# 1/.

sec / rads 985 . 1 / 2
secs 16 . 3 4 / 66 . 12
= =
= =
period
period
d
π ω

static gain = Input Ouputs k / 20 / 200 =
logarithmic decrement = 6413 . 0
11 .. 1
44 . 144
ln
4
1
ln
1
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
X
X
n
δ

( )
980 . 3 387 . 0
80 . 39
2
) (
995 . 1 1 /
09698 . 0
8
16
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
+ +
=
+ +
=
= − =
=
− +
=
s s s s
k
s H
n n
n
d n
ω ζω
ω
ζ ω ω
π
δ π δ δ
ζ

This is pretty close. The graph was created using
4 4 . 0
40
) (
2
+ +
=
s s
s H

2/. Differential equation for system:

x
m
k
x
m
c
y
m
k
y
m
c
y + = + + & & & &

z
m
y
m
k
y
m
c
y
1
= + + & & & where kx x c z + = &

For the values given, the parameters of this system are:

m/N 001 . 0 gain static 25 . 1 10
100 25
1 . 0
) (
2
= = = =
+ +
=
k
s s
s H
n
ζ ω

When x(t) is 0.02u(t) metres, z(t) is the sum of an impulse (note that the derivative
of a step is an impulse).

) ( Newton 20 ) ( seconds - Newton 5
) ( ) m 02 . 0 )( N/m 1000 ( ) ( ) m 02 . 0 )( Ns/m 250 (
t u t
t u t
kx x c z
+ =
+ =
+ =
δ
δ
&

The response of an overdamped second order system to an impulse (p5 -10) is:

[ ]
t t N
N N
e e
C k
t y
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2
2 2
1 2
) (
− + − − − −

=
ζ ζ ω ζ ζ ω
ζ
ω

Plugging in C = 5 N-sec and the other values gives:

t t
e e t y
20 5
3 033 . 0 3 033 . 0 ) (
− −
− =

The response of an overdamped second order system to a step (p5-13) is:

( )
( )

|
|
|
.
|

\
|

− + −
+ − +

− =
− + −
− − −
t
t
N
N
e
e
Ck t y
) 1 ( 2
) 1 ( 2
2
2
2
1
1
1 2
1
1 ) (
ζ ζ ω
ζ ζ ω
ζ ζ
ζ ζ
ζ

Plugging in C = 20 N and the other values gives:

t t
e e t y
20 5
6 0066 . 0 6 0266 . 0 02 . 0 ) (
− −
+ + =

The total response of the system is the sum of its response to the impulse and its
response to the step:

t t
e e t y
20 5
6 0266 . 0 6 0066 . 0 02 . 0 ) (
− −
− + =

This agrees with the previously obtained result.

3/.

0266 6 e −5t + 0. the parameters of this system are: 0.seconds δ (t ) + 20 Newton u (t ) The response of an overdamped second order system to an impulse (p5 -10) is: y (t ) = kω N C 2 ζ 2 [e −1 −ω N (ζ − ζ 2 −1 ) t − e −ω N ( ζ + ζ 2 −1 ) t ] Plugging in C = 5 N-sec and the other values gives: y (t ) = 0.001 m/N H ( s) = 2 When x(t) is 0.033 3 e −20t The response of an overdamped second order system to a step (p5-13) is:    ζ + ζ 2 − 1 e −ω N (ζ − ζ 2 −1 )t +   1     y (t ) = Ck 1 −  2 2   2 ζ − 1  − ζ + ζ 2 − 1 e −ω N (ζ + ζ −1 )t         ( ( ) ) Plugging in C = 20 N and the other values gives: y (t ) = 0.02u(t) metres.25 k = static gain = 0. & z = cx + kx = (250 Ns/m)(0.0066 6 e −20t . Differential equation for system: && + y c k c k & & y+ y = x+ x m m m m Consider instead the “standard” system: && + y c 1 k & y+ y = z m m m & where z = cx + kx For the values given.2/. z(t) is the sum of an impulse (note that the derivative of a step is an impulse).02m)δ (t ) + (1000 N/m)(0.02m)u (t ) = 5 Newton .02 + 0.033 3 e −5t − 0.1 s + 25s + 100 ωn = 10 ζ = 1.

3/.02 + 0. .The total response of the system is the sum of its response to the impulse and its response to the step: y (t ) = 0.0066 6 e −5t − 0.0266 6 e −20t This agrees with the previously obtained result.