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750-1550 (A Bibliographic Guideline for Preparation)
(Please do not let yourself be overwhelmed by the ostensibly lengthy bibliography. If you look carefully, there is in fact very little material. If it appears more lengthy, it is because the references are detailed and at the end of the long titles of books and names of specific chapters you will often discover that actually you are expected to read very little. In fact the bibliography below is by no means comprehensive and you are welcome to explore the library on your own.) UNIT: I
I. Interpreting Early Medieval India, circa 750-1200
One can disaggregate this topic into three parts: [a] The discussion of sources would involve a general survey of available evidence most frequently used by historians viz., epigraphic, numismatic and literary works; [b] Divergent ways in which modern history writing for the period 750-1200 has developed and issues at stake in respective traditions of historiography; and [c] Various perspectives on [non]existence of a feudal phase in Indian history, especially with reference to early medieval India.
Sources and Historiography
• Chattopadhyaya, B.D. 2003. The Study of Early India. In Studying Early India by B.D.Chattopadhyaya, 3-25. Delhi: Permanent Black. The essay discusses the relevance of the period designated ‘early India’ as well as ‘early medieval India’. In the process, it also surveys the available sources and the varied directions in which historiography for the period has developed. • Jha, D.N. 2000. Introduction to The Feudal Order: State, Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India, ed., D.N.Jha, 1-60. Delhi: Manohar. D.N.Jha discusses the pros and cons of using the ‘feudalism hypothesis’ for the early medieval period. The essay also carries valuable references to the most commonly used sources for the period.
Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. As the title suggests, this work is written in a textbook format covering very wide time span. The last (tenth) section of the book titled ‘Emerging Regional Configurations c. 600-1200 C.E.’ deals with the major historical trends of early medieval India. The chapter makes for a good general survey for the whole of unit I in our syllabus. Relevant for the topic under consideration here is the first section of this chapter. Entitled, ‘Sources: literary and archaeological’, this section provides a rare and critical survey of sources available for the early medieval period.
Sahu, B.P. 1997. Introduction to Land System and Rural Society in Early India, ed. B.P.Sahu, 1-58. Delhi: Manohar. This is by far the most comprehensive treatment of the historiography of early Indian rural society (including that of early medieval). Varied approaches to the sources of early Indian history are discussed at length in the essay.
Recent Debates (The Question of Feudalism)
• Kosambi, D.D. 1956. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History. Bombay. 2nd edition, 1975. Bombay. Especially relevant are, 275-76. Here, Kosambi, one of the first historians to apply the feudalism hypothesis in the Indian context, discussed the idea of feudalism from above and feudalism from below. • Sharma, R.S. 1958. Origins of Feudalism in India. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1: 297-328. This was Sharma’s first attempt to apply the framework of ‘feudalism’ to understand the early medieval agrarian relations in India. It was later elaborated as a full-fledged thesis (see below). • Sharma, R.S. 1965. Indian Feudalism, c.300-1200. 2nd edition, 1980. Delhi: Macmillan. Sharma’s seminal book, as is well known, was the first rigorous and comprehensive application of the notion of Indian feudalism in the context of early medieval period particularly where land rights, economy and polity are concerned.
• Sharma, R.S. 1974. Problem of Transition from Ancient to Medieval in Indian History. Indian Historical Review, 1: 1-10. This is primarily focussed on the problem of transition of Indian history from ancient to medieval period with reference to the character of change noticeable from 6th – 7th centuries in the subcontinent. • Sharma, R.S. 1985. How Feudal was Indian Feudalism. The Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 12, no. 2/3: 19-43. A revised and updated version of this article is to be found in, The State in India, 1000-1700, ed., H.Kulke, 48-85. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995. Paperback edition, 1997. The same essay is also reproduced in The Feudalism Debate, ed., H.Mukhia, 82-111. Delhi: Manohar, 1999. In this essay, Sharma responds to some of those who critique the use of the term ‘feudalism’ in the Indian context. Mukhia’s essay, mentioned below, is taken up for particularly detailed response. • Mukhia, H. 1981. Was There Feudalism in Indian History? The Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 8: 273-310. Also reproduced in The State in India, 1000-1700, ed., H.Kulke, 86-133. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995. Paperback edition, 1997. This essay examines the (ir)relevance of the feudalism paradigm to study early medieval Indian social formation. It carries elaborate comparison of some elements early medieval Indian history with those of medieval European feudalism. • Sharma, R.S. 1982. The Kali Age: A Period of Social Crisis. In The Feudal Order: State, Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India, ed., D.N.Jha, 61-77. Delhi: Manohar, 2000. Originally published in S.N.Mukherjea, ed., India: History and Thought. Essays in Honour of Professor A.L.Basham. 1982. This essay attempts to place the emergence of feudalism in early medieval India in the context of a social crisis represented as Kali Age crisis in the sources. • Chattopadhyaya, B.D. 1983. Political Processes and the Structure of Polity in Early Medieval India: Problems of Perspective. Presidential Address, Ancient India Section, Indian History Congress, 44th Session. This is also reproduced in The State in India, 1000-1700, ed., H.Kulke, 195-232. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Paperback edition, 1997. As the title of the essay suggests, it examines various approaches to the study of early medieval India. This is a path breaking and very dense article that offers a rich variety of insights into problems of different paradigms deployed to understand aspects of the early middle ages in 3
S.India. Jha provides a very good summary of the so-called ‘feudalism debate’ as it stood at the turn of the millennium. ed. This is also reproduced in The State in India. 12: 25-39. the essay is useful for several topics listed under this unit in the syllabus. New Delhi: Manohar. As such. Reflections on Recent Perceptions of Early Medieval India. 1000-1700.N.D. Indian History Congress.Chattopadhyaya. H. 1-58. 44th Session. (See above for comments on the article. 4 . no. Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India.Kulke. Working close to the perspective offered by B. Introduction to The Feudal Order: State. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Jha. 1965. D. Delhi: Macmillan. Kulke. Paperback edition. 1993. (See above for comments) • Chattopadhyaya. D. II. 1995..M.. 1000-1700. 21. 63-90. 195-232. The Early and the Imperial Kingdom: A Processural Model of Integrative State Formation in Early Medieval India. 233-262. 1983. 2000. B.300-1200. K. 1997. ed. Political Processes and the Structure of Polity in Early Medieval India: Problems of Perspective. The essay is particularly marked in its critique of the ‘integrative polity’ paradigm. The essay carries some interesting reflection of the application of feudalism hypothesis as well as alternative constructs in the early medieval Indian context. Social Scientist. Kulke in this essay provides a framework (‘Integrative state formation’) to understand the political changes taking place during the period. R. Ancient India Section. 1980. 2nd edition. Presidential Address. o Shrimali. c.N. Indian Feudalism. ed. Hermann.D. primarily from the point of view of someone in broad agreement with the applicability of feudalism to early medieval India. o Jha.) • Kulke. Structure of Polities Evolution of Political Structures • Sharma. In The State in India.
Peasant. 3-51. Peasant. vol. The Segmentary State in South Indian History. Vijaya. Studies in History. State and Society in Medieval South India: A Review Article. 1982. • Stein. vol. Burton. no. 1997. 13 (1991): 217-88. The Segmentary Theory and the Indian Experience.• Chattopadhyay. This is an extremely useful essay for a critical perspective on one of the most influential work on Medieval South Indian politics (see above.D. Reprint. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Richard Fox.S. The Segmentary State: Interim Reflections. 16. • Stein. Paperback edition. Paperback editon. Also reproduced in B. Origin of the Rajputs: The Political. It is a remarkable and controversial work that is sweeping in its theoretical and chronological expanse as well as rich in empirical detail. Burton. • Sharma. 1997. 1-37. 1995. 1977. Indian Historical Review. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Chattopadhyay. ed. nos. 1. 1976. The essay also examines the structure of Rajput polities. 1994. 5 . • Ramaswamy. In Realm and Region in Traditional India. Kulke. Delhi: Oxford University Press. This is one of the earliest attempts by Stein to apply the theory of Segmentary State in the context of medieval Indian political and fiscal history. Indian Historical Review. The chapter most relevant for a study of the relevant Chola period is indicated above. R. Delhi: Oxford University Press (Paperback edition). Stein responded to his critics and revised some of his arguments offered earlier (see above). 3. 134-161. 1980. 1989-1990. 1994. In The State in India. 4: 307-19. Chattopadhyaya discusses the contentious problem of the origin of Rajputs in a way that helps open up the whole issue of understanding political changes in the period in rewarding ways.D. 1-2: 80-108. Burton.. This is the milestone monograph by the leading scholar of medieval south India. B. ed. Stein: 1980). New Delhi: Vikas. Economic and Social Processes in Early Medieval Rajasthan. State and Society in Medieval South India. The Making of Early Medieval India. Originally published in Purusartha.. 254-365. In this article. Some of the arguments offered in the essay were later revised by the author (see below). • Stein.
Social Scientist. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient. James. The Cola State. 22. Kesavan. Originally published in Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 6 . From Brahmanism to Hinduism: Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition. Also reproduced in The State in India: 1000-1700. James. 1987. 1982. Ritual. • Heitzman. 2: 181-220. Heitzman establishes interesting links between the ritual roles of the temples in South India on the one hand and their economic and political activities. Vijay. Studies in History. The essay examines the epigraphic and other evidence to study the way in which the Pratiharas transformed themselves and their political/Legitimation strategies as their state expanded its territories. 3-4: 19-50.In this review article. 1993. 24.2: 269306. • Subbarayalu. 29. brahmans and temples. H. 850-1280. nos. royal genealogies. 1991. no. Y. • Sharma. Sanjay. He examines the differential presence of the state in each of these zones at different points of time. Heitzman attempts to capture the character of a continuously expanding and changing Chola state by classifying the areas under its control into five separate ecological/agrarian zones.Kulke. 2001. 162-94. Studies in History. 21. Polity and Economy: The Transactional Network of an Imperial Temple in Medieval South India. Social Scientist. • Heitzman. 2001 (Calcutta Session). rituals of kingship • Veluthat. 34: 23-54. Negotiating Identity and Status: Legitimation and Patronage under the Gurjara-Pratiharas of Kannauj. Religious Symbols in Political Legitimation: The Case of Early Medieval South India. State Formation in South India. 2006. • Nath. 1: 35-61. no. 4. ed. 1/2: 23-34. Forms of Legitimation. Indian Economic and Social History Review. This is an interesting reflection on the nature of Chola state especially vis-à-vis its institutional set up. Sharma mounts an elaborate critique of Burton Stein’s theory of Segmentary state formation.
benefited (and benefited from) vertically expanding Chola state? This is the subject of Spencer’s extremely insightful essay. 1-16. Delhi: Manohar. D. • Spencer. • Kulke. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Hermann. The Role of Nadu in the SocioPolitical Structure of South India (c. Veluthat analyses the place of ‘nadu’ in south Indian history to reflect on nature of state and society under the Cholas.Jha. In Kingship in Indian History: Japanese Studies on South Asia No. AD 850-1279. In The Feudal Order: State.N. 2000. 1969. Delhi: Manohar. c. by Kulke. 119-142. 12. 2. 1999. Religious Networks and Royal Influence in Eleventh Century South India. ed. This is a sweeping reflection on the ways in which Brahmanical ideologies and political initiatives were linked to expansion of state societies and assertion of regional identities in a dialogical context.W. In the specific context of Orissa. In Kings and Cults: State Formation and Legitimation in India and Southeast Asia. Social Scientist. It also reflects on the ways in which their interface with temples affected the kingdoms themselves. • Ogura. The essay traces evolution of kingship in the context of changing patterns of royal architecture and patronage of temples. 2001.P. 29. 7 . this article examines the state’s changing patterns of patronage of temples. G. Royal Temple Policy and the Structure of Medieval Hindu Kingdoms. AD 600-1200). 7-8: 318. • Veluthat. Kesavan. Delhi: Manohar. How did the elaborate networks of temples’ administration contend with. no. The Changing Concept of Kingship in the Cola Period: Royal Temple Constructions. • Sahu. Yasushi.The essay discusses the interface between religious and political by examining the processes that marked the evolution of Brahmanism in early middle ages. Society and Ideology in Medieval South India. 179-96. 2001. nos. Brahmanical Ideologies. Noboru Karashima. Regional Identities and the Construction of Early India. ed. 1: 42-56. B.
State and Economy: South India. R. nos.D.S.S. Again. 3001000. 400-1300. 275-317. ed. 168-77. 1997. R.1987. Agrarian Structures and Social Change Agricultural Expansion • Sharma.III. In the context of early medieval south India.D. XVI.Chattopadhyaya. Peasants and Landlords with Reference to Regional Variations • Sharma. 48-85. In Recent Perspectives of Early Medieval India. 600-1200 A. 2000. R. 12. Urban Decay in India. state formation and feudalisation. Romila Thapar. Another study of agrarian processes in south India. Kulke. Sharma traces agrarian expansion during early medieval period as part of larger process of urban decay. 1995. Paperback edition. A. Irrigation in Early Medieval Rajasthan. Chattopadhyaya focuses on the patterns of artificial irrigation and its relationship with changing agrarian structures and growth of the region. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 1994.D. The Journal of Peasant Studies. 38-56. c. Delhi: Popular Prakashan in association with Book Review Trust. by R. Chapter 3-6: State Formation.D. 1995.N. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. In this micro study of medieval Rajasthan. Delhi: Oxford University Press.D. 1973. • Champaklakshmi. 1985. this essay departs from the framework of feudalism and examines economic growth within a set of political. How Feudal was Indian Feudalism?. the study is located under the broader rubric of feudalisation. Paperback 8 . fiscal and ideological variables. c. • Nandi. In this short and focussed chapter. Delhi: Manohar. 2/3: 19-43.Chattopadhyaya. • B. ed. 1000-1700. Agrarian Growth and Social Change in Feudal South India.Sharma. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. B. Nandi analyses the problem of agrarian growth in relation with social changes and horizontal expansion of state.S. parts II and III: 298-316. H. c. R. Reproduced in The Making of Early Medieval India by B. A revised and updated version of this article is to be found in The State in India. Agrarian Expansion.
