitrary age. especially f o r those who are getting on in age. is eating — a man of 60 can enjoy eating as much as he enjoyed it when he was 16 — maybe even more. H o r m o n e study has proved that it is sexual activity which has helped persons beyond the middle age from the degenerative changes of arthritis. With rare exceptions. Each sexual experience can be just as enjoyable as the one before — the 2000th time can be as much f u n as the first. •13 • . women retain their interest in sex much longer than men. Men. These things are only psychological. so there is no reason to give up sex. Sex is one of the two renewable pleasures available to h u m a n beings. The other renewable pleasure of course. it makes life stimulating and exciting. In the age group of 50 to 90. illness and lack of interest.• Sex and all the incidents leading up to it can give much vitality and verve to our daily life. everyone has the capacity for full sexual enjoyment. It is quite wrong to say that some people are undersexed or oversexed. they can lose interest in it permanently. Masturbation is recommended in such cases. Some doctors have observed that there is less arthritis among people who remain sexual' active. } • In America. the overwhelming majority of women give up sexual intercourse only because their husbands are no longer willing or able to have sex. if sex is given up altogether for some months for various reasons such as illness. There is nothing at all wrong in people having sex in old age. give up sex much earlier because of impotence. Nothing can be further f r o m the truth. however. • • Interesting Points About Sex Among older people.

that the partnei is equally healthy. The healthier a person the more satisfying and fulfilling will be his or her sex life. of course. assuming. •14 .A really satisfying sexual experience is linked with good health and energy.

through experiments with dogs. migraine a n d pain in the back. • Close Relationship Of Mind And Body Emotion. it also affects 15 . is not just a feeling in the mind. established the close relationship between the mind and physical illnesses. asthma. They f o u n d that dogs went wild with anxiety and developed ulcers through expecting f o o d which they did not receive. The Mind And Illness Some years ago scientists. therefore. The thesis established was that if there is a relationship between the mind and the body in the case of animals. this relationship must be much more applicable to h u m a n beings. ulcers. • There was another well-known experiment with electric shocks on cows: it was f o u n d that the tension created in the minds of the cows t h r o u g h the fear of having an electric shock proved to be f a r more destructive to their health t h a n the electric shock itself. in particular.Chapter 2 HOW TO OVERCOME TENSION AND STRESS In simple terms what psychosomatic disease means is that the mind causes m a n y of our illnesses. colitis.

the body. There is the case of a prize-fighter who was regularly awakened by anginal pains because he used to dream of his fights. or death in a family. or the loss of a j o b . > 16 . illness. Anxiety and tension appearing at frequent intervals wear away the nervous system. • Some doctors believe that illnesses caused by tension and stress amount to well over 50 per cent of all illness. and this caused great stress to him even in his sleep. Fear and anger make the heart beat faster. blow by blow. bring on a sense of neurosis which ultimately results in physical illness. Similarly. raise blood pressure and cause changes in the metabolism.

in its turn. •17 . it results in raising the sugar content of the blood and this in the long run leads to diabetes and atherosclerosis. They made the comparison as far as possible on a like-with-like basis. it means that some hormones are being pumped in excess into the system. age-group and sex. means that the blood sugar in the system is being raised.Stress And Heart Disease When a body is under stress. • The well-known American heart specialist Dr. Weiss and his staff compared the life-histories of 45 coronary cases with those of an equal number of persons who did not have coronary disease. If this stress goes on for a long time. This. taking persons with a similar background.

The •18 . spare parts are very difficult to come by. This often results in a breakdown of health of one or both partners of the marriage. If the body is under constant tension and stress. One can never completely escape f r o m it. But in the case of a body harmed by continuous stress and tension. it is bound to be harmed. • Make no mistake about it. It is rather like a car which has both the accelerator and the brakes full on. It is all very well in the case of a car: you can always get spare parts. • Stress is a normal part of our lives.They found a great deal of more tension and stress in the background of the patients who subsequently developed heart attacks than in the others. In time. Example Of Tension And Illness A good example of the relationship of stress and health is when a marriage goes on the rocks. But reactions to stress can vary enormously. something is bound to give.

The neurotic m a n is only half alive. all have a very definite physical effect on the body. It was f o u n d that people living in high-rise flats developed various types of illnesses because of the stress brought about by this type of living. • • How To Overcome Tension And Stress: . Some c o m m o n symptoms of anxiety are insomnia and lack of attention at work. One man can relax by merely walking up and down in his office while somebody else can take a pleasure trip round the world and still be filled with tensions. Similarly. Some men get more tense playing golf than working in an office.most frequent undesirable reaction to stress is continuing anxiety. • Tension works in many different ways. the tension caused by severe floods or the death of a loved one. He is anaesthetized against the joys of life and prevented by his neurosis f r o m the accomplishments and happiness that would otherwise be his.

An attempt to identify the cause of stress and anxiety is an important and necessary step in solving the problem of stress and tension. Once having established the cause of the stress. Talking about intimate and personal problems with a sympathetic priest during confession. Examine Patient's Life Situation More and more doctors now believe that for successful treatment of any disease. it then becomes much easier to find a solution. One should try to discover the cause of the tension. . and specially when one caused by stress and emotion. as a high percentage of illnesses are psychosomatic. They often have to go back to the childhood of the patient. they must investigate the patient's history and present life situation. The system adopted by Catholics of confession with trusted and trained priests is very much on these lines. tends to reduce the cause of the tension and anxiety. Once the cause of the stress is known. Often just talking about it helps to find a cure. The cure for such illnesses is not medicines at all but an entirely different way of thinking and a complete readjustment to the environment. or with a friend. it is greatly reduced if one talks about it with friends or counsellors. This is perhaps the main task of psychoanalysts: they spend hours probing tjie cause of tension.

are places where miraculous 'cures' have been affected. is another area where the body and the mind have a close relationship and can affect the whole personality and bearing of a person.The famous pilgrimage centres of Lourdes in France and Shirdi in India. In the rriind of many of these pilgrims there is a conviction that they will get well and so they get cured. Appreciation And Love Help Appreciation. and respect. you may even bring about a complete physical transformation in the person. . Faith is a great factor in healing: that is why many doctors sometimes often give just coloured water as medicine. If you give plenty of love to a person. among others. however. that these cures result because of the great faith of the people that visit these places of pilgrimage. love. It is felt by many.

Psychotherapy Doctors have found that some of their patients have not only lost their muscular difficulties. Effect Of Continuous Repetition The famous Frenchman Coue based his whole theory of cure on repetition. Somerset M a u g h a m . but also the pains of arthritis under psychotherapy. This just gives you an idea of the power of the mind in the treatment of disease. Bertrand Russell. He used to get his patient to repeat again and again and again that he was cured until the patient was convinced that he was cured — and he was cured! This is another example of the power of the mind for healing. Michaelangelo and Winston Churchill are just some examples of people whose youthful minds and imagination kept their bodies . Youthful Mind And Its Effect On Body Bernard Shaw.

The Shavasana excercise if practised correctly can contribute a great deal towards reducing stress. go to the countryside where the atmosphere is not polluted. Watch out for this. is often necessary. every 10 or 12 years. one does not want adventure for the sake of adventure. Some such unwinding technique is essential. Often just doing something continuously. A strong intellectual interest can work wonders for the body. Your mind plays a very big part in your ageing process. Roosevelt collected stamps. The Shavasana Another way of overcoming tension is to practice both physical and mental relaxation and this is done best by the ancient yogic exercise Shavasana. A complete change helps to dissolve this stress. Winston Churchill used to lay bricks and paint. To ward off ageing. develops stress. and sex becomes a habit like brushing one's teeth. or maybe an absorbing hobby can be pursued. Change In Routine It is always best to have a holiday: this makes a break in the stress pattern. which we shall describe in some detail when we talk about coronary disease. Live For The Present Many people who are full of worry. The signs are clear: one becomes dogmatic. an entire change of work. tension and stress are in this •23 . If you live in the polluted atmosphere of a big town. day in and day out. If you normally lead a comfortable and luxurious life. F. say. go for a simple life in the wilds. Psychological ageing is an important factor and often begins much before physical ageing. All this helps to keep the body and the mind young and olert. Omar Sharif plays championship-standard bridge. one dislikes change. Henry Ford was very interested in antiques.D. An interest entirely different from one's normal work also helps to reduce stress.young and active long past the normal span of ageing.

today — this is the true reality. This f r a m e of mind will lessen any amount of stress and tension. There is no point becoming tense about something in the future. the important thing is the present: that is what really matters. But the time that really matters is now.position because they are always thinking about what might happen in the f u t u r e or about past difficulties. •24 . Do your utmost to savour and enjoy the present — the f u t u r e will certainly look after itself.

Chapter 3 SOME POPULAR MEDICAL MYTHS Myth Do Not Eat Immediately Before Swimming Li There is a widespread belief that if a person takes ameal immediate25 .

Any sort of violent activity after an enormous tuck-in is bound to cause discomfort but you can certainly have a leisurely swim immediately after a moderate meal. Myth One Can Put On Weight As One Grows Older • The popular concept that it is normal to have a gradual weight gain every year is not true. it usually does result in better physical performance. But what often happens is that if any food is taken on the assumption that it will help. because. extensive tests have established that the kind of food you eat before you undertake any special •26 . 21. But this is not due to the food at all — it is entirely psychological. Cramps are not related to f o o d at all. provided there is no excess. The ideal weight in old age should be one's weight when one was about 21 Myth Extra Protein Gives Immediate Extra Strength • A normal body has such large reserves of proteins and fat that it normally does not need any food supplements in the way of extra protein. there is a decrease in muscle mass and increase in the fat content of the body. with ageing. say. The average diet normally gives the body all the food it requires and no special diet is necessary f o r special bodily activity. In fact. In the older age groups. The normal body can easily cope with the swimming and the meal. This is entirely incorrect. it is a definite health hazard to weigh 10 or 15 kilograms more than what one used to weigh when one before swimming one is likely to get cramps.

You cannot store sleep. one becomes thirsty and dehydrated. In fact. The body just needs a certain a m o u n t of sleep and no more. The body needs fluid while exercising. Myth Sugar Taken Before Exercise Raises The Energy Level • This is probably not correct. it is h a r m f u l not to have fluid while you are exercising if you are thirsty. In fact. Although it is not completely established it is unlikely that extra sugar gives direct extra energy. One should drink until one's thirst is quenched but not in excess. •27 . a long bed rest has a deconditioning effect.physical activity performance. Fluid then becomes very necessary. When one exercises. excessive sweet-taking over a long period of time makes demands on insulin production which the body may not be able to cope with: this might eventually lead to diabetes. as long as no excessive water is drunk. Drinking water during meals is all right and does not dilute the digestive juices to the extent of harming digestion. Myth Never Take Fluid While Exercising Or During Meals • This is entirely wrong. In fact. makes no difference ^whatsoever in your Myth Extra Hours Of Sleep Help • This is not at all correct.

In fact. The best clothing for hot weather exercise is the raked skin. you can then put on your sweater but only if you feel coid. So it is not at all necessary to put on a sw:ater after exercise. it is far better to leave your sweatff off after exercise and let your body slowly come back to its noimal stage. When you no longer feel hot and your sweat has subsided.Myth Put On A Sweater After Exercise • There is no danger in being comfortably cool after youhave exercised. Myth Take A Cold Shower After A Hot One To Close Your Pores .

•29 Myth . In mid-morning or m i d . In fact. it has been f o u n d that athletes seem to p e r f o r m better after sexual intercourse. Myth Never Exercise In The Hot Noon Sun • There is a widespread belief that you will come to h a r m if you exercise in the noon-day sun. Pores d o n ' t have to be closed. This is incorrect. Myth Big Muscles Make You Stronger • Big muscles are all right if there is need f o r a massive body to push against a heavy load. It will do you no h a r m as long as you do not feel uncomfortable. Sex Should Be Avoided Before Athletics • The popular notion that sexual abstinence keeps one strong a n d gives one strength has no scientific f o u n d a t i o n whatsoever. perhaps all you require is a hat to protect your head. even when they have h a d intercourse on the morning of a competition. So m a n y people put themselves to the discomfort of a cold shower after a hot bath under the entirely false belief that it will close their pores and prevent them f r o m getting a chill. but this is incorrect. but to develop a high-quality b o d y possessed of vigour and the capacity to resist stress and strain. The m a j o r objective today is not big muscles. if the sun is directly overhead.• This is entirely unnecessary. In fact. Exercise as much as you like in the hot noon-day.a f t e r n o o n there is no way to protect your body f r o m the sun's rays which come to it at an angle. but t o d a y ' s champions accept the fact that small muscles are the best.

Many realise that health is their most precious asset and they take care to keep their bodies in good working order. Myth . N Myth The Hard-worked Executive And His Ulcer • Those in responsible positions in management and professional groups have about half the incidence of ulcers compared to employed persons in general. exercise usually gives women more attractive contours. They move with greater grace. Executives look after their health far better than the general run of people. Exercise gives a delicious feeling of well-being and relaxation which can be most seductive.Women Who Exercise Lose Their Femininity • This is utter nonsense. The usual picture of the over-stressed executive who suffers f r o m ulcers is a myth — he is normally much fitter and healthier than the general run of people. In fact.

in fact. hunger.Stress And Pace Of Modern Life Increases Some Illnesses The theory that relates the prevalence of certain illnesses today to the rapid pace of modern life does not take into account two points: • Have the illnesses. pestilence and war. say in London today. Myth • •31 . is surely much less stressful than that of a peasant in the Ganges valley in the old days with the ever-present menace of flood. It could therefore easily be argued that present-day life is much freer f r o m stress and tension than in the old days. become c o m m o n e r or are we just better at recognizing them? And are there not many illnesses today which one did not have in the old days simply because people today live much longer? H a s stress really increased? The life of a doctor.

alone on false cures and medical frauds. A . In •32 .Chapter 4 MEDICAL FRAUDS It is estimated that over two billion dollars are spent yearly in the U . S . The probability is that all of us contribute to this windfall when we buy drugs or take massive amounts of vitamins or buy cures advertised in the back covers of magazines or as a result of TV advertisements.

Most cases of cancer can be cured if action is taken early enough but there is no ready-made short-cut cure for cancer. There appears to be no cure available for them. These cures may even result in a temporary lessening of weight through the liquid in the body being reduced. •33 . Cancer Cancer is the area of the cruellest hoaxes and the people who are taken in by this f r a u d are the people w h o feel that they have nothing to lose. Since there is no certain cure f o r arthritis. but n o n e of these cures will result in anything permanent. Arthritis Arthritis is another ideal subject for exploitation. Below are some typical examples of this type of f r a u d . lose their dignity.almost every case. T h e testimonials a n d photographs on the advertisements before and after are usually contrived and m a d e u p . For Overweight People All sorts of cures are sold to people w h o are desperate because of overweight. people in their desperation and pain are willing to try any quack a n d therefore waste their money. But people who indulge in such hoax medicines and cures. the claims m a d e are false and the motive of the marketeer is only to make money f r o m a gullible public.

people usually become their own doctors and medicate themselves. however. Advertised Cures Are Big Business . In actual practice.Chapter 5 HOW TO TREAT YOURSELF WHEN YOU ARE ILL People Are Their Own Doctors If people went to doctors for all their ailments. doctors would be overwhelmed and would be able to deal with only a fraction of their cases. for well over half the cases of illnesses.

there is no need for medicines. There is always a vast and gullible public which is very willing to pay large sums and purchase such highly advertised patent medicines. These cures are vigorously advertised through newspaper advertisements. one could go so far as to say that in most cases one would be better off without any medication whatsoever. They take their course. These medicines are usually purchased direct by the public f r o m chemists' shops — and in most cases they are entirely unnecessary. they probably have a . TV and radio. This just proves what high-pressure advertising can do. and if medicines are taken. The cost of the advertisements alone runs into many millions of dollars but in spite of this the pharmaceutical firms make huge profits. especially when one is not well. Most Medicines Not Necessary Most medicines are entirely unnecessary — in fact. In most such cases.The enormous pharmaceutical concerns of the world which are now multi-billion dollar industries make numerous patent medicines to cure various types of diseases. • One can safely say that 90 per cent of illnesses cure themselves.

the average cough-mixture has no real effect on curing a cough. be exercised when taking drugs. Extreme caution should. At best. And that is why a growing number of wise people nowadays never take medicines of any kind. drugs should not normally be taken unless it is absolutely necessary. but they may help to make the patient more comfortable. however. But even a relatively harmless cough-mixture taken in excessive amounts may cause unpleasant side-effects.marginal effect as far as quickening the cure is concerned. • For example. It may. therefore. especially antibiotics which often give rise to serious side-effects. In most cases it is better to let an illness take its course: a •36 . it may tend to cure a cough only a little quicker than if no cough-mixture was taken. relieve the hoarseness in the throat or congestion in the chest and therefore make the patient feel more comfortable. In fact. Interaction Of Drugs Dangerous The interaction of a number of drugs on the body is such that even a physician cannot really understand it fully.

