Marketing Communications
‡ Messages and related media used to communicate with a market. ‡ Advertising ‡ Branding ‡ Direct Marketing ‡ Graphic Design ‡ Packaging ‡ Promotions ‡ Publicity ‡ Sponsorship ‡ Public Relations
Two Types of Communications

Marketing Communication Product Services




Demand Generation

Brand Image / Corporate Image

Corporate Communication Image Building Public Opinion Company Marketing Communication Information Positioning Promotions Demand Generation Contact Points .

To download and display this picture. PowerPoint prevented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. and then click Enable external content. click Options in the Message Bar.To help protect your privacy. Contact Points and Marketing Communications .

are relevant to that person and consistent over time. ³Planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or a prospect for a product or service.´ There have been many shifts in the advertising and media industry that have caused IMC to develop into a primary strategy for most advertisers. .Integrated Marketing According to American Association.

.) ‡ From mass media to more specialized media. Communication Planning . ‡ From limited Internet access to widespread Internet availability. ‡ From low accountability to greater accountability of agencies ‡ From traditional compensation to performance-based compensation. BARGAINING POWER ‡ From general-focus advertising to data-based marketing..Main shifts ‡ From media advertising to multiple forms of communication (including promotions. ‡ From a manufacturer-dominated market to a retailer-dominated market. product placements. mailers.

It is concerned with deciding Whom to target.Communication planning 3 W & 1 H Is the art and science of reaching target audiences using marketing communication channels. With what message How Frequency Plan Includes . When.

TTL . ATL.Communication Plan Includes: Target audiences Key messages A budget A calendar for message release BTL.

Marketing Communication Above the Line Communication ATL Below the Line Communication BTL Through the Line Communication TTL .

When the targetn group is small and specific TTL refers to an advertising strategy involving both above and below the line communications in which one form of advertising points the target to another form of advertising thereby crossing the 'line'. radio. services.ATL is a type of advertising through mass media such as TV. print. cinema. public relations and sales promotions. Useful when larger target audience is to be addressed BTL uses less conventional methods than the usual specific channels of advertising to promote products. banners and search engines. . etc. It is more effectively used to increase sales. These may include activities such as direct mail. Increase brand awareness.

Starting from market research continuing through advertising leading to actual sales or achievement of objective.Advertising Paid form of non personal communication about an organization or its products that is transmitted to a target audience through a mass/broadcast medium. While advertising is the event. Advertising Management is the whole process .a function of marketing. .

sears advertising a weekend sale. .Pros ‡ Flexibility allows you to focus on a small. precisely defined segment (School newspapers) or a mass market ‡ Cost efficient -reach a large number at a low cost per person. ‡ Used to build a long term image of a product. ‡ Trigger quick sales. allows the message to be repeated. allows for dramatization. ‡ Allows for repeating the message-lets the buyer receive and compare the messages of various competitors. and can improve public image. ‡ Very expressive.

approx Rs. 30 second spot.150. local ad. ‡ Rarely provides quick feedback. or necessarily any feedback ‡ Less persuasive than personal selling ‡ Audience does not have to pay attention ‡ Indirect feedback (without interactivity) .000.Cons ‡ Absolute outlay cost very high.000. make a national TV ad.60. Rs.

‡ Intense Competition ‡ Introducing new Product .Scope and Importance of Advertising Advertisements are important for: ‡ standardized products ‡ products aimed at large markets ‡ products that have easily communicated features ‡ products low in price ‡ products sold through independent channel members and/or are new.

Objectives .Keep product on consumers minds DAGMAR .Compare to competition .Explanations or descriptions .Buy now -Reminder Ads .Build demand for your brand .Fight competition .Builds image .Persuasive Ad .New product or new uses .Mature products .Information Advertising .To build primary demand .

Models of Communication Effective Communication program involves understanding the response process Communication models aim at explaining the possible sequence through which advertising may eventually Affect the buyers .

