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COORDINATING TEACHER: IONUT BOTAR 2010
STUDENT: VIEZA BIANCA
RATIONALE……………………………………………………………..3 CHAPTERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1890s-1910s: Ragtime, Dixieland………………………………...4 1920s-1930s: Boogie-Woogie, Swing, Scat………………………8 1940s-1950s: BeBop, Cool, Free Jazz……………………………12 1960s-1970s: Bossa Nova, Jazz/Rock Fusion, Soul jazz………..15 1980s-2000s: Acid Jazz, World Fusion, Modern Creative……..23
I also approached this subject because I have always been fascinated by negro spirituals. risky ventures into improvisation gave it critical cache with scholars that the blues lacked. you can find joy or sorrow in its sound. the music split into a number of different styles. At the outset. The spirituals made me dream of human solidarity and dissolution of racial discrimination. DIXIELAND 3 . atonal forays of free jazz and the earthy grooves of soul jazz. I felt the power and the impact of his words when I first listened to Louis Armstrong’s “What a Wonderful World”. excitement and togetherness. As the genre evolved. jazz emerged as a free expression of creation of the black community. mellow harmonies of cool jazz to the jittery. of spiritual devotion and a yearning for freedom from bondage originated by enslaved African-Americans in the United States. Jazz music was born at the dawns of the 20th century in New Orleans. Along with the blues. There is an alchemy in jazz music. Throughout the years. It gives soul to the universe. those are the qualities that defined jazz. a song which was to become the soundtrack of my life. There is no bond so special as that between music and human spirit. its forefather. the dance elements faded into the background and improvisation became the key element of the music. According to everyone’s moods. performed by swinging big bands. and for good reason. wings to the mind. and despite racial restricted freedoms typical of the age. representing a break from traditional music alongside with the use of improvisation. What tied it all together was a foundation in the blues.Music is a moral law. 1890s-1910s: RAGTIME. Jazz music has always overwhelmed me with its charm and uniqueness. and charm and gaiety to life and to everything. and in all the different styles. it is one of the first truly indigenous musics to develop in America. I have chosen this theme bearing in mind Plato’s quotation as mentioned above. like poetry. has no social or national borders and it accompanies us on the span of our life. jazz was dance music. yet its unpredictable. hard-hitting rhythms of be-bop and the laid-back. I owe my first encounter with this music to my father who once told me that jazz. 1. made my heart throb with emotion and side with the tempests of those enslaved as if an universal grief Jazz has been called America's classical music. from the speedy. Soon. you can find bliss. expressions of religious faith. flight to the imagination. playing a major role in the history of arts in the United States of America. a reliance on group interplay and unpredictable improvisation.
and later one of the biggest stars in the world. many of these early musicians were bad sight readers and some couldn't even read music at all. Regardless. these themes were sixteen measures like their European counterparts. It brought together the elements of Ragtime. and gained greater success. was built on four melodies. thus the first great ragtime composition. by the first great ragtime composer. Jazz represented a break from tradition music where a composer wrote an entire piece of music on paper. Other early players of the time included Freddie Keppard. and their work will forever be studied and admired. but once they had finished. and Clarence Williams. These men formed small bands and took the music of earlier musicians. There is every reason to believe that a rich body of Afro-American inspired music preceded ragtime. In ragtime. with deliberately still rhythms. an AfroAmerican dance initially based on an elegant. Kid Ory. Bunk Johnson. and there was published cakewalk music. their ideas are still affecting the way Jazz is being played today. however. Most of these musicians may seen unknown to most people. the Jazz Musicians had more or less written a new piece of music that bore little resemblance to the original piece. their superb playing amazed audiences and the upbeat music they played was a different but well-liked escape from the traditional music of that time. Actually. Ragtime was basically a piano keyboard music that Gilbert Thomas said was an "Afro. The first Jazz is thought to have been played by African Americans and Creole musicians in New Orleans. or sort of a starting point for the Jazz musicians to improvise around. Certainly the cakewalk.so much so that it is difficult to convince some listeners that the early ragtime composers were highly gifted melodists and serious craftsmen who produced an admirable body of musical art. almost all of which have continued. It was (and is) sometimes played fast and shallow. the structure of Maple Leaf Rag comes out to ABACD. He soon grew to become one of the greatest and most successful musicians of all time. If we assign a letter to each theme. In a Jazz piece. preceded it. What made Jazz different from the other earlier forms of music was the use of improvisation. Ragtime Piano ragtime began to be published in the late 1890s. the song is simply a starting point.The music that we call jazz was born around the year 1895 in New Orleans. This music is known as "Hot Jazz" due to the enormously fast speeds. improved its complexity. Scott Joplin. A young cornet player by the name of Louis Armstrong was discovered by Joe Oliver in New Orleans. The second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians include such players as Joe Oliver. or themes. It was immediately successful and subjected to various kinds of popularization. leaving the musicians to break their backs playing exactly what was written on the score. on a jangling prepared piano -. Buddy Bolden. The impact of Armstrong and other early Jazz musicians changed the way we look at music." Somewhere in the background of the music is the Sousa style march.American version of the Polka. Maple Leaf Rag. is generally considered to be the first real jazz musician. stylized parody of Southern white courtly manners. and the Blues. although publishers in those 4 . and Jelly Roll Morton. Generally these early musicians could not make very much money and were stuck working menial jobs to make a living. a cornet player. possessing an incredible sound. marching band music. although there are no recordings from those years. The song being played may have been popular and wellknown that the musicians themselves didn't compose.
