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Computer Networking 2010


Computer Networking 2010


Computer Networking 2010


Manasagangotri, Mysore

For The Partial Fulfillment of Technology

In Information Technology

Submitted By:-.............................

Enrollment No:-............................
Computer Networking 2010

Table of Content

1. Title of the Dissertation

2. Approval by the Internal and External
3. Bio data of the Internal and External
4. Introduction and objectives of the
5. Components of a Network
6. Types of Networks
7. Topology of Networks
8. Scope of the solution
9. Analysis
10. Future scope and further enhancement
Of the Dissertation.

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Approval by Internal Supervisor

This is to certify that the project entitled,

“Computernetwork Technologies”is the bonafide work carried out
by ................. student of M.Tech during the year 2009-2011,impartial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of
Technology in Information Technology from Karnataka State Open
University that the Project has under the guidance of mine Supervision.

Place:...................... ) Full Name& Signature

Date:.................... of the Internal Supervisor

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Approval by External Supervisor

This is to cerity that project entitled “Computernetwork

Technologies” is the bonafide work carried out
by ..............................a student of M.Tech,during the year 2009-
2011, inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
Degree of Master of Techonolgy in Information Technology from
Karnataka State Open University, that the project has under my
guidance and that the project has not formed the basis for the
award previously of any degree, diploma, associateship, fellowship
or any other similar title.

Full Name & Signature

Of the External Supervisor


Computer Networking 2010

Table of Content

1. Title of the Dissertation

2. Approval by the Internal and External
3. Bio data of the Internal and External
4. Introduction and objectives of the
5. Components of a Network
6. Types of Networks
7. Topology of Networks
8. Scope of the solution
9. Analysis
10. Future scope and furtherenhancement
Of the Dissertation.

Computer Networking 2010

A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a
collection of computers and devices connected by
communications channels that facilitates communications among
users and allows users to share resources with other users.
Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of
characteristics. A computer network allows sharing of resources
and information among devices connected to the network.
Computer networks can be used for several purposes:
• Facilitating Communications
Using a network, people can communicate efficiently and
easily via e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms,
telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing.
• Sharing Hardware
In a networked environment, each computer on a network
can access and use hardware on the network. Suppose
several personal computers on a network each require
the use of a laser printer. If the personal computers and a
laser printer are connected to a network, each user can
then access the laser printer on the network, as they need
• Sharing files, data and information

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In a network environment, any authorized user can

access data and information stored on other computers
on the network. The capability of providing access to
data and information on shared storage devices is an
important feature of many networks.
• Sharing Software
Users connected to a network can access application
programs on the network.

Fig 1 gives an example of a network in a school comprising of a

local area network or LAN connecting computers with each
other, the internet, and various servers.

File and Print Server

Access to: CD or Multimedia
Internet content & Servers
learning resources, Printers , Scanners etc
Scoilnet etc Users
Email communication computers

Cache, Proxy,
Filtering, Firewall

School ‘Local Area

Network’ (LAN)
Modem or Router

Other users,

Fig 1: Representation of Network in a school.

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Objectives of Dissertation

• To study how implement a functional networking.

Many challenges must be faced especially in the
Areas of connectivity,reliability,network management
And flexibility.

• To study how connecting systems to support communication

among disparate technologies using different-different internet

• To provide centralized support and troubleshooting in an


• To provide security within an internetwork for an

internetwork to function smoothly and secure form the perpective
of protecting the private network from viruses And outside

• To differentiate leased line & dail up Network with

Cable Network.

Components of a Network
A computer network comprises the following components:
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• A minimum of at least 2 computers

• Cables that connect the computers to each other, although
wireless communication is becoming more common (see
Advice Sheet 20 for more information)
• A network interface device on each computer (this is called
a network interface card or NIC)
• A ‘Switch’ used to switch the data from one point to
another. Hubs are outdated and are little used for new
• Network operating system software

Structured Cabling
The two most popular types of structured network cabling are
twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known
as 10Base2). 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone
wire, except that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax
looks like the copper coaxial cabling that's often used to connect
a Video Recorder to a TV.