Operational AIDA Model Cognitive Attention Hierarchy of Innovation Effects Adoption Awareness Knowledge Awareness Information Processing Presentation Attention Comprehensive Yielding Retention Behaviour Affective Interest Desire Liking Preference Conviction Purchase Interest Evaluation Trial Behaviour Conative Action Classification ««. .

Classification of Advertising (1) by geographical spread (2) by target group (3) by type of objective .

Generally large. Pepsi. the entire country. Brooke Bond. Hindustan Unilever.National Advertising: Some ¶manufacturers may· think that their target is. Escorts. Coke . established firms belong to this category. ¶They select media with· a countryside base. Larsen & Toubro.

Local Advertising: Small firms may like to restrict their business to State or regional level. Some firms first localize their marketing efforts and once success has been achieved, they spread out to wider horizons. Classifieds in Local Dailies, Small companies, Dealers

Target Group: It is on the basis of target groups aimed at it can further be divided into sub category as: a. Consumer Advertising b. Industrial Advertising
Advertisements, which are directed by the manufacturers to the distribution channel members, such as wholesalers or retailers. There are certain products for which the consumers themselves are not responsible for the buying choice.

c. Trade Advertising:

d. Professional Adverting:

Objective: Product Advertising: promoting sale of a product or brand 1.Informative 2.Persuasive 3.Reminder

Focus is on increasing the size of existing customer base Those Not buying Product Class Those Buying Other Brands Exclusively Existing Customers .

Choosing on the basis of Discounts Promotions Habits Availability .Increasing share of requirements Customers have more than one preferred brand.

Advocacy: Concerned with propagating an idea. PSA's are a way to promote company in a positive light. Company states the reasons for certain negative issues Emerged. .Public Service Advertising (PSA's): sponsoring a charity event. Another form of Public Service Advertising.

features. BHEL. prejudices. values. beliefs. Hindustan Unilever Brand Personality Association: brands developed in terms Of human characteristics. . TATA.Corporate Image Building: Aditya Birla Group. interests. all the tangible and intangible traits of a brand.

Case Discussion .

The Following Data have been collected in 5 samples Measure CASE I 30% CASE II 80% CASE III 80% CASE IV 80% CASE V 80% Brand Awareness Favorable Attitude Purchased Brand Once Repeat Purchases 25 25 45 45 10 23 23 23 35 35 20 20 20 30 8 .

Segmentation and Positioning through Advertising .

Segmentation Strategy involves : Development and pursuit of marketing programs directed towards subgroups of population that an Organisation can serve potentially An Advertising program can be created to appeal certain types of buyers .

In implementing segmented advertising more detailed Breakdown of the market is required

An organisation focuses on style conscious upper class Selects retail outlets and product lines that will attract members of this group. It may be useful to further divide this segment on the basis of age.

Segmentation strategies«

Segmentation Strategies Concentration Strategy Focus is on one subgroup and direct marketing plans towards it Differentiation Strategy Two or more subgroups are focused and marketing plans are developed

Developing segmentation strategy

The objective is to identify a group of consumers That; Are not being served well presently by competitors And may try the product; Priori Base The basis on which the market might be segmented is Determined before any data is analysed from the market place Are large enough or growing in size; Priori Base

Bases for priori segmentation«.

Bases for priori segmentation Age Gender Income Geographical Location Usage Consumers may seek different benefits from the same product Depending on the nature of the usage occasion Brand Loyalty as priori segmentation .

Benefit Segmentation 2.Independent Segmentation Lifestyle or psychographic .Empirical Segmentation Approach Consumers differ in the need for which they buy a product Buyers tend to place different degrees of importance on the benefits Segmentation Strategies based on Attitudes and Benefits 1.Sociable Segmentation 3.

opinions and activities Combine to represent his or her lifestyle It includes exploring information concerning attitudes and personality traits. Defining a segment empirically is called psychographics Lifestyle segmentation is useful in categories where User·s self image is important Reaching Target Segment .Lifestyle or Psychographics as bases for segmentation A person·s pattern of interests.