•37 • . Vast Consumption of Aspirin Aspirin or and make not cure a analgesics • other such analgesics may help to bring down a fever the patient more comfortable. it might lead to bleeding in the stomach. It is interesting to note that the well-known British physician Lord Horder has said that aspirin is the most valuable weapon in the doctor's armamentarium. But. but they will certainly malady: the disease itself is not being treated by taking or anti pyretics. Most of these contain aspirin in some f o r m or other. then one should go to a doctor. Its maximum effect occurs in about two hours. Over half of all the patented medicines sold over the counter without prescriptions are analgesics or pain-killers of various types. on an avei age two tablets are taken by every member of the population every week and a small percentage of both men and women take aspirin every day of their lives. It is estimated that for the population of Britain. it does not cure — it only makes a patient's life much more comfortable. If taken in very large quantities. • Aspirin is a relatively safe drug. of course. The a m o u n t of aspirin consumed i< vast. It is the base medication of all the analgesics. It is extremely difficult f o r an adult to kill himself with an over-dose of aspirin. That is why it is best to take it after a meal. Moreover. Aspirin: The Super-Drug Aspirin is a super-drug but as we have said earlier. aspirin has few side-effects. if an illness continues. Aspirin in its various brands is probably more used than all the other types of medicines put together.cure is bound to come.

of course. Drugs And The Future If a physician gives you no medicine. in the case of operations and other similar types of serious treatment. The present practice of using drugs to control symptoms may be a temporary phase in the history of medicine. •38 . has a special b r a n d name. however. The cost of a generic drug such as aspirin will be much cheaper than an entirely similar drug. except. the taking of drugs may be considerably reduced. consider this a very good thing.Drugs And Saving Money A good physician can save you a great deal of money when you are buying drugs. In most cases there is no need to take an expensive brand name at all. Some doctors think that in the f u t u r e . A physician should know the relative costs of alternate drugs and he can recommend a drug which serves the purpose but which is much less expensive. which.

•39 . An executive becomes m o r e and more valuable as time goes on and it becomes important f o r an organisation to ensure that he is in good physical condition and stays healthy.Chapter 6 ARE PERIODICAL MEDICAL CHECK-UPS NECESSARY ? Many organisations have a compulsory A n n u a l Medical Check of their executives.

some are diabetics. and so on. What is significant. do not have even these essential periodic medical checks. is that most people. a large proportion of even educated people never bother to have periodic medical checks of even some of the most important basic matters connected with their bodies. even the educated ones. Cost Of An Annual Medical Check The disadvantage of a comprehensive annual medical check is that it takes up a considerable a m o u n t of time and costs a great deal of money. Because of this. But in the case of their own bodies they do not do so even though their physical condition is so very important to them — certainly as important as the condition of their cars. it was found that in spite of the expenditure and time taken. these checks did not always detect diseases in time. This indicates that unless there is a certain amount of compulsion. however. • However. many of them can be done by trained nurses. what is important to know is that some of the essential periodic medical checks are easy and inexpensive to undertake. It at least ensures that all the essential and necessary medical checks are car•40 • . and laziness. The reason is twofold: fear in case something serious is discovered. and in certain cases.Compulsory Check Beneficial The interesting thing about these compulsory Annual Medical Checks is that in many cases they have resulted in a complete change of regime and living habits of a fairly high percentage of executives: some are overweight. some have high blood pressure or a high cholesterol level. In fact. • This is especially interesting as most executives go to great lengths to have their cars periodically serviced. a compulsory periodic medical check of the essential points might be advisable.

Blood should be checked f o r high cholesterol and triglyceride. •41 • • • . • An early warning system for health is most necessary.ried out regularly. which is the commonest site of cancer for women. you should have a p a p smear test taken annually to detect any signs of cancer of the cervix. A w o m a n ' s breasts should be examined periodically to ensure that they have no lump as this may indicate cancer even if it is entirely painless. This will help to prevent heart diseases. it is good for people to know that they are healthy. That is why a periodic health check-up is so important. This may help to avoid a coronary attack. Many diseases can be nipped in the bud and put right before they have time to do h a r m . And this is especially important after the age of forty. because everyone always has a little worry at the back of his mind about his health. Only Check What Is Necessary W h a t certain organisations and individuals are now doing is that instead of having a comprehensive and expensive annual medical check. The checks for these symptoms can be done easily and inexpensively. Blood pressure should be checked and kept within the prescribed limits. Some Important Checks • • Urine should be checked for possible diabetes. it is arranged that each person is checked periodically f o r certain important symptoms only. If you are a woman over 25. Even if a periodic medical check finds nothing wrong.

If it is not. as overweight can lead to diabetes. There should be a simple X-ray test of the chest for possible tuberculosis or cancer.• A test should be made f o r glaucoma of the eyes for persons over 40 and especially when there is a family history of glaucoma. Weight should be checked periodically to ensure that it is within the limits given by the height-weight charts. coronary disease and a host of other ailments. In our section about cancer we have spoken about the early warning signs f o r a possible incidence of cancer. steps must be taken to bring the weight within these limits. • • • •42 .

Winston Churchill used to sleep for three hours every afternoon. could manage perfectly with four hours of sleep while others require eight to nine hours.Chapter 7 WHAT TO DO ABOUT INSOMNIA Sleep is a matter of vital concern to everyone. Napoleon. Some people. Even in the middle of a battle he could take a short n a p . one cannot lay down any rules about it. who never slept at all and yet his brain was razor-sharp throughout his life. Napoleon could sleep at will. but it is an entirely individual matter. There is the case of Lord Nuffield. f o r example. •43 . but worked regularly until the early hours of the morning.

insecurity in one's work. a death in the family Or some serious problem at work. sexual abstinence or unsatisfactory sex relations. Sleeping Pills When there is some special worry. for example. Insomnia may also be due to climate. drinking too much coffee — one cup will not keep you awake — fear. sickness or marital disharmony. ill-fitting pyjamas. If one has a number of worries. say. these factors often play on the subconscious and the result is sleeplessness. uncomfortable mattresses or bad-clothing.Causes Of Sleeplessness There is a close relationship between worry and sleeplessness. one m a y be justified in taking •44 . children doing badly.

Tranquillisers generally have few side-effects and enable the mind*temporarily to forget its worries. sleeping pills will lose their effectiveness and excessive and continuous taking of such drugs is bound to have some bad effects. Worry About Sleeplessness Bad One of the most common problems relating to sleeplessness is the •45 .some of the numerous tranquillisers or sleeping pills one finds on the market. However. one should never make a habit of taking tranquillisers or sleeping pills for going to sleep. The reason is that in course of time.

In most cases. Special Diet. Drink And Sleep There are a very large number of patented drinks and foods advertised for bringing about sleep. Often. and this together with the sleep which they have had at night is more than enough for their wellbeing. but there is little medical basis to support this. They are usually purchased by people who are so desperate for sleep that they are willing to try anything. these very same people have brief cat-naps during the day. this worry is entirely un-< necessary as such people probably do not need more sleep: they get all the sleep they need. In fact. such people should consider themselves fortunate as they have some extra hours every night during which they can read and which less fortunate people who sleep eight or nine hours every night do not have. But in most cases. . the effect of these rather expensive preparations is almost entirely useless for inducing sleep. There is a widespread belief that hot milk taken before going to bed brings about sleep.worry which so many people have because they think that they are not getting enough sleep.

sleep is b o u n d to come. And once tension is removed. A useful exercise which very o f t e n brings about sleep is to lie flat on o n e ' s back: hands by the side. both. It may be advisable for such persons to go to sleep much later in the night to avoid waking up in the small hours of the morning. In time. A f t e r a certain age persons tend to wake very early. the nose. posture. it does not matter: this posture and breathing will refresh and relax the body even without actual sleep. and even if sleep does not come. this is certainly far better than just tossing about restlessly in bed. In time. The: brain should concentrate on the breathing a n d the body should! be completely relaxed. sleep comes very soon. When one is physically tired. legs slightly apart. sleep will come.Suggestions For Insomniacs W h a t very o f t e n brings about sleeplessness is an upset t u m m y which might be caused through over-eating and over-drinking. A tablet of sodamint or milk of magnesia might just do the trick and put right the upset t u m m y and the result will be sleep. •47 • • • . as they may need only four or five hours of sleep. Some of the insomniac's time could also be spent taking in large doses of fresh air or by exercising. This is very o f t e n a time when the brain is clear and capable of learning and absorbing difficult ideas a n d concepts. Take a walk after dinner or in the evening or play games to produce a healthy physical tiredness and banish tension. one should breathe deeply and slowly through. in and out. one goes off to sleep immediately. • Persons who have difficulty in sleeping should not take the o f f e n sive: let them use the hours during which they cannot sleep by reading something useful. Anxiety about lack of sleep is much more h a r m f u l t h a n any actual loss of sleep. In this. Exercise is the best antidote to emotional tension.

Sleep comes in waves: it is light or it is heavy.Myths About Sleep • T h a t a certain number of hours of sleep are necessary for one's health. Married people sleep better than single folk. • • • Facts About Sleep • Old people sleep less than youngsters and men sleep less t h a n women. one must make it up as soon as possible. If one loses sleep for any reason over a night or two. Fifty-two per cent of Americans suffer some difficulty getting to sleep. One hour of sleep before midnight is worth two after midnight. • • • •48 . That insomnia is dangerous to health and may lead to insanity or death. One sleeps much better in a single bed compared to a double-bed. Heavy sleep may only last f o r about one or two hours but even that can be quite enough for a good night's rest.

This study is especially important as it is now established that the subconscious •49 .Chapter 8 HOW TO MAKE USE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS OR SUBCONSCIOUS MIND The subconscious mind is an important part of our system and an e n o r m o u s a m o u n t of research is being done on it.

if not a more important part. It is estimated that the amount that can be stored in the subconscious mind is very many times more than in the conscious mind. but also like a video taperecorder. In fact. in popular parlance. It is . recording everything visual. the conscious mind compared to the subconscious is often likened to the iceberg — the part of the iceberg not in the sea representing the conscious mind and the hidden part standing for the subconscious mind. These early stored impressions play a big part in the actions of a person in his later life. the mind is not only like a computer storing everything it hears.mind plays as important. During these early years. The Early Years Vitally Important Many psychiatrists believe that the impressions formed and stored in the subconscious mind during one's early years — from birth to about five years — determine the actions of a person for the rest of his life. as the conscious mind.

for this reason that parents should pay special attention to their children's upbringing during the vitally important early years of their life. When one sleeps. • Analysis Of Dreams Dreams are a direct reflection of what is happening in the subconscious mind and that is why so many psychoanalysts try to analyse dreams. the active mind also rests. This helps to give them a clue to the abnormal behaviour of a person. psychoanalysts usually try to probe into the life of a person so as to understand the reason for this abnormality. the subconscious mind can play a large pari in the actions. but the subconscious mind is awake. it can think actively and towards a certain objective. It helps them to understand the reasons for the . emotions and impressions. Another body of psychiatrists. Some psychoanalysts like to concentrate on the very early life of the patient — up to the age of about five years. The Conscious And Subconscious Mind The conscious mind can take action. thinking and behaviour of a person. What Psychoanalysts Do If any abnormality appears in the thinking or the actions of a person. sounds. • The subconscious mind is a very big store of signals. maintains that it is not only one's early years that are important in the development of one's personality but all the subsequent years are also equally important. but even though it is not active like the conscious mind. however. it can evoke memory when it wants to.

Study Of The Subconscious Mind Much of the work of psychoanalysts is concerned with the subconscious mind.actions of people. by studying the subconscious mind. it is then easier for them to take corrective action. because. they are able to get behind the reasons of their patient's behaviour. •52 . A proper analysis of dreams may help to reveal a great deal about a person and pave the way for curative action. Once the reasons are understood.

Let Sleep Solve Your Problems An experiment made on the possibility of putting the subconscious mind to work showed that if some difficult problem was studied before going to bed.• While the study of the subconscious mind is still a relatively new field of research. if one has a decision to make. It may just be that the problem is solved through the brain being clearer and fresher in the morning. But m a n y psychoanalysts do not agree to this: they say that there is no proof as yet that the subconscious mind can solve problems. the subconscious mind helps them to arrive at a fairly reasonable solution. there are strong indications to suggest that in the f u t u r e . a m a n ' s actions and behaviour can be directed and improved by having a better knowledge of the subconscious. • Very o f t e n . How The Subconscious Mind Works . this problem became much clearer in the morning by having the subconscious mind work on it. A f t e r some time. maybe the next morning. the decision-makers leave the problem for a while to their subconscious mind.

and. But the exact relationship between the conscious and subconscious mind is still not clear and an enormous a m o u n t of work still remains to be done on this very important and interesting subject. The conscious mind is clearly asleep but the subconscious mind is on the j o b . when the time comes the person wakes up exactly on the dot.When a person has to get up very early in the morning. •54 . the waking time is kept in the subconscious mind.

can•55 . In Britain alone it is estimated that there are as many as 150. especially in the developed countries of the world.Chapter 9 WHY DO PEOPLE TAKE CANNABIS AND OTHER SUCH DRUGS Over recent years the habit of taking drugs has caught on considerably.000 people who are addicted to amphetamines. barbituarates.

T h e effect of smoking cannabis comes within thirty minutes. however. reduce fatigue and depression. It is estimated that several million people in Britain have at one time or another committed legal offences by taking cannabis and other such drugs.nabis and other such drugs. Cannabis makes one psychologically dependent. stimulate mental activity. If cannabis is eaten. Taking cannabis o f t e n gives rise to a w o n d e r f u l euphoric feeling a n d increases the person's response to external stimuli. hashish are all parts of the same plant — these drugs are sometimes called ' p o t ' . such as heroin. colours and sounds. Some people maintain that it does no more h a r m than alcohol or tobacco a n d that a regular cannabis smoker takes it in doses that satisfy him a n d that this does not generally increase with time. Drugs. prevent sleep and reduce the appetite for f o o d . It may lead to a loss of interest in any purposeful occupation and also cause a general decline in initiative and efficiency. There is. such as benzedrine and dexedrine. it takes at least three h o u r s to get the full effect. There is considerable controversy over taking cannabis. Those against cannabis smoking maintain that it is bad f o r the m e m o r y and that it can affect the activity of the brain. Heroin is the most dangerous drug and a young heroin drug ad•56 . no solid proof f o r this. Psychedelic drugs such as cannabis are also used more a n d m o r e with the growing popularity of mysticism as an alternative to o r t h o d o x religion. • Cannabis. Social intercourse becomes much more intense and meaningful for such people. m a r i h u a n a . has a disruptive effect on the psychological and physical development of drug-users. • • • • Heroin And LSD An addiction to ' h a r d ' drugs.

L S D is also a dangerous drug: ' b a d trips' may mean a frightening. unpleasant hallucinatory experience lasting for several hours. one m a y want to j u m p f r o m a high window in the mistaken belief that one can fly. •57 . days or even weeks after exposure to this drug. A b n o r m a l mental reactions jpay recur f o r hours. F o r can die even within three years.

Chapter 10 WHY SOME PEOPLE COMMIT SUICIDE All over the world. •58 . as many as a thousand people try to commit suicide every day.