Ragtime has been traced to minstrel shows and cakewalks as early as 1895. Dixieland. which added elements that alluded to popular dance bands of the Dixieland. jazz. By the early 1900s. Paris (1960) the early Ragtime. New Orleans and Swing styles yet to be developed. originated in the Caribbean’s. arrived in the United States as a syncopated music form based on a march. Most typically. individual solos with some riffing by the other horns. Small orchestras. many musicians playing in that idiom grew to dislike the term and wanted it to be changed to "traditional" or "classic. the framework involves collective improvisation during the first chorus (or. military bands and piano-banjo combos were among the earliest recordings of Ragtime." But rather than blame the term or the style. in the accents of its right-hand melodies. it became a strong base for the music that lay ahead of it. Ragtime was no longer being performed by a solo pianist. and clichés. Once Ragtime emerged as a unquiet musical form. delightful syncopation onto the heavy 2/4 oompah rhythm of its cakewalk-derived bass line and almost immediately became a kind of national. in Chicago in the 1920s. that it years of latter part century.days were not quite sure how to indicate its rhythms properly. a style that overlaps with New Orleans jazz and classic jazz. it was an exciting era of development and change. corny trappings (such as straw hats and suspenders). 5 . even worldwide craze. the polka and a two-step. when there are several themes. The first true ragtime composition was published by William Krell called "The Mississippi Rag" in 1897. the first published African American composer wrote "The Harlem Rag" the same year. Dixieland Because the Dixieland revival (one could say fad) of the 1950s was eventually overrun by amateurs. The cakewalk. it seems more justifiable to separate the professionals from the poor imitators. namely James Scott. to an extent. Louis Chauvin. a number of composers merged as the voice of this musical form. An individual musical voice was being established in America. Over the cores of Ragtime’s initial popularity. Joseph Lamb and Scott Joplin. has also been called "Chicago jazz" because it developed. for several choruses). But ragtime introduced. and a closing ensemble or two with a four-bar tag by the drummer (which is answered by the full group). Tom Turpin. Little is known of development of however it is clear surfaced after evolution in the of the nineteenth Billy Strayhorn.
This equal or flat metric feel was later 6 .Although nearly any song can be turned into Dixieland. Major developers and revivalists include Bob Crosby's Bobcats. and the assorted variations that are performed by revivalist bands. the earliest Chicago jazz. Some restrict it mostly to disciples of the earliest white Chicagoans. tends to de-emphasize solos in favor of ensembles featuring everyone playing and improvising together. clarinet. and drums. Nick LaRocca. Bob Scobey. although overlapping with Dixieland. The rhythm section accompanied the front line on a flat-four fashion. It differed from the later Chicago Dixieland and the even later revival Dixieland in its instrumentation and rhythmic feeling. and a steady rhythm stated by the rhythm section (which usually consists of piano. clarinet. Sidney Bechet. The origin of these instruments was in the marching bands reflected the need to move while playing. it became possible to hear what this music sounded like in later years. guitar. harmonies from the trombone. recorded from 1917 to 1923. unfortunately went totally unrecorded. tuba. beginning during the late 1930s. the polyphony typical of the African. a rhythmic feeling that placed equal emphasis on all four beats of the measure. Bix Beiderbecke. banjo. Early New Orleans Dixieland (1900-1917) The earliest style of jazz. Turk Murphy. tuba. However with the success of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band in 1917 and the many performances documented in the 1920s. and drums. bass. it is consistently the happiest and most accessible style of jazz. Jelly Roll Morton. Some historians reserve Dixieland for white groups playing traditional jazz. The rhythm section was made up of banjo. Major exponents include. and a trombone. or bass and drums). Joe King Oliver. Yank Lawson and Bob Haggart (World's Greatest Jazz Band). as well as its developments and revivals. and pop tunes. Simultaneous counterlines are supplied by trumpet. Dixieland (along with the related classic jazz and New Orleans jazz idioms) continues to flourish as an underground music style. Due to its fairly basic harmonies and the pure joy of the ensembles. tuba. there is a consistent repertoire of 40 or so songs that have proven to be reliable. Dixieland is an umbrella to indicate musical styles of the earliest New Orleans and Chicago jazz musicians. Bob Wilber. As rural music moved to the city and adopted new instruments. Louis Armstrong. banjo or guitar. It refers to collectively improvised small band music. and trombone. the music played in New Orleans from about the time that Buddy Bolden formed his first band in 1895 until Storyville was closed in 1917. This music is a direct descendant of marching brass bands and. Lu Watters Yerba Buena Jazz Band. accompanied by combinations of piano. and James Dapogny's Chicago Jazz Band. These first groups used a front line of a cornet. Kid Ory. Johnny Dodds. countermelodies by the clarinet. Its materials are rags. New Orleans Jazz generally features a trumpet or cornet providing a melodic lead. The Dukes of Dixieland. marches. Paul Mares. blues.American singing tradition found an expression in the style now identified as Early New Orleans Dixieland. Despite its decline in popularity since the 1950s. Aficionados make distinctions between various streams of traditional New Orleans jazz. Ensemble-oriented with fairly strict roles for each instrument. and Jimmy McPartland. two-steps. one-steps.
Scott Fitzgerald. Scat Boogie-Woogie 7 . and the music seemed more aggressively performed. His individual style started the trend toward the soloist being the primary spokesperson for jazz. During this time in Chicago. The tempos were generally less relaxed than New Orleans Dixieland. These centers would later claim center stage as they moved toward a definition of swing. Louis Armstrong’s Louis Armstrong influence as a soloist was influencing the fabric of otherwise democratic ensemble. Many workers from the south migrated to Chicago and brought with them a continued interest in the type of entertainment they had left behind. or to quote F." Chicago was exciting at this time and so was its music.replaced by Chicago groups with a measure that emphasized the second and fourth beats and was referred to as 2/4 time (accents on 2 and 4). The New Orleans instrumentation was augmented to include a saxophone and piano and the influence of ragtime added 2/4 backbeat to the rhythmic feeling. Chicago Style Dixieland (The 1920s) The merger of New Orleans Style Dixieland with ragtime style led to what is now referred to as Chicago Style Dixieland. mainly New York and Kansas City. Swing. In 1917 with the closing of Storyville in New Orleans. but during the 1920’s Chicago remained the hub of jazz. The banjo moved to guitar and the tuba moved to string bass. There was jazz activity in other cities as well. This style exemplified the Roaring Twenties. 1920s-1930s: Boogie-Woogie. Chicago became the center of jazz activity. "the jazz age. 2.