Reaching Target Segment Controlled Coverage Objective is to reach desired segment and to avoid Reaching those who are not in the target segments Customer Self Selection Advertising program is directed to mass audience of which target segment may be only a part. Positioning Strategies .

Positioning Strategies Positioning involves a decision to stress only certain Aspects of our brand and not others. Positioning is achieved mostly through a brand·s Marketing communications. Key idea is that the consumers must have a clear idea of what the brand stands for. Strategic objective must be to have segmentation and positioning strategies that fit together. .

in terms of Physical Attributes Lifestyle Use of occasion Approaches to positioning strategies .Brand Positioning is the set of associations the consumer has with the brand.

Price-Quality 3.Cultural Symbol 7.Using Product characteristics or customer benefits 2.Product-User 5.Competitor Approach Determining the positioning strategy .Use or Application 4.Product Class 6.1.

Determining the positioning strategy Identify the competitors Determine how the competitors are perceived and evaluated Determine the competitor·s positions Analyse the customers Select the position Monitor the position Identifying competitors .

Other cola drinks Non-diet soft drinks All soft drinks Non alcoholic beverages All beverages except water Message Strategy .Identifying competitors Pepsi May define its competitors as.

Advertising Manager needs to make decisions about The content of the advertising message. called as Message Strategy Message focus should be on communicating Product Benefits Developing / Reinforcing Brand Image Evoking and associating specific feelings and emotions Making the brand appear fashionable by creating social and group influences. .

The challenge is to identify which attributes are considered in making the brand-choice decision Which of them are most important in the targeted product-market situation. Success of a positioning strategy is reflected in link between benefits or images and an overall attitude in the mind of customers Attitude .

Attitude is associated with the notion of liking or disliking Attitude is not directly observable and have to be identified from what people say about and what they do Attitude is a central concept in the field of social psychology Attitude Structure is made up of three closely Interrelated components .

or purchase We buy something because we like it. Liking Preferences Conative Action Tendencies like trial. knowledge Affective Evaluation. comprehension.Cognitive Awareness. and we like it Because we cognitively evaluate its benefits Types of actions people take .

Such Attitudes are purely based on emotions and feelings rather than some rational evaluation LOW INVOLVEMENT SITUATIONS Vice Versa for High Involvement Situations .People develop overall attitudinal liking for a product without cognitively evaluating them.

Making the Positioning Decision 1. Economic Analysis Market Segment Size Penetration Probability ´Penetration Probability must indicate ´ Competitive Weakness to attack Competitive advantage to exploit .

Segmentation Commitment An overt decision is made to ignore parts of the Market. Positioning through differentiation . Give Meaningful position through undifferentiation Deliberately generating a diffuse image Meaning different things to different people VS.2.

3. Don·t try to be something which brand is not 5. Consider Symbol . If advertising is working. stick with it Brand personality or image is developed over many years Consistency is desirous over change in personality year after year 4.

Message Strategy through Attention and Comprehension Getting increasingly difficult to gain attention There are two important prerequisites Individual must be exposed to message and pay attention Those who pay attention must interpret / comprehend as intended .

Each of the stages discussed as Attention Comprehension Go through a perceptual barrier Perception Process Stimulus Attention Active Search Passive Search Passive Attention Interpretation Simplify Distort Organize Cognition .

Stimulus Conditions Intensity Size Message Position Context Audience Conditions Information Needs Attitudes Values Interests Confidence Attention can be viewed as information filter It is an screening mechanism that controls the quantity and nature of information any individual receives .

Higher Level of Clutter Proximity of advertisements from competing brands Television advertisers have to cope with much noise in the form of. Clutter Zapping Zipping . processed and Evaluated.Amid advertising noise it is not easy to create an Advertisement that gets noticed. Effectiveness of advertising is reduced.

Combating clutter. zapping and zipping . Zapping: Switching programs during commercial breaks Zipping: Fast-forwarding through advertisements when Viewing pre-recorded programs.Clutter: Too many advertisements in related as well as unrelated product categories.