Delhi: Manohar. The Problem of the Emergence of Feudal Relations in Early India. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Again. 1973. 1997. The 9 . among others. parts II and III: 298-316. Delhi: Manohar. 1980. this article focuses very sharply on the problem of peasant-landlord relationship in early medieval India. Introduction to Land System and Rural Society in Early India. 1993. In Land System and Rural Society in Early India. • Yadava.D. 1994. Though a study of a ‘region’. B. Delhi: Manohar. Delhi: Manohar.S. Reproduced in The Making of Early Medieval India by B. Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India. Another useful essay that analyses the conditions of the peasants within the context of agrarian relations. In this fairly comprehensive and critical historiographic essay on early historical and early medieval period. Also reproduced in The Feudal Order: State. 1997. B. ed. B. 41st Session.S. changes in scholarly approaches towards early medieval history have been discussed at length. 1-58. ed.Mukhia.Sahu. 38-56. As the title suggests. XVI. 82-111. • Sahu.Jha. ed. Presidential Address. this essay examines the nature of agrarian relations with particular reference to plight of peasants as indicated. Paperback edition.Sahu. (See above for comments) • Sahu. 1999. 1/2: 48-68. • Yadava. Social Scientist. 1997. 2000. it helps us also in relating to the debate about the nature of early medieval Indian history. • Chattopadhyaya.P. It also attempts to deal with the critique of feudalism paradigm by examining specific evidence from various agrarian regions. B.P. 21. it is a study of the specific conditions of rural economy in early medieval Orissa. Indian History Congress. ed. B.edition. Section I (Ancient India).D. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.N. 249-301. B.P. Although this is a restatement of Sharma’s thesis of Indian feudalism.Chattopadhyaya. Aspects of Rural Economy in Early Medieval Orissa. H.N. 32942. 1997. Bombay.P. B. D. Immobility and Subjection of Indian Peasantry. The same essay is also reproduced in The Feudalism Debate. in the astrological texts of early medieval age.N. Irrigation in Early Medieval Rajasthan.
186-213. Indian Historical Review.Bagchi. 25. It mostly deals with the issues of mobility. The essay examines some evidence about untouchables in various periods of Indian history. 1994. Social Scientist. 1997.1: 14-31.S. nos. An alternative perspective on social changes that remain somewhat similar but are understood differently is available in this book. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • Jha. • Chattopadhyaya. B. Functions and Dimensions of Change. Proliferation of Castes. 1990. • Jha. Caste: Origins. Aspects of Rural Settlements and Rural Society in Early Medieval India. Untouchables • Sharma. 1998. Vivekanand.author also provides a good survey of region-wise variations that have been documented by scholars. Although this is a general survey of historiography on early medieval India. differentiation and proliferation of castes and other social groups within a largely localised context of kinship relations. 2. • Chattopadhyaya. Stages in the History of Untouchables. 11-12: 19-30.D. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. 1-37. it carries relevant set of reflections on possible as well as available social histories of the period. Introduction to The Making of Early Medieval India by B. especially in Chapters 2 and 5.D.P. 10 . B. The first Devraj Chanana Memorial Lecture. This is by far the most comprehensive survey of social changes in early medieval India.D. Caste. Untouchability and Social Justice: Early North Indian Perspective. This is a sociologist account of changes in the institution of caste since the ancient through the middle ages. Calcutta: K. 1975.Sharma. New Delhi: Manohar. One of the very few works that deal with the issue of untouchability in the historical context. Suvira. Social Changes in Early Medieval India. Vivekanand. no. • Jaiswal.Chattopadhyaya.S. Kolkata: Orient Longman. Peasantisation of Tribes. R. Also reproduced (with slight changes) in Early Medieval Indian Society by R. Useful and relevant insights are to be found scattered through the book. 1969. 2001.
The introduction also offers a sweeping view of the state of historiography in the field. beyond the usual notions of purity and impurity. Merchants and Merchandise in Early Medieval Northern India. Untouchability and the Depressed.D.Kotani. chiefly epigraphic. ed. • Karashima. Delhi: Oxford University Press. nos. to understand practices of untouchability both at present and in historical times. 72-101. Delhi: Manohar. • Jain. Trade. Delhi: Manohar. Urbanisation and Forms of Exchange Inter-regional and Maritime Trade • Malik. Jain in this well-researched monograph argues for the existence of vibrant trading activities in the first three centuries of the second Christian millennium. 1980. Aktor provides an alternative frame. Introduction to Trade in Early India. 11 .Another short piece that traces the history of untouchability within the larger history of varna and jati. New Delhi: Abhinav. 1990. • Hall. Hall provides an account of how trade could be linked to statecraft under the Cholas. International Journal of Hindu Studies. Karashima looks at evidence. Trade and Statecraft in the Age of the Colas. Rules of Untouchability in Ancient and Medieval Law Books: Householders. Kenneth R. A. • Aktor. Competence and Inauspiciousness. • Chakravarti.K. 1998. 2004. on the untouchables in the Tamil country during early medieval period. 6. In Caste System. Trade and Traders in Western India (AD 1000-1300). Ranabir Chakravarti. Mikael. Noboru. Ranabir. H. IV. 21-30. V. 2002. As the title promises. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. ed. 1997. The Untouchables in Tamil Inscriptions and Other Historical Sources in Tamilnadu. 3: 243-74. The strength of the work lies in the manner in which it establishes linkages between commerce and state formation. This is a more or less descriptive account of trading activities in north India during the period specified. 600-1000. Anjali.
Urban Processes and Monetisation • Sharma.In his long introduction to the edited volume. This is probably the most influential major monograph that looks for and fails to find enough evidence of urbanism in India during the period between 4th to 10th centuries. Also reprinted in The Making of Early Medieval India. The essay may usefully be compared with another (Shrimali. Chakravarti outlines the historiography of trade for the late ancient and early medieval period. With separate chapters on the relevant epigraphic and literary sources and on each of the four major regions (north. 119-62. 4: 413-40. Chakravarti studies the interactions between what he calls different ‘ensembles’ of activities like economic. R. Also reprinted in Trade in Early India. 12 . Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1996. R.D. Urban Decay in India c. the book makes sweeping arguments that have remained contentious. by R. • Sharma. Merchants and a Matha in Northern Konkan (c. 1987. B. Chakravarti. Social Science Probings. and the south). • Chattopadhyaya. listed below) that also studies Konkan region for related though not identical developments. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. by B.S. AD 900-1053). ed. 2. Kolkata: Orient Longman. 1985. 2001. The essay makes for interesting comparison with a major monograph on the topic produced shortly after this (Deyell. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. 1990. 89-119. 1994.D. political and cultural. 1000). Sharma.Chattopadhyaya. Chattopadhyaya provides very interesting study of not only thriving markets and merchants in Rajasthan. but also of how markets grow over a period of time and relate to their ‘hinterland’. central and western. middle Gangetic and eastern. 257-281. 2004. Ranabir. 300 – c. Markets and Merchants in Early Medieval Rajasthan. he surveys the evidence for trade during the early medieval period. 2. Paperback edition. R. 27. 1997. Monarchs. In the pages specified. This is another essay that follows up the ‘feudalism argument’ by trying to establish the lack of evidence for enough coins for the period before the 11th century in early medieval India.S. • Chakravarti.S. In Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation. no. 1990) listed below. 500-c. 1000. no. Paucity of Metallic Coinage (c. Indian Economic and Social History Review.
The arguments put forth contrasts interestingly with those offered in a similar context for a slightly different time period by Ranabir Chakravarti (1990. • Shrimali. the pages specified talk about urban settlements and their economic underpinnings during the period.N.D. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Ideology and Urbanisation: South India 300 B. to 1300. Jha.D. 2. Shrimali examines the evidence for/against monetisation in the Konkan economy. Delhi: Oxford University Press. How Monetised was the Silhara Economy? In Society and Ideology: Essays in Honour of Professor R. by R.Chattopadhyaya. Champaklakshmi looks at evidence for urbanism in South India during the period specified. 1994. ed.D. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. A. 13 . New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • Chattopadhyaya. Chattopadhyaya tries to trace the evolution and economic function of these townships from north India during early middle ages. • Chattopadhyaya. R. Though Heitzman’s book is concerned about state formation under the Cholas in the book. 95-123. In this study of a few urban centres.S. by B. James. Moving on from her work on trade and trade guilds in South India.M. D.• Champakalakshmi. 107-120. 2000.N.Chattopadhyaya. Trade and Urban Centres in Early Medieval North India. In this very focussed essay. 1997. 345-82. Bhattacharyya and Romila Thapar. in The Feudal Order. S. Sharma. D. Paperback edition. Developments within: Urban Processes in the Early Medieval Period. 1 (1974). 1996.C.D. Jha. see above). c. 155-82. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Originally published in Situating Indian History. 203-310. In The Making of Early Medieval India. K. 130-54. • Heitzman. B.D. 600-1300. 1986. Gifts of Power: Lordship in an Early State. A slightly different version of the piece is also available with the changed title of ‘Monetization in a Coastal Economy: The Case of Konkan under the Silaharas’. 1996. no. In The Making of Early Medieval India. ed. ed. Champaklakshmi. New Delhi: Manohar. 1997. Urban Centres in Early Medieval India: An Overview. Originally published in The Indian Historical Review. B. Trade. 82-89. 1994. by B.
Economic and Social Basis of Tantrism (Chapter 8) & The Feudal Mind (Chapter 9). Both 14 . D. Kolkata: Orient Longman. R. Tantrism.D. 175-189. 2004. (b) Social Science Probings. Probably. 1993. R. Original but shorter versions of these articles are to be found respectively in (a) Indian Society. In Trade in Early India.S. 235-282. Sharma. Living Without Silver: The Monetary History of Early Medieval North India. Historical Probings: Essays in Memory of D. the most well researched work on the state of monetisation in the subcontinent during early medieval period. Meera. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Puranic Traditions.Jha. The Medieval South Indian Guilds: Their Role in Trade and Urbanisation. Deyell challenged several orthodoxies in the field by bringing in focus personal hoards of coins as against exclusively depending on numismatic reports and museum collections of coins. The book provides detailed analysis of functioning of a merchant guild of Manigramam in Tamilnadu and another of Ayyavole in Karnataka.S.S. • Champakalakshmi. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Two Medieval Merchant Guilds of South India. two of the most prominent medieval guilds in south India. 1988. In Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation. • Deyell. 1990. Jha. in the same vein (see the reference above) examines the ways in which trading centres could evolve into urban settlements over a period of time. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. V. Religious and Cultural Developments Bhakti. Chakravarti. Merchant Guilds of South India • Abraham. 2001. ed. R. 326-43. ed. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. New Delhi: Manohar. Popular Religious Cults and Buddhism and Jainism Suggested Readings • Sharma. Originally published in Society and Ideology in India: Essays in Honour of Professor R.N. Sharma and V. 1996. Kosambi. Chmpaklakshmi studies the relevant evidence for delineating the changing roles of mainly three south Indian guilds of early medieval period. John S.Chattopadhyaya. R. ed. Fascinating work that added several new dimensions to the so-called feudalism debate. 13 (1996).
R. New Delhi: Manohar. Origin of the Virasaiva Movement.N. 1986. though not that directly. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. In ‘The Feudal Mind’. Sections II and III. ed. New Delhi: Manohar. 2001. Sharma stretches the argument of feudalism to ideological and religious developments in early medieval times. and ‘Jain Tantra: Divinatory and Meditative Practices in the Twelfth Century Yogasastra of Hemachandra’ by Olle Ovarnstrom (pp. Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India. no. 595604). Of some relevance are the ‘Introduction’ by David Gordon White (pp. D. Chakrabarti looks at the Puranic tradition as an open scriptural tradition that could accommodate upcoming regional traditions within expanding (and changing) Brahmanical canons. Dissent and Ideology. This is a large collection of mostly short essays on Tantric practices spanning a wide stretch of time (Ancient to Contemporary) and space (from Nepal and India to China and Japan). Originally the article was published in Indian Historical Review. In Tradition. Although this essay deals with Virsaiva movement that originated in early 12th century. it does refer to early medieval period and seeks to establish linkages between religious processes and perceived material/social developments of the time. 55-88. Kunal. 469-86. 2000. 81-96). 15 . Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India. • Chakrabarti.Champaklakshmi & S. Lorenzen (pp. it is presumed to be part of the South Indian Bhakti tradition and hence may be dealt with here. D. • White. 2 (1975). David Gordon. ‘Tantric Rites in Antal’s Poetry’ by D. In somewhat similar fashion. Tantra in Practice. Jha. R. ‘A Parody of the Kapalikas in the Mattavilasa’ by David N. ed. ed.N.Bagchi. 2000. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Gopal. 3-40). Texts and Traditions: The Making of the Bengal Puranas.of these essays in the (shorter version) are also reproduced in The Feudal Order: State. Kunal. R. Though this is primarily a book on ancient India. 206-230).N. • Nandi. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Social Roots of Religion in Ancient India. ed. In this pioneering work. he relates popularity of Tantric practices to their socio-economic ‘base’. In The Feudal Order: State. • Nandi.Jha. Dennis Hudson (pp.P. • Chakrabarti. 2001. Religious Process: The Puranas and the Making of a Regional Tradition. 1. Calcutta: K.N.