Luckey Roberts and the classical composer Charles Ives. In the years just before 1940. an open-fifth pounded out with a blue third thrown in. Music historians have credited Meade Lux Lewis for the boogie woogie craze. Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson found themselves feted as celebrities in New York’s exclusive café society circles. as in the work of Professor Longhair and Dr. the approach varies to the pianist. to which it is closely related. it returned with a vengeance in the late '30s. The style probably evolved in the American Midwest alongside that of ragtime. popularized by a smart Deane Kincaide arrangement for Tommy Dorsey’s band of the 1929 composition "Boogie Woogie" written by Clarence "Pine Top" Smith. such as 8 . or even a simple figure such as falling triad (as in the work of Jimmy Yancey). the strict blues form was being used more in jazz recordings as the tempos were speeding up. and by the end of the 1920s dozens of boogie woogie pianists had recorded ranging geographically from Texas to Chicago. the primitive blues form of boogie woogie became a popular fad. or "barrelhouse" is a blues-based piano style in which the right hand plays an accompaniment figure that resembles a strummed rhythm. Nat King Cole. The earliest description of the style occurs in print circa 1880. Elements of boogie-woogie can be found prior to 1910 in piano works by such disparate figures such as Blind Boone. it can be said that boogie-woogie has never truly lost its popularity even today. Boogie-woogie practically disappeared from records during the depression. such as is typically played on the guitar or banjo in rural blues dances. All during the 40s boogie influenced a number of arrangements within the big bands. but elements of the sound were absorbed into the playing of early rock & roll artists such as Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis. It also remains an important component to New Orleans pop music.Boogie Woogie. This could be expressed as a walking octave. Among living pianists working in nightclubs and cocktail bars. John. However. one-time Chicago barrelhouse pianists such as Albert Ammons. and as a result. The swing bands found great success when they added the element of boogie. During the 1930s. Boogie-woogie enjoyed its heyday in the early '40s. a Chicago pianist who is also credited with coining the term. NYC [Quartet] 1949 After the Second World War interest in the style subsided. The earliest recorded examples of boogie woogie are found on piano rolls made in 1922 by Cow Cow Davenport.
Art Tatum. altoists Johnny Hodges and Benny Carter. and Nat King Cole. The blues based boogie would later merge with the stride style to became the main line of development of jazz piano playing." The many stars of swing during the big-band era included trumpeters Louis Armstrong. Earl Hines. Joe Sullivan. and Roy Eldridge. Bunny Berigan. clarinetists Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw. Individual improvisations still paid close attention to the melody but due advance in musicianship." Of the boogie woogie players who came to promeinence during the boogie fad. Swing While New Orleans jazz has improvised ensembles. guitarist Charlie 9 . Jimmy Yancey. Harry James." and Tommy Dorsey’s "Boogie Woogie. tenor saxophonists Coleman Hawkins. Although swing largely began when Louis Armstrong joined Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra in 1924 and Don Redman began writing arrangements for the band that echoed the cornetist's relaxed phrases. Albert Ammons." Earl Hines. Swing popular largely from (even and riffs. seven stand out as the major contributors and influences: Pine Top Smith. Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis. particularly when a group included more than three or four horns. Clarence Lofton. NYC [Angel with Smoke] (1949) was a major force in American music until the big-band era ended in 1946. trombonists Tommy Dorsey and Jack Teagarden. Cleo Brown and Bob Zurke came to promidence as the younger generation of boogie woogie players. the flights were more adventurous. swing-oriented musicians who continued performing in the style after the end of the big band era (along with later generations who adopted this approach) were also playing "mainstream. Lester Young. when jazz started becoming popular in the 1920s and demand was growing for larger dance bands. In later years Freddie Slack. Count Basie. and Ben Webster. more to the solo The Billie Holiday. Eight To The Bar. Swing differs New Orleans jazz and Dixieland in that the ensembles for small groups) are simpler generally filled with repetitious while in contrast the solos are sophisticated. the swing era officially started in 1935 when Benny Goodman's Orchestra caught on. led by the "Fatha.the case of Will Bradley’s "Beat Me Daddy. it became necessary for ensembles to be written down. a form that would lead to a major movement in jazz. pianists Teddy Wilson.
the musical period of the 1930s and 1940s has been called the swing era and big-band era. the bands of Count Basie. Yet huge portions of their repertory were composed of ballads and vocal features. Guitarists. however considered almost any lively." ---Mel Torme. The groups had first-rate jazz oriented accompanists. Therefore. You are wondering all over the scales. some of the biggest hits by Glenn Miller's sweet band contained brief jazz improvisations and conveyed quite danceable swing feeling. Scat is the art of creating an instrumental-style improvisation vocally. and drums. Andy Kirk and Duke Ellington). and singers Billie Holiday. Jimmie Lunceford. jazz musicians generally confer high respect upon them. Many listeners. rich tone qualities on their instruments. that is scat. though jazz historians don't usually give Dorsey's bands much attention. swinging arrangements. Not all dance music played by big bands of the 1930s and 1940s was jazz. The latter were called sweet bands (for example the bands of Glenn Miller. Solo improvisers did not seek intricacy in their lines so much as lyricism and a hot. The former were called swing bands or hot bands (for example. Journalists and jazz fans drew distinctions between bands that conveyed the most harddriving rhythmic qualities and extensive solo improvisations and those that conveyed less swing feeling and improvisation. Freddy Martin. Scat is most closely associated by the general public with Ella Fitzgerald and her many imitators. A large segment of the public. the notes coming out of your mouth a millisecond after you think of them. An instructive illustration for this confusion regards Tommy Dorsey's immensely popular bands of the 1940s. Brought to an early peak of perfection by Leo Watson who. will tell you that the hardest aspect of that kind of singing is to stay in tune. This is not surprising because all the bands (even Guy Lombardo's) did play some jazz and even the honest of swing bands (like Duke Ellington's) featured some sweet numbers. This requires a vocabulary of vowels and consonants related less to identifiable words and more to the tone and articulation of jazz instrumentalists such as in the trumpet-like "Oop-Pop-a-Da" by Babs Gonzales or Sarah Vaughan's saxophonic "Shulie-abop. 10 . the style's largest audience. however.Christian. by introducing occasional real words inspired the development of a vocal-orchestra. and lilting to inspire social dancers. and Jimmy Rushing. Conversely. did not make such distinctions." first done on records by Louis Armstrong. and a number of top-notch jazz improvisers. and Guy Lombardo). bassists and drummers offered repeating rhythms that were sufficiently simple.. syncopated popular music to be jazz. drummers Gene Krupa and Chick Webb. Most swing-style groups had at least 10 musicians and featured at least three or four saxophones. buoyant. Wayne King. two or three trumpets. bandleader Glenn Miller. two or three trombones. confident feeling that was rhythmically compelling. bass violin. vibraphonist Lionel Hampton. piano. Ella Fitzgerald. guitar. They considered all the big dance bands to be swing bands. Musicians strove for large. For these reasons. Scat "Anyone who attempts to sing extemporaneously.