Combating Clutter. Zapping and Zipping Clutter Higher levels of clutter hurt the performance of Individual advertisements Effects of increased clutter do not affect all advertisements Ads placed either at beginning or end are less affected High involvement advertisements are less affected Print Media: three dimensional pop-ups. freebies. . etc.

One can make commercials that are interesting. Executional elements are equally important .Zapping A viewer can turn off the sound or change channel It is higher in households with Cable TV and with Multiple people at home Consumers are forced to pay more attention to ads they Are zapping than those that are not. Entertaining or pleasurable Consumers are forced to pay more attention to ads they Are zapping than those that are not.

logos or still shots These will be visible even if viewers are fast-forwarding . Far more difficult to fight zipping than zapping Combat zipping by developing commercials that use visual Elements like.ipping Zipping rates are lowest for first commercial in The first slot and highest for last ones.

Creating Advertisements that attract The attention filter operates at various levels of Efforts and consciousness. Information is an important stimulus for paying attention There are 4 motives for attending to informative stimuli Information of Practical Value Information that Supports Information that Stimulates Information that Interests .

µ in context Of the problem that the consumer is trying to solve Robert Burnkrant applies general theory of motivation to process information. based on 3 factors 1. complex or unknown .Practical Value Successful headline format ´How to««.. Information need depends upon the nature of product Products that are costly.

Value of the source of relevant information / goodness or badness of the message This structure provides an approach to determine the extent to which a person might be motivated to process information .2. Expectancy (probability) that processing a particular ad will lead to relevant information exposure 3.

the existence of conflicting cognitive elements is discomforting and that people will try to reduce it.Information that Supports People have psychological preference for supportive information They tend to avoid non-supportive or discrepant information Dissonance Theory predicts that cognitive dissonance. .

people get bored and are motivated to reduce the boredom by seeking stimuli that are unusual or different. . and complexity are pursued Because they are inherently satisfying.Information that Stimulates Complexities Theory Based on Salvatore Maddi·s Variety Theory. Assumption is. unexpectedness. novelty. change.

Adaptation-Level Theory suggests. . Suggested to use ad elements that are moderately inconsistent rather than very consistent or extremely inconsistent. not only focal Stimuli determines perception but also the contextual (background) and residual (past experience) Advertisements that are sufficiently different from an audience·s adaptation level and expectations will attract attention.

Information that interests People tend to notice information that is interesting to Them. They are interested in subjects with which they are involved Approach could be to run an advertisement about the Person or the persons to whom it is directed. OR To present a communication involving topical issues in which audience is likely to be heavily involved .

Advertising Appeal An Advertisement should contain an appeal for creating human interest so that it catches attention. Human needs are the basis for appeals There are two issues that are important for an advertiser Regarding needs: The number and nature of basic needs Intensity of motivated behaviour .

Unsatisfied needs are motivators Much of the human behaviour is motivated by sub conscious and unconscious needs Several needs operate simultaneously to cause a given behaviour We may spend a great deal of time and efforts to Satisfy some of motives or vice ² versa. . People differ significantly in the efforts they put forth To achieve what appears to be the same motive.

consisting of preferences one has for alternative means of satisfying central needs .Intensity of Motivating Behaviour invokes the concept of central and peripheral needs. Central Needs: are closely related to our sense of Survival and identity. Peripheral Needs: are instrumental needs or wants.

. For example: Pepsi (youngistan commercial). Feelings created get associated with the brand and thereby affect brand attitudes. Thumsup (adventure commercials) evoking feeling of energy. thrill «««.Associating Feelings with the Brand Previously we talked about logical processing of information and rational thinking process Creating feelings that can ultimately influence attitudes or beliefs is also important consideration.

