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FUR PALMA SERQUINIA , RN,R M,MAN© [FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE  She believes that nurses needed to be excellent at


Environmental Theory the observation of their patients and the
environment and use common sense in their
practice coupled with observation, perseverance and
MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS ingenuity.
 Persons desired good health and that they would
NURISNG cooperate with the nurse and nature to allow the
reparative process to occur or alter their
 She believed that every woman, at one time in their environment to prevent disease.
life, would be a nurse in the sense that nursing is  Appropriate manipulations of the environment
having the responsibility for someone else’s health would prevent disease.
 She believed that nurses should be moral agents.
PERSON  She addressed their professional relationship with
their patients, she instructed them on the principle
 She referred to the person as the patient. Nurses of confidentiality and advocated for care to the poor
performed tasks to an for the patient and controlled improve their health and social situation
the patient’s environment to enhance recovery.
NIGHTINGALE’S 13 CANONS
HEALTH
VENTILLATION AND WARMTH
 She defined health as being well and using power
that the person has to the fullest extent  Check the patient’s body temperature, room
 She envisioned the maintenance of health thru the temperature, ventilation and foul odors
prevention of the disease via environmental control  Create a plan to keep the room well-ventilated and
 Disease was a reparative process that nature free of odor while maintaining the patient’s body
instituted from a want of attention. temperature
ENVIRONMENT LIGHT
 She defined it “as those elements external to and  Check room for adequate light. Sunlight is beneficial
which affects of the sick and healthy person” to the patient
 It included everything from the patient’s food and
 Create and implement adequate light in room
flowers to the patient’s verbal and non-verbal
without placing the patient in direct
interactions with the patient.” Little if anything from
the patient’s world is excluded from her definition of CLEANLINESS OF ROOMS AND WALLS
environment.
 She believed that the sick, poor people would  Check room for dust, dampness and dirt
benefit from environmental improvements that  Keep room free from dust, dirt, and dampness
addressed both their bodies and minds.
 She believed that nurses could be instrumental in HEALTH OF HOUSES
changing the social status of the poor by improving
their living conditions.  Check surrounding environment for fresh air, pure
water, drainage, cleanliness and light
THEORETICAL ASSERTIONS  Remove garbage, stagnant water and ensure clean
water and fresh air.
 Disease is a reparative process; its nature’s effort to
remedy a process of poisoning or decay reactions to
NOISE
conditions in which a person is placed.
 She believes that the nurse’s role is prevent an  Check noise level in the room and surroundings
interruption of the reparative process and to provide  Attempt to keep noise level in minimum
optimal conditions for its enhancement.
 Nightingale believes in the formal training of nurses

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING: MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE 1ST SEMESTER AY 2010-2011


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FUR PALMA SERQUINIA , RN,R M,MAN© [FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY

BED AND BEDDING APPLICATION OF NIGHTINGALE’S THEORY TO NURSING


PRACTICE
 Check bed and bedding for dampness, wrinkles and
soiling  The environmental aspects of her theory
 Keep the bed dry, wrinkle free and lowest height to (ventilation, warmth, quiet, diet, and cleanliness)
ensure comfort remain integral components of the nursing practice

PERSONAL CLEANLINESS  Modern sanitation and treatment have controlled


traditional sources of disease fairly well but
 Attempt to keep the patient dry and clean at all contaminated water has become a health issue again
times for many communities as global traveler has
 Frequent assessment of the patient’s skin is essential dramatically altered the actual and potential spread
to maintain good skin integrity of diseases more rapidly

VARIETY  New environmental concerns are created by modern


architecture nurses need to ask whether modern
 Attempt to accomplish variety in the room and with buildings meet Nightingale’s principle of good
the client ventilation
 This is done with cards, flowers, pictures and books
also encourage friends or relatives to engage in  Disposal of waste, including toxic wastes and the use
stimulating activities of chemicals in modern society also challenge health
care professionals to reassess the concept of a
CHATTERINNG HOPES AND ADVICES healthy environment.

 Avoid talking without giving advice that is without a  In healthcare facilities, the ability to control room
fact temperature for an individual patient is increasingly
 Respect the patient as a person and avoid personal difficult. That same environment may create great
talk noise through multiple activities and technology
(equipment) used to assist the patients reparative
TAKING FOOD process.

 Check the diet of the patient note that the amount APPLICATION OF NIGHTINGALE’S THEORY TO NURSING
of food and fluid ingested by the patient at every EDUCATION
meal
 Nightingale’s principles of nursing training
instruction (instruction in scientific principle and
PETTY MANAGEMENT practical experiences for the mastery of skills)
provided a universal template for early nurse
 This ensures continuity of care training schools
 Document the plan of care and evaluate the
outcomes to ensure continuity  She advocated the independence of the school from
the hospital to ensure that students would not be
OBSERVATION OF SICK involved in the hospital’s labor pool as part of their
training
 Observe and record anything about the patient  She believes that good practice can result only from
 Continue observation in the patient’s environment good education
and make changes in the plan of care if needed.

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING: MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE 1ST SEMESTER AY 2010-2011


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FUR PALMA SERQUINIA , RN,R M,MAN© [FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY

APPLICATION OF NIGHTINGALE’S THEORY TO NURSING


RESEARCH REFERENCES:

 Her interest in scientific inquiry and statistics George, J. (1995). Nursing Theories: The Basis for Professional
th
continues to define scientific inquiry used in nursing Nursing Practice. 4 edition. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton-
Century Crofts.
research rd
Marriner-Tommey, A. (1994). Nursing Theorists and their Works. 3
 She is considered the first nurse researcher edition. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, Inc.
University of the Philippines Open University (2005). N207:
CRITIQUE OF NIGHTINGALE’S THEORY Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. UPOU: National Computer
Center, Diliman, Quezon City.
SIMPLICITY
- MANUS CAPUT COR
 The theory contains 3 major relationships:
environment to patient; nurse to environment and
least nurse to patient (the least defined)

 The environment was the main factor creating illness


in a patient and good environment in preventing
illness

 Nursing practice includes manipulation of the


environment in a number of ways to enhance
patient recovery: elimination of contamination and
contagion; exposure to fresh of air, light, warmth
and quiet; cleanliness

 Her conditions for the nurse and patient-relationship


suggest cooperation and collaboration between the
nurse and the patient.

GENERALITY

 Provide general guidelines for all nurse practitioner’s


for number of years
 Universality of her concepts still remain relevant
except for some specific activities
 The concept of nurse, patient and environment are
still capable and relevant in all nursing settings today
– meets the criterion of generality.

EMPIRICAL PRECISION

 Her concepts in her theory are stated completely


and presented as truths rather than tentative,
testable statements.
 In contrast to her quantitative research on mortality
in the Crimea, she proposed that nurses should base
their practice base on observations and experiences
rather than systematic, empirical research.

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING: MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE 1ST SEMESTER AY 2010-2011


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FUR PALMA SERQUINIA , RN,R M,MAN© [FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE: ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING: MANILA DOCTORS COLLEGE 1ST SEMESTER AY 2010-2011


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