To paraphrase a popular song. if Louis named scat. In fact the recording also showed that Ella was already educated on the fast emerging bebop movement. thanks to his recordings and world tours. who was even able to put a few scat songs on the Top 40 Charts during the late 1980s and early 90s. Armstrong dropped the lyrics to "The Hebbie Jeebies" and spontaneously substituted scatting for the words. jumbling. Paul Whiteman’s Rhythm Boys. with a TV programs 1960s. Slam Stewart and Dizzy Gillespie. These sampling. featuring Bing Crosby. The technique was copied so often that an actual jazz form develpoed. and reinventing the words along expressive musical lines. Chick Webb. During Sarah Vaughan was much of the notes Parker was playing. it wasn’t until Ella Fitzgerald adopted the styles that scat became a house-hold word. and scat home. variations included the works of Lionel Hampton. released in 1947) she introduced variations of scat which showcased a segment of songs made famous by other performers. however. Today scat has scaled new heights of virtuosity with such performers as Bobby McFerrin. As early as 1926. In more Sarah Vaughan. able to vocalize that Charlie Vaughan was jazz. mixing. Other singers ideas of scat Henderson’s the bebop era.Louis Armstrong’s improvisational approach to written lyrics. again keeping the style alive. NYC [Singing in Black Dress] (1949) added to the early including Fletcher Orchestra. 11 . Ella seemed to add dazzle to scatting and clearly defined it as a vocal improvisation using phonetic sounds similar to the instrumental sounds of jazz. Mel Torme gained fame as a scat singer. were thought to be the first white group to use the scat style. Whiteman’s national radio programs promoted scat. Ella claimed it! With her recording of "Flying Home" (thought to be her first scat based song. also key in bringing into the American number of radio and beginning in the late recent years. echoed new directions in jazz.
The elitism also expanded to the players. Although the launched the art placing it in the the world. young ideas were able There were in techniques performances. If you were an accomplished swing 12 . and pianist/composer Thelonious Monk. There was also a shift away from the popularity that swing enjoyed to a more elite listening audience. BeBop was a radical new music that developed gradually in the early '40s and exploded in 1945. Cool. uplifting jazz to an art music but cutting deeply into its potential commercial success. NYC (1948) swing style may have status of jazz by ears and the minds of its successor. The draft of World War the dissolution of the the rise of small country was nervous. there were great changes in the repertoire. it was which claimed More significant musical and in jazz with the any other time in military service II brought about big bands and combos. Since the virtuoso musicians were getting away from using the melodies as the basis for their solos (leading some listeners to ask "Where's the melody?") and some of the tempos were very fast. was nervous and Because many wellwere in the military. occurred advent of bop than at jazz history. pianist Bud Powell. players and their to get exposure. bop. known players new. most jazz groups were under seven pieces. often discarding the melody altogether after the first chorus and using the chords as the basis for the solo. bop divorced itself from popular music and a dancing audience. Among its key innovators were altoist Charlie Parker. Ironically the once-radical bebop style has become the foundation for all of the innovations that followed and now can be almost thought of as establishment music. mainstream status. changes. The main difference between bop and swing is that the soloists engaged in chordal (rather than melodic) improvisation. The and the music agitated. Consequently. Bop Dexter Gordon. 1940s-1950s: BeBop. changes of audiences. and the soloist was free to get as adventurous as possible as long as the overall improvisation fit into the chord structure. considerable changes and attitudes toward There also were attitude toward became the first jazz style that was not used for dancing. Ensembles tended to be unisons. trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. drummer Max Roach.3. Free Jazz BeBop Also known as Bop. both nonmusical.
there was no guarantee that you would be able to survive the expectations of the bop musical world. This chapter looks at the musicians who made these sweeping changes and what they were. Shelly Manne. longer forms.player. Davis’s work with Gil Evans that led to the recording of the "Birth of the Cool" signaled the beginning of that period. many instruments were used in jazz for the first time. which encouraged experimentation in jazz that had been previously ignored: new meters. In this era. Players like Gerry Mulligan. Listen to Young’s style on "Lester Leaps In" and Davis’s "Boplicity" to hear examples of the cool sound. they are two of the players associated with the development of the cool style. The music was generally fast. devoted to addressing and evaluating these contentions. Although these first recordings appeared in New York. 1944-1955. 13 . more extensive examination. unamplified. Longer forms were also made possibly by the introduction of long-playing records.I. It is interesting that bop is today considered the mainstream of jazz style. and made it im. in its approach to arranging. The G. created a different mood from that expressed earlier. dissertations and essays. and even in its choices of instruments. A theoretical underpinning began to emerge as players stretched the harmonic boundaries of early jazz styles. and looked toward the future instead of paying homage to the past. Young’s contribution was the relaxed sound and style of his playing. several consider it the time when musicians began stressing artistic rather than commercial concerns. Each assessment contains enough grains of truth to merit closer. and explorations in orchestration. the style that instituted solemnity and elitism among the fraternity stripped jazz of its connection with dance. and Stan Getz were often associated with this "West Coast" style. Others view bebop as jazz's ultimate dead end. represents for many the most significant period in jazz history. as well as their extensions and possible substitutions. and other musicians to enjoy and appreciate the music. which began in 1947. Players had to have a greater and more immediate sense of chord recognition. put innovation ahead of convention. Bill made schooling possible for many jazz players. Cool Cool jazz followed bop but was entirely different in mood. many of he later cool groups worked out of Los Angeles and were former members of the Stan Kenton band. demanding execution on individual instruments seldom required by previous styles. BeBop Era The BeBop era. academics. Also listen to Miles Davis on "Summertime" to hear sonorous sounds typical of Gil Evans’s arrangements. World War II was over-the country was relaxed and jazz relaxed. Although Lester Young came primarily out of the swing style and Miles Davis out of the bop style. yet it was not enthusiastically accepted by the jazz community at the time of its emergence. Softer-sounding instruments. and there have been many studies. The music’s complexity required players to extend their former playing knowledge. But it's undeniable jazz changed forever during the bebop years.possible for anyone except hard-core collectors.