C o m p a r e d with the so-called working classes in the developed countries the upper social classes are more prone to kill themselves. in particular. Numerically the largest number of suicides and attempts of suicide occurred in cases of people over 55. In J a p a n the reason is because ideas of dishonour and disgrace are changing and in Britain because of an organization called the Samaritans. material problems such as shortage of money. troubled relationships with other people. Suicide is the ultimate act in succumbing to stress. Many cases of suicide attempts are those of impressionable young girls who take an overdose of'sleeping pills or tranquillisers. People f r o m broken homes often attempt suicide. a disorganised life. • • • • The Samaritans To prevent suicide is the reason behind the existence of a worldwide organisation called the Samaritans.• F r o m the survey made in the U . W h a t is important to know is that m a n y suicide attempts are a means of communication: virtually a cry for help and sympathy. Usually. The motives for suicides include bad health. failure in marriage and living in a depressing area. but much less than half the cases of people who attempt suicide really want to die. If •59 . K . Doctors. bad housing. T w o countries whose suicide rates appear to be going down are J a p a n and Britain. it was estimated that a very large number of people make suicide attempts every year. are two-and-a-half times more likely to commit suicide as other men and one-and-a-half times as likely as their social equals. all that is required is a sympathetic ear — somebody who will listen. Anyone who is considering committing suicide can contact a member of the Samaritans who are specially trained to deal with such cases. chronic alcoholism can also be a cause.

K.persons desperate enough to commit suicide can get someone sympathetic to listen patiently to their problems. • Ten times more men in the age group 65 to 69 kill themselves each year in the U. A n d that is where the Samaritans play such an important part. by inhaling gas. unlike most other countries where the figures are very misleading. It is entirely untrue to say that Sweden is the country with the highest rate of suicides. the urge to commit suicide frequently subsides and then vanishes altogether. drowning. People have said so in the past because the Swedes preserve very accurate figures of suicides. or taking an overdose of sleeping tablets a n d other such drugs. than do young men aged 20 to 25. • •60 . They kill themselves by hanging. only half the cases of suicides are reported as such. Foi example in Britain.

Chapter 11 COMMON SENSE ABOUT FOOD AND EATING Packaged Health Foods .

• But the probability is that most of the patented health f o o d s sold. Another important point about good health is that it is far better to eat small meals a number of •62 . milk and b a a a n a s and the very expensive commercially prepared and patented tins of carefully balanced nutrients of a certain calorie vaiue. m a y work temporarily but are not practicable for a lifetime of healthy living. in expensive packages and bottles are entirely unnecessary. N o r can the memory be strengthened if 12 almonds a day are eaten. A simple wellbalanced diet with the right combination of foods will supply all the necessary nutrients and at far less cost. The public has always had a never ending interest in new diets guaranteed to preserve and to restore youth and vitality. T h e only really effective way of cutting down weight is using more willpower to eat less. The claims of most of the health food advertisements are highly exaggerated. to give instant sleep. except in certain cases where people are convalescing after illness and cannot take a normal diet. One should eat in such a way that after one has finished a meal. This is a very important guide for good health and for a feeling of well-being. There is no single food with special health-giving properties.Patented health foods and numerous patented beverages are advertised in a very big way and f o r m a business running into many millions of dollars. to give strength and so on. the excess f o o d that is eaten probably does h a r m . such as oranges and peanuts. normally. There is no special weight-reducing f o o d . In fact. One should never eat till one feels fit to burst. one is in a position to eat some more. Gimmicky diets. An apple a day certainly will not keep the doctor away. • Quantity And Frequency Of Food The m a j o r problem about diet a m o n g middle-class people is that the average adult normally eats far more than is necessary for health.

a moderate lunch and a light supper. The best distribution for food is a substantial breakfast. For example. Correct Cooking In countless homes much of the nourishment of food is destroyed by incorrect cooking.times a day rather than overloading one's stomach by having one or two big meals a day. •63 . the water in which vegetables are cooked should never be thrown away. because this water often contains the bulk of the nourishment of the food which has been cooked in it.

• The diet of the average Indian peasant consists of rice. Vitamins The probability is that the normal diet of people both in the developed and underdeveloped countries of the world contains all the vitamins which are necessary for the maintenance of good health. pulses and vegetables.Skimmed Milk Skimmed milk is an excellent f o o d . A cup of whole milk contains about 180 calories as against a cup of skimmed milk which has only about 60 calories. wheat. . It has all the valuable nutrients of whole milk except the fat. This is a fairly well-balanced diet for adults and contains all the necessary vitamins.

In the normal way, therefore, it is not at all necessary to take additional vitamins in the f o r m of pills, as the average diet contains a sufficient quantity of all the vitamins that are necessary for good health. In fact, we need very minute quantities of vitamins for our day-to-day living — it has been estimated that just a cup or two of vitamins,will last us a whole lifetime. It has often been said that the Americans have the most expensive urine in the world — simply because so much of it goes down the drain as expensive vitamins which are quite unnecessarily taken by people who do not need them at all. In certain cases, however, it may happen that the body is not in a position to absorb the vitamins f r o m its diet. In such cases, but these are rare, it may be necessary to take additional vitamins in the form of pills or injections as advised by the doctor. Certain ailments, such as liver damaged by excessive drinking, might require massive doses of certain types of vitamins. When antibiotics are taken, there is often a need for extra doses of vitamin B.

Diet And Exercise
Exercise gives one a feeling of health and well-being, but no matter how hard one exercises it does very little in the way of weight reduction unless it is accompanied by a complete change in diet. For example, just one slice of bread would require 40 minutes of hard exercise before all the calories in it are absorbed. So it is clear that if one wishes to reduce one's weight, one should not eat that additional slice of bread. Eating less is therefore not only the only really effective way in which one can reduce weight but it greatly helps to give one a feeling of well-being.

There is a fairly widespread belief that fasting or going without •65

food for the whole day rests the digestive system and, therefore, it should be practised at periodical intervals. But there is no very sound medical reason for this. Just as the heart works without stopping throughout a lifetime, so the digestive system is engineered to work continuously. In fact, some medical experts would go so far as to state that fasting periodically might even h a r m the system in that it tends to upset the routine of the digestive system and the excretion of various digestive juices.


Chapter 12


Being overweight is perhaps the biggest single health problem among middle-income groups all over the world. On an average, •67

over 50 per cent of the adults in the developed countries of the world are overweight.

Excess Food, Not Glands, Adds Weight
There is a close relationship between the amount of food eaten, specially starchy, sugary and fatty food, and obesity. Being overweight is not normally a question of glands or heredity. It is almost entirely a question of eating too much of the wrong type of f o o d . An interesting experiment was carried out by McLay of Cornell University, in which one group of mice were allowed to eat as much as they wanted and another group had a very restricted diet. McLay f o u n d that the group of mice that were underfed lived twice as long and were far more active than the ones that were overfed. This important experiment has a great lesson for h u m a n beings. • Obesity begins f r o m the time one is a baby. Most parents love a fat chubby baby, with the result that they grossly overfeed their children. So the risk of a coronary attack begins f r o m childhood. The chubby child whom many parents are so proud o f , o f t e n becomes a heart-case later on in life. The eating habits formed in childhood continue for the rest of one's life, with the result that by the time the infant has reached the age of 15, he is well on the way to having a weight problem when he becomes an adult. Surprisingly, even a small amount of excess food can make one put on weight. It is a matter of simple arithmetic. Calories make one put on weight. Movement and exercise take off weight. If the calories coming in by way of food are in excess of the calories going out by way of movement and exercise, the calories become stored in our body as fat; and obesity begins. Even a little excess mounts up and in the course of time the result is substantial overweight. Obesity is also a matter of one's luck and metabolism. Some •68

people eat and drink enormous quantities of calories and yet never put on weight. Their bodies seem to burn up these calories. Yet, there are other people, unfortunately the majority, who, even if they eat a little excess food, have an increase in weight.

An Expense Account And Obesity

An expense account can be a most dangerous perquisite. An iron will is necessary not to overdrink or overeat.

Keep To The Height-Weight Ratio
The height-weight ratio tables brought out by all life insurance companies are a good guide and can tell you by how much you are overweight, if at all. These guides, however, should be used carefully because you must also take into account the size of your body frame: whether it is small, medium or large. This is an important factor when studying such ratios. •69

H E I G H T - W E I G H T RATIO TABLE Desirable Weights — Medium Frame

Height (cm.) 163 165 168 170 173 175 178 180

Weight (kg.) 56-62 58-63 59-65 61-67 63-69 65-71 66-73 68-75

Height (cm.) 150 152 155 157 160 163 165 166

Weight (kg.) 45-50 46-51 47-53 49-54 50-55 51-57 53-59 55-61

Disadvantages Of Obesity
Overweight people are more liable to develop coronary heart •70

according to the height-weight ratio table. • • Greater Risk Of Dy ng Earlier It is said that every 10 per cent extra over the desired weight. Hernia is more common with fat people and so is diabetes. W H A T DO OBESE P E O P L E D I E FROM ? . The excess weight which one has to carry means additional wear and tear on the weight-bearing joints in the legs which can lead to osteoarthritis.disease and strokes compared to people who are not overweight. clips 13 per cent off one's life. • Obese people tend to develop high blood pressure and this in its turn puts an additional strain on the heart. This is the reason why life insurance companies normally charge a higher insurance premium for obese people.

Measurement of Food Food has a useful unit of measurement: a calorie. 100 calories is also the energy requirement of a h u m a n being for walking four miles at a brisk pace of 4 m . h . All f o o d can be measured in terms of calories. contains nearly 100 calories. p . A thick slice of bread. for example. The daily calorie expenditure of an average-sized sedentary worker and a worker on heavy manual jobs may be calculated as follows: • . • A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree centigrade.

meat. two vegetables and a sweet dish Daily intake of calories Total 350 200 700 350 250 1000 2850 .Below is the calorie content of an average diet of a middle-class sedentary worker: Calories 2 cups of tea with 4 teaspoons of sugar and toast with butter 2 cups of coffee with 4 teaspoons of sugar and 4 biscuits Lunch: 2 club sandwiches Tea: 2 cups of tea with 4 teaspoons of sugar and snacks One large peg of alcohol with nuts Dinner: bread.

How To Reduce Weight . then the body will lose fat. This means that 740 calories will be stored in the body as fat every day unless. Dieting is a matter of mathematics. that is. yet the intake of food is the same as before because the appetite is the same. A f t e r the age of 40. • The above simple arithmetic makes one point clear. bored or under emotional strain. If more calories come in by way of f o o d than go out by way of movement and exercise. How One Puts On Weight Overeating is a compensatory mechanism in some individuals: it is to obtain self-satisfaction when they are frustrated. The difference is 740 calories (2850-2110).Regulate Calorie Intake If the above diet is taken by the sedentary worker it is b o u n d to make him put on weight: 2110 calories are expended but 2850 calories are consumed by way of food. then the excess will be stored in the body as fat. if the intake of calories is less than the energy expended. of course. but the body's food requirements become smaller and smaller as one does not exercise as much. one's appetite is as good as it has always been. the person happens to be one of those rare and lucky individuals who are capable of burning all their excess calories owing to their natural metabolism. And so the spread begins. If it is the other way.

which is big in bulk and therefore does not contain very large quantities of fattening carbohydrates. because its bulk would tend to make one eat less carbohydrates compared to the normal highly refined and processed diet which is full of calories and which one has in most of the developed countries of the world. In a relatively short time his weight came down to 170 pounds. You must jog for a mile or walk hard for four miles to be able to eliminate the effect of only one slice of bread. The only way in which one can reduce effectively is to control one's diet. The patient took no exercise. The calories which one takes in by way of f o o d must be less than the calories which one expends by way of movement and exercise. no less. One eats less carbohydrates with a fibre diet. This just goes to show the very close relationship between being overweight and the food one eats. • Africans in rural areas w h o eat enormous quantities of food do not get fat because a large proportion of their food intake consists of a fibre diet.No matter how hard you exercise you will never bring down your weight substantially by exercising alone. The most effective manner in which weight can be reduced is to plan one's diet on a long-term basis and not on a crash basis and to reduce. as a fibre diet gives one a feeling of fullness which one seldom gets from a refined and processed diet. • High Fibre Diet Helps The more fibre in the diet the better. This gives you an idea of what little effect exercise can have f o r bringing down weight. say. no more. • A professor at the University of Michigan had to treat a patient who weighed 570 pounds. •75 • . With a refined and processed diet one would have to eat large quantities to get a feeling of fullness. The patient was put in a hospital r o o m and fed mainly on lettuce — nothing else. only one p o u n d a week.

A. Do not wait for t o m o r r o w . especially when you begin to feel better and look better. starches and fats. It is a matter of i n p u t / output accounting. gradually.Reducing Must Never Be Rushed Crash dieting is worse than useless. This type of food just should not be on the table: what is not there is seldom missed. so that the proportion of calories taken in is always less than the calories expended by way of movement and exercise. They do not go in for any special drugs or •76 . Eat what you want to eat.S. Reduce your input. but when you start losing weight the motivation to lose more becomes very much greater. especially in the case of certain obvious types of weight-loading foods such as sugar. and elsewhere. A . • • • Weight Watchers International Losing weight becomes much easier if one can do it with others. One can have a wide variety in one's diet. Start now. This does not mean a great change in one's diet. fat people get together in an organisation called Weight Watchers International: it has branches throughout the U. This ensures that weight reduction will not be the torture which it is for most people. but in strictly controlled quantities. It will be difficult at first. S . In the U . It then becomes much easier to continue. But this weight reduction is usually put back as soon as the diet becomes normal again. • The most effective manner in which weight can be reduced is to plan ahead over a long period and to reduce. you may lose weight substantially by reducing the fluid in your body. By drastically curtailing diet. But it does mean that everything one eats should be in very much smaller quantities.

Meeting of Weight Watchers. above all. The great popularity of the organisation must be due to the spectacular results it has achieved among its members by way of weight reduction. InternationaI •77 . comradeship and encouragement.exercises: just planned eating and.

•78 .Chapter 13 HIGH FIBRE DIET — A MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGH A large number of experts have recently written books describing the advantages of a high fibre diet. Some doctors have even gone so far as to say that the high fibre diet is the medical breakthrough of this generation and that it will considerably improve the general health and well-being of the people who follow it.

T h e bigger and softer t. The transit time of the stools in the body in the case of the African was also far less than in the case of the E u r o p e a n whose faecal matter might be in the colon for as long as two or three days as against the A f r i c a n ' s 24 hours. It is thought that the faecal matter lying in the colon for long periods and also the pressure in the colon might be the cause of cancer of the colon. In the U .:e stool the easier is it for the faecal matter to be propelled along the colon as against the small hard stools of a refined and processed diet. It was f o u n d that the weight and size of the stool of the African was far greater and the smell was much less than that of the average European. especially as cancer of the colon is very rare in rural Africa where the transit time of bowel movement is relatively more rapid. Big soft stools with their rapid transit time results in quick movement in the bowels and might prevent h a r m f u l bacteria f r o m causing damage to the colon — there just is not enough time for noxious bacteria to h a r m the colon. • The reason why stools are larger with a high fibre diet is because fibre expands to over twenty times in size by absorhing moisture once it is in the stomach. • Cancer Of The Colon Avoidable Cancer of the colon is the second biggest type of cancer after cancer of the lung.000 new cases of colon cancer are reported every year. alone 70. So it would appear that cancer of the colon might be avoided by keeping to a high fibre diet. •79 . A .Stools And Fibre Diet A detailed comparison has been made of the stools of Africans w h o live in rural areas and who eat large quantities of high fibre f o o d with the stools of the average European with his highly processed and refined f o o d . S .

it can have the effect of bringing the roughage consumption up to normal. So people on a high fibre diet are seldom obese. For example.• The present day refined and processed foods consumed in the developed countries of the world have caused damage to health as these refined and processed f o o d s have led to irregular and unsatisfactory bowel movements. The small bar of chocolate only provides calories and gives little or no bulk or fibre. vegetables and pulses. unpolished rice. Roughage or fibre is essential for good bowel movement. But the five large apples will certainly give a much greater feeling of fullness although they provide the same number of calories as the small bar of chocolate. They also provide the fibre that is necessary for good evacuation. one small bar of chocolate has the same number of calories as at least five large apples. b r a n is also outstanding — it is five times as effective for restoring roughage to the body as wholewheat flour. The reason for this is because of the very small amount of fibre which is taken in their diet. fruits. • Roughage is essential for satisfactory evacuation and good bowel movement: this roughage can be had f r o m foods such as wholewheat flour. A small a m o u n t of bran added to the daily diet plays handsome dividends. As a source of roughage. •80 • . Isobgol is also excellent for this purpose. If bran is added to refined and processed foods. but the evacuation process itself is also unsatisfactory. Roughage And Calories Many people are not only irregular in their bowel movements. Food. Satisfactory and regular evacuation is basic for good health. Apples give a feeling of fullness in the stomach. This is how calories pile up and people become fat. A n d one has to eat far more of this highly processed high-calorie f o o d to get a feeling of fullness.

