# Tutorial 7.

Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle

Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to illustrate the setup and solution of an axisymmetric ﬂuid ﬂow through a nozzle. The ﬂow through a converging-diverging nozzle is one of the benchmark problems used for modeling the compressible ﬂow through computational ﬂuid dynamics. Occurrence of shock in the ﬂow ﬁeld displays one of the most prominent eﬀects of compressibility over ﬂuid ﬂow. Accurate shock predication is a challenge to the CFD fraternity. In order to resolve the high pressure gradients we need to use some special numerical schemes along with ﬁne grid. In some cases, local grid adaption can be helpful. In this tutorial you will learn how to: • Read an existing mesh ﬁle in FLUENT. • Check the grid for dimensions and quality. • Change the material properties. • Perform inviscid calculations. • Compare the results for diﬀerent models.

Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you have little experience with FLUENT but are familiar with the interface.

Problem Description
Figure 7.1 shows longitudinal section of a converging-diverging nozzle, symmetric about the axis. The length of the nozzle (L) is 0.6 m. The inlet radius (r1) is 0.1 m and the outlet radius (r2) is 0.12 m. The ratio of throat area to the inlet area is 0.5625. The pressure diﬀerence across the nozzle is 0.12 MPa. This tutorial has two sections. In the ﬁrst you will solve the problem using a turbulent model and in the second section you will use the inviscid model.

c Fluent Inc. August 18, 2005

7-1

Grid −→Scale. FLUENT will read the mesh ﬁle and report the progress in the console window. August 18. Start the 2D double precision solver of FLUENT. 2. Make sure the reported minimum volume is a positive number. 2005 . Copy the mesh ﬁle. File −→ Read −→Case... Setup and Solution for Viscous Flow Step 1: Grid 1. 7-2 c Fluent Inc.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Figure 7. Check the scale of the grid. Read the grid ﬁle.msh.. 2. nozzle.. 3.1: Problem Schematic Preparation 1. nozzle. Check the grid. Grid −→Check This procedure checks the integrity of the mesh.msh to your working directory.

Under Options. Display −→Grid.. Display the grid. c Fluent Inc. August 18.. i. ii. (a) Click Colors. 2005 7-3 . enable Color by ID.. Otherwise the grid has to be scaled with proper units. Click Close.. 4.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Check the domain extents to see if they correspond to the actual physical dimensions..

2005 . The grid adjacent to the walls is ﬁner as compared to that in the central region.2). (a) Under Space. 7-4 c Fluent Inc.2: Grid Display Step 2: Models 1.. The purpose for such ﬁne mesh is to capture sharp gradients near the walls correctly. enable Axisymmetric and click OK. click Display (Figure 7. August 18.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle (b) In the Grid Display panel. Figure 7. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Solver. Enable axisymmetric solver..

.. Deﬁne −→Materials. August 18. Change the properties of air. (a) Under Model. (b) Click OK. c Fluent Inc. enable k-epsilon (2 eqn). Enable standard k-epsilon model.. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Viscous. 2005 7-5 .Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 2. Step 3: Materials 1..

7-6 c Fluent Inc. Under Pressure.. 2005 . it is recommended to set the operating pressure to zero to minimize the errors due to pressure ﬂuctuations. August 18. Step 4: Operating Conditions Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. (b) Click Change/Create and close the panel. 1. set the value of Operating Pressure to 0. For compressible ﬂows.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle (a) Select ideal-gas in the Density drop-down list.. Energy equation will get enabled as soon as ideal-gas density formulation is used.

August 18. vi.. Under Zone.. Specify Gauge Total Pressure as 220000 Pascal. The Pressure Inlet panel opens.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Step 5: Boundary Conditions 1.. Ensure that Total Temperature is set to 300 K. i. Specify Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure as 210000 Pascal. select inlet. 2005 7-7 . The Type will be reported as pressure-inlet. Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions. iv.. Click Set. c Fluent Inc. Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter in the Turbulence Speciﬁcation Method drop-down list. Set boundary conditions for inlet and outlet. (a) Set the boundary conditions for inlet.. iii. v. ii.