16 . The essay was originally published in Indian Movements: Some Aspects of Dissent. Malik. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. From Devotion and Dissent to Dominance: The Bhakti of the Tamil Alvars and Nayanars.C. S. Studies in History. Prentiss. Bhakti Movement in South India. 135-63. Champaklakshmi & S. In an empirically grounded piece. Champakalakshmi examines the Bhakti tradition of Alvars and Nayanars of South India to trace their changing social and political roles during the seventh to the twelfth centuries. 1: 17-40. David N. 25-42. D. ed. In The Feudal Order: State. Karen P. pp. no. This is another piece that. Burton. D. M. New York: Oxford University Press.N. • Narayanan. ed. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. Jha. Lorenzen.Here again. ed. and Veluthat. Protest and Reform. • Stein. The Hague: Mouton. ed. 2000. Gopal.G. Outside the Norm. Social Mobility and Medieval South Indian Hindu Sects. In Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium. In The Embodiment of Bhakti. by Karen P. Dissent and Ideology. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Jha. • Mahalakshmi. Chakrabarti studies the way the Bengal Puranas emerge to assimilate a local tradition within a larger mythological / literary corpus. Bhakti as a Movement. 385-410. 81-101.S.N. 2005. K. • Champakalakshmi. Delhi: Chanakya Publications. Should Bhakti in South India be considered as a social ‘movement’? This is the theme of this essay that considers issues relating to religious developments in early medieval India. Within the Tradition: Karaikkal Ammaiyar and the Ideology of Tamil Bhakti. ed. 16. James Silverberg. examines the changing ideology as well as social base of the South Indian Bhakti movement. The same was also reproduced in Feudal Social Formation in Early India. 78-94. • Prentiss. Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India. ed. Mahalakshmi traces the evolution of Bhakti ideology and its location vis-à-vis ‘tradition’ in early medieval Tamil region. 2004. The article is also reproduced in Religious Movements in South Asia 600-1800. R. In Tradition. New Delhi: Manohar. 1996. 1978. Paperback edition. 1999. R. 2000. from a slightly different perspective. 1987. 1968. R.
ed. through several pages. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. History and Culture of the Indian People: The Struggle for Empire. 23. 1: 6-37. 127. 1998. Social Scientist (Special Issue). ed. 1000-1500.C. Delhi: Orient Longman. Though largely descriptive. Regional Languages and Literature • Majumdar. 2001. Narayan Rao and Pollock. The relevant pages in the above mentioned edition are 35-38. Sheldon.Stein in this rather focussed essay tentatively outlines the way certain emerging ‘Bhakti’ sects. 3: 41-74. Nagaraju. Transition from Ancient to Medieval. • Pollock. India in the Vernacular Millenium: Literary Culture and Polity. Its theoretical grid has since been questioned but it is still useful for putting together so much relevant information together. Pollock. R. • Sharma. 57. This is a collection of very interesting research papers on the issue of language and literature in what Pollock in his introduction calls the ‘Vernacular Millennium’. 16-44. • Sheldon Pollock. In Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation. 1995. allowed for social mobility among certain Sudra families during the period beginning eleventh century. especially Srivaishnava sect. 1998. Wolfgang Schluchter and Bjorn Wittrock. predictably from the vantage point of processes of feudalisation. Relevant part is Chapter XV (‘Language and Literature’). by R. Special issue of Daedalus. V. Sharma considers the issue of the emergence of regional languages and literature. Shmuel Eisenstadt. In Early Modernities. Although the essay is a general reflection on the question of transition from ancient to medieval. 297-397.S.S. The Journal of Asian Studies. Particularly relevant are the essays by S. Sharma. this long chapter on language and literature helped collate some basic pieces of information on the development of regional languages and literature. R. Sheldon. Nos. The Cosmopolitan Vernacular. 10-12. • Art and Architecture: Evolution of Regional Styles 17 . n.d. ed.
• Willis. social and cultural dimensions of early medieval India. 1993. B. nature and character of art in early medieval India. art was increasingly conditioned by regionalism and canonization. circa A. thereby failing to convey higher qualities (though apparently it was in the service of religion). 1974. It discusses the fluctuating patterns of regional powers. Presidential Address (Ancient India). pp 391-401. 5001300). 33-47.vol. their relationship to their spiritual mentors.• Desai. 700-1200. A. 1: 10-17. Religious and Royal Patronage in North India. In Gods. • Chattopadhyaya.1. and Lovers: Temple Sculpture from North India A. Art under Feudalism in India (c. This is an earlier article by the same author. • Desai. In The Indian Historical Review.. Historiography. 1989. where the chief function of art was to glorify the status of opulent patrons. Feudal Social Formation in Early India. In the closed economy and localism of the feudal structure. Reprinted in Jha. Guardians. The article further explores the spatial contexts and social linkages of the sacred spaces.D. 700-1200. 1987. Vishakha Desai and Darielle N. In Gods.D. 1993. numerous local centres of art emerged as religious donations increased with the rise of proliferation of local rulers and feudatories. Folk elements and tantric iconography in temples is seen against the background of a deprived urban milieu and patronage coming mainly from a rural aristocracy. The need to link one’s royal origins to religious and divine forces led to extraordinary temple building in this period. History. New York and Ahmadabad: The Asia Society Galleries and Mapin Publishing Ltd. D. no. Mason. An alternative approach to comprehend the regionalization of culture is suggested in this article in terms of the historical processes of local state formation leading to the changed character of art. Proceeding of the Indian History Congress. Gorakhpur: 21-56. Devangana. and Religious Centers: Early Medieval North India. Social Dimensions of Art in Early India.D. eds. It attempts to study art and architectural developments under a specific social milieu (feudal). The address treats the regionalization of art and architecture in early medieval India against the backdrop of the feudalism hypothesis. emphasizing on factor of legitimation of temporal authority as the most significant ideological dimension of the period. It discusses the political. and Lovers: Temple Sculpture from North 18 . It discusses the sociocultural aspects of feudalism that influenced the function. and their need for legitimation of their newly acquired power in the form of temple building. According to the author. Guardians. Michael D. Devangana.50th session.
Indian Architecture: Buddhist and Hindu Periods. D. 1986. The Art of Ancient India: Buddhist. The following two works also broadly fall in the same category: Harle. 700-1200. The essay is also concerned with issues of legitimation. Pvt.taraporevala Sons and Co. The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. Vishakha Desai and Darielle N. Mason. Penguin Books. New Zealand: Pelican History of Art. Brown. involving the nobility. Susan.: 49-65. Percy.India A. The essay discusses the nature of different levels of patronage of temple sites of north India. Hindu. officers and common people. • Huntington. J. Jain New York and Tokyo: Weather Hill. • • 19 . eds. Ltd. C. 1985. This book is very useful as a general survey of regional variations from a purely architectural point of view. It explores the local focus of temple inscriptions. Bombay: D.B. New York and Ahmadabad: The Asia Society Galleries and Mapin Publishing Ltd. 1971 (rpt).
H. Here. • Hardy. • Mukhia. Hardy considers trends in what he calls ‘Muslim’ historiography of the Pre-Mughal period. In this rather general essay. London: Oxford University Press. (This topic will include a general survey of available sources for writing the history of Delhi sultanate with a special stock-taking of the Persian court chronicles. The author considers the Persian literary traditions to address historiographic issues relating to the way the ‘story’ of Delhi Sultanate is usually told by historians. Interpreting the Delhi Sultanate. 1976. In Historians of India. London: Luzac and Company Ltd.) • Kumar. 362-77. 1961. The discussion of the sources. C. Peter. 2007.Unit II VI. scope and limitations of these sources. In The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate 1192-1286. • Hardy. 1966. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. by Sunil Kumar. circa 1200-1550: [a] Survey of Sources. Delhi-centred focus. The idea is to be familiarised with the nature. ed. Some Studies in Pre-Mughal Muslim Historiography. Appendix: Persian Literary Traditions and Narrativizing the Delhi Sultanate.Philips. Pakistan and Ceylon. Although it is a book devoted to Akbar’s reign. Harbans. and to take a critical look at the manner in which historians have used these sources. Historians and Historiography in the reign of Akbar. the author considers the writings of some of the most influential chroniclers of the Sultanate including. however. Historians of Medieval India: Studies in IndoMuslim Historical Writing. detailed discussion of the sources would be necessary with respect to the historiography on the specific themes of the history of Delhi sultanate. 20 . will not be confined to this topic alone. Peter. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. 115-27. In fact. its first chapter surveys the Persian court literature under the Delhi sultanate for background. Sunil. Minhaj Juzjani (the author of Tabaqat-i Nasiri) and Zia Barani (the author of Tarikh-i Firuzshahi).
and how recent historiography has raised and examined some of these issues. In the sections specified. Reprint. Shams Siraj Afif. 1999. and Ali bin Mahmud al Kirmani. the 15th century chronicler of Malwa. the chapter specified above examines general trends of Persian historiography. how most of them treat them as a ‘foreign’ invasion. vol. This is a very interesting and early attempt by Muhammad Habib to assess a host of Chishti Mystic Records and their value as source material for the historians of Sultanate period. 1981. • Habib. 44-60 (Sultan and Sources) and 151-70 (Sultans.• Jackson. Chishti Mystic Records of the Sultanate Period. Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznin. the author examines the nature (and limitations) of the sources available for reconstructing the history of the Delhi Sultanate. according to him. 1: 1-42. New Delhi: Kumar Brothers. Chapter 8: Some Chronicles and Chroniclers of Medieval India. Medieval India Quarterly. • Day. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. In this collection of Day’s essays. 1950. Irfan. Collected Works of Professor Habib. 2.) • Habib.Nizami. (The first two subtopics are clubbed together here as they more closely overlap than the rest and involve the same readings.A.N. In Politics and Society during the Early Medieval Period. 1981. Mohammad. Barani's theory of the History of the Delhi Sultanate. Amir Khusrau. The essay is useful not just as an interesting approach to Barani’s views about history but also as a contentious attempt to reconstruct the history of Sultanate itself. • Habib. K. 7: 99-115. The issue of “Indian” and “Foreign”.N. [b] Historiography Mahmud of Ghazni. 36-104. 1927. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Peter. ed. Muhammad. 143-81. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. U. The idea is to discuss how historians interpret and characterise Ghazanavid invasions. Indian Historical Review. In Some Aspects of Medieval Indian History. Day. 1971. by U. Ziauddin Barani. Habib outlines the theoretical grid within which. Barani wrote the history of the sultanate. nature of Turkish campaigns. 21 . Saints and Sources). with separate and useful notices on the life and works of Minhaj us-Siraj Juzjani.
Aziz. his achievements and failings and as the title says his ‘life and times’ in a linear narrative. Richard. M. Epic and Counter Epic in Medieval India. • Ahmad. Leiden: E.Gibb et al. New Delhi: Penguin Books India. • Bosworth. see MAHMUD b. 22 .Eaton. Journal of the American Oriental Society. J.A. A short and controversial piece that ‘discovered’ two parallel and rival narrative trends in the way Islam’s encounter with ‘Indian civilisation’ was represented. ed. • Davis. In Iran. traces the way in which idols were (and are) always treated as political trophies in the subcontinent. • Thapar. • Nazim. H. 2004.F. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers. They also reflect on the ‘pre-history’ of desecration of idols in India.E. (Alternatively. 4: 85-92.R.) Mainly a historian of west Asia. Davis.SEBUKTIGIN. Habib dissociated the Sultan from what he considered to be the essence of Islam and probably for the first time located his invasions primarily in its financial and political context. The essay is also reproduced in India’s Islamic Traditions: 711-1750.J. Lives of Indian Images. an Art Historian. 37-49. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.In this long essay on Mahmud. 1974. South Asia. Brill. C. ed. Chapter 3 and Chapter 6 examine the official Ghazanavid narratives that were woven in the wake of Mahmud’s alleged iconoclasm in India. • Richards. Somanath: The Many Voices of History. Romila. Richard M. Bosworth situates Mahmud in the backdrop of West Asian and Afghan context and looks at the latter Persian representations of the Turkish ruler as a great iconic empire builder. in Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1966. Mahmud of Ghazna in Contemporary Eyes and in Later Persian literature. This is more of a general and descriptive account of the Ghazanavid ruler. political and cultural frontier of Islam in east. 1963. 88-112 and 186-221. The Islamic Frontier in the East: Expansion into South Asia. 83: 470-76. 4: 91-109. A focussed piece that views Ghazanavid invasions in north India as part of a larger set of historical processes that saw a continuous (and not episodic) expansion of the military. The Life and Times of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna. 1931.