Prevents Haemorrhoids And Varicose Veins Big soft stools do not result in any pressure in the colon and the rectum and this in its turn prevents haemorrhoids or piles. varicose veins and diverticulitis. • Big stools always result in regular bowel movement with very little faecal matter remaining in the colon. . Regular bowel movement and a relatively clean colon is a big factor in preventing diverticula disease of the colon which is now a very c o m m o n ailment in the West where so much refined and processed f o o d is eaten. and again this disease is almost u n k n o w n in rural Africa.

•82 .• Diverticula disease means that the sides of the colon become pitted with little pouches and this is caused by pressure in the bowels through faecal matter not passing quickly through the colon. It is estimated that almost 60 per cent of persons in the developed countries of the world who are sixty years old have diverticulitis and this percentage moves up to 70 per cent with people who are seventy years old and more.

Chapter 14


Purgatives Are Big Business


Purgatives are big business and every year enormous sums of money are spent on them. Patent medicine manufacturers put on a great deal of incorrect information about the great need for purgatives. And the gullible public buys and uses them in very large quantities. In most cases, they are not needed at all. The thing to remember is that our present day diet of processed food

does not have the same a m o u n t of roughage and bulk as the diet of the old days. This sometimes results in irregular and unsatisfactory bowel movements. Some people get worried if they have not moved for a day or two. And they start taking strong doses of purgatives. But there is seldom any need to take purgatives. They are usually harmful and habit-forming.

Faecal Products In Colon
O u r grandparents prescribed high enemas or colonic irrigations to dispose of faecal accumulations. Without having the proper knowledge, our forebears were on the right track. One of the risks a h u m a n being can take is to allow the faecal products to remain in contact with the lining of his colon for days together. That is exactly what 90 per cent of people in the developed countries of the world and a large number of people in the undeveloped countries, who eat the modern, refined and processed diet, are doing. Clearly the aim must be to keep as regular a movement of waste matter in the bowels as is possible but there is no need to get alarmed and take strong laxatives, if, for some reason or other one has not moved for a day or two — this will not do any h a r m .

Dangers Of Using Purgatives

Though scientific medicine does not take constipation as seriously as it should, there are many drug companies who certainly do so. They turn out a dazzling variety of powders, pills, liquids, and even candy and chewing gum, to do for people what they can't do for themselves. • In the United States alone, the laxative industry makes millions and millions of dollars every year and its products range f r o m the harmless to the hazardous. For example, mineral oil, a popular home laxative, can interfere with the absorption of Vitamin A. Excessive use of certain laxatives have shown that they totally destroy the nerve network of portions of the colon. Continuous use of any laxative drug can interfere with the normal functioning of the digestive system and can produce a dependence on laxatives.

Isobgol Or Bran Is Good As A Laxative
Taking a natural diet with plenty of vegetable fibre residue such as fresh fruit, gram, wholewheat bread, vegetables, fruit and other such roughage is far better than taking a laxative. But if you must use a laxative, perhaps the best solution is either to take bran or isobgol as a bulk laxative or to take milk of magnesia which helps to hold water in the bowels and to soften the stool. Isobgol or bran is helpful in cases of constipation. It draws water into the stool, forms a gel-like solution and thus provides bulk. It is not absorbed by the digestive track and is a natural product with no side-effects. The same effect could probably be had by eating enough celery, which is also recommended for weight reduction, for, when taken before meals, it induces a feeling of fullness.

Diet With Adequate Roughage Best
Both constipation and diarrhoea become very rare on a diet that contains adequate roughage, such as fruit, peas, lentils, •85

also has a good laxative effect: many people find that warm water or hot tea taken in the morning is also helpful for good bowel movement. Drink Plenty Of Liquid A few glasses of water. • Roughage prevents constipation: it increases the bulk of the bowel movement so that the faecal contents stimulate the muscular action of the bowel and push their way through rapidly.vegetables. •86 . Part of this is explained by the ability of each gram of fibre to increase the volume of the stool up to as much as 20 times and this greatly assists the movement of the faecal matter in the colon. bran and wholewheat bread and chapatis. first thing in the morning.

On rare occasions food poisoning .Chapter 15 HOW TO AVOID FOOD POISONING AND INFECTIONS Food Poisoning Leads to Illness Food poisoning causes an illness which comes on after eating contaminated food. This illness is usually expressed in the form of diarrhoea and stomach pain.

Almost 90 per cent of the incidence of food poisoning is due to contaminated meat. • •88 .can be more serious a n d can result in paralysis and even temporary blindness. This bacteria is transmitted by the contamination of f o o d and water with faeces and it lives in the intestines of men. The official food poisoning figures are usually understated as most f o o d poisoning cases are never reported. Antibiotics or admission to hospitals are rarely necessary. poultry or fish. If the patients go to bed for a day or two. and m a n y of these cases are caused by a bacteria called salmonella. animals and birds. • Stomach pains and diarrhoea develop within 12 hours after eating contaminated f o o d . they usually recover quickly.

This. •89 . That is why it is i m p o r t a n t that all such foods should be thoroughly cooked. Sometimes contamination in food is hidden or disguised by strong flavours put in the food. • Where meat and poultry are stored at room temperature for a day or two.Some Useful Suggestions P r o p e r cooking usually kills the bacteria f o u n d in meat and poultry. When there is any doubt about the purity of water it is always safer to boil it. making the f o o d entirely safe to eat. Meat should be prepared in joints not heavier than 6 pounds to ensure that it is properly cooked and all the bacteria destroyed. bacteria multiply sufficiently to produce food poisoning. can be very dangerous and lead to food poisoning. this prevents the bacteria f r o m spreading and multiplying. But if meat and poultry are stored in a refrigerator. of course.

Amoebic dysentery is also spread when food and water are contaminated by faeces. The acid in the food releases the cadmium. Insecticides such as D D T . Insecticides D D T is not destroyed by cooking or after going into the body. As D D T is used a great deal in India. • Typhoid and enteric infection is spread when contaminated faeces comes into contact with drinking water. find their way into foodstuffs and are accumulated in anrmal fats and also in h u m a n fat. Aluminium and stainless steel pots and pans are much safer. • Worm Diseases Many worm diseases are transmitted through food which has been 90 . H u m a n beings who have infected faeces often transmit these diseases to other h u m a n beings through bad hygienic habits: when hands are not properly washed or when a toilet is not properly cleaned. which are used extensively for antimosquito purposes and in agriculture. Epidemic Infections Food becomes contaminated either by unhygienic handling.Cooking Vessels Old-fashioned cooking pots lined with cadmium sometimes lead to poisoning. the amount of D D T in the body fat of many people in India is quite high compared to other countries. The use of D D T is now forbidden in many countries. or by the raw food itself becoming infected before it is handled. which then gets mixed into the food and contaminates it.

A tapeworm can grow as long as 20 feet in the body. This disease poses serious health hazards. especially for a visitor to an undeveloped country who might not have built .grown in manure infected with h u m a n faeces. and this is caused either by contaminated food. in tropical countries this is fairly c o m m o n . With h u m a n beings. A well-known type of worm is the tapeworm. by infected water. Adequate cooking would normally eliminate all such worms. • Tapeworm f o u n d in pork cause far more serious illnesses and this happens when people eat contaminated pork. The popular name for this is jaundice which is virtually an acute inflammation of the liver. In well-fed people these worms generally do little harm. They usually give rise to vague indigestion pains. Hepatitis Or Jaundice Food may also become contaminated by various viruses causing a disease called hepatitis. Infection begins when the cattle eat grass contaminated with h u m a n faeces containing worm eggs. or more frequently. infection occurs through eating inadequately cooked contaminated meat. which lives partly in the h u m a n intestine and partly in the muscles of cattle and pigs.

It has now been proved that the spread of Hepatitis B is also due to the transmission of this disease by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes. Hepatitis B is serious and is usually transmitted by blood-to-blood contact as in the case of a blood transfusion f r o m a person who is infected. There are two main types of hepatitis — Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. •92 . or among drug addicts who share a common syringe or needle. caused by contaminated f o o d or water is generally mild. Hepatitis A.up any immunity.

particularly if it is kept at r o o m temperature. However. the danger of TB is almost completely removed. Germs in milk can also come through unhygienic handling. This bacteria can be killed by cooking or can be easily washed off by using a mild disinfectant. kills all such germs. Pasteurisation Milk is a food in which germs can grow very quickly. •93 .Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is o f t e n developed by drinking unboiled milk f r o m an infected cow. if the milk is boiled. which means heating milk to a high temperature and then rapidly cooling it. Pasteurisation. H a r m f u l bacteria can and often does collect on the surface. Care must be taken to ensure that only pasteurised or boiled milk is drunk. Steps are now being taken in many of the countries of the world to ensure that cattle infected with TB are destroyed. Fruits And Vegetables Fruits and vegetables do not usually contain any bacteria inside them.


trouble with teeth is much less. Vigorous gargling with water and rubbing the teeth and gums with one's finger is enough. like soap. Tooth-paste as such has little to do with preventing dental decay except when the tooth-paste itself contains flouride. acts as a solvent and helps to release the food particles stuck between the teeth as these particles later tend to lead to dental decay. in pountries where sugar is eaten in small quantities. The best way to prevent decay is to wash one's teeth thoroughly after every meal and specially when one has eaten sugar or sugar products. • Dental decay was almost unknown in olden days when the consumption of sugar was far less. even in a few hours. however. Very small quantities of flouride in water also protect against dental decay. in a short while. Even today. • • • •95 .Dental decay is caused mainly by sugar and things made f r o m sugar: the sugar gets converted into an acid and it is this acid which harms the teeth. Tooth-paste.

bad breath is often caused if the tongue is thickly coated and this •96 .Chapter 17 BAD BREATH AND ITS CAUSE This is something which affects every one of us at some time or another. another cause is the m o u t h not being properly washed. one could even go so far as to say that at any one time almost one out of ten-adults has bad breath. In fact. Causes Of Bad Breath The main cause of bad breath is undoubtedly a stomach-upset. thirdly.

A very good thing to remember. Fourthly. never to breathe fully into the face of the person to whom you are speaking. is normally. because very often one does not even know when one has bad breath. either with a tooth brush or by making use of specially made tongue cleaners. •97 . What to Do One should go to the root cause as described above and try to cure it.can be put right by cleaning the tongue. however. it is usually safer to turn the face sideways when one is speaking. certain lung diseases such as bronchiectasis also cause bad breath.

Ageing is a continuous process. • Exercise is vitally important for health. They say. The physical age of a person can vary f r o m his .' One can start exercising at any age and with great advantage to oneself. the other is his age according to the physical condition of his body — a n d exercise can determine this to a considerable extent. it will give us a headache. the rate of ageing depends considerably on the expenditure. ' I ' m too old to exercise. m a n y doctors consider it the single most important factor for survival. accumulation and occurrence of factors other than mere years. but his body may be very many years younger or older. In fact. The life of an aircraft can be calculated in flying-hours.' They should say. we age f r o m the moment we are born. Exercise will tire us.Chapter 18 HOW EXERCISE CAN LEAD TO GOOD HEALTH What Is Ageing We find any number of excuses not to exercise: the restricted facilities we have. But every person has two ages for his body. A person chronologically may be 60 years old. that of a car in terms of the number of miles it has done. make it difficult for us to exercise. One is his age according to the calendar — his chronological age. •98 • . But as far as the age of h u m a n beings is concerned. chronological age by as much as 30 years. People accept age as an excuse for inactivity. a backache. 'I am too old not to exercise. such as our small flats.

Outstanding Men Exercise

The great Napoleon laid great store by exercise and he used to ride hard whenever he could. It is a statistical fact that outstanding men, as figures f r o m the American Who's Who show, do not generally die young. T h e mortality rate of these outstanding men is usually much lower than that of other men of the same age in the United States. This indicates that men who have made their mark in the world do a considerable a m o u n t of preventive maintenance of their most important asset: themselves. Even Billy G r a h a m can be seen jogging round Hyde Park when he visits L o n d o n . He certainly does not leave his health only to good luck and to the Almighty.

Exercise Must Be Gradual
There is the story of the legendary Milo of Croton who lifted a baby ox every day f r o m the day the beast was born. Every day the •99

ox grew bigger. Every day the m a n grew stronger. Finally the ox was full grown and the m a n was still able to lift it. The moral of this is that the more you use a muscle or an organ of your body, the stronger it becomes. • A n d this applies no matter how poor one's physical condition or one's age: m a n ' s physical condition can always be improved by applying exercise in gradually increasing amounts but the increase must be very gradual and without introducing strain in any way, especially when one is getting on in age. The important thing about exercise is that it must be done on a regular basis. One should start by doing a little and slowly build up. If vigorous exercise is done in fits and starts and not on a regular basis, it may do more harm than good.

Pulse-Rate And Exercise

A large number of people all over the world and especially in the U.S.A. are now doing exercises which they relate to their pulserate. This system of monitoring the pulse-rate is a bonus of the exercise research for the space programme because that is how the aeronauts kept fit in the limited confines of their space-ship. A Pulse-Rate Table for exercising for various ages and in various conditions of fitness is given on the previous page. • This pulse-rate table is not only a guide for exercising but it is also very good f r o m the stand-point of medical safety: the pulse-rate during exercise should never be higher than what is shown in the table. The pulse-rate given here should be maintained by exercising for about 15 to 20 minutes. No more. Some people might think hat checking a pulse-rate is complicated and confusing. But it is not so. One can easily learn how to check a pulse in five minutes. Many doctors, of course, are very much against this method of exercising as they do not think that laymen are in a position to check their pulse-rate.

Pulse-Rate Checking Distasteful
A large number of people find checking the pulse-rate while exercising very distasteful. In such cases, they should ignore the pulserate table, but they should take into account the degree of their tiredness when exercising. Exercise should tire but never over-tire. But unless one does reach a certain degree of tiredness, unless one h u f f s and p u f f s to a certain extent, one has not really fully extended oneself by means of exercise.

Cardio-Vascular System And Exercise
Physical exercise should be a pleasant, sensuous activity. When •101

Exercise should be like dancing. and one should exercise that for. you must never get over-tired. • The most important part of your body that must be exercised is the cardio-vascular system. jog. It should express the way you feel. and to attain this feeling people in increasing numbers are more than willing to get up early on a cold icy morning and exercise. remember. Do any sort of exercise you enjoy doing: you can just move about energetically: dance. Your stride should be comfortable. say. Exercise Must Be Ail-Round Although exercise in any form is beneficial. rhythm and wellbeing. you should have a feeling of grace. But. 15 minutes at least three times a week. This is a very strong motivating force for exercising. anything as long as you manage to huff and puff to a certain extent and gel pleasantly tired. no one exercise •102 .you move. The Motivation For Exercise As you exercise a wonderful feeling of well-being sweeps through you — you feel on top of the world: there is nothing you can't do.