Buying Motives Different kinds of motives encourage an individual to Give attention to certain advertisements and purchase Certain products. have options. show off or to be held up as exemplary Affiliation: need for close association with others . be different Exhibition / Recognition: need to gain public attention. Achievement: need to perform difficult tasks Independence: need to be autonomous.

anxiety) Moral Appeals: instilling sense of right and wrong. often used in messages to arouse a favourable response Product Oriented Consumer Oriented .Advertising Appeal Rational Appeals: ads based on functional benefits Emotional Appeals: are designed to stir up certain positive (happiness) or negative emotions (fear.

Feeling Advertising is execution focused opposed to message focused. Such advertisements develop: EMTIONAL BONDING BRAND IMAGERY BRAND PERSONALITY Feelings are more important in low involvement situations .

Advertisements evoke feelings for products that are likely to be needed when consumers have a low level of intrinsic interest in the product category or brand. This is most likely to happen in the mature stages of product life cycle. It is suggested to have feeling oriented advertisements For products in mature stage and informative advertisements in introduction stage in PLC . When a product is new and product interest is high consumers may seek more information.

Product categories can be classified into four categories Based on High Or Low Involvement Thinking Products or Feeling Products .FCB and Rossiter and Percy Grid Defines different product categories and motives for which consumers purchase a product How advertisements can be designed to address each buying motive.

Remove a problem Problem avoidance Dissatisfaction with a prior purchase .Motives can be Informational or Transformational Thinking Products could be purchased for several informational motives That have to do with the consumer·s desire to reduce negative feelings A product might be purchased for.

Feelings Products can be purchased for various Transformational motives. Sensory Gratification Sense of achievement Social Approval Needs . That have to do with increasing certain positive feelings A product might be purchased for.

Transformational Advertising Way in which feeling-oriented advertising succeeds in Associating feelings with brands. . So that the experience of using the brand is transformed Into something related to feelings. Such advertising involves developing associations with the Brand or the brand use.

Rossiter Percy Grid Informational Negative Motivation Transformational Positive Motivation Low Involvement Trial Experience Is sufficient Focus on one or two key benefits Use simple problemsolution format Unique and authentic emotional benefits Frequently repeated likeable ad Drama Format High Involvement Search and Conviction Is required prior To purchase Refutational or Convincing and logical brand claims Create a feeling of lifestyle identification Supportive information Thrown in High Repetition needed Comparative formats .

Close Connect the brand with the advertising: connecting Use experience to the brand.Requirements for successful Transformational Advertising Adequate Budget: heavy repetition to build Association is required Consistency: thrust of advertisements can not be allowed To change frequently. An advertisement attempting to generate an emotional response should be believable and engender empathy .

.There are countless numbers of feelings and combinations of feelings that could potentially be precipitated by advertising.

Equity Building Advertising
‡ Brands have equity because they have: ‡ High Reputation for Perceived Quality ‡ Brand Awareness ‡ Positive Brand Association ‡ Consumers prefer high-equity brands because: ‡ they find it easier to interpret what benefits the brand offers. ‡ Feel more confident about it ‡ Get more satisfaction by using it

Brand can charge a higher price. Command more Loyalty Run more efficient marketing programs

Brand Image
Attributes + Consequences + Brand Personality A brand could acquire a personality profile through Advertising-created association. Feelings can be associated through advertisements. security, calmness, excitement, happiness etc.

Why are Brand Personality Associations Important
Importance to Marketers: Differentiate from competition Intense Competition in the same product category Near Parity in terms of attributes, quality, price etc. Only difference between brands is often the personality associated with them

While competitors can match product features. They can not duplicate the brand personality. promotions etc. price.Brand Personality Association enables the organisation to gain market share or charge premium price. it is done it May lead to advertising for the original brand. Long term advantages: Increase the asset value Brand Acquires higher sale price .

categories or extensions .Access to better distribution network Better shelf space High consumer awareness and loyalty Increased repurchases Economies in terms of marketing expenses and launching new brands.

sophistication) Consumers select those brands that have a brand Personality.Importance to Consumers Self Definition and Symbolic Association Consumers regard their possessions as part of themselves Brands encapsulate social meanings (intelligence. which is congruent with their own selfconcept .