" Some of the recordings were experimental in nature hinting at classical music and some overarranged sessions were bland. and George Shearing on piano. highly complex sounds from basses and drums. but in general this was a viable and popular style. Free Jazz Free jazz is one name for the music of Ornette Coleman. it was nicknamed "West Coast jazz. Cecil Taylor. some of John Coltrane's music of the middle 1960s is often classified with "free" jazz. Among the many top artists who were important in the development of cool jazz were Lester Young. And some recordings of Albert Ayler. and the rhythm section's accents were less jarring. Cool Jazz evolved directly from bop in the late '40s and '50s. Essentially. despite its using preset arrangements of the harmonies guiding the improvisers. or progression of accompaniment chords. Freedom from these guidelines allows improvisers a greater degree of spontaneity than was available in previous jazz styles. although many of the style's top players had long and productive careers. The free designation derives from Coleman's decision to offer performances that were not always organized according to preset melody. Though Coleman and Taylor had recorded before the '60s. Pharoah Sanders. By the late '50s. and Ornette Coleman include loud screeches and shrieks from trumpets and saxophones. These players all typified the relaxed sound and manner of performance associated with cool. For these reasons. musicians make distinctions according to the methods used (lack of preset chords) and the melodic vocabulary (original not bebop-derived). hard bop from the East Coast had succeeded cool jazz. Chet Baker on trumpet. probably because of its collectively improvised turbulence. and their colleagues and disciples. even though freedom from adhering to preset chord progressions does not necessitate high "energy" playing or any particular tone qualities or ways of organizing tones for melodic lines. tones were softened. the free jazz term was not common until then.The cool sound was exemplified by players like Paul Desmond on alto saxophone. Much of Cecil Taylor's music is extremely active. arrangements became important again. Though nonmusicians find much of Coleman's music indistinguishable from bebop. some listeners equate the term "free jazz" with high-energy. it was a mixture of bop with certain aspects of swing that had been overlooked or temporarily discarded. It is densely packed with rapidly shifting layers of complex harmonies and rhythms. Because some of the key pacesetters of the style many of whom were studio musicians were centered in Los Angeles. Dissonances were smoothed out. Shorty Rogers. tempo. Gerry Mulligan. seemingly chaotic group improvisations. 14 . Albert Ayler. combined with nonrepetitive. Miles Davis. and Howard Rumsey leader of the Lighthouse All-Stars. Stan Getz. For example.
The late '50s film Black Orpheus helped introduce Jobim's compositions to an American audience. Jazz/Rock Fusion The word Fusion has been so liberally used since the late '60s that it's become almost meaningless. along with her husband (Joao) and Getz. and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avantgarde music. in the 1950s composer Antonio Carlos Jobim helped to form Bossa Nova. and housewifeturned-singer Astrud Gilberto -. a new music that blended together gentle Brazilian rhythms and melodies with cool-toned improvising. 7. 11. It has also repaid its debt to the West Coast by entering the repertoire of all easy listening jazz players everywhere. tenor saxophonist Stan Getz (Byrd and Getz teamed up for the highly influential Jazz/Samba). thanks in large part to Jazz Festivals.4. but it has remained a viable music style. 1960s-1970s: Bossa Nova. The performers who played Bossa Nova gained almost a cult following in the decades that followed. the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate.who. the rhythms are usually played lightly as 3-3-43-3 with beats 1. made "The Girl From Ipanema" a huge hit. Fusion's original definition was best: a mixture of jazz improvisation with the power and rhythms of rock. The very appealing bossa nova's popularity peaked in the mid-'60s. But as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved. Joao Gilberto's soothing voice perfectly communicated the beauty of Jobim's music. Influenced by West coast jazz. and 14 being accented during every two-bars (played in 8/4 time). Up until around 1967. 15 . Jazz/Rock Fusion. 4. Other important early exponents of bossa nova were guitarist Charlie Byrd. the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces. Strangely cool by comparison with other exportable by the harmonic language of West Coast Jazz. Soul Jazz Bossa Nova Bossa Nova is a style of Brazilian popular song that was most successful in the early 1960s. it soon acquired a permanent place in international middle of the road music.
its possible fusion seemed guaranteed.By the early '70s. Weather Report. The promise of fusion went unfulfilled to an extent. and Wayne Shorter. has become a part of common practice. Joe Zawinul. the bop traditions. volume. It accompanied the emergence of the post. As the popularity of rock was carried by the baby boom into the adult listening market. The most prominent later fusion groups belonged to former Davis players. As jazz developed its cannon and rock and roll filled its role as America’s popular music. to a lesser extent. Jazz began to import rock’s instruments. fusion did not occur without controversy. it was taking a risk by fusing with rock. Unfortunately. although it continued to exist in groups such as Tribal Tech and Chick Corea's Elektric Band. like earlier technical approaches. 16 . and Miles Davis' various bands were playing high-quality fusion that mixed some of the best qualities of jazz and rock. much of what was labeled fusion was actually a combination of jazz with easy-listening pop music and lightweight R&B. At the time. This musical crossover eventually became known as fusion in the jazz community beginning around 1965. This later album included players who later form the most popular fusion groups. John McLaughlin. As jazz was establishing its legitimacy. a new crossover began between the two musical styles. Rock also represented a generational division in the American profile. The earliest notable fusion experiments happened again under the guidance of Miles Davis in his albums In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew. and stylistic delivery. fusion had its own separate identity as a creative jazz style (although snubbed by many purists) and such major groups as Return to Forever. as it became a money-maker and as rock declined artistically from the mid-'70s on.World War II baby boom to adolescence. Chick Corea. It was the first associated exclusively with the young generation and worked as a banner distinction. the Mahavishnu Orchestra. Like bop. Jazz criticism at that time was founded in the swing and. Rock fusion represented a Miles Davis commercialization of an emerging American art form. this style offered a new virtuosity which. Its further association with the social and political polarity of the 1960s tended to reinforce the generation lines.