This you can achieve far more effectively with a much less vigorous but a much more all-round exercise programme. • There is no point making exercises rigid and tiring. drinking and smoking. •103 • . This would then adequately exercise all the important parts of the body.develops general fitness. There is no need to exercise so that only your belly is as hard as a rock. it would in point of fact give you little general health and fitness for everyday living. for. In fact. • If you train yourself to a very high level of fitness in just one or two directions. Some people think — entirely wrongly. You do not have to turn your life upside down. for example. You may not even have to give up entirely all your bad habits. you will get more fun out of them and the harmful effect may even be somewhat offset if you keep completely tit. or to exercise so that you can do 100 press-ups at one time. In addition to exercise for the cardio-vascular system. There is no question of competing with anyone or trying to break records when one is exercising. Keeping fit is not as hard as you may think. Several different types of exercise are necessary for all-round development. the stomach or for press-ups. of course — that they have not exercised properly unless they are uncomfortable. There is no doubt that you live your days better if you exercise. say. one should also do exercises which will help to strengthen the back. the spine and the stomach muscles. • Exercise And The Quality Of Life The process of living has two dimensions — one is the sheer number of days of life and the other is the quality of life.

let your stomach muscles go lax. Look at a cat stretching: that's why it is so fit. especially when you wake up. five times in each direction. stretch as much as you can. then make 12" circles slowly. Stretching in any manner is very relaxing. get into the habit of dropping your arms outside the chair's arms and hold the bottom of the seat with your hand.Simple Exercises For Any Time When waiting for a bus or driving or sitting at a conference-table or a cinema or even lying in bed. While sitting. •104 • • • • • • . Remember. reach. Then start lifting upwards in such a way that it will square your rounded shoulders. • • Always try to walk tall and springily. Towel. Do this whenever you get a chance and your muscles will soon be able to flatten your stomach. Whenever you can. And when you require more air while you are exercising. pulling your stomach in and up. remember to walk with your heels hardly touching the ground and at every opportunity try a few heel raises. Lean back on your chair and raise your legs until they are parallel to the floor with ankles together.yourself very hard after a shower. Good posture makes for good health. then slowly tighten them. never to hold your breath while you are exercising. When reaching for a telephone. Always sit tall with your back straight. take all of it you can both through the nose and mouth. There is no need whatsoever to breath only through the nose if you require more air.

Exercise To M usic The following ex ercises can be done while you listen to the radio or to your f a v o u r i t e music on the tape-recorder: • Lie on your back a n d sit up. keeping your legs straight. keeping t h e m straight. knees forward. breathing rhythmically and deeply the whole t i m e . This exercise is very good for the tummy. This exercise and the previous one are g o o d for the spine. as you get used to it you w i l l not need your hands. stretch up. It is not only very good f o r the whole cardiovascular system b u t it also exercises the legs and the stomach. Toe Touching: S t a n d with the feet a little apart. then touch the floor b e t w e e n your feet. Running on the s p o t : lift your feet well up off the floor. the stomach and the lungs. This is an excellent exercise: it takes very little time and can be done a n y w h e r e . Lie on your back a n d raise and lower your legs as slowly as possible. • • • .

be done properly under the supervision of a Yoga teacher.Sarvangasana — An excellent exercise for the thyroid glands and will help to prolong youth. The Sarvangasana must. the throat. It is an easy exercise to learn and to do. The teeth. the spine. the whole nervous system and the abdominal organs are all greatly benefited by this wonderful exercise. •106 • . however. the gums. the nasal passages. the vocal cords. • There appears to be strong supporting evidence that the Sarvangasana might well be one of the world's best exercises in that it can avoid or postpone a host of illnesses that normally afflict human beings.

This President himself at one time had had a coronary. • Exercise By Climbing Stairs A past President of the American Heart Association made it a rule that a person requiring to go up to three to four floors should not be allowed to use a lift. Push up with your hands and then come down. Twenty minutes of exercise scientifically done can do more for your health than two hours of strenuous baseball. but he always climbed stairs where not more than four floors •107 . tennis or football.15 to 20 press-ups daily are good for health • Press-ups: lie face down. legs straight.

It is b o u n d to give you a feeling of well-being if you do it regularly. no change of clothes and very little additional fime — and it relieves the strain on the lifts. It requires no equipment. This is something which all of us can do.were involved. •108 . He' maintained that his continuing good health was mainly due to climbing stairs.

however. is something relatively new. . All that it requires is the will to do it. doctors constitute quite a large number.A. in the age group 45 to 65. is something which everyone anywhere. It is also good for the digestion. Jogging is almost like a counter-attack to heart disease. and among these joggers. • • Jogging takes up far less time than most other exercises.Jogging Approximately seven to ten million people in the U. jogging means a slow run. • Jogging as an exercise. it is the least expensive and one of the best forms of exercise. can do. Jogging not only exercises one's whole cardio-vascular system but also exercises the lungs and all the leg and thigh muscles.S. alone go jogging every day. owing to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Jogging. It is the answer to the large number of deaths that are taking place among people.

but it certainly takes a lot of will power to run on the spot on a regular daily basis.• One of the most effective ways of preventing heart disease is to exercise. it becomes difficult for people to do them on a regular basis. To overcome this undoubted disadvantage. This is being done a great deal in the U. A f t e r a certain age. b a d m i n t o n . Running on the spot is also an excellent exercise. The rapid flow of blood caused by jogging tends to prevent the clogging of blood and halts arteriosclerosis. it can be vigorous. This might be more convenient for some people than jogging. it can be for a long time — it depends entirely on you. Tennis. O n e should never get over-tired. fast walks. just start walking when you are tired. One does not compete when one jogs.A. as it takes a lot of additional will-power to jog alone. People right up to 75 years old go jogging now. but these exercises are not always possible. Some people find jogging uninteresting. Jogging leads to enormously beneficial results: it exercises the heart and also the numerous veins and tissues a r o u n d it.S. boring and uncomfortable: they think it appears a bit childish and a little ridiculous for a grown-up person to get up early in the morning and jog. people can get together and jog in groups. but exercises that make one huff and puff to a certain extent. squash are excellent. Jogging is the single biggest deterrent to heart disease as it tones up the whole of the cardio-vascular system. it can be slow. •110 • • • • • • . O n e can set one's own pace. The best way to jog is to do it along with walking: a certain amount of walking and a certain amount of jogging. it can be for a short time. football. Not leisurely exercises such as playing golf or going for a slow walk.

• The trouble is that most of us do not have the patience or the determination to breathe deeply. In Japan. but if we do it. fifteen deep breaths slowly through the nose. right f r o m their school-days. while sitting or standing. it can benefit us considerably. If you take. to breathe deeply whenever they can. people are taught. say. When breathing out. It is certainly very boring. • 112 . you should sometimes try blowing air through the mouth: this makes the breathing exercise much more effective. it will give you an immediate feeling of well-being.Deep Breathing Deep breathing is also a means of attaining a feeling of wellbeing.

In our chapter on the heart we have described the Shavasana posture which is excellent for mental calm and peace. The Mind And Exercise We have spoken a great deal about physical exercise for developing the body. The exercises and attitudes which help to make the mind relaxed and calm are as important as physical exercises. are very seldom given the importance that is their due.• Breathing introduces oxygen into the system and the human system can never have an excess of oxygen. Mental exercises. Deep breathing also improves your posture and good posture is a very important factor for acquiring good health. . But the mental state also has a considerable bearing on physical health. however.

heart diseases and strokes have become the biggest killers. today. In the old days. the biggest killers were infectious diseases. infectious diseases are still responsible for the majority of deaths. In the underdeveloped countries.Chapter 19 HOW TO PREVENT HEART DISEASES AND STROKES Over the last fifty years or so there has been a complete change in the causes of deaths in the developed countries of the world. . however.

typhoid and other such infectious diseases and also. the average longevity in the U. the longevity has increased only slightly over the years and the main reason for this is because of deaths caused by coronary disease and strokes. say. So much so. Diseases of the heart generally affect people over the age of 40. it followed that heart disease was rare as people in those days did not live to be old enough to develop heart disease. • Women up to the age of menopause have approximately a 25 per cent chance of contracting heart disease compared to men.K. Since the average longevity in the developed countries right up to 1900 was around 40. that the longevity of persons within this age group has increased very little over the last hundred years. • The Epidemic Years Nowadays. the average mortality rate of a person of. heart disease has assumed almost epidemic f o r m . In 1850. This increase in the longevity is mainly due to the decrease of diseases such as plague. •114 . 65 today is only a little lower than that of a person of 65 a hundred years ago. f r o m the ages of 45-to 65. the great reduction in infant mortality which is mainly responsible for today's very high average longevity rate. But after menopause a woman is as likely as a male to get heart trouble. For example. Anyone over the age of 40 has more than a 50:50 chance of getting heart disease. cholera. Today the longevity for a male is 69 and for a female 73.• Over 50 per cent of the annual total deaths in the United States are caused by strokes and heart diseases of various kinds — these are now far and away the biggest killers. was 35 years. but it is possible that the female hormones during the child-bearing years protect women against coronary attacks. But within the age group 45 to 65. of course. It is not entirely established as to why females are more favoured than males in this respect.

We have all the know-how to prevent it. can be prevented. diet. and a more relaxed style of life.• Basically the cause of coronary disease and strokes is the same: it is due to an impediment or clotting of the flow of blood in an artery of the heart or the brain. caused by heart attacks on people who are at the peak of their powers and ability. they would never have got their heart attack in the first place. If they had only practised one-tenth of this before they got their heart attack. It keeps the blood in circulation through approximately 125. but so many people take no action at all until it is too late. After a heart-attack people follow a rigid regime of exercise. Take Preventive Action What is so tragic is to think that a very large proportion of the terrible wastage. What Are Heart Attacks? The heart is virtually a p u m p with valves.000 kilometres of veins and .

leading to coronary heart attacks. leaving a relatively small scar in the heart. that part of the heart which is deprived of blood dies. If clotting takes place in a m a j o r artery. If there is any blockage of this flow of blood. a stroke may occur and a part of the body might become paralysed. it occasionally happens that the heart p u m p itself begins to fail and it is then not in a position to p u m p enough •116 . If there is any stoppage of blood to the brain for even a few minutes. But another big cause of heart disease is brought about by the failure of the heart p u m p itself. a minor coronary attack develops. The blood which circulates in the h u m a n body brings oxygen and other nutrients required by the cells of the body. Every part of the heart must have blood and if there is any stoppage in the flow of blood. • Coronary heart disease is caused through a clotting or blockage of blood in one of the arteries of the heart. If clotting takes place in one of the smaller arteries.arteries in the h u m a n system. it may develop either into a coronary heart attack or a stroke. When the heart pump is strained excessively owing to overwork er high blood pressure. It is the health of the cardio-vascular system of the body that determines the nature of the flow of blood in the h u m a n system. The part of the heart that dies through loss of blood dies irrevocably and a scar is left: it cannot recover its use as in the case of a diseased liver or a kidney. it affects a large area of the heart and a massive heart attack takes place which may lead to death. What Are Strokes? The blood supply to the brain must be constant. Causes Of Heart Failure Far and away the biggest number of deaths through heart disease are caused through the clogging of arteries in the heart.

blood through the system. This may eventually lead to death. . This may result in blood lying congested in the lungs or in blood not reaching the vital parts of the body such as the brain. Just as exercise strengthens all the muscles of the body. • It has been f o u n d that inhabitants of areas where the water is soft have almost twice the mortality rates f r o m heart disease than people who live in hard water areas. exercise strengthens the heart muscles as well. How Exercise Can Help Regular and vigorous exercise is probably the best preventive against a coronary heart attack and stroke. Exercise provides the heart with a good support system as each muscle becomes an auxiliary of the heart and helps to p u m p blood.

have wide arteries and so very few cases of high blood pressure or heart attacks. is necessary. A wellexercised heart will have more blood vessels to take over if and when there is a stoppage in any one artery. fast walking. d o n ' t they: You are as young as your arteries. When it relaxes.• When a muscle in the body contracts with exercise it squeezes the blood towards the heart. together with the increase of blood in the capillaries. would tend to allow the blood to flow more smoothly and reduce the danger of clogging in the arteries. With exercise. A man who is 20 p o u n d s overweight with muscle is not straining his heart with these extra pounds: they are actually working in support of the heart. Almost all heart specialists exercise because they realise the important part played by exercise in preventing heart disease. vigorous dancing or physical jerks. The people of the Masai tribe in Africa walk about twenty kilometres a day herding cattle. the health of the arteries is a very important factor. It would appear that people doing exercise tend to have wider arteries: this. therefore. squash. People do say. These people. at least three times a week is the minimum amount which is necessary to keep the heart and the arteries in good condition. tennis. But the man who is 20 p o u n d s overweight because of fat is taxing his heart because his fat is doing nothing to help his flow of blood. One of the reasons they do so is because of the increase of blood in the tissues and capillaries that exercise tends to produce. the exercise must be vigorous. it is like a minor heart. Fifteen to twenty minutes of vigorous exercise. Although an exercised heart beats more slowly when it is resting •118 • • • • • . A quiet stroll or a gentle game of golf is not entirely sufficient: something more strenuous such as swimming. the arteries become more elastic and less brittle. In order to get fully beneficial results. it allows the muscle to fill with blood.

In fact. obesity or nervous tension.S.A. yet its pumping capacity is the same if not greater. therefore. reduces the danger of atherosclerosis — which. simply put. Exercise lowers the level of triglycerides and it also probably reduces the blood-cholesterol level. population. of course. A significant survey in a rehabilitation centre in T o r o n t o has proved that heart patients who exercise regularly are much less prone to get recurrent heart attacks than the ones who do not exercise. the exercised heartpump works less during a day compared to a heart that is not so well conditioned: this slow beating of the heart is. excellent for its long-term well-being. people with heart attacks who jog regularly have even gone in for running marathons: this just proves how far heart patients can go with regular exercise. on an average. of course. at least 30 per cent less than that of people who did not exercise. excercise plays an important part.A. In the area of rehabilitation of heart-attack victims. Medical experts are of the opinion that over 50 per cent of this reduction is due to systematic vigorous exercise by a large section of the U. over the past two years. •119 .S. under a d o c t o r ' s guidance. • It has been proved again and again by various studies that lack of exercise is the single most important factor associated with heart attack for a m a n in his fifties: it is far more damaging than smoking. • • • Exercise Reduces Coronaries A Danish team which did some work on the mortality of people between the ages of 25 and 50 found that the mortality of athletes was. means a deposit in the arteries leading to a clogging of the arteries. It. In fact. It is estimated that the incidence of heart disease has been reduced by 30 per cent in the U.compared to a heart which is not exercised.

telephonists and telephone clerks.A. A survey of postmen revealed that they had less coronary disease compared to postal clerks. and clerks who had sedentary jobs.S. as the work of the conductors entailed a considerable amount of strenuous physical movement during the day. who had sedentary jobs. It was found that the incidence of coronary disease was higher among bus drivers compared to bus conductors. among American railwaymen indicated that the incidence of coronary disease among labourers was far less than among railway staff such as signalmen.ROUTS NO. An experiment in the U. •120 • • . • A study was made some years ago of a group of bus drivers and bus conductors.

of male civil service staff. Excess milk products. A certain amount of cholesterol is necessary in the blood but where it exceeds this a m o u n t . it can clog the artery altogether. U. it was found that of the 17.K. While a considerable a m o u n t of research is still being done on these deposits in the arteries. Correct Diet Can Reduce Coronaries It is now established that one of the m a j o r causes of heart attack is the narrowing of the arteries caused by the deposits or a t h e r o m a that settle in the inner walls of the arteries.000 people studied. then damage is caused. These deposits hinder the flow of blood in the arteries and when the deposit or a t h e r o m a is excessive. It is f o u n d f r o m this survey that persons taking regular exercise had significantly less coronary disease than the others.• In a survey carried out by Professor Morris of the Medical Research Council. 232 had coronary thrombosis. animal fats and carbohydrates all tend to lead to high . stop the flow of blood and lead to a coronary attack. • The aim of diet should be to reduce the amount of high cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood stream.. many doctors now believe that it is due mainly to the high cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood stream.