High Involvement products vs.When are Brand Personality Associations More Important ? Self rationale would be stronger in some product Categories than in others. Low Involvement Products It matters more when a product is socially visible Relatively scarce product categories Certain individuals are also susceptible to brand personality symbolisms People who are more conscious about there public appearance .

which they think use particular brand.Researching the symbolic associations that currently exist with the product category and competitive brands. A.Implementing Brand Personality Association 1. Photo Sorts: Consumers are given photographs of Individuals and asked to pick those. Sentence Completion: Ladies like Sunsilk Shampoo because ««««««« . Then they are asked to describe the individual B.

sales promotions. Deciding which brand personality is going to be of greatest value with the target consumer segment. distribution etc. .2. Executing the desired brand personality strategy Every element of marketing and communication mix Plays an important role: packaging. pricing. 3.

typography Symbols: Nike·. Executional Elements: music. visual direction. Air Deccan Consistency: . colour Schemes.Key advertising elements that contribute to a brand·s personality are: Endorser: Personality of the endorser gets transferred To the brand Use Imagery: Kind of brand user portrayed in the ad .

Creative Approach Comparative Advertising: Two or more named or recognizable brands of the same Product class are compared and the comparison is made is Made in terms of one or more attributes. The comparisons can be: Implicit (Brands implied but not Named) or Explicit (Brand Names) Verbal or Visual .

Claims can be of complete superiority Superiority on some attributes or of parity. Inoculative (immunizing) Advertising: Companies try to resist attempts by competitors or outside Influences to change his or her attitudes. Companies are involving with defensive marketing. Refutational (denial) and Supportive Advertising: Emotional Creative Approaches .

. Enhance advertisement readership / viewership / listenership. 2. Personality characteristics of the endorser can get associated with brand personality.Using an Endorser Benefits of using Endorsers: 1. 3. Induce Positive attitude change towards the brand/ company.

Selecting an Endorser A Celebrity: has the publicity of and attention getting Power. Celebrities cost a lot and hard to get. If they are used for other products they may loose credibility They may be overexposed . Large segments of the audience instantly recognize and identify with the with the famous person. Goodwill can be transferred to the brand.

A satisfied customer To maximize the naturalness of the situation. .An Expert Best choice when product is technical or consumers need Reassurance that the product is right choice and safe to Use. Best choice when it is anticipated that there will be strong audience identification with the role involved.

Preparation: 2.Creative Process 1. advertising objectives a. Idea Production: tentative ideas b. Problem Definition: Picking out and pointing the problem b. Idea Development: .Fact finding : Information search. Idea Finding: a.

Copywriting Some Important guidelines: Cash in on personal experience Write with heart Learn from experience of others Talk with the manufacturers or service providers Study the product Review previous advertisements of the product and that of the competitors· .

It is extendible Flows smoothly from beginning to end. offer new twists. For Print media copy: Key element is headline. evoke curiosity . it must flag down the target reader and pull him into body copy. Offer reward for reading on Headline should appeal to reader·s interest.Copy is more effective if: it is simple and clear touching only one or two ideas.

Headlines and visuals should complement each other Body copy should be detailed and specific. package And key product attributes. support The headline. readable and interesting. All elements should be well connected and linked to each other . For Television Copy: Right mix of visuals or sounds. Frequent use of visual repetition of brand name.

human voice. sound effects. strong and distinctive . Elements used are. simple. Should be well utilised Short words and short sentences are more effective. humour Or music. For Outdoor Copy: Message should be communicated in few seconds.For Radio Copy: Write copy that creates a picture in the mind of the Listeners. Should be extremely short.

Layouts Involves bringing all the pieces together Important factors to consider: Balance: Pleasing distribution Contrast: different sizes. colours to enhance attention value and readability. shapes and densities. Gaze motion: logical sequence Unity .