• Eaton. over the centuries. ed. 2002. New Delhi: India Research Press. Pollock tries to examine why the Ramayana narrative (of conflict between good and evil) found favour in Indic political iconography in north India after the establishment of ‘Muslim’ power in middle ages. 965-89. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. In this controversial piece. 1993. 246-81.D. 2005. below) and Ahmad Aziz (1963. Journal of Asian Studies. Chattopadhyaya examines Sanskrit texts of the period to map the multiple ways and contexts in which they articulated the idea of the other. In Beyond Turk and Hindu: Rethinking Religious Identities in Islamicate South Asia. 1989. above). by Romila Thapar. Richard M. 2000. 23 . The work is particularly fascinating for the fact that it looks at the manner in which the episode of Mahmud’s desecration of the temple has. New Delhi: Manohar. Eaton. David Gilmartin and Bruce B. Ramayana and Political Imagination in India. The perspective contrasts interestingly with those of Pollock (1993. ceased the imagination of a variety of people leading them to forge their own narratives around it. David N.Lawrence. Lorenzen. 2004. The article can also be accessed in Essays on Islam and Indian History. 2: 209-31. Reproduced in Religious Movements in South Asia 600-1800. Reproduced in Cultural Pasts: Essays in Early Indian History. B. The essay helps in developing a critical perspective on much that were written on the Ghazanavid invasion representing a clash of religious communities. Modern Asian Studies. Another interesting piece by Thapar who discusses the problems of talking about religious communitarian identity in pre-modern times. It also helps historicize the question of Indian and foreign when understood in terms of self and the other. Representing the Other? Sanskrit Sources and the Muslims (eight to fourteenth century). Paperback edition. Romila. Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States. 2003. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • Pollock. • Thapar. In a rare instance of a historian of ancient and early medieval India venturing beyond the 12th century. Imagined Religious Communities? Ancient History and the Modern search for a Hindu Identity. above). ed. 23. Paperback edition. • Chattopadhyaya.This is arguably the most sophisticated and comprehensive work on the multiple histories of Somanath temple. by Richard M. 2000. 1998. An extremely useful work that helps complicate the question of ‘the Muslim Other”. Sheldon. 52: 261-297. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. The perspective contrasts starkly with that of Chattopadhyaya (1998. 153-208.
(ii) Somanatha: Narratives of a History. Habib.) Islam and the question of social mobility. 1986. 2005. Inden in a pithy restatement of his famous position seeks to problematize the idea of ‘India’ in a pre-modern context. 1. All the four essays and the short introduction by the editor directly or indirectly reflect on the history of temple desecration. The last one by Blood examines the complex aesthetic and political context of Islamic iconoclasm that is historically contingent. rural society. In so doing. They include (i) Indian Art Objects as Loot by Richard H. Orientalist Constructions of India. 24 . Ronald. who focuses more on economic and technological change. Modern Asian Studies. The attempt will be to examine these perspectives in the light of recent research by Richard Eaton. Muhammad. as well as the modification of this argument by Irfan Habib.Nizami. K. Eaton. Muzaffar Alam. 33-110.) • Habib. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. • Inden. [b] Historiography (contd. et al. 20: 401-443. Sunil.A. (iv) Islam. ed. (iii) Temple Desecration in PreModern India by Richard M. • Kumar. Demolishing Myths or Mosques and Temples? Readings on History and Temple Desecration in Medieval India. Continuity and Change: urban centres. New Delhi: Three Essays. he adds another dimension to the debate about ‘Indian’ and ‘foreign’ around the issue of Turkish/Muslim invasions. In one of the first attempts to write a social history of the advent of Islam in India. Introduction to Elliot and Dowson's History of India vol. technology. Davis. ed. vol. II. All the essays are reproductions of the respective authors’ earlier publications.Eaton traces the history of temple desecration in India from early medieval till almost the modern times. The essay provides rich empirical evidence to capture patterns of temple desecration across varied political contexts and by agents from diverse religious backgrounds. Mohammad Habib linked the establishment of Delhi Sultanate to what he thought to be essentially ‘emancipatory’ ideals of the religion. (These themes will involve a discussion of classical Marxist position of Islam as an egalitarian social ideology cutting across caste boundaries and creating opportunities for social mobility as argued by Mohd. Reprinted in Politics and Society during the Early Medieval Period: Collected Works of Professor Habib. Flood. Iconoclasm and the Early Indian Mosque by Fibarr B. 1974.
Richard M. The essay was reprinted again in Religious Movements in South 25 . Berkeley: University of California Press. II. Martin. 106-26. Richard M. 4. The overall orientation remains the same that was followed by Mohammad Habib. 22-48. Economic History of the Delhi Sultanate: An Essay in Interpretation. Reprinted in Studies in the History of Science in India. 268-303. Section II. few secular historians studied religious processes under the sultanate beyond very general narratives about lives and teachings of Sufi and Bhakti saints. Eaton. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 2: 287-303. • Habib. Sufi Folk Literature and the Expansion of Indian Islam. Reprint: New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Technological Changes and Society. 1997. Irfan Habib.Chattopadhyay. • Eaton. Irfan. by Richard M. Writing a general history of economic developments under the sultanate. xxi-xxvii. • Habib. In this essay. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. vol. 1974. 1992. Approaches to the Study of Conversion to Islam in India. Also reprinted in the more recent Essays on Islam and Indian History. 2: 117-27. 1993. Until very recently. In Medieval India1: Researches in the History of India 1200-1750. Indian Historical Review. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. 1204-1760.• Siddiqui. This is a description of evidence for social mobility in north India from 13th century onwards which the author relates to the policies followed by the rulers of the Sultanate. ed. 31: 139-161.P. he elaborated on how certain policies of the sultans. Eaton linked Sufi’s interactions with local societies and its implications for expansion of Islam. ed. Richard Eaton in this essay and another (see below. I. 14. Social Mobility in the Delhi Sultanate. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1985. might in the long run have created new opportunities for occupational advancement in the realm. Also paraphrased in The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier. Yet. 189-208. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Presidential Address. In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies. Irfan. This was one of the first attempts by Irfan Habib to write about how sultanate was implicated in the introduction of new technologies in the subcontinent in a way that could lead to changes in society including newer avenues for upward mobility.H. Eaton: 1985) was one of those who did. 1992. ed. D. 1969. by Richard Eaton. 1978. • Eaton. followed in secular interest. 2000. Irfan Habib challenged some of Mohammad Habib’s ideas about egalitarian/emancipatory potential of Islam in India. History of Religion. Richard C.
In this pioneering essay. 1968. 26 . S. David N. Focusing on the Qutb complex. Muzaffar. Lorenzen. 1-61. • Alam. Competition and Co-existence: Indo-Islamic Interaction in Medieval North India. and an examination of the categories of analysis [Turk/Tajik/‘Indian’ Muslim. The interactions of pre-Islamic Indic cultures with those of Islam were more complex than most historians thought them to be. Delhi: Permanent Black. by Sunil Kumar.Asia 600-1800. 1989. Alam found evidence for both conflict as well as reconciliation between them in medieval India. 140-82. Paperback edition.B. The idea is to tease out the various implicit assumptions about the character of the Delhi Sultanate that underpin various perspectives on its ruling elites. 2004.P. Kumar examined how it remained a contested space within the larger sphere of Sultanate politics. VII: Changes in the Sultanate Political Structures [a] Phases of the Delhi Sultanate: 1200-1290. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. 2001. 1290-1450. Eaton critiqued existing theories of conversion and sought to provide a secular framework for understanding what he noted to be a protracted process of conversion to Islam. Qutb and Modern Memory. Elaborating on this idea. ed. Nobility under the Sultans of Delhi 1206-1398. • Kumar. Reprinted in The Present in Delhi’s Pasts. Sunil. the focus will be on the so-called ‘nobility’ under Delhi Sultanate. 2002. 105-127. This piece is useful for several topics in the syllabus both as a critical reflection on dominant trends of historiography and as an alternative framework for setting up the problematic of complex relations between politics and society. Delhi: Three Essays Press. In Partitions of Memory: The Afterlife of the Division of India. Ruling Elites (Under this head. Itinerario 13: 37-59.) • Nigam. ed. The essay drew attention to fissures within Islamic communities and highlighted the futility of writing a linear history of Delhi Sultanate as if it was driven by a singular vision of ideology and power. Suvir Kaul. Freemen/Slave] deployed to understand its changing character. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 2005.
(1990) 340-58. Jackson: 1999) • Jackson. Nobility under Mohammad Tughlaq. Jackson: 1999) • Jackson. Mohammad.Probably the first historian to undertake a full length study of the governing classes (studied as ‘nobility’).Nizami. 1999. 1958. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. In The Comprehensive History of India: Vol. How did the institution of elite slavery leave its impact upon the constitution of Sultanate governing class? This is the subject of Jackson’s study of the Mamluk institution in early 13th century. ed. For a more critical appreciation of the problem. 1996. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 42: 197-202. Many of his empirical details were challenged by Irfan Habib later (see below. V. Medieval India Quarterly. Life and Thought of Ziauddin Barani. • Ali. must have constituted and informed their character. 1970. 561-65.A. 1981. A. • Habib. 286-366. 1206-1526. Peter. Reprint. Habib: 1992). The relevant section in this long essay is entitled ‘The Governing Class’. Mohammad Habib and K. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. His characterisation of Sultanate nobility as a ‘feudal bureaucracy’ has since been discredited. ed. Nigam traced their history in terms of factional strife within as well as in terms of relations between crown and nobility. • Nizami. Part I: Delhi Sultanate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Delhi: People’s Publishing House. Nizami. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. this description may be compared with that of Jackson (see below. The Mamluk Institution in Early Muslim India. Reproduced in Collected Works of Professor Mohammad Habib: Politics and Society during the Early Medieval Period. that he thought.D. Writing a political and military history of the Sultanate. In this descriptive account of the ‘bureaucracy’ of Muhammad Tughlaq. Bureaucracy of Muhammad bin Tughluq. Peter. Athar Ali described the constitution of nobility under Muhammad Tughlaq. Athar. In examining Barani’s ideas about and portrayal of governing classes under the Sultanate.A. Some of his observations were later questioned by Peter Jackson in his book (see below. Jackson traced the composition of Khalji nobility and the nobility under the Tughlaqs 27 . the author closely follows the account given by Zia Barani in Tarikh-i Firuzshahi. K. Mohammad Habib also commented upon the these classes especially in the light of certain principles of Islam. 4: 197-252. K. 1990. 1981.A.
this book makes for difficult but rewarding reading. among other things. 2007. • Wink. Habib traced the changing ethnic composition of this class mainly in terms of factional strife. 1997. Sunil. Its novelty lies. When Slaves were Nobles: The Shamsi Bandagan in the Early Delhi Sultanate. Habib: 1992) and Hambly (see above. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. 1992. in the way it foregrounds the period between the ‘great’ sultans (Iltutmish and Balban) as the one when. clash of ambitions and the ability of the crown to contain these rivalries. The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate. Hambly tried to clear the confusion arising out of Barani’s enigmatic reference to the Chihilgani during the later part of Iltutmish’s reign as well as in the decades after his death. • Kumar. in the way Iltutmish deployed his slaves (organised in a strict hierarchy) and ‘free amirs’ in various sensitive positions. The piece traces the patterns. vol. Studies in History. Who were the Chihilgani. Sunil. Andre. In this study of the formation of the sultanate ruling class. ed. In Medieval India1: Researches in the History of India 1200-1750. Formation of the Sultanate Ruling Class of the Thirteenth Century. 1972. • Hambly. Tracing the complex process of the ‘emergence’ of Delhi Sultanate by providing rich empirical details. Its conclusions differ interestingly from those of Irfan Habib (see above. equally if not more. Irfan. 11th – 13th 28 . Gavin. II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest. this essay very nicely sums up his understanding of how the sultanate was able to establish a strong and centralised state system. 11921286. substantive transformations took place in the character of the state including the composition of its ruling elites. 1992. among other things. In some senses the whole book is a study of its ruling elites. The author questions some of the evidence available in Barani’s account by examining them closely for consistency as well as by comparing the information with those in other contemporary sources. It also interrogates the manner in which Juzjani reports this in Tabaqat-i Nasiri. Of particular relevance though is Chapter 5. 10: 23-52. 1-21. the Forty Slaves of Sultan Shams al-Din Iltutmish of Delhi? Iran 10: 57-62.(171-92). Later historians’ account (especially Kumar’s: 1992) of the Chihilgani differed substantively from Gambly’s treatment of the problem. Al Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. • Habib. Read with his understanding of iqta (see below: Habib: 1982). Hambly: 1972) • Kumar. Irfan Habib.
The importance of the institution in the making of a strong state is underlined though it might appear to some that this history is linked a little too closely to policies of ‘weaker’ and ‘stronger’ sultans. In Agrarian System of Moslem India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1. “Iqta’s: Distribution of Revenue Resources among the Ruling Class”. The focus will be on its changing character and flexibility. 6875. This essay reflects on the position of Afghan nobility in the sultanate during the Lodi period. Irfan. 182-99. Delhi: Kanti Publications. W. Though written in 1929. Agrarian Economy. Especially relevant in the piece cited is the section titled. this short piece provides very valuable and nuanced account of the problems in understanding the institution of iqta. I. Oxford and New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Appendix B: Provincial Governors in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Iqta (This topic will occasion a critical survey of the historiography on the twin institutions of iqta [revenue assignment/ territorial assignment] and kharaj [tax on land produce] that apparently constituted the backbone of sultanate administration. Rise of the Afghan Nobility under the Lodi Sultans. 1999. This is the only work by a major historian that seeks to trace the history of iqta from the inception of the Sultanate till almost its demise in a linear narrative. 216-223. The author links the composition and character of the Lodi nobility to what he considered to be the unique ideas of Lodi kingship. 1929. Medieval India Quarterly.H. 4875. 1982. This is a summary but nuanced description of the changes in the making of the governing classes.Centuries.Brill.J. Siddiqui’s is probably the only major work on the nobility under the Lodi sultans. 1977. In Medieval India: A Miscellany. 1961. 4 : 114-36. I. Paperback edition. • Siddiqui. Reprint. pp. • Habib. 1451-1526. 1988. The Composition of the Nobility under the Lodi Sultans. ed. 4 (1977): 10-66. In Cambridge Economic History of India. Leiden: E. 29 . Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib. Reading this helps develop a critical perspective on more elaborate later works on the topic.) • Moreland. vol. • Siddiqui. The section mentioned makes for good elementary reading on the topic.H.H.