including honey. Excess of sugar is one of the biggest single items of food causing high triglyceride: that is why so many people are. which are very high in carbohydrates. • Many doctors think that one can considerably reduce one's chances of having a coronary if one keeps one's blood cholesterol and triglycerides low right from the start.cholesterol. • . avoiding sugar and items containing sugar. before one develops any symptoms of heart trouble. These must be reduced drastically if one wishes to reduce the cholesterol level in the blood. Cholesterol and triglyceride fat derivatives which are synthesized in the body have a sinister association with atherosclerosis. as far as possible. so one should be very careful about eating foods which have high quantities of carbohydrates and fats.

it would naturally follow that the blood pressure in the system. It is easy to bring down one's cholesterol and triglyceride level by sensible dieting. Remember a stitch in time saves nine. Obesity is. One's doctor may suggest that one should take medicine rather than conform to a rigid diet to reduce one's blood cholesterol or perhaps both. Obesity is a definite deterrent to vigorous exercise. have just about one-third of the incidence of coronary attacks compared to people who eat normal saturated fats. • Obesity Puts A Strain On The Heart Fat people are prone to much greater risks of heart diseases and strokes compared to those who are not overweight. Because of additional weight. A study completed by the New York Coronary Club showed that people on a diet low in saturated fats. would have to be increased to service this bigger area. So it may be advisable to have a cholesterol and triglyceride check. If a bigger area of the body has to be serviced because of obesity. This means that the heart p u m p and the capillaries and tissues in the heart lose the advantages of excercise which helps to keep them well conditioned and healthy. often accompanied by high blood pressure and this in its turn tends to lead to coronary disease and strokes. fat people do not do as much exercise as people who are not fat. Someone with a tendency towards high cholesterol or triglyceride may have to take medication for most of his life. therefore.• Fat people tend to have high blood cholesterol but others who are thin may also have high cholesterol levels. • Obesity puts a bigger strain on the heart p u m p as a bigger area of the body has to be serviced by it. • • High Blood Pressure Bad For Heart When the arteries narrow because of deposits left in the inner •123 .

who took salt sparingly with their food. The famous Mayo Clinic in the U. a systolic reading of 180 at any age doubles the risk of a coronary or a stroke. and the body just must have this blood. Low blood pressure sometimes goes in whole families. where a great deal of salt is taken in the diet.S. High blood pressure puts a bigger strain on the heart pump: it has to work much harder to push the same amount of blood through much narrower arteries.A. • People who have a low salt diet do not normally have high blood pressure. A car driver's pulse-rate is often 150 per minute in traffic against a normal pulse-rate of about 70. This is what is meant by high blood pressure. had very low blood pressure compared to the rest of Japan. Statistics have shown that almost 20 per cent of males in the developed countries of the world between the ages of 40 and 50 have high blood pressure. It was found that the inhabitants of an island in Japan. the risk of their children having it is almost 90 per cent. has found that where both parents have hypertension or high blood pressure.walls. •124 • • • . and in Apollo 14 the astronauts' heart rates quadrupled at the first set-back. People who have low blood pressure are fortunate in that they will never suffer from tf ? ill-effects of high blood pressure. the blood pressure becomes high. A constant systolic reading of 150 in a man under 50 is above normal. because the same quantity of blood as before is now going through narrower arteries. the pressure of the blood going through these arteries must go up. So when the arteries get narrow. Any man or woman under 60 who has a constant diastolic blood pressure of 105 or more must receive pressure-lowering treatment. low blood pressure is benign and harmless. • The technical term for high blood pressure is hypertension. Generally speaking.

according. headaches and dizziness could all be indications of high blood pressure. there are at least two deaths f r o m coronary disease brought about by cigarette smoking.• Irritability. Smoking: A Hazard For The Heart There is a close association between coronary disease and cigarette smoking. cigarette smoking is the single biggest avoidable menace to health. you should take steps immediately to bring it down as high blood pressure is not only a permanent strain on the heart but also increases the risk of atherosclerosis. It is significant that the biggest group to register a drop in cigarette smokers is doctors. In fact. for every one death caused by lung cancer brought about by cigarette smoking. This has the effect of raising the carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood. an annual medical report of the Chief Medical Officer in Britain. which reduces its oxygen content. • If you are a cigarette addict it is no use going over to cigars or •125 • . loss of energy and of the power of concentration. If you have any of these symptoms get your blood pressure checked as soon as possible. If your blood pressure is higher than it should be. This in its turn means that the heart p u m p has to work more strenuously to feed the same amount of oxygen as before to the system. They have clearly realised the great danger to health caused by smoking. In certain cases a doctor may prescribe drugs. insomnia. To bring down high blood pressure will entail a change in the tempo and style of your life to a certain extent. In fact. Cigarette smoke also contains carbon monoxide. • Cigarette smoking tends to increase the a m o u n t of atheroma or deposits in the arteries leading to clotting of the blood.

and this has the effect of increasing the levels of fatty acids in the arteries which lead to a narrowing and maybe clogging of the arteries. rose very steeply during the last six months before they got their coronary attack compared to the other people involved in this experiment. there are special centres where persons are sent for an entirely stress-free holiday. who gave a questionnaire to a large number of people relating to their lives over a number of years. but it was found that the stress curve in the case of those people who subsequently developed coronary thrombosis. • From an examination of the results of this questionnaire. Stress Can Cause A Heart Attack There was an interesting experiment on stress patterns by a U. Similarly. the stress caused by the death of. naval psychologist. •126 • • • • . A stay in these centres has resulted in a considerable reduction of stress and anxiety. The only sensible solution is to give up smoking altogether.S. Some of the people involved in this experiment had developed coronary liirombosis. This experiment clearly revealed that there is a close relationship between stress and coronary thrombosis. During the Second World War it was f o u n d that the stress and anxiety caused by the bombing in London increased the incidence of heart disease. You will inhale enough with whatever you smoke to get your dose of nicotine — and you will be little better o f f . which in its turn reduces the coronary death rate. it was f o u n d that most of the people who took part in the experiment began with approximately the same stress pattern. Stress leads to coronary diseases because stress releases large quantities of adrenal hormones into the blood stream. say. a near relation can also help to cause coronary heart disease.pipes. In West Germany and the Soviet Union.

would tend to make it one of the world's finest 'exercises'. •127 . Live more in the present and be less concerned with the mistakes of the past and the fears of the future. There is something to be said for the hippie philosophy. hands by your sides. The Shavasana or 'Death Posture' It has been found that if the Shavasana exercise is done properly it can have the immediate result of bringing down blood-pressure and the pulse-rate. This.• To reduce stress you may have to change your philosophy of living. legs a little apart. just by itself. • To do the Shavasana. in a posture of complete relaxation: The breathing must be slow and through the nose and the mind should be either completely blank or concentrated only on the breathing. Peace of mind is for today. lie flat on your back.

by means of Shavasana. • • •128 . Shavasana also helps to slow down the build-up of fatty matter in the arteries. the flow of blood in the system is made much easier and the strain of the heart muscles considerably reduced. Through relaxing the whole system. but it also gives the person a feeling of relaxed well-being. it is not only an excellent protection against a coronary attack. The more it is done. Shavasana should be practised by everyone and whenever possible.• This is certainly a very difficult exercise to start with and requires a considerable amount of will-power to do properly: but once anyone has learnt to relax completely in this position. the more beneficial it is to the whole human system. it can never be done too often.

• A slipped disc is caused when the padding of thick fibre between the various vertebrae — the separate bones of the spine — gets oul of place and the bones themselves rub against each other.Chapter 20 BACKACHES AND SLIPPED DISCS AND HOW TO PREVENT THEM Backaches and slipped discs are now becoming more and more common. •129 . that is. this padding is popularly known as a disc. When this happens.

•130 • . Those who do not walk regularly should do exercises for the back. Some people get a backache whenever they have to face a difficult problem. • Walking is a useful exercise to keep the back in trim as it exercises the back muscles. padded executive chairs and sofas. sitting in a car for hours on end and the over-comfortable. Stress A very high percentage of pain at the back of the neck and shoulders and also low backaches are due to tension. soft. neck and chest — a few times. Next raise the legs with knees straight. a few times. for a few minutes every day. neck. First raise the upper part — head. Degenerative changes. Faulty Posture Faulty postures often lead to a backache and so do extra soft mattresses.when the disc has slipped from its position and the bones rub against each other. Lie on the chest and abdomen with arms by your side. the pain is excruciating. The Common Causes • • • • Stress. raise the head. chest and both legs together without using the support of the arms and hands. Injuries or sprains. Finally. Exercise For The Back The best way to prevent a backache and a slipped disc is to do exercises which strengthen the back. Faulty posture.

• •131 .• Another good exercise is to sit on one's heels with one's back as straight as possible and then to stand upright and come down again on one's heels. it is excellent for strengthening the back. If these exercises are done regularly. This exercise should be done about 15 times a day. the chances of getting a slipped disc or a backache are remote.

Normally this process is entijely disciplined and orderly and under control. • Such tumours may be benign or cancerous: they may stay in the . However. it sometimes happens that this process in the body is disrupted and there is an uncontrolled growth of cells in an organ. These cells f o r m tumours. for certain reasons which are still u n k n o w n .Chapter 21 WHAT ONE CAN DO ABOUT CANCER What Is Cancer The body consists of millions of cells which are constantly growing and dying and multiplying at regular intervals.

S!A. That is why early detection and early treatment is so very necessary. If a cancerous t u m o u r is removed before the cancer cells travel to other parts of the body. when many of the older doctors went to medical schools. they are scared to find out if they have it. alone. Cancer is either carried in the blood stream or the cancer cells grow directly f r o m one tissue to the other. almost every case of cancer at that t ime was considered incurable. One cf the reasons for this fear is because. then the danger of cancer is removed.same place in the body f o r years on end. If a tumour is malignant the cancer cells are sometimes carried to other parts of the body. But m a n y people treat caricejj as if it is a combination of syphilis a n d small pox. Causes Of Cancer Almost 80 per cent of the causes of cancer are due to exposure to the environment created by m a n . they are a f r a i d to admit to anyone that they have it. • Various chemicals derived f r o m coal-tar can cause cancer: vinyl- . and if they do have it. • Cancier kills over a quarter of a million people every year in the U.

K. Sweden and Britain.S. it led to cancer of the blood. Irritants in tobacco smoke increase the danger of cancer in the lungs and this is described in some detail in the chapter on smoking.A. Some of the food additives that have recently been banned in certain countries are suspected to have caused cancer in human beings.chloride as a cause of cancer of the liver has received a great deal of publicity lately.. Saccharin It was found that if rats are fed on very high and concentrated doses of saccharin. annually eats approximately three pounds of food additives which are used for colouring and flavour. but nothing is definitely established. Cancer of . This created such a scare that this sweetening agent has been banned in several countries including the U. It is estimated that everyone in the U. • The cancer causing chemicals are mainly organic chemicals with exotic names like methyl cholanthrene and the like.

• Irritants such as excessive exposure to sunlight in the case of very fair-skinned persons or constant chewing of betel may produce cancer. • • How Cancer Develops Cancer usually occurs in people after the age of 40. While the effects of radiation on the body are disturbing. The amount of radiation in the atmosphere has an important bearing on diseases such as leukaemia or cancer of the blood. however. Radioactive fall-out comes f r o m tests of nuclear weapons and other atomic explosions: most of the radioactive dust particles lose their power over a number of years. Radiation Fall-Out And Cancer Extensive exposure to X-rays may produce cancer in certain susceptible individuals. X-rays. but the position can be entirely reversed if there is an accident in even one of the numerous atomic power plants which are now operating in various parts of the world. Further research will show whether this particular ban is justified or not. such as strontium-90 last permanently. So it is important that there should be a periodic examination for cancer after •135 . its action on unborn children is even more so. only result if saccharin is taken in very large quantities and not in the quantities people normally take by way of sweetening.the blood can. and that is the main reason why people are so disturbed about atomic tests or by the building of more atomic power stations. A decayed tooth can cause cancer of the tongue if the tooth has sharp or rough edges and if it constantly rubs against the inside of the m o u t h . but others. The amount of radioactivity in the atmosphere is now coming down because of the controls imposed on atomic explosions.

• Seventy per cent of cancer cases are curable if they are detected early. rarely does pain occur in the early stages. One should be on the alert to discover any abnormal signs in the body. Early detection can result in a complete cure.this age since most cancers are insidious and attack silently. it comes. So if the tumour is removed any time during its incubation period. Cancer takes a long time to develop and spread: it may even be twenty years before a cancerous tumour begins to spread to other parts of the body. the danger of cancer can be avoided. 'If it comes. Early detection results in the cancer cells being removed before they have a chance to spread to other parts of the body.S. •136 . Cancer Can Be Cured / One should never be fatalistic about cancer and say.' Not at all. are today leading perfectly normal lives after having been treated and cured of cancer.A. and nothing can be done about it. Over a million people in the U.

There is some evidence that cancer of the cervix in women and of the prostate in men are found more often in those who started sexual activity at a young age and among those who changed partners frequently. .Cancer And Sex There have been a number of reports linking genital cancer in both men and women to sexual activity. Some Myths About Cancer There is no proof that cancer is hereditary and there is little evidence to support the view that the temperature of food is an important element in the development of cancer in the throat. who tend to be promiscuous to some extent. the wives of clergymen. brought out the fact that they are twenty times more susceptible to cancer of the cervix than. There is evidence to show that promiscuity tends to increase cancer of the cervix in women. A survey made in England of the wives of fishermen and boatmen. say.

•138 . A sore or ulcer that does not readily heal. A lump or thickening in the breast. can be detected only by fluoroscopy or X-rays.Warnings Signs For Cancer • • • • • • • • Hoarseness of voice or persistent cough which does not respond to treatment. cobalt therapy a n d chemicals. Certain types of cancer. A sudden change in the size or colour of a wart or mole. cancer of the stomach or of the prostate or of the colon. especially among people who smoke. Unusual bleeding or discharge. A change diarrhoea. Cancer of the lung is one of the commonest forms of cancer. the four effective methods f o r treating cancer are: surgery. • • How Cancer Is Treated And Removed • At present. for example. There are thousands of cases that have been completely cured by these methods. radium therapy. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing. Early diagnosis can lead to early treatment. Some Facts About Cancer • Cancer of the skin is one of the least dangerous forms of cancer. because it is accessible to the surgeon's knife as well as to radium treatment. in bowel habits or alternating constipation and A change in bladder habits.

larynx. a substance that can kill cancer without harming the normal tissues. colon and the prostate gland. Cancer Research • Most of the research done in cancer is in the direction of finding a substance which will starve the cancer cells without affecting the normal cells. digestive system. but cancer in males generally appears in the lungs. •139 .Where Cancer Appears • The actual site of cancer in the body varies with the habits and customs of a particular country. m o u t h . followed by the breast. ovaries and stomach. In females. the cervix ranks first. foodpipe.

diabetes is a very dangerous disease if left unchecked. This.Chapter 22 HOW TO DEAL WITH DIABETES Insulin And Sugar Content There must normally be a balance between the insulin and the sugar content in the body. Moreover. excess sugar in the blood can also harm many of the other organs in the body such as the eyes and the nerves and the patient can also develop non-healing ulcers. In fact. which is a gland tucked away near the intestines. in its turn. deals with the sugar in the body which is derived f r o m the carbohydrates consumed. but what is certain is •140 . Dangers Of Excess Sugar In The Blood The pancreas makes insulin and this. is what is commonly known as diabetes. the result is an increase of blood sugar in the body. for one reason or another. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas. Causes Of Diabetes The causes of diabetes are not at all established. the secretion of insulin by the body is insufficient or if it is not properly utilised. When the pancreas is working normally it has a feed back system which enables it to provide the exact amount of insulin that is needed to deal with the a m o u n t of carbohydrates eaten. If. This increase of blood sugar tends to produce atherosclerosis and this leads to heart trouble. in simple terms.

