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16660182 Elementary Bulgarian Grammar

16660182 Elementary Bulgarian Grammar

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The present active participle (сегашно деятелно причастие) is relatively new in the history of
contemporary Bulgarian. It existed in Old Bulgarian, then disappeared, and later was reintroduced
into the language from Russian and Church-Slavic when the standards of contemporary Bulgarian
were being set up.

It is derived from the present-tense stem (only imperfective stems) but for practical purposes it is
easier to derive it from the corresponding imperfect-tense stem (which doesn't contradict to what
was said above). The ending -X in the form for the imperfect tense, 1st

person sg is replaced by the
suffix (-ЩА for the feminine, -ЩО for the neuter and -ЩИ for the plural). Here are some
examples:

чета (to read) > четя|х > четя|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (reading)
плача (to cry, to weep) > плаче|х > плаче|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (crying, weeping)
режа (to cut) > реже|х > реже|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (cutting)
пиша (to write) > пише|х > пише|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (writing)
пия (to drink) > пие|х > пие|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (drinking)
каня (to invite) > кане|х > кане|щ , -ща, -що, канещи (inviting)
седя (to sit) > седя|х > седя|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (sitting)
моля (to ask, to beg) > моле|х > моле|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (begging)
уча (to study) > уче|х > уче|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (studying)
суша (to dry) > суша|х > суша|щ1

, -ща, -що, -щи (drying)
стоя (to stand) > стоя|х > стоя|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (standing)
имам (to have) > има|х > има|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (having)
стрелям (to shoot) > стреля|х > стреля|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (shooting)
идвам (to come) > идва|х > идва|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (coming)
купувам (to buy) > купува|х > купува|щ, -ща, -що, -щи (buying)

It should pointed out that the -е-/-я- sound (mutating

Я ) in the imperfect-tense stem of the verbs

that belong to the 1st

and the 2nd

conjugations follows "double standards". As far as the formation of
the imperfect-tense stem is concerned, it follows the rules for the mutating of Я. But after you
derive the participle by adding the suffix , it no longer obeys the rules. Here are some examples:

плача > плаче|х > плаче|щ, плачещия(т), плачещи
режа > реже|х > реже|щ, режещия(т), режещи
пиша > пише|х > пише|щ, пишещия(т), пишещи
пия > пие|х > пие|щ, пиещия(т), пиещи
моля > моле|х > моле|щ, молещия(т), молещи
уча > уче|х > уче|щ, учещия(т), учещи

When the verb has the suffix in -e- variant in its imperfect-tense stem as in the examples above
there is no formal problem - the form for masculine with article and the form for plural preserve the
-e- and this doesn't contradict the rules for mutation of the "ят"-sound.

But when the stress falls on the suffix it is in -я- variant (-a- if the sound in front of the vowel is ч,
ж, ш
1

) in the imperfect-tense stem. Still, it doesn't change into -e- when the forms for the plural or
for the masculine with the definite article are constructed despite the fact that the next syllable
contains a front vowel:

чета > четя|х > четя|щ, четящият, четящи
седя > седя|х > седя|щ, седящият, седящи
стоя > стоя|х > стоя|щ, стоящият, стоящи
суша > суша|х > суша|щ, сушащия(т), сушащи1

The present active participle is used only attributively. It denotes an active feature of the object it
refers to, i.e. that the object is engaged in activity denoted by the verb stem. For example,
"пеещото момиче"(the singing girl) means that the girl sings. The name present active participle is
not very precise because the activity may have taken place in the past or may be due in the future.
It is rather a simultaneous active participle, for example:

Преди половин час видях в градината няколко играещи деца, но сега няма никого.

Half an hour ago I saw in the garden several playing children but there is no one now. (The children were
playing simultaneously to my seeing them half an hour ago, not now.)

Оттук виждам добре играещите деца.

From here I can see well the playing children. (The children are playing now simultaneously to my seeing them
now.)

Когато влезеш в парка, ще видиш до езерото няколко играещи деца.

When you enter the park you'll see next to the lake several playing children. (The children will be playing in
the future.)

The present active participle behaves like an adjective, agrees in gender and number with the noun
it defines, and the negative particle HE is written always together with the participle. It can join
the definite article, if needed. Here are some examples:

Умиращата стара жена извърна към влизащия свещеник невиждащите си очи и протегна
треперещите си ръце.

The dying old lady turned towards the incoming priest her unseeing eyes and reached out with her trembling
hands.

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