The Economic History of the Lodi Period. 212-64. Sunil. Wink provides another descriptive account of the institution and links it up primarily with issues of military and fiscal administration. The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate. • Kumar. the book describes different kinds of iqta without necessarily elaborating on where the institution belonged in the scheme of his analysis of sultanate. Territorial Changes [It is very often assumed that a victory in the battlefield automatically resulted in the ‘annexation’ of the vanquished ruler’s territories. This subtopic will provide an opportunity to examine such stereotypes and try to look at the historiography on the 30 . Proceedings of the Punjab History Congress (Patiala). 95-102.F. II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest. 1997.• Jackson. 1999. Studies in History. Leiden: E. Paperback edition.Brill. • Wink. Kumar highlights the ‘instability’ in the precise meaning of iqta and elaborates on his argument that the character and function of iqta under the sultanate cannot be understood except in terms of the very diverse and changing positions of individual holders of the iqta. Presidential Address. 11921286. 2007. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient. Habib: 1982) may be noticed. 8: 47-67. In almost an aside in the page numbers mentioned. Andre. Passim. Oxford and New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (See above for comments) • Kumar. 1965. J. (See above for comments) • Richards. • Kumar. 11th – 13th Centuries. Focusing on the frontier military commanders. there are interesting observations on the institution under the Lodis to be found here. 39: 86-100. Though this work is not on iqta. 10: 23-52.J. Sunil. 2008. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sunil. Medieval History Section. Balancing Autonomy with Service: Frontier Military Commanders and their Relations with the Delhi Sultans in the 13th and 14th Centuries. 1999. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Al Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Peter. 1994. Some contrasts with the views of Irfan Habib (see above. When Slaves were Nobles: The Shamsi Bandagan in the Early Delhi Sultanate. vol.
Mohammad Habib also sought to take note of how the territorial fortunes of Delhi Sultanate fluctuated. 278-86.] • Kumar. These comments help develop a critical perspective on how the sultanate chroniclers. the author tries to problematize the idea of territorial changes by moving beyond a simple understanding of expansion and contraction of sultanate control. Puna and Bombay: R. Sunil. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. Hodivala offers interesting insights into how the mawas (usually translated as ‘rebel territory’ or ‘territory under unruly elements’) was mentioned in Persian sources and the problematic ways in which most historians and translators understood it. The idea of rebel territories (mawas) in the contemporary chronicles is interrogated with interesting implications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 226-229.question of various levels of control in different parts of the kingdom. ed. Introduction to Elliot and Dowson's History of India. used the idea of mawas. 123-47. 1974. especially with reference to the rural/urban as well as settled/rebel (mawas) divide. Supplement = Vol.S. 1999. In The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. 31 . In this meticulously researched text. In The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate. Political Geography of Northern India. 1997. Reprinted in Politics and Society during the Early Medieval Period: Collected Works of Professor Habib. 1. • Habib. first half of the 13th century. Territorial Changes and the Political Geography of the Sultanate. In Studies in IndoMuslim History. Proceedings of Indian History Congress. vol. Hodivala and The Popular Book Depot. He proceeded into Mawas. In this seminal piece cited at very places in this bibliography. especially Juzjani. • Hodivala.A. As the title suggests. 1192-1286. S. • Habib. by Sunil Kumar. Muhammad. In the short section mentioned. 84-91. Peter. 58: 206-17. II. Conquest and Settlement. 1957. II. • Jackson. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. Raid. Habib traced the changing political geography of northern India at a time when the control of the Sultans over ‘their’ territories were beginning to be stabilized for the first time. 2007.Nizami. Irfan. K. vol.H. This is a rather conventional and descriptive narrative of territories ‘won’ and ‘settled’ under the sultanate. by Peter Jackson.
] • Jackson. India During the 13th century. • Siddiqui. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Indeed the threat constitutes an important factor in most major studies of the Sultanate politics (Kumar. W. military and defence policies. 1983. This is a brief note on the relationship of the Delhi Sultanate with the Timurids during the Sayyid period.H.H. 18-65 and 224-35. it helps gauge the nature of threat it held out to the sultanate. Islamic Culture.) and even Sultanate economy (Habib). Relations with Rural Chieftains • Moreland. The following list. 103-122. 1999. 1995. Central Asiatic Journal. 1980. Relevant pages are. Reprint. I.H. I. A Rare Farman of Ulugh Beg—New light on Timurid Relations with the Delhi Sultanate”. Peter.W. Proceedings of Indian History Congress. I. Delhi: Kanti Publications. 27: 288-306. Wink. however. 54: 75-90. India in the 13th-14th centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Qarlugh Kingdom in N. 1929.A. • Siddiqui. 1988.Mongol Threat [The threat the Delhi sultanate faced in the 13th century from the newly established Mongol empire in the erstwhile ‘central Islamic lands’ is seen to be an important influence on the sultanate revenue. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. 55: 214-19. 32 . et al. Though this is a general account of politics under Mongol occupation in the region of Afghanistan. Politics and Conditions in the territories under the occupation of Central Asian Rulers in N. This is by far the most direct tracing of the character and magnitude of Mongol threat to the Delhi Sultanate in the 13th and 14th centuries. In Agrarian System of Moslem India by Moreland. Jackson. Chapter II: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries and Appendix C: Some Fourteenth Century Passages. is only of those readings that consider the Mongols and their activities squarely. For a slightly earlier period this piece by Siddiqui is very similar to the one cited above. • Zilli.W.
Historiographically. (See above for comments) • Kumar. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. the author traces a very wide range of relations between diverse political agents in the context of Rana-Malik interactions where not all maliks necessarily acted on behalf of the Sultanate. ed. Irfan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 216241. In Cambridge Economic History of India. In fact. The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History by Jackson. Although the section specified discusses the relationship of the sultanate with the Hindus. Kingship and Authority in South Asia. Delhi: Permanent Black. 11921286. 157-62. vol. 1999. Peter.F. 1982. Growth of Authority over a Conquered Political Elite: Early Delhi Sultanate as a Possible Case Study. The Sultans and Their Hindu Subjects. Reprint. • Kumar. ed. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in The Present in Delhi’s Pasts. the latter is mostly understood by Jackson as tax-paying subjects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ed.The chapter mentioned is a general account of fiscal history under the sultanate while the appendix is a set of excerpts from Persian chronicles with comments by the author. 2002. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Rural Classes. the theme of Sultanate’s relations with locality chiefs runs through the book as an extremely important aspect. 2001. In Partitions of Memory: The Afterlife of the Division of India. • Jackson. Qutb and Modern Memory. 278-95. 33 . Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib. Peter. by Sunil Kumar. Richards. Jackson’s narrative appears quite conservative in this instance. 140-82. 53-60. The latter helps situate the problem of writing a history of Sultanate’s changing relations with the rural chieftains. J. The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate. 1978. 1. Sunil. Interestingly. • Habib. It is difficult to specify places in the book where the problem is ‘separately’ discussed. Delhi: Three Essays Press. 2007. Relevant pages are. • Hardy. In John F. 1-61. Suvir Kaul. 1998. Irfan Habib looks at evidence for a stratified class of peasants from those with privileges to those with the status practically of semi-serf. Sunil. Hardy in the essay examines the problem of the extension of sultanate’s authority over the rural ‘hinterland’. Richards.
according to him. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. Indian Historical Review. • Hardy. Later accounts by Habib and most remarkably Alam (see below. Historians of Medieval India: Studies in IndoMuslim Historical Writing. Relevant pages are.Some Aspects of Muslim Administration. Harbans. Irfan. Hierarchy and Egalitarianism in Islamic Thought. R. Tripathi traced some normative aspects of Turkish kingship. • Habib. 3338. 1981. Especially relevant pages are. Allahabad: Central Book Depot. Louise. The ideas discussed in the 1981 article on Barani’s theory of the history of Delhi Sultanate were elaborated here by Habib. 7: 99-115. • Marlow. Peter. Medieval History Journal. 1966. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The treatment differs considerably from that of Hardy (see above. • Habib. Reprint. Relevant pages are. 2: 19-36.P 1956. Irfan. 117-142. London: Luzac and Company Ltd.[b] Legitimation of Political Authority and Resistance Theories of Kingship in Chronicles and Normative Literature • Tripathi. his normative ideas often found its way into his history in the shape of a theory that was attributed to historical players. Habib also examines Barani’s theory of kingship and its impact on his historiography. Relevant pages are. Alam: 2002) contrasts with Mukhia’s treatment in interesting ways. Peter Hardy discussed Barani’s ideas of kingship and how. 1977. 20-39. most notably Balban. 1999. . Along side considering Barani’s ideas on the theory of history the sultanate. In this brief ‘aside’ in the book. 1976. 1-40. • Mukhia. Hardy: 1966). Zia Barani’s Vision of the State. 1978. This is a descriptive account of Barani’s theory and history. Historians and Historiography during the Reign of Akbar. Barani’s Theory of the History of Delhi Sultanate. 34 .
The Two-and-a-half-day Mosque. 303-314. The Value of Adab al-Mulk as a Historical Source: An Insight into the Ideals and Expectations of Islamic Society in the Middle Period (945-1500). 21645. studies the diverse literary and political contexts of a variety of political ideologies within the Indo-Islamic societies. 18: 57-63. [b] Legitimation of Political Authority and Resistance (contd. Alam in this article. The essay is extremely useful in setting into perspective the problem of writing a singular history of Islamic thought or an essentialist reconstruction of Turkish kingship.The pages specified in the reference above discuss certain historiographical issues in tracing history of Islamic political ideologies. Oriental Art. the author examines articulation of certain normative ideals in Islamic societies and its specific historical context at a time when Delhi Sultanate was yet to find its feet. ed. 1199). • Alam. • Kumar. 22: 307-27. 1985. 1200-1800 by Muzaffar Alam. The pages specified above examine the political ideas of important political thinkers of Islamic world in the 13th through the 15th centuries and highlights the diversity of norms and ideals within the Islamic world. The essay is concerned with how invading cultures interact. Meister elaborates on the use of tradition within the historical processes of conquest and interaction of politically antagonistic cultures. 2002. Delhi: Permanent Black. Michael W. Focusing on the early thirteenth century text. Sharia and Governance in the Indo-Islamic Context. Indian Economic and Social History Review. Sunil. David Gilmartin and Bruce Lawrence. Monica Juneja. In Beyond Turk and Hindu: Rethinking Religious Identities in Islamicate South Asia. 35 . Muzaffar. In The Languages of Political Islam in India c. Histories. • Alam. Doing a case study of the iconic evidence of the mosque at Ajmer (built by Aibak. Contexts. Muzaffar. Chapter 2: Sharia. Akhlaq and Governance. 26-61. New Delhi: India Research Press. 2001. ed. Reproduced in Architecture in Medieval India: Forms.) Imperial Monuments and Coinage • Meister. 2004. 1972. New Delhi: Permanent Black.
ed. As the first royal architectural assemblage. Iran. 2001. 257-67. ed. Contexts. Quran and Tomb: The Religious Epigraphs of Two Early Sultanate Tombs in Delhi. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Asher and G.M. Delhi: Permanent Black. Sunil Kumar. p. 2008. Ghai. Flood examines the aesthetic implications of iconoclasm in the first mosques constructed after the ‘Muslim conquest’ of north India in the late twelfth century. F. Flood. Political Symbolism in Early Indo-Islamic Mosque Architecture: The Case of Ajmer. (see below. American Institute of Indian Studies.S. aesthetic elements and form of the structure. 141-74. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. • Mujeeb. 63) • Welch. 2007. ed. This is another study of the Ajmer mosque focusing chiefly on the location. What crystallized into Indo-Islamic is seen in the harmonious balance of Islamic architectural traditions of purity of line and form and the indigenous sculptural quality of architecture. 1985.• Hillenbrand. 114-27. Islam. In this essay the mosque is designated as ‘a metaphor of domination’. the Qutb complex is the most studied structure of the Delhi sultanate. Hillenbrand interprets the decision to build the mosque on an elevation as a deliberate part of a general policy to exalt the structure and thus the new faith and polity. Muhammad. Anthony. In Demolishing Myths or Mosques and Temples? Readings on History and Temple Desecration in Medieval India. 36 . comprising Delhi’s first congregational mosque. Mujeeb sees in this essay a beginning of a movement towards unity and fusion of two different architectural traditions of the conqueror and the conquered. • Flood. The Qutub Complex as a Social Document. Mujeeb. Originally published in Islamic Influence in India on Indian Society. Finbarr B. This is an analysis of early Sultanate religious epigraphy on the two tombs of Prince Nasir al-din Mahmud and Sultan Iltutmish. 26: 105-117. Meerut/Delhi: Meenakshi Prakashan. Robert.. 1988. Monica Juneja provides a critique of this argument in the introduction to Architecture in Medieval India. 290-300. Delhi: Three Essays Collective. by M. Juneja: 2001. In Architecture in Medieval India: Forms. and the Early Indian Mosque. ed. Iconoclasm. F. B. Monica Juneja. In Indian Epigraphy: Its Bearings on the History of Art. Reprinted in Piety and Politics in the Early Indian Mosque. Histories.