This is why the incidence of diabetes among fat people is often high. leads to a further excess of carbohydrates which the insulin in the system just cannot deal with adequately. this leads to an increase in the blood sugar of an obese person. there is a continuous building up of hormones in the blood stream and this in its turn may result in a rise of blood sugar and lead to diabetes. in its turn. eat and this. Obesity The secretion of insulin in an obese person is the same as that in an individual with normal weight. but if both parents have diabetes. Although there are many fat people who are not diabetic. Stress Prolonged emotional tension or even sudden stress. with the result that the insulin secretion in an obese person is not enough to meet the increased demands of an obese body. most middle-aged diabetics are overweight: they are often the very people who like sweet things i. With a person who is constantly under stress either at home or in the office. the likelihood of their children having diabetes is almost certain. So the amount of insulin in an obese body will not be sufficient to deal adequately with the intake of all the carbohydrates. say a car accident. If one of the parents have diabetes.that diabetes is a hereditary disease. Detection Of Diabetes . can result in diabetes. there is a likelihood of their children getting diabetes.

diabetes is symptomless in the early stages and one is not aware it. Excessive thirst and frequency of urination. Excessive hunger. Sudden and unexplained loss of weight.Diabetes is usually easily detected by checking the urine. In some cases certain types of tablets can be taken orally for the treatment of diabetes. • It is essential that checks be made periodically for diabetes. Undetected and untreated. Unexplained pains (neuritis). Treatment Of Diabetes Diabetes can now be effectively treated by injecting additional insulin into the body. This detection can also be done at home provided one has the right type of testing paper. as of of of Signs Of Possible Diabetes • • • • • • A sudden loss of energy and weakness in the body. Boils and other such infections in the body that do not disappear. carbohydrates and proteins are taken. These additional doses of insulin which are injected will tend to offset the deficiency of insulin in the body which causes diabetes. The insulin in the body will 142 . it results in damage to the walls the arteries and other damage which ultimately affects many the vital organs of the body. • The total calorie intake in a diabetic should be restricted but it should be ensured that the minimum a m o u n t of fat.

there were fewer cases of diabetes. but there still must be a balance between these individual proportions. • It is more important to reduce the total calorie intake of a diabetic than to watch the individual proportions of proteins. Cut Down On Sugar And Carbohydrates The most important factor leading to the prevalence of diabetes is the opportunity to eat too much. The Indians in South Africa who eat more sugar then the Indians in India have far more cases of diabetes. When food was scarce in Europe during World War II. especially sugar and starches. carbohydrates a n d fats. •143 .then be able to deal satisfactorily with the carbohydrates in the body and ensure that there is no excess sugar in the system.

but they are seldom large. •144 .big that they prevent food f r o m leaving the stomach. ulcers become so. however.Chapter 23 ULCERS AND HOW TO CURE THEM General Points Ulcers vary in size f r o m that of a pin-head to about 2Vi cm in diameter. in rare cases.

belching. It is estimated that at least half a million people in the U. This is a very serious condition. if it is in the duodenal region. diet and medicine. discomfort or pain in the stomach might indicate ulcers related to food. it is called a gastric ulcer. bland and with few spices. There should be no physical strain or emotional problems. Ulcers sometimes — but very rarely — develop into cancer. 145 .A. • • • • Signs Of Ulcer Heartburn.• Peptic ulcers develop in the areas where digestion takes place. alone have ulcers. When an ulcer penetrates through the stomach or the duodenum. it is called a perforated ulcer. Treatment Of Ulcers Treatment for ulcers is mainly a matter of rest. which comes after the stomach it is called a duodenal ulcer. D D Food should be non-irritating. If the ulcer is located in the stomach. Ulcers are most common among people in the age group of 38 to 55 years.S. Surgery nowadays is very seldom resorted to in ulcer cases. Some medicines are given to relax the muscles and other medicines are given to coat the ulcer and neutralise the acid in the stomach. The best cure is a change in the pattern of life. the cure depends on early detection and surgical treatment. In this case.

• One way of neutralising the effect of the excess acid which causes ulcers is to ensure that something is eaten. had ulcers twice as frequently as members of the general population in that area. •146 • • • . Stress gives rise to excess acid in the stomach and it is this excess acid that causes an ulcer. Ulcers are often caused by emotional problems such as jealousy. however. It was f o u n d that when the boy was angry or under stress his stomach swelled with blood and additional acid: this vividly showed the close relationship between stress and its effect on the stomach. These dogs ultimately developed ulcers. ulcers are hereditary. you can get completely cured and lead a vigorous and useful life. • Stress And Ulcers It has been established that stress and worry are two m a j o r factors in the development of an ulcer. frustration. An interesting fact was revealed through the case of a boy who. if the stress went on long enough. had to be fed directly through his stomach. The result was that the inside of the stomach and its working could clearly be observed. This might indicate that to a certain extent. There is. the excess acid would develop into an ulcer in the stomach. as a result of an injury to his throat. If the ulcer cure regime is properly followed. • In the University of Illinois an interesting experiment was conducted on dogs: they were made wild and frustrated by being refused the f o o d which they expected. Even a biscuit or two is sufficient. it was found that close relatives of people who suffered f r o m ulcers themselves. say. no definite proof of this. which had an opening made in it. every two hours. In a recent study in north-west L o n d o n . guilt or loneliness.

Chapter 24 HOW TO AVOID LIVER TROUBLE The liver is the largest organ in our b o d y a n d weighs about 1.36 kg. It is virtually a gigantic multi-purpose chemical plant. It . The liver reduces all our f o o d into proteins. carbohydrates and fats.

Excessive eating and drinking have probably caused far m o r e casualties among h u m a n beings than all the bullets and bayonets of our civilization. if the strain on the liver is reduced by eating and drinking much less and having a bland diet. T o o much food. also harms the liver and tends to the destruction of the liver cells. Bile is indispensable for the emulsification and digestion of fats. it can return to normalcy in a few months. unlike the heart. In fact. Excessive drinking over a long period does the liver harm and may lead to cirrhosis of the liver. the liver operates a 24-hours-a-day rescue service. It also manufactures enzymes which control a large number of chemical processes that go on in our body. • • •148 . it can only do good. The alcohol which we drink is broken down by the liver into harmless carbon-dioxide and water. The liver. In a very short time. like too much alcohol. has marvellous powers of regeneration and even if a large part of its cells are destroyed. But even the best liver in the world cannot neutralise very many large pegs of spirits taken at one sitting.also deals with toxic substances such as drugs and caffeine which come to it f r o m the stomach and intestines. the poisons a n d unwanted substances which pass through the liver are neutralised and the purified blood reaches the heart. Eating less never causes harm. clearing the blood of poisons or rendering them harmless. • The liver's best known function is the secretion of bile.

The process is like getting your desk tidy by sweeping everything off it and then putting back only the things you actually need: this is what the kidneys do to the blood. The filter apparatus of the kidneys is served by selector tubes which take back into circulation only the substances the body wants. This gives you some idea . • Twice the total quantity of blood present in our whole body passes through both kidneys every h o u r .Chapter 25 HOW TO KEEP YOUR KIDNEYS HEALTHY What The Kidneys Do Each kidney weighs only a few grams but in spite of this they contain more than a million filter units called nephrons which filter the blood.

the remaining 10 per cent can still carry on reasonable filtration so that life will not be in danger. Unpleasant smelling urine. Blood is being continuously filtered by the kidneys. The output of salt f r o m the body is also managed by the kidneys. They make one drink enough to carry off the urea or unwanted matter in the blood. •150 . • • • Signs Of Kidney Trouble • • • Pain or discomfort in the back. If the kidneys fail. delicate and complicated kidneys are built to operate at a certain blood pressure. • The kidneys are a very precise and delicately engineered part of the body and they have the ability constantly to evaluate and treat the volume and chemical nature of the blood. The kidneys have an amazing reserve and even if 90 per cent of the nephrons are damaged. the kidneys find it difficult to work and the body could be in danger. High blood pressure gradually destroys the kidneys: the vital working units shrink and form scars and the kidneys become smaller and lose much of their functioning. One of the most important minerals in the blood is sodium chloride or c o m m o n salt. and the waste matter f r o m the blood is taken to the bladder in the form of urine. If the pressure falls drastically through blood loss or shock.of the important part played by the kidneys in the functioning of the body. The sensitive. The kidneys also control thirst. If the urine has a colour or has some blood in it. urea accumulates and one of the most distressing symptoms is a raging thirst.

One should take plenty of fluid every day to ensure that the kidneys work regularly and to maintain a normal chemical balance in the body.Diseases Of The Kidneys The most c o m m o n disease of the kidneys is a stone in the kidney which sometimes occurs if the body does not take enough fluid. The cleansing of the blood through an artificial kidney is called dialysis. In the old days. Prevention Of Kidney Diseases Fluid plays an important part in preventing infection of the kidneys and the development of stones in the kidneys. it is possible that this medicine may harm the kidneys. •151 . it is best to take additional fluid to neutralise the possible harmful effect of this medicine. a badly damaged kidney used to lead to death. If one is taking medicine for an ailment. but now most countries in the world have artificial kidneys that help to clean the blood by means of artificial methods. Drinking enough fluid will also prevent the formation of any sediment in the kidneys which may ultimately become a stone in the kidney.

.A. A sac of tissues comes out of one of the cavities in the body in the region of the groin. This sac can easily be pushed back by an operation or by wearing a truss. * • A hernia develops in the groin and is caused mainly by lifting heavy things. with the exception of heart disease and arthritis. is crippling more men today than any other physical infirmity.S. to the removal of tonsils and adenoids. About 400. alone. which laymen call a rupture. by way of operations. making it second.000 hernia operations are performed annually in the U.Chapter 26 HOW TO PREVENT HERNIA Hernia.

especially after a certain age. but trusses seldom fit and an operation is normally far better than wearing a truss. this is called a strangulated hernia. Most hernias can be cured by an operation.• On rare occasions when the sac cannot be pushed back this leads to a serious condition and necessitates an immediate operation. without bending the knee. . It is estimated that over four million Americans are walking around with their hernia untreated. • • How To Prevent Hernia The best way of preventing hernia is to do plenty of exercise for strengthening the a b d o m e n — such as lying flat on one's back and raising one's legs. Doing the exercise abouf 20 times a day will strengthen the abdominal muscles and may eliminate the need of an operation or any possible trouble with hernia altogether. about a foot. Three out of four hernia cases occur in men. the easier and more successful is the operation. Women do not normally get hernia. The other thing to remember is to try not to lift heavy weights. One should not delay an operation: the younger one is. Many of them wear trusses.

Chapter 27 PROSTATE — HOW TO AVOID AN OPERATION V We are specially mentioning prostate trouble because it is something that almost inevitably happens to men over a certain age. Doctors have called the prostate a part of the . sixty per cent of men over 60 and seventy per cent over 70 have prostate trouble. Fifty per cent of all men over the age of 50. it makes the passing of urine difficult. • The prostate gives trouble when there is an overgrowth of tissues and this interferes with urination. The prostate is a gland on top of the bladder and when it becomes enlarged.

Therefore. in older men. a person is able to get rid of only a few teaspoonfuls of urine at a time. will prevent an enlargement of the prostate gland. But many teachers of yoga have claimed that certain types of yogic exercise. because if it is cancerous. On rare occasions. When the prostate gets enlarged. the sooner it is dealt with the better.human plumbing department. A f t e r a certain age it is good to check the prostate. •155 . the prostate gets cancerous. if done regularly. so that a prostate operation could be avoided altogether. an operation is about the only real cure for prostate trouble. Up to now there is no certain method of preventing the overgrowth of tissues which interferes with urination.


Headache patients frequently worry a b o u t brain tumours. scalp and jaw. the victim has a deep-seated desire to hurt someone or something a r o u n d him or her a n d the headache is a subsequent reaction to this deep-seated desire. The best cure for a headache is to take an aspirin or some other such analgesic but if the headache persists for some days a doctor should be consulted. but the possibility that an intermittent headache is caused by a brain tumour is exceedingly remote. One of the main causes are tension and muscle spasms in the neck. Psychiatrists say that migraine is definitely associated with hostility. massaging or otherwise relaxing the neck muscles can sometimes help to relieve headaches. • • • •157 . • Most so-called migraine headaches are really severe tension headaches: the cause is entirely psychological. Many diseases have also been linked with mental attitudes. For this reason.A headache is perhaps the most frequent single complaint of modern times. They believe that for many of the illnesses arising out of tension situation.

Drinking plenty of liquid is also recommended. The best way of treating it is to take rest and to have. . some antipyretic and analgesic drug every few hours. maybe. But such medications can only marginally shorten the period of a cough or a cold. A cough mixture has the same result. There is really no shortcut cure. An analgesic will help to bring down the fever and generally m a k e a patient feel more comfortable.Chapter 29 COMMON COLDS AND COUGHS AND THEIR TREATMENT A c o m m o n cold or cough with fever has to take its course.

of course. In the case of a cough. is absurd. • • . In fact. This attitude. one should continue taking antipyretic and analgesic drugs regularly for seven days or until the temperature comes down. like extraordinary aches and pains or prolonged and continuous coughing. the violent rush of air helps clear material f r o m the breathing tubes. the less medicine one takes the better it is. G o o d treatment does not necessarily mean an enormous amount of medication. If there are no side-effects. Many patients. The c o m m o n cold and cough get cured in their own time: one cannot really hurry up the process. do not accept a suggestion of an aspirin or any other such analgesic f r o m a doctor for treatment of a cough or a feverish cold because the prescription of a mere aspirin is often equated with disinterest or neglect on the part of a physician.• A running nose is advantageous to a certain extent. There is no need to panic because by that time the fever is bound to subside. however. as the p r o f u s e outpour of fluid carries the virus outside the body.

painful swelling in the big toe. the . Gout o f t e n occurs as a large.Chapter 30 WHAT TO DO ABOUT GOUT AND ARTHRITIS Gout Ninetyfive per cent of the people suffering f r o m gout are men.

swollen and are painful to move. and vegetarians as well as meat-eaters. Gout usually strikes people between the ages of 30 and 60. are also helpful in getting rid of excess uric acid.S. Osteoarthritis is usually not serious. It also effects teetotallers as well as men who drink. Arthritis affects the joints and they become red.ankle and the knee. tends to intensify the incidence of gout. • Gout results because of an imbalance in the body. There is no certain cure for gout but the latest drugs help to a considerable extent. Q There are many different types of arthritis. The most common types of arthritis are: osteoarthritis. Gout hits the poor as much as the rich. No one knows the exact cause of gout. warm. Large numbers of people suffer from mild arthritis. Arthritis is a very common affliction all over the world. Drugs of various types are used in large quantities by patients of gout to relieve the unbearable pain. which causes gout. These drugs. rheumatoid arthritis. It is quite a common disease and there are approximately 400. It is often a hereditary disease. kidney or sardines. • • • Arthritis And Rheumatism The word 'arth' means 'joint' and 'itis' means 'inflamed'.000 cases of gout in the U. gout and spondylitis. but eating rich food such as liver. Nor is it established that giving up alcohol will lead to a cure.A. The pain and discomfort in arthritis occur in various degrees of intensity. Even taking a diet low in purine content does not always help in relieving the pain. It attacks people in different ways. it occurs late in life and •161 O . alone. which causes an excess of uric acid. which are all high in purine content.

The joint should be moved periodically to prevent stiffness which may cause trouble later on. • Ankylosing spondylitis affects the back and the joints of the lower back. in addition to having joint pains. sardines and anchovies which are all high in purine content. Treatment For Arthritis Aspirin or any other such analgesic in high doses is usually the treatment prescribed. Heat may also help. particularly if it is stiff in the morning and you are unable to touch your toes. Uric acids formed by eating food such as liver. kidney. tend to bring on arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis usually starts in middle age and can cause you to feel sick and stiff all over. To offset the possibilities of an upset stomach. You may be suffering f r o m it if your back is sore for a long time. But no certain cure has yet been discovered for this very widespread ailment.sometimes causes a knobby swelling at the most distant joints of the fingers. • Resting an inflamed joint can speed healing. aspirin should be taken immediately after meals. So one should resist such f o o d as far as possible. • .

Chapter 31 ALCOHOL — SOME USEFUL TIPS What Makes A Man An Alcoholic .