10BaseT Cabling
When 10BaseT cabling is used, a strand of cabling is inserted
between each computer and a hub. If you have 5 computers,
you'll need 5 cables. Each cable cannot exceed 325 feet in
length. Because the cables from all of the PCs converge at a
common point, a 10BaseT network forms a star configuration.
Fig 4a shows a Cat5e cable, with a standard connector, known
as an RJ-45 connector.
Fig 4b shows a standard Cat5e Wall Outlet socket which the
cables are connected to.
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Fig 4c shows a standard Cat5e Patch Panel Wall Outlet socket

which is used to terminate the cables from various points in the
school bank to a central point.
Fig 4d shows a wall mounted cabinet used to house and protect
patch panel cables and connectors.

Fig 4a: Cat5e Cable and a close up of RJ-45 connector

Fig 4b: Cat5e Wall Outlets

Fig 4c: Cat5e Patch Panel

Fig4d: Wall Mounted Cabinet

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10BaseT cabling is available in different grades or categories.

Some grades, or "cats", are required for Fast Ethernet networks,
while others are perfectly acceptable for standard 10Mbps
networks--and less expensive, too. All new networks use a
minimum of standard unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) Category
5e 10BaseT cabling because it offers a performance advantage
over lower grades.

Network Interface Card (NIC)

A NIC (pronounced 'nick') is also known as a network card. It
connects the computer to the cabling, which in turn links all of
the computers on the network together. Each computer on a
network must have a network card. Most modern network cards
are 10/100 NICs and can operate at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps.
Only NICs supporting a minimum of 100Mbps should be used in
new installations schools.
Computers with a wireless connection to a network also use a
network card (see Advice Sheet 20 for more information on
wireless networking).

Fig 5: Network Interface Cards (NICs)

Hub and Switch

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A hub is a device used to connect a PC to the network. The

function of a hub is to direct information around the network,
facilitating communication between all connected devices.
However in new installations switches should be used instead of
hubs as they are more effective and provide better performance.
A switch, which is often termed a 'smart hub'.
Switches and hubs are technologies or ‘boxes’ to which
computers, printers, and other networking devices are
connected. Switches are the more recent technology and the
accepted way of building today's networks. With switching, each
connection gets "dedicated bandwidth" and can operate at full
speed. In contrast, a hub shares bandwidth across multiple
connections such that activity from one PC or server can slow
down the effective speed of other connections on the hub.

Now more affordable than ever, Dual-speed 10/100 autosensing

switches are recommended for all school networks. Schools may
want to consider upgrading any hub based networks with
switches to improve network performance – i.e. speed of data
on the network.

Fig 6a: An 8 port Hub

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Fig 6b: 2 Examples of 24 port Switches

Types of Networks
There are many categories under which networks can be
classified into.

The following types of network are categorized on the basis of

the number of systems or devices that are under the networked

LAN - Local Area Network

A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short
distance. A networked office building, school, or home
usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one
building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per
room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby
buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not
always implemented as a single IP subnet.
In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also
typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single
person or organization. They also tend to use certain
connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token
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WAN - Wide Area Network

As the term implies, a WAN spans a large physical distance.

The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.
A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A
network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. In
IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address
and a WAN address.
A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most
WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one
organization but rather exist under collective or distributed
ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology
like ATM, Frame Relay and X.25 for connectivity over the
longer distances.

Another type of network classification is the following,

When a group of two or more computers are linked together,

they can broadly be classified into two types of networks:
1. Peer-to-peer networks are more commonly implemented
where less then ten computers are involved and where strict
security is not necessary. All computers have the same
status, hence the term 'peer', and they communicate with
each other on an equal footing. Files, such as word
processing or spreadsheet documents, can be shared across
the network and all the computers on the network can share
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devices, such as printers or scanners, which are connected

to any one computer.

Peer to Peer

Fig 2: Peer to Peer Networking

2. Client/server networks are more suitable for larger

networks. A central computer, or 'server', acts as the
storage location for files and applications shared on the
network. Usually the server is a higher than average
performance computer. The server also controls the
network access of the other computers which are referred to
as the 'client' computers. Typically, everybody will have
access to use the client computers for their work but only
the network administrator will have access rights to the

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File Server


Fig 3: Client - Server Networking

In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also

used to categorize different types of networks:

The shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other
communications system is known as its topology. There are three
principal topologies used in LANs:-

1. Bus topology: All devices are connected to a central cable,

called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively
inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet
systems use a bus topology.