• Wright. 1936. Reprint. H. ed. Taraporevala Sons and Co. spatial and functional aspects of the Qutb mosque. numismatic and chronicles. Histories. Monica Juneja. • Brown. 1943. • Juneja. composition and general character. This is a relatively comprehensive survey of the coins of Delhi Sultanate for their weight. Contexts. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. 37 . 1-84.B. Introduction to Architecture in Medieval India: Forms. London and Delhi: Oxford University Press. Especially relevant are the pages. Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. Juneja sees the complex as a lived social space. 2001. This is a typological survey of Tughluq architecture with added information on architects and pattern of religious epigraphy under various rulers of the dynasty. 76-84. 1-61. Delhi: Three Essays Press. Monica. Percy. Edward. 2001. • Kumar. Suvir Kaul. Indian Architecture: The Islamic Period. Her concern here is how the visual and architectural evidence followed its own logic and the edifice carries a whole host of plurality of meanings to different modes of viewing and perceiving. by Sunil Kumar. 2002. • Thomas. The Coinage and Metrology of the Sultans of Delhi. 1974. Nelson. The Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Delhi. & Howard Crane. 1: 133-66.• Welch A. Kumar looks at the Qutb complex as a site where rival claims to authority were made and where several successive sultans tried to erase the imprint of earlier rulers and to inscribe a claim of their own. Muqarnas. Delhi: Permanent Black. Sunil. Bombay: D. 1967. The Tughlaqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate. This is a useful reference for understanding the sigilla on coins of the period as imperial statements of authority. Laying stress on the iconic. epigraphic. In Partitions of Memory: The Afterlife of the Division of India. ed. 140-82. Reprinted in The Present in Delhi’s Pasts. Qutb and Modern Memory. Delhi: Permanent Black. 1983. The essay is also useful as a study of very different statements that the sultans made through different mediums: architectural.
Eaton. 1978. • Eaton. Richard M. Ram. Metcalf. though not that old.) Sufis. 2002. Digby traces how the Sufis Shaikhs could be a source of authority not only for their successors but also for several political agents. This is an extremely important historiographic intervention in the way history of Sufism was written in the subcontinent. also fall more or less in the same category. In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • • Grover. ed. The Chishti Mystics Records of the Sultanate Period. 711-1750. A History of Sultanate Architecture. 28: 71-81. 333-56. The Sufi Shaykh and the Sultan: A Conflict of Claims to Authority in Medieval India. Reprinted in India’s Islamic Traditions. Mohammad Habib surveyed and provided critical comments on different genres of Chishti texts of the Sultanate period in this early study. The essay opened up interesting ways in which link ‘political’ and ‘cultural’ histories. • Digby. Nath. 1990. He was probably the first person to point to the need for caution in using the texts as sources. • Digby.This old classic is still useful as an early and general survey of architectural trends in what the author called the Islamic period of Indian history. [b] Legitimation of Political Authority and Resistance (Contd. The Sufi Shaykh as a Source of Authority in Medieval India. The following works. 234-62. 1996. 1st edition.. Departing from the usual tendencies to look at the Chishti mystics of the 13th and 14th centuries as merely pious souls. 1986. 2003. 38 . 9: 57-78. Bhaktas and Political Authority • Habib. Barbara D. Berkeley: University of California Press. ed. 1950. New Delhi: Abhinav. 1984. Reprinted in India’s Islamic Traditions. New Delhi: CBS (2nd edition). Mohammad. Purshartha. Simon. the essay examined their claims to authority and situated the conflicts between them and the rulers in the context of these claims. Simon. Satish. Richard M. Islamic Architecture in India. The Political and Religious Authority of the Shrine of Baba Farid. 1: 1-42. Iran. Medieval India Quarterly.
711-1750, ed. Richard M. Eaton, 263-84. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. The essay seeks to examine how a host of political and religious agents could try to draw legitimacy from Baba Farid’s shrine • Kumar, Sunil. 2000. Assertions of Authority: A Study of the Discursive Statements of Two Sultans of Delhi. In The Making of Indo-Persian Culture: Indian and French Studies, ed. Muzaffar Alam, N.Delvoye & Marc Gaborieau, 37-65. Delhi: Manohar. Kumar studied the history of conflict of claims between Alauddin Khalji and Nizamuddin Auliya. Here, instead of focusing on who was right and who was wrong, he tried to examine the texts on either side in terms of their discursive and rhetorical content to underline an ideological contest. • Kumar, Sunil. 2007. Chapter 4: The Ulama and the Emergence of Delhi as the Sanctuary and Axis of Islam in North India. In The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate, 1192-1286, by Sunil Kumar, 192237. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. By focusing on the problems of ethnic diversity and ideological differences, the chapter examines the problems of establishing some degree of homogeneity within Islamic community of Delhi Sultanate. • Habib, Irfan. 1994. The Historical Background to the Rise of the Popular Monotheistic Movements of the 15th and 16th Centuries. Reading Material-3 of Course 6, M.A.(Final), Medieval Indian History, ed. Jyotsana Tyagi, 24-28. Delhi: School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education, University of Delhi. This article tried to establish direct link between the policies of Delhi Sultanate and the rise of monotheistic movements in north India as several new agrarian communities emerged by the late 14th and 15th centuries.
VIII: Society and Economy in North India [a] Geographical Factors; Agricultural Production, Technology
• Habib, Irfan. 1982. The Geographical Background. In The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. I, ed. I.Habib and T.Raychaudhuri, 113. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reprint: Orient Longman, 1991.
This is a general description of geography of the subcontinent, especially north India, as a backdrop to study its history in medieval India. Ideally, it should be read before one starts with unit II in the syllabus. • Moreland, W.H. 1929. Chapter 2: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. In Agrarian System of Moslem India, by Moreland, 21-66. Delhi: Kanti Publications. Reprint, 1988. This is more or less a fiscal history of the sultanate in the period specified. It also carries some observation on patterns of agriculture and occasionally state of technology. • Habib, Irfan. 1982. Agricultural Production. In The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. I, ed. I. Habib and T. Raychaudhuri, 48-53. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reprint: Orient Longman, 1991. Habib traced the patterns of agricultural production primarily as seen and documented by the sultanate chroniclers and from the point of view of a tax collecting state. • Habib, Irfan. 1969. Technological Changes and Society, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Presidential Address, Section II. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 31: 139-161. Reprinted in Studies in the History of Science in India, vol. II, ed. D.P.Chattopadhyay, 1992. (see above for comments) • Singh, Chetan. 1985. Well Irrigantion Methods in Medieval Punjab: the Persian Wheel Reconsidered. Indian Economic and Social History Review, 22: 73-87. Though focusing on Punjab, the essay examines the state of irrigation technology and the way state was implicated in its development. • Khan, Iqtidar Alam. 1977. Origin and Development of Gunpowder Technology in India: 1250-1500. The Indian Historical Review, 4, no. 1. Khan traced the history gunpowder in India and comments upon the state of military technology during the period specified in the title of the essay.
[b] Changes in Rural Society: Revenue Systems
Habib, Muhammad. 1974. Introduction to Elliot and Dowson's History of India vol. II. Reprinted in Politics and Society during the Early Medieval Period: Collected Works of Professor Habib, vol. 1, ed. K.A.Nizami, 33-110. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. (see above for comments)
Habib, Irfan. 1978. Economic History of the Delhi Sultanate: An Essay in Interpretation. Indian Historical Review, 4, 2: 287-303. (see above for comments)
Habib, Irfan. 1982. Agrarian Economy. In The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. I, ed. I.Habib and T.Raychaudhuri, 48-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reprint: Orient Longman, 1991. (see above for comments)
Habib, Irfan. 1984. Price Regulations of Allauddin Khalji – A Defence of Zia Barani. Indian Economic and Social History Review, 21, no. 4: 393-414. Also reprinted in Money and the Market in India: 1100-1700, ed. Sanjay Subrahmanyam, 85-111. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994. Paperback edition, 1998. In this celebrated essay, Irfan Habib stood by most of the elements in Barani’s portrayal of Allauddin Khalji’s strict regime of market regulations and price control. The essay is also useful in understanding Habib’s analysis of rural-urban relations as well as fiscal policies under the Khaljis.
Ashraf, K.M. 1934. Life and Conditions of the People of Hindustan, 1200-1550. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1988 (Reprint). Relevant pages are, 113-124. This was one of the first full length secular history of ‘people of Hindustan’ in medieval India where both the rural and urban society was dealt with.
Moreland, W.H. 1929. Chapter II: The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. In Agrarian System of Moslem India, by W.H.Morland, 2178. Delhi: Kanti Publications. Reprint, 1988. (see above for comments)
[c] Urbanisation: Technology and Non-agricultural Production
Indian Historical Review. ed. I.Chattopadhyay. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. In The Cambridge Economic History of India. Non-Agricultural Production and Urban Economy. Technological Changes and Society. Presidential Address. 1969. pattern and magnitude of urban development under the sultanate. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Reprint: Orient Longman. Reprinted in Studies in the History of Science in India. no. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. II. 1998. Irfan. H. 1974. 1992. Irfan. • Habib. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. • Habib. 1991. 1986. Also reprinted in Money and the Market in India: 1100-1700. vol.Nizami. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House. ed. (see above for comments) • Verma. Dynamics of Urban Life in Pre-Mughal India. 76-92. 4: 393-414. 42 . vol. Section II. 1982. II. relating urbanism to the policies of the state. 1984. 31: 139-161. 21. 33-110. D. As the title of the essay suggests. Introduction to Elliot and Dowson's History of India vol. 4. Irfan.Habib and T. (Also see above for further comments on the essay). Economic History of the Delhi Sultanate: An Essay in Interpretation. it traces patterns of non-agrarian production especially under the patronage of the sultanate and examines certain aspects of the urban economy. vol. [d] Monetisation: Market Regulations. The book provides information on the extent. ed.Raychaudhuri.P.• Habib. Irfan. Muhammad. 2: 287-303.A.C. K. I. 85-111. Reprinted in Politics and Society during the Early Medieval Period: Collected Works of Professor Habib. 1. (see above for comments) • Habib. Trade • Habib. 1978. Paperback edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Indian Economic and Social History Review. Price Regulations of Allauddin Khalji – A Defence of Zia Barani. ed. Sanjay Subrahmanyam. This was the piece where Mohammad Habib first gave his theory of urban revolution in the wake of the establishment of Turkish power in India. 1994.
Sanjay Subrahmanyam. The summary treatment. it is primarily understood in the light of policies followed by the sultans of Delhi. Chapter 4: Market Regulations of Alaud-din Khalji. Leiden: E. • Wink. Cities and Trade. Though not worked out in details. In The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History.N. K. II: The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest. Habib: 1984). 1998. • Ashraf. Introduction to Money and the Market in India 1100-1700. 1934. is a useful historiographic entry into the problem. Paperback edition. though short. U. ed. 1999. The relevant sections in the long introduction critically examine the historiography and provides rich theoretical and comparative perspective for understanding the monetary and commercial aspects of Sultanate economy. 238-54. 1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Paperback edition. 1971. 1994. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. • Day.Brill. the Economy and the Administrative Reform. this is one of the most elaborate treatments of Allauddin’s market regulations as provided by Barani. Relevant pages are. by Jackson. New Delhi: Kumar Brothers.M. The Military. 136-48. 71-87.Day. 11th – 13th Centuries by Andre Wink. 43 . This is an empirically rich account of urbanism and trade during the sultanate period. 1-56.N. Peter. Day’s conclusions however are different from Habib’s and together they make for interesting comparison. 1997. Again. 1988 (Reprint). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. vol. • Subrahmanyam. 8-42. Life and Conditions of the People of Hindustan. Apart from Habib’s. This is an interesting and early Marxist attempt to understand fiscal policies of the Sultanate. Sanjay.J.(see above for comments) • Jackson. its conclusions differ very little from those of Irfan Habib (see above. Nomads. This is a summary treatment of economic and administrative policies mostly of Allauddin Khalji. Andre. In Some Aspects of Medieval Indian History by U. Oxford and New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1200-1550. In Al Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World.
Society. 1: 220-61. 24 (1950): 60-71. this is arguably the most influential work on Sufism during medieval period in India. Simon. 1. 23 (1949): 1321. This is the subject of the study by Qaisar. A.A. 1974. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.J. Culture [a] Sufism: Doctrines. 44 . A History of Sufism. Trimingham provided a broad and general framework for studying Sufi orders. Particularly relevant pages are. Silsilas and Practices [In addition to the ones cited under VII-B (iii) above] • Rizvi.A.S. IX: Religion. The Sufi Orders of Islam. especially war horses. Early Indo-Muslim Mystics and Their Attitude towards the State. 1948-50. War Horse and Elephant in the Delhi Sultanate: A Study of Military Supplies. 1978.A. Indian Historical Review. 1-30.• Qaisar. London: Oxford University Press. • Digby. Digby in this unusual monograph looked at the evidence for trade in military equipments. Islamic Culture. 1971. K. that linked Delhi Sultanate very critically to its involvement in commerce. Chiefly a study of the teachings and practices of Chishti and Suhrawardi Sufis. 22 (1948): 387-98. S. Particularly relevant pages are. In an increasingly monetised economy with a state that claimed the larger share of the primary producers’ surplus. • Trimingham. Karachi: Orient Monographs. the study uses a range of Sufi texts to cull out information about the Sufi saints and their activities. Rich in details and anecdotes. The Role of Brokers in Medieval India. apart from Wink’s. This study has since influenced many works on Sufism in as well as outside of India. 312-21. 23-49. the brokers played an important role both as facilitators of trade as well as the last resort for peasants. It is one of the few studies. 162-70. J. vol. 1971. • Nizami.
