703 views

Uploaded by harish_mit646361

- metallurgical thermodynamics
- Chalcone Thesis
- 08 Fluorescence
- Michael Robinson Annulation
- experiment Fame
- thermodynamic functions and solubility product of barium nitrate
- Conductivity
- Aldol Condensation
- ANALYSIS OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN WATER BY SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION (SPE) AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTOR (GC-ECD)
- chm510 exp2.docx
- past year CHM510
- Sodium Boronhydride Reduction of Cyclohexanone
- Lab 1 Chm 510 Complete 2011
- ME120 Project Report
- FATTY ACID DETERMINATION USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY (GC)
- POGIL - Thermodynamics
- Second Law
- Thermodynamics
- Basic of Gas Compression
- 1526411045285_barc Inteview Questions

You are on page 1of 18

Occurs if:

• change is made sufficiently quickly

• and/or with good thermal isolation.

Governing formula:

g

PV = constant

where g = CP/CV

Adiabat

P

Isotherms

g-1

V T = constant (for adiabatic)

g

Proof of PV =constant

(for adiabatic process)

1) Adiabatic: dQ = 0 = dU + dW

= dU + PdV

2) U only depends on T:

Same DU

P Isotherms

(constant T)

V

dU = n CV dT (derived for constant

volume, but true in general)

dT = [(dP)V + P(dV)]/(nR)

Rearrange:

= - g (dV/V)

or

g

ln(PV ) = constant

or

g

PV = constant

QED

Irreversible Processes

Examples:

due to friction: KE converted to heat.

object.

conservation, yet it does not occur.

arrow of time

Why?

Heat Engines

Heat engine: a cyclic device designed to

convert heat into work.

Hot Reservoir, TH

QH

Work, W

QC

Cold Reservoir, TC

remove thermal energy from a system at a

single temperature and convert it to

mechanical work without changing the

system or surroundings in some other way.

For a cyclic engine DU = 0,

heat in minus heat out:

W = QH - QC

Corollary of the 2nd Law of TD:

whose efficiency is 100%.

Refrigerators

Refrigerator: a cyclic device which uses

work to transfer heat from a cold

reservoir to hot reservoir.

Hot Reservoir, TH

QH

Work, W

QC

Cold Reservoir, TC

have no other effect than to transfer

thermal energy from a cold object to a hot

object.

A measure of refrigerator performance is

the ratio:

K = QC / W

“Coefficient of performance”

(The larger the better.)

performance to be infinite.

Equivalence of Kelvin and

Clausius Statements

For example:

refrigerator with a perfect engine

(impossible)...

QH Q QH-Q

W W

QC QC

impossible).

The Carnot Engine

2nd Law of TD says:

100% efficient Heat Engine is impossible.

reservoirs can be more efficient than an

ideal engine acting in a Carnot cycle.

(Sadi Carnot, 1824)

dissipative forces.

2. Heat conduction only occurs

isothermally at the temperatures of

the two reservoirs.

Derivation of Carnot Efficiency

1 Qin

2

TH

P

4 3

Qout TC

2-3: Adiabatic expansion

3-4: Isothermal (Qout at TC)

4-1: Adiabatic compression

e = 1 - TC/TH

The Stirling Engine

Invented by Robert Stirling in 1816.

Its operating cycle is:

1 Qin

Q 2

TH

P Q

4 3

Qout TC

performed at constant volume; A heat

transfer occurs at these steps also.

Entropy

Consider a reversible process for an ideal

gas:

dQ = dU + dW = n CV dT + P dV

= n CV dT + n R T (dV/V)

because dW (and therefore dQ) depends

on the functional form of T(V) (i.e. the

path). However, if we divide by T:

Entropy, defined by:

∫ dQ

f

DS = Sf - Si = T

i

(Valid for any system)

In general, the process may be too

complicated to do the integral

(particularly if irreversible process):

i 1

P 2

f

function, we can choose any convenient

path between i and f to integrate.

DS = n CV ln(Tf/Ti) + n R ln(Vf/Vi)

(Vi,Ti) and final state (Vf,Tf), but not the

path.

Isothermal Expansion: Tf=Ti, Vf>Vi

reservoir and enters the gas is

Q = n R T ln(Vf/Vi).

DSreservoir = - Q/T.

change of the universe (system +

surroundings) is zero.

Adiabatic Free Expansion

of an Ideal Gas

Two containers connected by stopcock.

They are thermally insulated so no heat

can flow in or out.

in volume Vi at temperature Ti.

second chamber. Gas does no work

(nothing to push against) and there is

no heat transfer. So internal energy

does not change. Final volume Vf>Vi at

temperature Tf=Ti.

Because there is no heat transfer, you

might think DS = 0. WRONG! This is an

irreversible process. We can’t integrate

∫ dQ

T .

know the initial and final conditions for

the Free Expansion. They are exactly the

same as for an Isothermal Expansion. So

DSgas = n R ln(Vf/Vi).