 Advantages of bus topology:

• Easy to implement and extend

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• Well suited for temporary networks that must be set up in a

• Typically the least cheapest topology to implement
• Failure of one station does not affect others
 Disadvantages of bus topology:
• Difficult to administer/troubleshoot
• Limited cable length and number of stations
• A cable break can disable the entire network; no
• Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run
• Performance degrades as additional computers are added

2. Ring topology: All devices are connected to one another in

the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected
directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring
topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install,
but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.

 Advantages of ring topology:

• Growth of system has minimal impact on performance
• All stations have equal access
 Disadvantages of ring topology:
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• Most expensive topology

• Failure of one computer may impact others
• Complex

3. Star topology: All devices are connected to a central hub.

Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but
bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through
the hub.

 Advantages of star topology:

• Easy to add new stations
• Easy to monitor and troubleshoot
• Can accommodate different wiring
 Disadvantages of ring topology:
• Failure of hub cripples attached stations
• More cable required

These topologies can also be mixed. For example, a bus-star

network consists of a high-bandwidth bus, called the backbone,
which connects a collection of slower-bandwidth star segments.
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An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two

devices. The protocol determines the following:
i. The type of error checking to be used data compression
ii. If any how the sending device will indicate that it has
finished sending a message
iii. How the receiving device will indicate that it has
received a message.

There are a variety of standard protocols from which

programmers can choose. Each has particular advantages
and disadvantages; for example, some are simpler than
others, some are more reliable, and some are faster.

From a user's point of view, the only interesting aspect

about protocols is that your computer or device must
support the right ones if you want to communicate with
other computers. The protocol can be implemented either in
hardware or in software.
Common types of protocols:
• Internet Protocol
• Transmission Control Protocol
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol
• Post Office Protocol
• File Transfer Protocol

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Importance of Protocol
The protocols in human communication are separate rules about
appearance, speaking, listening and understanding. All these
rules, also called protocols of conversation, represent different
layers of communication. They work together to help people
successfully communicate. The need for protocols also applies to
network devices. Computers have no way of learning protocols,
so network engineers have written rules for communication that
must be strictly followed for successful host-to-host
communication. These rules apply to different layers of
sophistication such as which physical connections to use, how
hosts listen, how to interrupt, how to say good-bye, and in short
how to communicate, what language to use and many others.
These rules, or protocols, that work together to ensure
successful communication are grouped into what is known as a
protocol suite.

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Dissertation Category

• Computer network Technologies


• Networking Devices
• Various Networking Technologies
• Networking protocols

Platform used

• Proprietary LAN server environment

• LAN OFC network


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The term architecture can refer to either hardware or software,

or to a combination of hardware and software. The architecture
of a system always defines its broad outlines, and may define
precise mechanisms as well.

An open architecture allows the system to be connected easily to

devices and programs made by other manufacturers. Open
architectures use off-the-shelf components and conform to
approved standards. A system with a closed architecture, on the
other hand, is one whose design is proprietary, making it
difficult to connect the system to other systems.
The difference between a topology and an architecture. A
topology is concerned with the physical arrangement of the
network components. In contrast, an architecture addresses the
components themselves and how a system is structured (cable
access methods, lower level protocols, topology, etc.). An
example of an architecture is 10baseT Ethernet which typically
uses the start topology.

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Wireless Networks

The term 'wireless network' refers to two or more computers

communicating using standard network rules or protocols, but
without the use of cabling to connect the computers together.
Instead, the computers use wireless radio signals to send
information from one to the other. A wireless local area network
(WLAN) consists of two key components: an access point (also
called a base station) and a wireless card. Information can be
transmitted between these two components as long as they are
fairly close together (up to 100 metres indoors or 350 metres

Fig 7a: Wireless Access point or Wireless Basestation

Suppliers would need to visit the schools and conduct a site

survey. This will determine the number of base stations you need
and the best place(s) to locate them. A site survey will also
enable each supplier to provide you with a detailed quote. It is
important to contact a number of different suppliers as prices,
equipment and opinions may vary. When the term 'wireless
network' is used today, it usually refers to a wireless local area
network or WLAN. A WLAN can be installed as the sole network
in a school or building. However, it can also be used to extend
an existing wired network to areas where wiring would be too
difficult or too expensive to implement, or to areas located away
from the main network or main building. Wireless networks can
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be configured to provide the same network functionality as

wired networks, ranging from simple peer-to-peer
configurations to large-scale networks accommodating
hundreds of users.

Fig 7b: Desktop PC Wireless LAN card Fig 7c:

Laptop PC Wireless LAN card

Computer Networking 2010


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