Soul Jazz. though a few pieces on isolated recordings meet all the above criteria for souljazz. King Curtis. David "Fathead" Newman. Grant Green. Jimmy McGriff. Hank Crawford. Note that some listeners make no distinction between soul-jazz. Its earthy. Les McCann. bluesy melodic concept and the repetitive. Jack McDuff. Bill Doggett).Soul Jazz Soul Jazz came partly from the funky subcategory of hard bop. Artists such as Nina Simone and Lou Rawls added to the vocal expressions of this jazz form. Considerably simplified-often only a hint of bebop harmony or rhythmic complexity remained--soul-jazz became the form of hard bop known to the largest audience. Stanley Turrentine. and many musicians don't consider soul-jazz to be continuous with hard bop They consider it more an extension of the jazz-influenced popular music called rhythm and blues (as exemplified by Earl Bostic. and funky hard bop. When these vocals were added to jazz it often took Nina Simone on the flavor of popular soul music and funk. The term. has also been linked to the soul singing sound that brought Motown to prominence in the 1960s. Also remember that many bebop musicians chose to play simply and with bluesy vocabularies for selected contexts: for instance. Gene Ammons. Ramsey Lewis. Clifford Scott. dance-like rhythmic aspects stood as higher priorities than the invention of complex harmonies and intricate solo improvisations jazz swing feeling was foremost. Soul Jazz combined the urban. which gave newer audiences an appreciation for jazz. Shirley Scott. Stanley Turrentine and Houston Person. particularly in the music of Jimmy Smith. Their overall output is not funky. electrified Chicago harp style with that of California swing bands and added a touch of Philadelphia tenor sax jazz from the 1960s. 17 . J.J. Johnson. Kenny Burrell. and Ray Bryant. Richard "Groove" Holmes. Junior Walker.
Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis. 18 . George Benson and Kenny Burrell. including Brother Jack McDuff. along with such other musicians as guitarists Grant Green. and soulful players became stars. and Richard "Groove" Holmes. Les McCann. David "Fathead" Newman. Other pianists who followed and used similar approaches were Bobby Timmons. Although soloists follow the chords as in bop. the basslines often played by an organist if not a string bassist dance rather than stick strictly to a four-to-the bar walking pattern. although there are often strong melodies. differs from bebop and hard bop . guitarist. King Curtis. and Eddie Harris. in that the emphasis is on the rhythmic groove. soul-jazz organ combos usually also including a tenor. whose funky style infused bop with the influence of church and gospel music.Soul-Jazz. Gene "Jug" Ammons. Charles Earland. drummer. Shirley Scott. soul-jazz has stayed alive and made a healthy comeback in recent years. Willis "Gator" Jackson. Jimmy Forrest. and Ramsey Lewis. The musicians build their accompaniment around the bassline and. Soul-jazz's roots trace back to pianist Horace Silver. Houston Person.from which it originally developed. With the emergence of organist Jimmy Smith in 1956 who has dominated his instrument ever sinc). it is the catchiness of the groove and the amount of heat generated by the soloists that determine whether the performance is successful. Red Holloway. and altoist Hank Crawford. along with the blues. and an occasional bassist caught on. which was the most popular jazz style of the 1960s. Despite its eclipse by fusion and synthesizers in the 1970s. Junior Mance. tenors Stanley Turrentine. Jimmy McGriff. Gene Harris with his Three Sounds.
cialization of a revival movement. Mondo Grosso. The music played by a generation raised on jazz as well as funk and hip-hop. it was inspired initially by listening to records rather than to live musicians. Outside. the Brand New Heavies. The accompaniments and are essentially the same as music. 1980s-2000s: Acid Jazz. Most of the creative musicians who have flirted with the acid-jazz market have found it too restricting and have moved on. exactly as with other revivals and they have taken some of their listeners with them. Its existence as a percussion-heavy. The term itself first appeared in 1988 as both a record label and the title of a compilation series that reissued jazz-funk music from the '70s -. Modern Creative Acid Jazz The phrase acid jazz was the first jazz term to be coined by a disc jockey rather than by a musician. The sort of music that wasn't heavy enough to be free jazz or early fusion but was more jazz-oriented than the average soul record. Acid jazz is very much the commer. a new generation of fans succeeded in promoting the music to a much wider crossover audience. It is much more a marketing phenomenon than a coherent musical style. Latin solos are compositions in the ethnic incorporated particular non- . and dance music. Galliano. primarily live music placed it closer to jazz and Afro-Cuban than any other dance style. A variety of acid jazz artists emerged during the late '80s and early '90s. (2) Jazz that has limited aspects of a Western music. 19 fusion of Third music with incorporated example. even more so than tradition and as with traditional. World Fusion. only the improvised jazz. At the time. and United Future Organization. In this case the original style is that of late-1960s' and early 1970s’ jazz-funk.5. this found a ready response among black listeners and a few white aficionados. James Taylor Quartet. Just like earlier revivals. After the usual twenty-year gap. Acid Jazz used elements of all three. and Jamiroquai or studio projects like Palm Skin Productions. Groove Collective. including either primarily live bands such as Stereo MC's. World Fusion World fusion refers to a World music or just world jazz. hip-hop. specifically: (1) Ethnic music that has jazz improvisations (for jazz).often called "rare groove" during a major mid-'80s resurgence. Frequently. but its insistence on keeping the groove allied it with funk.