Set the hydraulic diameter to 0.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle vii. viii. Specify the value of the Gauge Pressure as 100000. vii. select outlet.. set it to 1% as the diameter of inlet is 0. August 18. So the outlet pressure is set approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure. Click OK. In this case. (b) Set the boundary conditions for outlet. The Pressure Outlet panel opens. 7-8 c Fluent Inc. turbulent intensity is in the range of 1-5%. iv. Ensure that Backﬂow Total Temperature (k) is set to 300.2 respectively. i. vi.2 m. Under Zone.. ii. Click OK. Keep the intensity of ﬂow same as that of inlet and hydraulic diameter is set corresponding to the diameter of the outlet. iii. v. Specify values of Turbulence Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter as 1% and 0. The Type will be reported as pressure-outlet.24 respectively. The turbulence boundary conditions will be used only in case of reverse ﬂow from the outlet.. 2005 . In the Turbulence Speciﬁcation Method drop-down list. Click Set. select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter. Specify Turbulence Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter as 1 and 0. For higher Reynolds number ﬂow.2 m. The outlet is assumed to open in the atmosphere.

Solve −→ Monitors −→Residuals. 2005 7-9 .. Initialize the ﬂow. It will update values of all the variables based on the boundary conditions at inlet. 2...Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Step 6: Solution 1. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. (c) Click Init and close the panel. (a) Select inlet in the Compute From drop-down list.. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. This will save the settings. (b) Click Apply. c Fluent Inc.. August 18.. 3. Keep default settings for the solution controls.

The . File −→ Write −→Data. 4. Windows and UNIX platforms..gz). Retain the default Write Binary Files option so that you can write a binary ﬁle. Start the calculation by requesting 2000 iterations. Save the data ﬁle (nozzle-visc. 7-10 c Fluent Inc. The solution converges in about 1166 iterations with speciﬁed convergence criteria. 6. (a) Set Number of Iterations to 2000.. Solve −→Iterate. 2005 . enable Plot.gz extension will save compressed ﬁles on both. The residuals plot is shown in Figure 7.3..gz).Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle (a) Under Options.dat.cas. 5. File −→ Write −→Case.. (b) Click OK. August 18.. (b) Click Iterate.. Save the case ﬁle (nozzle-visc.

Display ﬁlled contours of static pressure (Figure 7. August 18. c Fluent Inc..4).Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Figure 7.. (b) Click Display. and Static Pressure in the Contours of drop-down lists. Display −→Contours. (a) Select Pressure.. 2005 7-11 .3: Scaled Residuals Step 7: Postprocessing 1..

76e+05 1.09e+04 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) FLUENT 6.2 (axi. select Velocity. Scale and Skip.67e+05 1. 7-12 c Fluent Inc.03e+05 9. Display −→Vectors.21e+05 1.00e+04 2. dp. (a) Under Vectors of.39e+04 8. segregated.94e+05 1. (b) Select Velocity. 2005 .85e+05 1.5).47e+04 7. and Velocity Magnitude in the Color by drop-down lists (c) Specify a value of 5 for both..03e+05 1.65e+04 5.39e+05 1.83e+04 3..58e+05 1.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 2.91e+04 3.56e+04 6..30e+05 1.. ske) Figure 7.74e+04 4. August 18.12e+05 1. Display velocity vectors (Figure 7.49e+05 1.4: Contours of Static Pressure 2.

Zoom the view to get the display as shown in Figure 7. The pressure outlet intersects the vortex and results in a reversed ﬂow.6. Observe the reversed ﬂow at the top end of the outlet. Figure 7. FLUENT will give a message in the console about a reversed ﬂow. This causes ﬂow separation and a vortex is formed. You can extend the domain to avoid reverse ﬂow. The reason for this is the shock after which the pressure gradient becomes adverse. c Fluent Inc. A sharp velocity drop can be observed at the shock. August 18. 2005 7-13 .Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle (d) Click Display.5: Velocity Vectors 3.