However, since it is thermally isolated

from its surroundings,

DSsurround = 0

and

DSuniverse = DSgas + DSsurround = n R ln(Vf/Vi)

> 0.

the universe increases.

Entropy and Heat Engines

For a reversible cycle:

DS = ∫ dQ

T

This implies that dQ cannot be strictly

positive. There must also be heat released

in the cycle.

Qin

TH

P

Qout TC

V

Carnot cycle: (Qin/TH) + (-Qout/TC) = 0.

DSuniverse ≥ 0.

(greater-than sign for irreversible

processes, and equals sign for reversible

processes)

- metallurgical thermodynamicsUploaded byHariom Gupta
- Chalcone ThesisUploaded byUjjwal Sharma
- 08 FluorescenceUploaded bySyafeeque Ziquery
- Michael Robinson AnnulationUploaded byPutramica Winarto
- experiment FameUploaded byNurul Noorfazleen
- thermodynamic functions and solubility product of barium nitrateUploaded byMydady'sname Shakri
- ConductivityUploaded bydrag000n
- Aldol CondensationUploaded byMomer
- ANALYSIS OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN WATER BY SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION (SPE) AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTOR (GC-ECD)Uploaded byAmirul Azhar
- chm510 exp2.docxUploaded byMay Lee
- past year CHM510Uploaded byMay Lee
- Sodium Boronhydride Reduction of CyclohexanoneUploaded byWan Nur Amira
- Lab 1 Chm 510 Complete 2011Uploaded byNor Hasliza
- ME120 Project ReportUploaded byaliosmans
- FATTY ACID DETERMINATION USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY (GC)Uploaded byAmirul Azhar
- POGIL - ThermodynamicsUploaded byMar
- Second LawUploaded byFIRDAUS BIN MAHAMAD
- ThermodynamicsUploaded byVijetha Sv
- Basic of Gas CompressionUploaded byJai-Hong Chung
- 1526411045285_barc Inteview QuestionsUploaded byDeepak Pandey
- M19_KNIG9404_ISM_C19.pdfUploaded bynorma_jeann
- 10Uploaded byAliMchirgui
- etd.pdfUploaded byjohnny
- Chap4-Closed_System.pdfUploaded byjfl2096
- Om Hreem Kali Kapalini Ghornadini Viswam Vimohya Jagnmohya Sarv Mohya Mohya ThUploaded byindra singh
- suppnotes_ch04.pdfUploaded byMaría Alejandra Muñoz
- Therm6.3 10211 ValidationUploaded byJavier
- Thermodynamics and Efficiency of a Heat Engine (1)Uploaded byMarc Castro
- Assignment 1 Review SolutionUploaded byabhijeet

- HW7 Nuclear EngineeringUploaded by5dawgs
- Work and EnergyUploaded byAdesh Partap Singh
- 06-sound-waves.pdfUploaded byMohammad Tomaraei
- Kinematics Practice Test 2015 (1)Uploaded byBassilObeidi
- Geophysics NotesUploaded byMaisam Abbas
- Structural Engineering Other Technical Topics - Radius of GyrationUploaded bypankaj242424
- Hydraulic OptimizationUploaded byLeopard Eyes
- Dynamics CompanionUploaded byMahendra Abesinghe
- SF Condition_Assessment of Steel StructureUploaded byTharach Janesuapasaeree
- BEAMS1Uploaded byMichelle Hidalgo
- Propeller DrawingUploaded byIsraa Yheaa
- 06 ES13 Axially Loaded MembersUploaded byMich Angeles
- Full TextStress-strain model for concrete under cyclic loadingUploaded bytoilfulboy
- Subduction Model.pdfUploaded byallansaja
- Elements of FractureUploaded bylucckii
- ass13Uploaded bycataice
- CEPD03 Coastal Sediment Transport 3Uploaded byMichael Dixon
- tensile.pdfUploaded byzilangamba_s4535
- Interaction Module in AbaqusUploaded byeureka.nitish
- Magnetics (Practice Questions)Uploaded bySaksham
- Upto Lecture 5Uploaded bysachin
- REC-ERC-78-08Uploaded byRoozbeh GHolizadeh
- 59e45Aero CurriculumUploaded byRajesh Kumar Verma
- FEM Analysis Of Plane Beam StructureUploaded bymiry89
- Lyu SP 1 Lecture 1 B-dipoleUploaded byTommy C K Fuller
- 272B NotesUploaded bykbains7
- 2-D CFD Analysis of Ring Air foil UAVUploaded byIJSTE
- Chapter 5Uploaded byolibira
- Phys3-Chap8-RotationalMotionUploaded byAida Campos
- Final htUploaded bySayyadh Rahamath Baba