For most people one or two pegs of hard liquor is enough. Harm Done By Alcohol Unlike smoking. unhappy family or work conditions. They stop after that. So f r o m the point of view of mental relief. as by the fact that he does not want to drink' heavily. As many as 10 per cent of the people in the U . S . In the first place the alcohol itself is made under very unhygienic conditions so drinking it is dangerous to health. This inexpensive alcohol is drunk excessively by poorly paid people and others like illiterate farm and factory workers. •164 . It is the only manner in which they have some t e m p o r a r y pleasure in their otherwise dull and drab existence. The liver. alcohol does not lead to coronary disease. however. worries.Alcoholism is generally caused by a feeling of insecurity. who suffer f r o m various types of metabolic diseases or f r o m some hormone deficiency. have serious alcohol drinking problems. anxieties. Alcohol And The Average Man For certain individuals. however. frustrations and by conditions that make it difficult for a person to face reality. alcohol can be a real menace. A . Alcohol can help in giving mental and emotional relief. He is not guided so much by self-control. In underdeveloped countries. They make up 20 per cent of the hospital beds. But hard drinking can cause damage to the liver. The average normal h u m a n being seldom drinks to excess. a bad habit — alcohol — might even be good if it is not taken in excess. alcohol might give some temporary relief. is a tough organ and it would require large quantities of hard liquor to cause real damage and bring about the most dreaded result of heavy drinking: cirrhosis of the liver.

An alcoholic drink should preferably be well diluted. it is advisable to have a small glass of milk: this tends to protect the stomach f r o m the h a r m f u l effects of heavy drinking.What To Do About Alcohol One should not normally take more than two pegs of alcohol a day. Q Alcohol should preferably not be taken on an empty stomach. Before going to a party where there may be considerable drinking. •165 0 .

epilepsy. If one does. or high blood cholesterol. • • • • Drinking And Road Accidents . So. Alcohol is not conducive to reducing weight as it contains a very high number of calories. one becomes confused. hepatitis. Excess of alcohol also tends to produce gastritis and loss of appetite and this lessens physical fitness. One should never take sleeping tablets. antihistamines or mood-changing drugs with alcohol. One should never drink if one has an ulcer in the stomach or if one is suffering f r o m diabetes.• An excess of alcohol reduces the a m o u n t of Vitamin B in the liver. barbiturates. unsteady and in some cases it can even be fatal. heavy drinkers of alcohol should take extra doses of Vitamin B to protect their liver.

K. both of motorists and pedestrians. particularly pedestrians. have come down considerably. after an accident. after the introduction of the breath analyser test. Two small whiskies taken on an empty stomach impairs the performance of the driver. •167 . In some countries. the a m o u n t of.K. If the a m o u n t of alcohol in the breath exceeds the norms laid down. alcohol in one's system is checked by a breath analyser test. a high proportion of all those killed in road accidents. Even today in the U.Alcohol is perhaps the single biggest cause of automobile accidents. The beneficial effects of the introduction of the breath analyser test in the U. The number of accidents. the penalties can be very severe. are still f o u n d to have a high level of alcohol in their blood at the postmortem examinations. are undeniable. A f t e r drinking inhibitions are not felt and drivers tend to take m o r e risks and that is how one has accidents.

lung cancer and tobacco that it resulted in a definite drop in smoking in the U . Since that time there has been so much information about the link between coronary disease.K. on an average 20 cigarettes a day were being smoked by every adult in the U. S . • Carbon-monoxide interferes with the normal function of the haemoglobin which takes oxygen f r o m the lungs to the rest of the body. According to a survey made in 1945. | Smoking Leads To Coronary Disease Tobacco smoke contains nicotine. It has been proved that nicotine raises the level of fatty acids in the blood system and this may lead to blood clotting and eventually to coronary diseases.Chapter 32 WHAT SMOKING DOES AND HOW TO DEAL WITH IT Why Smoking Is Harmful Tobacco smoking is prevalent in most of the countries of the world.K. which can be attributed to smoking. tar and carbon-monoxide.000 deaths in the U. there is hardly any decrease in the number of people who smoke. In other countries. however. 168 . A . Smoking is still widespread: almost half the adults in Britain at present smoke and every year there are at least 50.

and these increase the danger of cancer in the lungs. aldehydes and cyanide. • Smoking And Lung Cancer Besides carbon particles. for every 100 deaths caused by coronary heart disease and attributed to heavy smoking. Broadly. smoking has •169 . such as phenols. there are other irritants in tobacco smoke.• Statistics have proved that by far the greatest number of deaths through smoking are caused by coronary disease. Statistically. Smoking is the single biggest avoidable menace to good health. only 20 deaths are due to lung cancer.

From the latest reports it appears that any kind of smoking involves some risk of lung cancer. it is entirely wrong to suggest 170 . The death rate f r o m cancer of the lung in heavy cigarette smokers is thirty times more than that of non-smokers. Smoking And Weight While it is true that smoking tends to make people eat less and therefore brings down their weight.been proved to have definite links with lung cancer. which is our commonest cancer in an age when cancer deaths are on the increase.

This tends to result in a greater danger of miscarriage and still births. who are smokers and non-smokers. they absorb appreciable quantities of nicotine and tar and thereby increase the amount of carbon-monoxide in their system. the effect of this combination on chest diseases can be serious. This condition sometimes gives rise to a disease called emphysema which means a loss of elasticity of the lung tissues. has proved that non-smokers even if they are overweight are generally more energetic and less tense than smokers. in the case of pregnancy. Heavy smokers generally suffer f r o m chronic bronchitis and smokers' cough. overweight isa greater health hazard than smoking about 20 cigarettes a day. Other Risks Of Smoking Gastric and duodenal ulcers are much commoner among smokers as compared with non-smokers. or if they sit in a closed car where cigarettes have been smoked. Moreover.that being 5 kg. • Where the atmospheric pollution is high and cigarette smoking is also indulged in. an increase in the carbon-monoxide and tar in the h u m a n system may eventually lead to coronary disease and lung cancer. This is due to a higher level of carbon-monoxide in the blood stream of mothers who smoke as this is responsible for depriving the foetus of some of its oxygen supply. the detailed conclusion of a study group of doctors. This is a very disabling condition and might later on result in death. the children of mothers who are non-smokers are healthier and bigger than those of mothers who smoke. In fact. then by merely inhaling cigarette smoke regularly. Risks Of Smoking To Non-Smokers It has been proved by a series of experiments that if non-smokers spend time in a room full of smoke caused by cigarettes. •171 . As we have explained earlier.

because in most cases. Pollution wise. children might get addicted to the habit even by smoking only five to ten cigarettes. But with an average cigarette smoker the percentage of pollution for him caused by his own cigarette smoke is far more than 4 per cent. The English Tobacco Council Report: Cigar smoking is just as h a r m f u l as cigarette smoking. It makes no difference if cigar smoke is not inhaled because the nicotine is absorbed through the mouth and nicotine increases the amount of cholesterol in the blood. but even in the heaviest rush-hour traffic. So there is little gained by changing one's brand of cigarettes.• The chief hazard f r o m car exhaust fumes is carbon-monoxide. • Filter-tip cigarettes do not lessen the dangers of cancer. cigarette smoking is far more harmful than living in the most polluted area. the amount of carbonmonoxide in the atmosphere is never more than 4 per cent. • . Children and teenagers should be discouraged f r o m experimenting with cigarettes.

but clearly nicotine addiction is far more widespread and much more lethal. though this is difficult to maintain. • • Smoking And Thcj Economy . about eight.• A cigarette smoker who switches over to a pipe or to a cigar will inhale enough until he gets his former quota of nicotine. Currently our society is obsessed by anxieties about drug addiction. a clean break is the best thing: an alternative. Persons who have always smoked only cigars or pipes tend to take in less nicotine than cigarette smokers. Some smokers have given up smoking altogether with the aid of group therapy. is to cut down the daily number of cigarettes smoked to. To give up smoking successfully. say.

and increased production.S. reduced pensions because people will live longer. the loss of revenue can almost certainly be offset by the country's saving in health care costs. and C a n a d a that if cigarette smoking is abolished. 174 .It has been estimated f r o m official studies both in the U.A.

maciinery or electronically amplified music is h a r m f u l to health and there is fairly convincing evidence to b e a r this out.Chapter 33 THE EFFECT OF NOISE It has been proved that noise. Noise f r o m traffic. heightens the stress level of the average human being. Psychiatrists f r o m London have published figures showing that admissions to mental hospitals were more frequent in areas close to Heathrow Airport where noise from the aircraft w a s . whether continuous or intermittent. aircraft.

While the validity of this study has since been questioned. General de Gaulle insisted on complete silence after nine every evening — he claimed that silence greatly helped in his development. Noise can be measured — very loud noise is 110 decibels. People are beginning to realise more and more the great advantages of the relaxing effect which a calm and noisefree atmosphere creates. The great sages of the world throughout history have always spoken about the powerful effect of silence on one's personality. This noise may cause a feeling of sickness and some difficulty in breathing. •176 • • • • . Infrasonic noise may be generated by machinery such as compressors: it is a dull continuous background sound and is fairly common in large buildings including factories. this is what one often gets when the sound in a discotheque is really loud. office blocks and hospitals. This noise can definitely cause harm to one's hearing: if one has it continuously for say two hours. The great Aurobindo always had long periods of silence. there is no doubt that individuals whose sleep is disturbed by aircraft noise or other such factors perform less well at tests of intelligence and have a lesser coordination of movements than might be expected. it can cause a substantial loss of hearing among 10 per cent of the people present. Some doctors consider that the discomfort arui bad temper in some people may also be due to infrasound. Everyone should be completely silent for some period of time every day. It is not for nothing that a large proportion of city dwellers in the developed countries of the world now have week-end cottages in the country side. It will have a soothing and relaxing effect on the whole personality. 13 The latest f o r m of noise pollution is infrasound — sounds of such low frequency that they cannot be appreciated as sounds at all by h u m a n ears.loudest*.

• Fast travelling through three or four or more time-zones is certain to put the whole body's internal clock into disarray.Chapter 34 JETLAG AND NIGHT SHIFT — HOW TO DEAL WITH IT Travelling by air over long distances leads to a considerable disturbance of the rhythm of natural digestion. sleep and rest. One tends to become confused and disoriented for quite some time. .

otherwise the body will find it difficult to adjust itself satisfactorily. • • • • • •178 . The important symptoms are inability to concentrate and difficulty in sleeping. It has been f o u n d that an average individual needs at least twenty four hours for evpry time-change of two hours or over. It would be preferable that the time for a changeover f r o m day to night work should be at least a month. if a number of time-zones have been crossed. It has been found that too frequent changes f r o m day-shifts to night-shifts upset the body clock and have an adverse effect on the h u m a n system. while crossing rapidly through several time-zones. Nurses.• Extensive investigations have shown that there is a definite change in our biological rhythm. factory workers. airplane crew and many others have to work at night for long periods. to reset the biological clock. it is always best to have a long rest before one begins to do any serious work after a long journey covering a number of time-zones. especially the digestion. Many business houses and Iron-curtain countries insist that a conference should take place at least 24 hours after a person has arrived at his destination. Time must be given to get the body adjust satisfactorily between day and night work. A very large number of people are affected by working on night shifts. Therefore. policemen.

The Scandinavian countries. But this is not really correct. generally have a cold.Chapter 35 THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE ON HEALTH People often generalise about the influence of climate on one's energy. fitness and vitality are concerned. harsh climate. . health and creativity. for example. Climatic conditions are not of any real disadvantage to any country as far as energy. A point is often made that certain nations cannot really advance industrially or otherwise because their climatic conditions are very unfavourable. yet the sickness and mortality rates are low there and their productivity is better than many countries with more favourable climatic conditions.

A factor which has almost entirely neutralized the disadvantages of an unkind climate is. for example. And the people there are just as energetic and hard-working. A man is now able to live satisfactorily under any geographical and climatic conditions and still have proper health. with a more favourable climate. than the people in the Mediterranean countries. the great civilisations of the past have flourished in every type of climatic conditions. Similarly. in some of the Southern States of the U. of course.A.A. than people living in relatively more favourable climates. The great Islamic civilization began many hundreds of years ago mainly in arid desert countries and it has flourished therq with great vigour and energy. the climate is hot and humid.S. • The Japanese have a hot and humid climate for the m a j o r part of the year yet they are as energetic if not more energetic.. yet the mortality and health rate there are the same as areas in the U. air-conditioning: both for cooling and heating. • • 180 . After all. no matter what the climatic conditions.Over the centuries men have been able to adjust themselves very well. fitness and energy.S.

Chapter 36 A CHANGE OF SCENE AND HEALTH The h u m a n body always benefits f r o m a change of surroundings even if it is only for a day. the mere fact that the body has a change of environment is bound to do it some good. . And even if the new place is uncomfortable and unpleasant.

182 . So do not hesitate when a week-end holiday is suggested to you. The reason is that a change of environment probably reduces the stress in the human body which often comes about by doing the same thing again and again.• The need for frequent changes of environment does not have to be exaggerated. at the same place.

They certainly make you feel good. massages and hot springs are all expensive methods of acquiring a feeling of well-being. It is also debatable whether 183 .Chapter 37 THE REAL VALUE OF SAUNAS. but it is d o u b t f u l whether they can bring any lasting benefit as far as one's health is concerned. MASSAGES AND HOT SPRINGS Saunas.

Hot natural springs sometimes have a soothing and healing effect on persons suffering from arthritis.they are really worth the enormous sums of money one pays to have them. But the cure in most cases is temporary and momentary and it is mainly because of the heat that the pain is relieved. So d o n ' t cry your heart out if you cannot a f f o r d an expensive sauna. but it is soon replaced and they d o n ' t get rid of h a r m f u l fat in the body. And this is certainly far less expensive. massage or hot spring. doing suitable exercises. If one sets about the matter properly by eating sensibly. rheumatism and gout. and occasionally having a change of environment. Sauna baths and massages sometimes result in a temporary loss of fluid and thereby of weight. it is as good as going to a far-away place for the hot waters or having a sauna or a massage. • The good effect of hot springs is probably due to the fact that one has to change one's environment to get to them and great benefits occur to the human system through a change in scene. • • •184 .

this in itself tends to reduce stress. Another advantage is that it relaxes us and relaxation of .Chapter 38 SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SUNBATHING AND SEA-SWIMMING Perhaps the greatest advantage of sun-bathing is that it takes you away from your usual environment.

a person is liable to collapse. it is not necessary to lie directly in the sun — the rays can be of benefit even if you are in the shade. sugar a n d lime is excellent. T h e eyes are the one part of the b o d y that must be protected during sun-bathing. For s o m e o n e used to the British sun. • {? Over-exposure to the sun can be d a n g e r o u s a n d can lead to sunstroke. the b o d y will not s u f f e r any h a r m . provided that you are not wearing thick clothing. exposure to the sun. T h e salt in the sea-water p r o b a b l y has a lot to do with this as salt is an excellent disinfec•186 . To benefit f r o m the valuable ultra-violet rays of the sun. Unless this is done. say in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n or the tropics. W h e n there is an e n o r m o u s a m o u n t of perspiration f r o m the b o d y . • • Pollution And Sea-Swimming An investigation by the Public H e a l t h L a b o r a t o r y service of the U . T h e conclusion reached was that transmission of diseases such as poliomyelitis. A drink of water with a d a s h of salt.any kind is good for the health. which generate vitamin D in the system. it is essential to replace b o t h water a n d salt. the b o d y can t a k e any a m o u n t of sun provided t h a t the eyes are properly protected. • T h e fact is that sewage in sea-water has never been scientifically p r o v e d to be a serious health h a z a r d . . A f t e r acclimatisation. m a r k e d out f o r t y British beaches which were heavily cont a m i n a t e d with sewage a n d tried to find out the extent of infection in the swimmers there. typhoid or p a r a t y p h o i d is very rare even when the beaches are heavily c o n t a m i n a t e d with sewage. should be by g r a d u a l stages. There is no f o u n d a t i o n f o r the p o p u l a r belief that the head a n d the back of the neck must be protected f r o m the sun. If the eyes are properly protected f r o m the sun. K .

J 87 . the enormous volume of water in the sea together with the action of the tides contributes towards keeping sea-water safe for swimming.tant. Moreover. • Another reason why no infection occured could be due to the fact that very little water is swallowed by swimmers.

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