Interrogating the medieval genre of tazkira literature in Sufic literary tradition. In The Languages of Political Islam in India c.In this lengthy essay. 1986. Simon. Charlotte.M. 1992. Chapter 3: The Sufi Intervention. Carl. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Nanak and the Sant Tradition [In addition to the ones cited under VII-B (iii) above] • Vaudeville. 62-93. Purshartha. In Eternal Garden: Mysticism. Alam studied Sufi interventions as diverse and broke away from the historiography that always portrayed Sufis as essentially non-political and benign/otherworldly. 81-114. 1999. 1200-1800 by Muzaffar Alam. pp. 2003. The Interpretation of the Sufi Biographical Tradition in India. 9: 57-78. Saints and Legends in Medieval India. ed. Ernst provided useful insights into how different genres worked within accepted norms and structures. 199-257. The introduction provides interesting insights on the historiography of Sufism as it stood then. 711-1750. (see above for comments) Eaton. He also commented upon how it must be an important consideration in the way these texts were to be used by historians. 2004. Richard M. Eaton. Especially useful is the introductory chapter. • [b] Bhakti Movements: Nathpanthis. The study however was uncritically and entirely based on Chishti sources and that leaves its marks on his conclusions. • Ernst. Kabir. • Alam. • Digby. Reprinted in India’s Islamic Traditions. Eaton investigated the Bijapur Sufis’ interactions with local societies. History and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Centre by Carl Ernst. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 234-62. Delhi: Permanent Black. The Sufi Shaykh as a Source of Authority in Medieval India. Sufis of Bijapur: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India 1300-1700. Myths. 45 . R. Sufi relations with the state appear in this account to be complex and multivalent with many different stories to be told. Nizami traced sharply opposed attitude of Chishti and Suhrawardy Sufis towards state. Muzaffar. Albany: State University of New York Press. In this pioneering work. 1978. The study marked a departure in the way it treated its sources and differentiated amongst them. especially.
In this longish introduction. (ii) Charlotte Vaudeville. 191-211. ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Chapter I: Towards a New Perspective. “The Sant in Surdas”.McLeod.H.McLeod. Lawrence. 359-373. 2004. the author examines the state of historiography on medieval Bhakti and attempts to provide a new perspective. New Delhi: Manohar. J. pp. The book is one of the most influential study of Sikh traditions that also reflect upon its multiple legacies and varied historiography. pp. 2005. (v) Bruce B. Paperback edition. "The Development of the Sikh Panth". This book has a number of useful essays by prominent scholars. David N. Apart from the editior’s Introduction that examines the historiography in the field. 1-17.H.D.S. • Lorenzen. Particularly relevant are (i) Karine Schomer. Contesting Interpretations of Sikh Tradition. 1987. Karine & W. Puranic and kavya tradition in Sanskrit as well as vernacular and oral literary traditions to examine the vibrancy of religious processes in middle ages. The Sant Poets of Maharashtra. • Schomer. Hawley.S. "Sant-Mat: Santism as a Universal Path to Sanctity". The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. pp. 229-49. 46 . 1993. Barthwal and Hazariprasad Dvivedi.The novelty of Vaudeville’s study lies in her attempt to look at a wide variety of sources that include epic. • Sharma. pp. pp. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. Bhakti and the Bhakti Movement: A New Perspective. (iii) J. (iv) W. pp. the book also carries two essays on Kabir and the Sants by two of the pioneers in the field. 2002. “The Sant Movement and North Indian Sufis”. "The Sant Tradition in Perspective". Religious Movements in South Asia 6001800. • Grewal. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. 1-38. Particularly useful for the topic at hand is the Part II of the book titled. 21-40. Krishna. namely P.
1997. B. Region and Regionalism in the Study of Indian Politics: The Case of Maharashtra. 23. Pollock relates historical constitution of a region to the emergence of its own language and literature. • Stein. Presidential Address. Darbhanga: Maharajadhiraja Kameshwar Singh Kalyani Foundation.Kulke. Region. and Nation in South Asia: Introductory Note. H. He also pointed to the questionable tendency to resort to regional history only when there is no imperium in sight. In Peasant. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Paperback edition. 195-232.K. London: Curzon Press. 1980. ed. N. • Pollock. This is also reproduced in The State in India. It helps situate the problem as worth academic consideration and departs from the convention of taking a ‘region’ as given. In Images of Maharashtra: A Regional Profile of India. Stein discussed the processes of emergence of South India as a ‘region’ and the problems historians need to watch out for therein. State and Society in Medieval South India. 1983. • Gokahle-Turner. 30-62. Ancient India Section. 1995. Social Scientist. Indian History Congress. 1994. Political Processes and the Structure of Polity in Early Medieval India: Problems of Perspective. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Wagle.UNIT: III X: The "Regions" in Indian History. Sabyasachi. Sheldon. In this famously dense and complex paper. This is a good elementary introduction in the problems of conceptualising different types of ‘region’ and writing their history. 1000-1700. 47 . Jayshree. 44th Session. In this short but useful introduction. He also related it to the idea of a ‘regional community’. Burton.D. Paperback edition. 1997. 10-12: 1-7. Chattopadhyaya also reflected on the question of ‘region’ and the need first to examine the processes whereby a region comes into being before one ventured into regional history. South India: The Region. circa 1200-1550 [a] Historiographical Issues • Bhattacharya. Literary History. • Chattopadhyaya. 1997. 1980.. Reflections on the Concept of Regional History: Kameshwar Singh Memorial Lecture. by Burton Stein. aesthetic choices and political patronage. ed.
• Fuer-Haimendorf. 1977. Khwaja Gurg. Rudolph. The Evolution of Regional Power Configurations in the Indian Subcontinent. travelogues. Simon. Indian Economic and Social History Review. Khwaja Gurg of Kara. Erdman. and hence is useful for the topic X (a) as well. The Historical Value of Indian Bardic Literature. In Historians of India. ed. 1976. Deryck O. Iran. In Realm and Region in Traditional India. A study of the bardic literature chiefly from medieval Rajasthan that seeks to elaborate on how these eulogistic texts could be used by historians. C. This is a study of the anecdotes about a ‘provincial’ Sufi saint. ed. [b] Evidence: Regional Chroniles. Von. • Ziegler. Karine Schomer. 13: 219-50. • Lordrick. Joan L. sufi and bhakti texts.The author studies the emergence of Maharashtra as a region and its varied trajectories in history. • Digby. Rajasthan as a Region: Myth or Reality. Deryck O. In The Idea of Rajasthan: Explorations in Regional Identity. Durham: Duke University Press. C. Digby notes how Kara (in the present day Uttar Pradesh) and its own maverick Sufi saint are central to the lives of people in the small township wherein even the developments in Delhi are seen to flow from the wishes of this provincial mystic. • Schwartzberg. 2001. 48 . The author discusses the historical constitution of Rajasthan as a geopolitical and cultural unit. New Delhi: Manohar. The essay is also useful as a general reflection on the issue of region and regionalism. Norman. 32: 99-109. Pakistan and Ceylon. Joseph. London: Oxford University Press. Schwartzberg was probably one of the first persons to reflect on the complexity of the idea of ‘region’ in Indian history though regional histories were written in India since much before. Lordrick and Lloyd I. 1994.H. Fox. Richard G. Philips. Marvari Historical Chronicles: Sources for the Cultural History of Rajasthan. ed. 1961. Anecdotes of a Provincial Sufi of the Delhi Sultanate. bardic narratives.
XI. • Eaton. The Political and Religious Authority of the Shrine of Baba Farid. Kapur traces the historical rise of a Mewar clan from being ordinary chieftains to sovereign monarchs. such bat. Precolonial India in Practice: Society. 203-24. 2001. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier 1204-1760. • Eaton. In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam. khyat. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • Talbot. Regional Societies and Political Formations – Continuity and Change: [a] Local Societies. Also reprinted in Essays on Islam and Indian History. Barbara Metcalf. 2002. it may also be read as how a local society is ‘constituted’ through its creative dialogical interaction with a fully grown religious system. as historical sources. This is another study that looks at the processes whereby a local society comes to acquire a regional identity through varied cultural and political encounters with multiple ‘others’. California: Berkeley University Press. Region and Identity in Medieval Andhra. Clan Solidarities. Confederations and “Rajput” • Kapur. the study helps understand the varied trajectories of state formation and the making of clan solidarities in Rajasthan. Cynthia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 2002. State Formation in Rajasthan: Mewar during the Seventh-Fifteenth Centuries. Rich in empirical details. Eaton.Although this essay deals mostly with the period after 15th century. etc. Richard M. 49 . Nandini Sinha. it is still useful as an attempt to understand literary genres peculiar to Rajasthan. by Richard M. Delhi: Manohar. Richard M. The essay traces how Baba Farid’s shrine at Ajudhan in the Punjab emerged as an institution that made a transcendental religion meaningful to the local Islamic community both in theory and in practice. 333-56. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1984. 2000. ed. Though this is a study of how eastern Bengal came into contact with Islam and eventually adopted that religion.
[b] Vijayanagar: City. Nayakkattanam and Sirmai in the Vijayanagar Inscriptions in Tamilnadu. P. Kolff: 1990). 1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolff’s study of purabia Rajputs (eastern Rajputs) examines the social processes whereby an occupational group (soldiery) evolves into a status group and eventually constitutes itself as a caste (Rajput). Noboru. Madras: University of Madras. Though now dated it is useful for certain basic pieces of information that later historians in their work assume to be understood. • Mahalingam. Administration and Social Life under Vijayanagar. PIHC. 363-371. Super-regional Power. A Concordance of Nayakas: The Vijayanagar Inscriptions in South India. 1450-1850. unless of course they are challenging such information. 1940. ed. nayaks. 50 . amaram • Karashima. This is a close examination of inscriptions of Vijayanagar with a view to throw light on the institution of nayaks and amaranayaks. Naukar. This article may be read as a critical reflection on the question of the Purabia Rajput that Kolff examined in a slightly different context (see above. Noboru. 1500-1800”. with the latter listing the inscriptions. 29-55) in the first part are of direct relevance for the theme under study. T. 2002. Kingdom. This is a conventional administrative history of the Vijayanagar state.A. 1990. (1999). • Khan. an issue that has become quite controversial in recent historiography. below). I. Rajput and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market in Hindustan. • Karashima.A. Re-examining the Origin and Group Identity of the so-called Purbias. In Recent Advances in Vijayanagar Studies. 1999. Reprint. and Nayaka Rule in North Arcot and South Arcot Districts: Nayakas as Feudal Lords. 928. Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp.• Kolff. 2006.V. Dirk H. The book is divided into two parts: Studies and Concordance. The book is useful for understanding the dynamics of a local peasant society but it is equally relevant as a study of relationship between warfare and society (topic XI-c. 60. The first two chapters (Importance of Nayaka Studies and Their Development: A Critique of Burton Stein. Chennai: New Era Publication. Shanmugam and Srinivasan.
London: Swan Sonnenschein and Co. A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A Contribution to the History of India. 55. Titles. 1993. Paperback edition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • Sewell. In Peasant. 366-488. the chapter specified seeks to elaborate on the place of the Vijayanagar city in the larger scheme of the kingdom. Madras: Oxford University Press. Journal of Asian Studies. The book is written in a general textbook format and is a useful entry point into the topic since most of the later works trace their historiographic journey by referring the Sastri’s work. A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar. 51 . Reprint. Chapter 3: The City and the Kingdom. 1994. Burton. • Stein. As such it carries all the charms and lapses of a classic work! • Stein. The chapter chiefly explores the city’s architectural lay out and certain public rituals conducted therein that microcosmically represented and sanctified the ideological regime. K. Phillip B. As the first historian to have ‘discovered’ Vijayanagar Empire and undertaken a full-length study. • Wagoner. Chapter VIII: The Vijayanagara State and Society. South Asian edition. A new approach to the sultanate aspects of life at the capital. by Burton Stein. Burton. Robert. and the Islamicization of Hindu Culture at Vijayanagara. 4: 851-80. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sultan among Hindu Kings: Dress. State and Society in Medieval South India. by Burton Stein. Sewell’s work has acquired the status of a classic. Nilakanta Sastri’s conclusion held sway for a long time. 3171. Probably the most influential of early historians of Vijayanagar. 1999. Ltd. his study of Vijayanagar as another version of segmentary state has also become controversial. 1955. This long chapter in Stein’s pioneering book was his first major attempt to make a paradigmatic departure on the study of Vijayanagar. 1980. Arguably the most influential of all historians on medieval South India. New Delhi: Foundation Books. 1994.A. Though the whole book is relevant. 1900. 1996. no. In The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagar.• Nilakanta Sastri.
New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Naukar. Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India. Social Stratification and the Vijayanagar Empire 52 . ed. Dirk H. Society and Economy: [a] Expansion of Agrarian Structures. [c] Warfare and Society • Gommans. the first two sections. Explosives and the State: A Technological History. ‘Conquest and Society’ and ‘Military Labour Market’ explore the relationship between warfare and society. 3: 364-98. ed..A. Buchanan. Aldershot: Ashgate Publications Ltd.A. 59th Session. and Dirk H. Banglore. 1450-1850. it does offer useful insights on varied aspects of warfare including its dialogical relationship with changing contours of society. 2006. Iqtidar A. Carla M.In this fascinating study of Vijayanagar rulers’ ceremonial wardrobe and titles. Presidential Address. Wagoner examines the state’s selective appropriation of certain cultural practices associated with the Islamic world. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. A revised version of the article is published in Gunpowder. Rajput and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market in Hindustan. From the Lion Throne: Political and Social Dynamics of the Vijayanagar Empire. no. 2000. Warfare and Weaponry in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. viz. this book primarily deal with a history of firearms. Again. 1000-1800. (See above for comments) • Khan. 2004. 1990. XII. Brenda J. Iqtidar A. The Indian Response to Firearms (1300-1750). Jos J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Sinopoli. Another essay that looks at the ‘Indian’ brush with firearms in the long duration and seeks to explore its implications for political formations and to some extent the subject population. Though some articles in this collection deal with military technology. • Kolff. 43. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. • Khan. Kolff. 51-66. 1997.L. 2001.