and some of Sun Ra's music from the 1950s into the l990s. some of Don Ellis's music of the 1970s that drew upon the music of India and Bulgaria. often to the music. and rock to create a full body meduim with which to present jazz in a new modern light. and its feeling attracted some of the earliest jazz musicians. reflect its modern sound and Molly Johnson 20 . compositional practices. Polynesian music was fusing with Western pop styles at the beginning of the twentieth century. (3) New musical styles that result from distinctly original ways of combining jazz improvisation with original ideas and the instruments. NYC [Playing] (1948) Examples include performances of Dizzy Gillespie’s "A Night in Tunisia" music on some of the 1970s quartet recordings by Keith Jarrett's quartet and quintet on Impulse.Dizzy Gillespie. Caribbean dance rhythms have been a significant part of American pop culture throughout the twentieth century. fusion.society. some of John McLaughlin's music from the 1970s and the l990s that drew heavily on the traditions of India. blends have been occurring almost continuously. with newer comtemporary musical styles such as pop music. and work by Andy Narell in the 1990s that melds the music and instruments of Trinidad with jazz improvisations and funk styles. World fusion jazz did not first occur with modern jazz and its trends are not exclusive to American jazz. Coming and being of a improvisational greatly a product of its Though the players society blends them to feeling. free. funk. Examples include Don Cherry's bands. rhythmic approaches into light in the mid 80’s predominately nature. some of Yusef Lateers recordings that feature traditional Islamic instruments and methods. and. Django Reinhardt was melding the traditions of Gyps music with French impressionist concert music and jazz improvisation during the 1930s in France. in which African rhythms are incorporated. The product is original but its flavor still reflects some aspects of a non-jazz ethnic tradition. in which Middle Eastern instruments and harmonic methods are modified and used. Modern jazz makes technologies in the instrumentation and to bring compostional to a new level. and rhythms of an existing ethnic tradition. harmonies. modern creative continues to forge ahead by combining older jazz styles such as bop. Modern Creative Although partly influenced by the great improvisational masters of the past. each have unique voices. For instance. since jazz musicians frequently improvised when performing in pop music contexts. to be softer than still maintaing an edge more diverse. great use of new form of modern electronic recording devices/mediums and improvisational forms Modern creative forms tend earlier bop derivatives while through the incorporation of ethnic. modern creative is environment .
Bebel Gilberto (2004). with the smash single This Will Be (An Everlasting Love) (#1 R&B. The album was also nominated for two Latin Grammy Awards. Her second album. Baduizm.If. as many in the music industry believe. Badu introspective lyrics and sound. Bebel made an appearance on her mother’s first solo album Miúcha. 2008 Molly released her fourth full length album: LUCKY which won the 2009 JUNO Award for Best Vocal Jazz Album. 21 well-known for her singing . Another popular contemporary jazz and jazz-influenced singers of our time is Norah Jones. soul and blues at an early age and began performing at the age of 11. and modern light jazz. Her debut album in 1975. Inseparable. Female. In 2000. Erykah Badu Bebel Gilberto (born Isabel Gilberto de Oliveira on May 12. receiving a MOBO Award in the UK and also a World Music Grammy nomination.Her debut album Come Away With Me was released in 2002 and sold 22 million copies worldwide. seduced the patrons of salons and lounges with her luscious interpretations of jazz and blues standards and even regaled royalty with her unique and charming presence. Molly Johnson seems to have been born for the job. and UK. Molly Johnson has rocked standing-room only audiences in nightclubs and bars from coastto-coast as a pop artist. 1966 in New York City) is an American-born Grammy Award-nominated Brazilian popular singer often associated with bossa nova. rather she brings her unique jazzy flavor to songs with roots in country. Canadian jazz vocalist Molly Johnson has a voice that melts an audience in a second:warm and natural. Bebel’s Tanto Tempo album was released on Ziriguiboom (Crammed Discs sublabel) and has sold over one million copies worldwide.She doesn’t closely follow any particular genre. Sounding like Billie Holiday reborn. On November 11th. bittersweet and earthy. the future of jazz singing depends on finding the perfect balance between jazz and pop. It won 5 Grammy Awards in 2003. Molly also received the 2009 National Jazz Award for Best Female Vocalist. Also Erykah Badu is sophisticated style of many comparisons to weaves unusual musical creating a rich texture of into jazz. On” reached #12 on the the U. 1997 and debuted at #2 Lead single “ On & singles charts in both received notice for her jazzy.” won Grammy ceremonies. bass-heavy as one of the leading neo soul genre. went triple platinum On. and was hailed lights of the burgeoning Baduizm eventually and. was also released to great critical acclaim. she was exposed to the greats of jazz. along with “On & Awards at the 1998 . She influences together sound and crossing over Badu’s highly was released in early on the Billboard charts. At age nine. At the age of seven. Bebel performed with her mother and jazz saxophonist Stan Getz at a jazz festival in New York’s Carnegie Hall.S. won her immediate praise. folk. pop and rock. Americana. acclaimed debut album. The daughter of celebrated crooner Nat King Cole. #6 Pop) winning her a Grammy for Best R&B Vocal Performance. which drew Billie Holiday.