Media ‡ The vehicles that carry the ads to the target market. ‡ Which is most important? Picking the correct media or having great creative? ‡ What are the types of media? .

Newspapers Magazines Internet Outdoor Consumer·s View of Media Advertising Wireless Radio World Wide Web Television .

Media Overview ‡ Advertisers are placing more emphasis than ever on media planning ‡ Choosing media & vehicles is the most complicated of all marketing communications decisions ‡ Aside from specific vehicles in media. the planner has to choose geographical locations and budget distribution over time .

. Media objective: statement in media plan that explains the goals of the plan. and how often. usually states how many of the target will be exposed to advertising messages in a given time period.Key Media Terms Media plan: document that establishes how media will be used to disseminate an advertiser·s message. including objectives and strategy.

. shows where and when advertising messages will appear. and at what cost.Media strategy: statement in media plan that outlines how objectives will be accomplished.

Media Planning Media Planning = Selection + Scheduling Factors Influencing Media Planning Decisions Target Market Profile Looking at Brand/Product Dynamics The Creative Execution Budget Considerations and Media Deals The Competitive Situation Availability and Timing Considerations .

The Media-Planning Process Involves the process of designing a scheduling plan that shows how advertising time and space will contribute to the achievement of marketing objectives .

The Media-Planning Process media planning involves coordination of three levels of strategy formulations: ‡ Marketing Strategy ‡ Advertising Strategy ‡ Media Strategy .

Overview for the Media Planning Process Advertising Strategy rk ti tr t y Advertising Objectives Advertising Budget Message Strategy Media Strategy Media Strategy ‡ Audi l ti ‡ j ti ifi ‡ di dV i l ‡ di uyi ti .

The Media-Planning Process Marketing Strategy: Provides impetus and direction for choice of both advertising and media strategies Advertising Strategy: Involves advertising budgets. objectives and message and media strategies ² extends from overall marketing strategy .

Buying media .The Media-Planning Process 1. Selecting the target audience 2. Selecting media categories and vehicles 4. Specifying media objectives 3.

Selecting the Target Audience Four major factors (1) Buying Behaviour (2) Geographic (3) Demographic (4) Lifestyle/psychographics .

What proportion of the population should be reached with advertising message during specified period (reach) 2.Specifying Media Objectives 1. How frequently should audience be exposed to message during this period (frequency) 3. How much total advertising is needed to accomplish reach and frequency objectives (weight) .

Specifying Media Objectives 4. What is the most economically justifiable way to accomplish objectives (cost) . How should the advertising budget be allocated over time (continuity) 5. How close to the time of purchase should the target audience be exposed to the advertising message (recency) 6.

At least once. during a certain time frame (usually four weeks) ‡ Reach represents the percentage of target customers who have an opportunity to see the advertisers message.Reach Percentage of target audience that is exposed to an advertisement. .

Factors Determining the Reach ‡ More people are reached when a media schedule uses multiple media ‡ The number and diversity of media vehicles used ‡ By diversifying the day parts .

Frequency Average number of times an advertisement reaches the target audience in a four-week period .

Media Scheduling Reach (% of target audience with opportunity for exposure to media vehicle(s) or media plan in a given time frame) + Frequency (average number of times target is likely to be exposed to the ad in a given time frame) 100% .

The Difference between Reach and Frequency .

 Audience: number or % of homes or persons using a media vehicle. .Evaluating the Media: Key Terms  Rating point: the % of a given population group that uses a specified media vehicle.  Share: Households/persons using television % of homes or people watching TV at a given time.  Coverage: Same as reach ² the % of homes or persons receiving broadcast signal within specified area. or receiving specific magazine or newspaper.

.  Readers per copy: average number of people who read each issue of publication. Circulation: Total number of copies of a publication sold through various forms of distribution.

Market Factors/Frequency Levels Market Factor ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Brand History Brand Share Brand Loyalty Purchase Cycle Usage Cycle Share of Voice Type New High High Short Short High Frequency High Low Low High High High .

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