only change will be to use Inviscid as Viscous model.45e+02 2.62e+01 2. segregated.60e+02 4. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Viscous.6: Magniﬁed View of Velocity Vectors Setup and Solution for Inviscid Flow Inviscid ﬂow analysis neglects the eﬀect of viscosity on the ﬂow and are appropriate for high Reynolds number applications where inertial forces dominate the viscous forces.06e+02 3.37e+02 1. dp.10e+02 8.92e+01 2.2 (axi.41e+02 5. In this simulation the velocity is high and we can assume the ﬂow to be inviscid.26e+02 2.18e+02 1.87e+02 4. The same case ﬁle can be used. 2005 .99e+02 2. enable Inviscid..31e+01 5.33e+02 4. Step 8: Models 1. ske) Figure 7.14e+02 4. 7-14 c Fluent Inc. Enable inviscid viscous model.79e+02 3.29e+00 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s) FLUENT 6.91e+02 1. A quick estimate of shock and ﬂow characteristics can be obtained and compared with the viscous ﬂow simulation. (b) Click OK.. August 18.72e+02 2.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 5. (a) Under Model.52e+02 3.64e+02 1.

Save the data ﬁle (nozzle-invisc. 2005 7-15 .cas. Save the case ﬁle (nozzle-invisc. 4. c Fluent Inc. (b) Click Init and close the panel.. File −→ Write −→Data.gz).. (b) Click Iterate.. with the default convergence criteria.7. It will update values of all the variables based on the boundary conditions at inlet. Start the calculation by requesting 1000 iterations.... File −→ Write −→Case. 3.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Step 9: Solution 1.. Initialize the ﬂow. August 18. The solution converges in about 450 iterations.gz). Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize. The residuals plot is shown in Figure 7.. (a) Set Number of Iterations to 1000. 2. (a) Select inlet in the Compute From drop-down list. Solve −→Iterate.dat.

8)... (a) Select Velocity. August 18. and Mach Number in the Contours of drop-down list. (b) Click Display.. 2005 .. Display −→Contours. Display ﬁlled contours of mach number (Figure 7.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Figure 7. 7-16 c Fluent Inc.7: Scaled Residuals Step 10: Postprocessing 1.

37e+00 1.57e+00 1.. McGraw Hill Inc. • The FLUENT console does not show any reversed ﬂow message.08e+00 1.47e+00 1. dp.19e+00 2. Anderson.e. August 18. Modern Compressible Flow. In viscous ﬂow.43e-01 3.2 (axi. • The inviscid ﬂow solution is much faster and it predicts the shock with certain amount of over-prediction. Inviscid ﬂow gives a quick estimate of shock location and ﬂow characteristics.78e+00 1. c Fluent Inc.67e+00 1. Hence no vortex is formed near the outlet. velocity is less near the wall (i. 1984.16e+00 1.29e+00 2.53e-01 7.98e+00 1.8: Contours of Mach Number (Inviscid Flow) Summary • The inviscid ﬂow solution shows a straight shock instead of a curved shock.. References J. in the boundary layer). a higher maximum Mach number is obtained.39e+00 2.51e-01 6. 2005 7-17 . This gives a curved shock.88e+00 1. the shock takes place near the wall before it takes place in the main ﬂow.40e-01 Contours of Mach Number FLUENT 6.D. segregated) Figure 7. • The viscosity accounts to loss in momentum.56e-01 8.48e-01 5. So.45e-01 4. New York.26e+00 1. Flow separation does not occur in inviscid ﬂows. As this loss is not considered in inviscid ﬂow. Hence the shock location near the wall is upstream to the shock location near the axis.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle 2.06e+00 9.

and Lambda. Can you get an idea about the viscous loss from the Mach number? 2. Links for Further Reading • http://www. run the simulations with a range of pressure ratios to see diﬀerent type of shocks like Straight.%20Choked%20Flow 7-18 c Fluent Inc. Check if the mesh is within the prescribed limits for wall treatment? 3. 2005 .kr/download e/steam ﬂow e. Curved.engsoft.vt. Change the values of pressure at the inlet and/or outlet to see how the shock changes position. 4.Inviscid and Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle Exercises/Discussions 1.engapplets.co.htm#3. August 18. Change the solver to 2D and compare the new result with the current result.grc.nasa.html • http://www.edu/ﬂuids/CDnozzle/cdinfo.html • http://www. Reach the pressure diﬀerence for which shock is observed at the throat.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/mﬂchk. The type of shock depends on the pressure ratio.