featuring her own arrangements of her father’s greatest hits. She sometimes puts in a scat chorus which is done almost diffidently. was released in May 2001. world-famous English group.a category that had been monopolized by Aretha Franklin. (real name Helen Folasade Adu . whom she lists as one of her influences. There are no dopey melismas.Jane Monheit’s voice has been compared to that of Ella Fitzgerald. She also was named the Grammys’ Best New Artist of 1975. At the age of 20. Sade was formed in 1982. Record of the Year. She’ll take over a familiar lyric and make it sound fresh by use of quiet touches—sitting back on certain beats. that gave her the most success. Their music features elements of jazz. Her third album In The Sun was released in October 2002. she’s an ambitious and adventurous performer. she was determined not to capitalize on her father’s name and wanted to forge her own identity by going after the soul market in earnest. when members of a Latino-soul band Pride — Sade Adu. Her recorded tracks range from jazz to MGM/RKO 1930s-1950s musicals and Brazilian rhythms such as the song “Comecar De Novo. it reached #14 on Billboard Magazine’s Hot 100 chart. As a single. Andrew Hale joined Sade. Her second CD album. Sade (pronounced “shah-day”) is a Grammy-winning. Ironically. One of the most appealing things about her singing is its lack of mannerism.Allyson projects an instantly recognizable tonal personality. contemporary pop. the title track. in 1983.” Her debut album Never Never Land was released in October 2000 and became an instant success. including Album of the Year. she also found the prospect of recording her late father’s songs too painful on a personal level. 1977) is considered to be one of the most promising American jazz vocalists of her generation. as a senior. Unforgettable… with Love. 1990s and 2000s. Nigeria) Stuart Matthewman and Paul Spencer Denman — together with Paul Cook formed a splinter group and began to write their own material. with her father.born 16 January 1959 in Ibadan. She doesn’t try anything foolishly acrobatic. The set sold over 5 million copies in the United States alone. and Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance. Later. funk. which achieved success in the 1980s. The one sour spot in the album’s success was that it strained Natalie’s already-tumultuous relationship with her mother. she won the first runner-up prize at the 1998 Thelonious Monk Institute Vocal Competition. But Unforgettable… With Love certainly paid off. Yet in her way. who said in interviews at the time that she couldn’t listen to the album or attend any of her daughter’s concerts because she felt that the music really belonged to her late husband.She earned a Bachelor’s degree in music in 1999. and won Cole several Grammy Awards. chanson. Maria. It was her 1991 album. Jane Monheit (born November 3. nothing of that afflicted gospel soul feel that a lot of younger singers depend on. turning away from a big line and highlighting a different one. and the Great American Songbook. The album featured a duet. Come Dream With Me. For many years. and the more specialized jazz and bebop repertoire. and went gold. when Natalie began her career. In 1984 Paul Cook left the band. soul and rnb. 22 . illuminating hidden layers of emotion within songs that are drawn from a vast well of styles and genres—from the blues. without showoff contours. Karrin Allyson is a Grammy-nominated jazz vocalist on Concord Records. to the bossa nova. created by splicing a recording of his vocals into the track.
” which stayed on the U. and the latter also won her a Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Performance in 1997. went Top Ten in the U. In 1989 she performed as the opening act for Davis at the JVC Jazz Festival in Chicago. Wilson counts the late Miles Davis as one of her greatest influences. “The Sweetest Taboo. and the style of her music ranges from swing to funk to bossa nova. Her contralto voice has been described as bluesy and sultry. Two of her albums. in which Wilson adapted the original themes.K.S. featured “Never As Good As the First Time” and arguably her signature song. Wilson’s repertoire includes both jazz and blues standards and renditions of pop and rock songs. pop charts for six months. Sade won a Artist. Blue Skies (1988) and New Moon Daughter (1996).” Her second album. More recently. Sade made a development of dismantled many of and quite promptly autonomous unit with of the recording Sade Cassandra Wilson (born December 4. Many of the songs she covers are by artists who usually record in other genres. In 1999 she produced Traveling Miles as a tribute to Davis. adding “Is It a Crime” and “Tar Baby” to their play lists. 23 . Mississippi. January 1985 saw the album released on CBS’ Portrait label and by spring it went platinum off the strength of the Top Ten singles “Smooth Operator” and “Hang on to Your Love. have topped the US jazz charts. 1955) is an American jazz singer-songwriter and twotime Grammy Award winner from Jackson. The album developed from a series of jazz concerts that she performed at Lincoln Center in November 1997 in Davis’ honor and includes three selections based on Davis’ own compositions. Sade was so popular that some radio stations reinstated the ’70s practice of playing album tracks. Promise (November 1985).Her debut album. In 1986. Diamond Life (with overall production by Robin Millar). Wilson’s latest album Loverly (2008) also won the Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Album at the 51st Grammy Awards in 2009. They the old music business ways became a fully functioning a firm grip on every aspect process. in late 1984. Grammy for Best New great contribution to modern music.
As jazz grew from feelings and emotions that evolved into a culture that became more accepting of African American’s background and struggles. in the years during the war swing took off to the world. and Bob Crosby pushed swing to new levels when they made the ultimate sacrifice.When swing fused together with military marching bands they began to help create an image of America as culture free of segregation and bigotry. with that struggle came a much needed respect and admiration from society. Popular swing music from home became inspiration to the war effort.S. Duke Ellington. and Louis Armstrong did their part for the war effort by promoting bond rallies and concerts at military bases and hospitals in the U. Swing gave soldiers confidence in the democracy they were fighting for. 24 . African Americans brought with them a strong music background grounded on feeling and emotion. The fusion of African American music into a dominantly white society brought more struggles. The Office of War Information used Glenn Miller’s band as propaganda to fight the fascist ideology in broadcasts heard all over Europe.S. Cab Calloway. Artie Shaw. to give up their lucrative careers in the U. Each joined and contributed to military orchestras that brought swing right to the soldiers.S. Jazz illustrates the wind of change in the evolution of mankind. and enlist into the military. was the land of opportunity. Some of the remaining popular musicians like Benny Goodman. it acted like a social instrument which pointed out the revolutionary changes society was cast in. Glenn Miller. For example.Conclusion Jazz music was born out of the segregated south from a culture based on struggle and oppression. Roosevelt believed that music could " inspire a fervor for the spiritual values in our way of life and thus to strengthen democracy against these forces which subjugate and enthrall mankind." Swing brought together the idea that the U. However. For the first time radios were installed into bunkers for the soldiers to hear live broadcasts.
allaboutjazz.BIBLIOGRAPHY Derek Bailey. Race.A Pictorial History of Jazz .Hamlyn –1968 Gottlieb William.Simon and Schuster-1979 Internet: http://www. and Culture in Urban America .University of Illinois Press-1994 Keepnews Orrin.com/ 25 .com http://www.Da Capo Press-1993 Peretti Burton .The Creation of Jazz: Music.jazzstandards.Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music.The Golden Age of Jazz .
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