• Verghese. Burton. Anila. Religious Traditions at Vijayanagar: As Revealed Through Its Monuments. 1997. and three (Vijayanagar Agriculture in Context) are particularly relevant for the topic under consideration. 1993. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 42: 35-80. 1992. Wagoner: 1996).• Morrison. Man in India. Makes for interesting comparison with Wagonar’s work (see above. Cuttack. New Delhi: Manohar. 1995. Kathleen B. 72-108. Towards a New Formation: South Indian Society under Vijayanagar Rule. Presidential Address: Section of Anthropology and Archaeology. 1995. This book provides an analysis of the history of religious beliefs and practices during Vijayanagar period. Noboru. In The New Cambridge History of India: Vijayanagar. ed. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. by Burton Stein. [b] Peasants. New Delhi: Foundation Books. • Stein. Reprinted in The State in India 1000-1700. chapter one (Agricultural Intensification). This is an analysis of the development of agriculture in the region based on an archaeological survey of the capital’s hinterland. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 2000. 53 . 304-342. two (Agricultural Production in the Vijayanagar Region). Pastoral and Tribal Communities: the Deccan and Rajasthan • Sinha. State Formation and Rajput Myth in Tribal Central India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 4: Political Economy and Society: the sixteenth century. This is a seminal work wherein the specified chapter deals specifically with the relationship between state and society under the Vijayanagar state within the familiar paradigm of ‘segmentary state’. It is based on Karashima’s pioneering effort to classify a large number of Vijayanagar inscriptions across time and space. Hermann Kulke. Forty-Ninth Indian Science Congress. South Asian edition. 1994. 1999. this is primarily a work on Vijayanagar state. Although the whole book is interesting. Paperback edition. • Karashima. ‘Society under Vijayanagar’. Surjit. Reprint. Notwithstanding the subtitle. Reprint. 1962. Fields of Victory: Vijayanagara and the Course of Intensification. it does offer insights on the state’s attempt to relate to the complex society it sought to rule. Yet.
1977. ed. 54 . J. In Cultural History of Medieval India. Shanmugam and Srinivasan. Caste and Kinship in Rajasthan. 52-78. Centres of Production and Market System in Tamil Country. Duke University Press. 27. K. ‘Warfare and Society’ (see above). • Stern. Durham. 1977.I. Also useful for the topic. Norman. • Shanmugam. Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country. Eaton discusses how medieval deccan came to terms with Islam especially with regard to ‘places’ and people. Power in Traditional India: Territory.O. [c] Trade and Urbanisation with Special Reference to South India • Stein. Also reproduced in All the King’s Mana: Paper on Medieval South Indian History by Burton Stein. Richard G. with military practices. This work can be related to some of the arguments made by B. The Articulation of Islamic Space in the Medieval Deccan. Chattopadhyaya in his famous work on ‘Political Processes’ (see Unit I above. Lordrick and L. 1984. ed. • Eaton. Rudolph. among other things.D. 2006. ed. Delhi: Social Science Press. no. Evolution of the Rathore State of Marwar: Horses. The essay throws light on the significance of caste and kinship in territorial organization of authority in medieval Rajasthan. Structural Change and Warfare. P. ed. 2001. Madras: New Era. Meenakshi Khanna. Erdman. This unusual essay by Stein is one of the earliest attempts to write the history of ‘circulation’ of men and means in south India. Richard M. Journal of Asian Studies. Henri. 2. D. Schomer. Burton. The piece offers interesting insight on trading practices and urban processes from the interesting vantage point of a study of ‘circulation’. In The Idea of Rajasthan: Explorations in Regional Identity. P. New Delhi: Manohar. 249-281. Chattopadhyaya: 1983) • Ziegler.This is a rare work on state formation in Tribal India during medieval period. This is another work by a major historian of medieval Rajasthan that explores processes of state formation in Marwar in relation. 2007. In Realm and Region in Traditional India.L. In Recent Advances in Vijayanagar Studies. Chennai: New Era Publication. Fox.
New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Shanmugam and Srinivasan. Land Use and Settlement in the Vijayanagar Metropolitan Region: Results of the Vijayanagar Metropolitan Survey. The third chapter gives as account of the impact of the Portuguese on the existing networks of trade across the Indian Ocean. [d] Indian Ocean Trade • McPherson. The second chapter provides an account of the character of trade across the Indian Ocean. ed. 55 . 2004.Shanmugam focuses exclusively on centres of production and networks of exchange in Tamil region during the period of Vijayanagar rule. 1987. Kenneth. ed.E. • Das Gupta. 1500 C. The Indian Ocean. and Kathleen D. shipping technology and trading communities. Sanjay. In Recent Advances in Vijayanagar Studies. 1986. • Sinopoli. Ashin and M. ed. • Subrahmanyam. 2006. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Particularly relevant are the third chapter (by Genevieve Bouchon and Denys Lombard) and the fourth chapter (by M. The Political Economy of Commerce: Southern India. It highlights the activities of south Asian merchants. Calcutta: Oxford University Press. This is an important reading because it shows the continuities in commercial networks along the coast and the hinterland through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that are crucial in understanding the history of the European presence in the Indian Ocean and its impact on south Asia from the sixteenth century onwards.N. 1993. P. India and the Indian Ocean. The book was also reproduced in the compendium volume Maritime India. Carla M. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.N. the spread of Islam and the impact of Chinese on the Indian Ocean. The first three chapters outline the regional variations with regard to markets. This book provides a very good overview of the Indian Ocean in the centuries before c. Pearson. The former entitled ‘the Indian Ocean in the Fifteenth Century’ is a systematic study of regions that provides a brief overview of trading networks across the Indian Ocean. 1500-1650. Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Chennai: New Era Publications. Pearson). Morrison. Pearson’s piece provides an insight into the politics of trade in the sixteenth century focussing on the impact of the Portuguese ‘estado’ in Indian Ocean. This is an interesting collection of essays. 1500-1800.
In Myths. 33-50. 2002. 1999. Indian Reprint. ed. outside the period of our syllabus) this essay is useful as a secular history of the complex relations the famous temple came to have with the ‘Muslim’ regime. Vol. 1750. Though the so-called Muslim rule started in Orissa only in 1568 (i. (iii) Warkari Movement and Cult of Vithoba in Maharashtra. N. • Ramaswamy. Religion. (ii) Jagannath Cult in Orissa. by Charlotte Vaudeville. • Kulke. 1982. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. In The Cambridge Economic History of India c. Saints and Legends in Medieval India.• Digby. The chapter explores the changing status of women within the Warkari panths during middle ages. Pandharpur: City of Saints. The Maritime Trade of India. Jagannath Revisited: Studying Society. New Delhi: Manohar. This is an extremely interesting chapter in a very well researched book. 1200-c. In Walking Naked: Women. Women ‘Out’: Women within the Warkari Panths. Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib. Simon. Jagannath under Muslim Rule. Medieval Bhakti Movements in India. XIII. 56 . by Hermann Kulke. New Delhi: Manohar. Hermann. I. Chapter 6: Women ‘in’. Society. 1984 and 1991. Religion and the State in Orissa. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. • Kulke. This book has a large number of useful essays that explores various facets of the history of Jagannath cult and temple. • Bhattacharyya. Society. Vijaya. Charlotte. Culture [a] Religious Cults and Regional Identities: (i) Vaishnavite Movement in Eastern India. • Vaudeville. 1997. In Kings and Cults: State Formation and Legitimation in India and Southeast Asia.e. Hermann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993.N. Spirituality in South India. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. 1989. New Delhi: Orient Longman. The essay explores the history of the sacred pilgrimage site of Pandharpur by analysing interesting and contending mythologies that invest it.
57 . Vijaya. University of California Press. 25. Although the whole book is useful. Nancy. Laldey. 1992. [b] Patriarchy. Mirabai. Berkeley. New York: Oxford University Press. of particular relevance are Chaper 4 (Bride. Spirituality in South India. Mirabai: Inscribed Text. • Sangari. Religion and Rajput Women: The Ethics of Protection in Contemporary Narratives. John Stratton. Embodied in Life. Fall 1995. 310-14). The relevant ones are: Vaisnavism in Medieval Orissa (by Prabhat Mukherjee. 241-70). Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. 1996. It helps set up the broader theoretical framework for understanding Mira’s historical context. Kumkum. Economic and Political Weekly. This is a short and complex essay that looks at the ‘structures’ of Mira bhakti in terms of its familiar and familial tropes and the limitations that these might have put on the radical potential of her bhakti. Chapter 5 (Rebels-Housewives: Women in Virsaivism) and the epilogue. Demoness. Mira • Ramaswamy. ed. In Vaisnavi: Women and the Worship of Krishna. • Martin. 1990. 1997. 23240). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Lindsey. This is a general work on the politics of patriarchal protection for women within Rajput culture. Walking Naked: Women. Sankaradeva and Assam Vaisnavism (by Satyendranath Sarma. Acharya.This is a collection of essays on medieval bhakti that deals mostly with bhakti movements in various parts of the subcontinent. The book examines gender inequality and examines issues of women’s sexuality and salvation as well as emergence of spirituality as a powerful form of female self-expression. ed. John Stratton Hawely and Mark Juergensmeyer. Mirabai and the Spiritual Economy of Bhakti. Society. Steve Rosen. The Bhakti Movement of Assam in Historical Perspective (by N. 27: 1464-1475. In Songs of the Saints of India. no.) The essay takes a close look at the relationship between Mira’s compositions and her life. (Originally published in the Journal of Vaisnava Studies.N. Gender Relations and Women Bhaktas: Mahadevi Yakka. • Hawley. 1988. Other: Women in the Early Devotional Movements in South India). • Harlan.
128-49. In Essays on Islam and Indian History by Richard M. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 2004. These include Mirabai. 1995. • Harlan. Muzaffar Alam. Abandoning Shame: Mira on the Margins of Marriage. • Khan. Madhu. Khan explores the role of the Rishis/Sufis at the local level. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. In From the Margins of Hindu Marriage. 129-47. The article was reproduced in Religious Movements in South Asia 600-1800. 10th Anniversary Special Volume. ed. In The Making of Indo-Persian Culture: Indian and French Studies. 2000. Lal Dey and Akka Mahadevi. Muhammad Ishaq. Anecdotes of a Provincial Sufi of the Delhi Sultanate. The confessional legacies of the Rishi movement have been famously ambivalent.Hawley’s work helps us get an intimate glimpse of Mira’s compositions. and the role of Sufis whose close interactions with local societies is shown to be dialogical. Francoise ‘Nalini’ Delvoye. New York: Oxford University Press. Who are the Bengal Muslims? Conversion and Islamization in Bengal. Iran. 50-52. 1994. The Rishi Movement as a Social Force in Medieval Kashmir. Manushi: Women Bhakta Poets. ed. Lindsey. Courtright. ed. Simon. This is an extremely important work on expansion of Islam in Bengal. 32: 99-109. This is another essay that explores the issue of shame and protection for a woman who dared to challenge the institution of marriage. Lorenzen. Richard M. David N. 2000. (see above for comments) 58 . 1989. • Digby. [c] Sufis and Local Societies • Eaton. 1989. Though this special issue of Manushi contains frequent typographical errors. New Delhi: Manohar. both as specialists in spirituality as well as in ‘ordinary’ matters of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ conduct. Lindsey Harlan and Paul B. ed. Antal. nos. Khwaja Gurg of Kara. Paperback edition. it carries valuable accounts of the life and works of some outstanding rebel women in Indian history during the period 6th to 17th century. 2005. • Kishwar. Eaton.
Malwa. Sultanate Architecture of Pre-Mughal India. This is a general survey of not only architecture of Delhi Sultanate under various dynasties but also for various ‘regional’ sultanates. 1978. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This is probably one of the earliest and most sophisticated work on how in medieval deccan. Architecture and art of Southern India: Vijayanagar and the Successor States. Ghulam. George and Mark Zebrowski. • • Yazdani. This is a useful reference for a history of art and architecture under the deccan sultantes including the Bahamanid and its successor states. This is by far the most comprehensive treatment of the monuments of Vijayanagar empire. 1995. Abhijit Gupta & Swapan Chakravorty. The New Cambridge History of India.K. 1999. 59 . Sind and the Punjab. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chanderi and Khandesh. A Table Laden with Good Things: Reading a Fourteenth Century Sufi Text. the Sufis’ came to play an important role for a variety of constituencies of non-Muslims as well as Muslims. Decann under the Bahamanids. Oxford: University Press. Deccan under the successors of the Bahamanids as well as Kashmir. The New Cambridge History of India. • Michell. ed. Mandu: The City of Joy. Jaunpur.S. P. The article explores the way a 14th century Firdausi Sufi came to occupy a position of both spiritual and secular authority among the Muslims of Bihar. 2005. Sufis of Bijapur: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India 1300-1700. There are separate chapters on Bengal. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. Ranikhet: Permanent Black. [d] Consolidation of Regional Identities: (i) Regional Art and Architectural Forms • Merklinger. rich both in empirical details as well as in perspectives on how to read them. R. George. Gujarat. • Jha. 2008. 3-25. E. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates. 1929. In Book History in India: Moveable Type. Michell. It does so by examining the complex process of the apparently social production of a Sufi text.• Eaton.M. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
2001. India in the Vernacular Millenium: Literary Culture and Polity. Perween. Contexts. Relevant part is Chapter XV (‘Language and Literature’). R. In Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation. Sharma considers the issue of the emergence of regional languages and literature. The relevant pages in the above mentioned edition are 35-38. n. V. predictably from the vantage point of processes of feudalisation.• Hasan. Delhi: Permanent Black. 87-94. • Sharma. through several pages. • Pollock. Wolfgang Schluchter and Bjorn Wittrock. ed. In this seminal work. Dallapiccola and S. Though largely descriptive. ed. This is a collection of very interesting research papers on the issue of language and literature in what Pollock in his introduction calls the ‘Vernacular Millenium’.S. 1000-1500. Delhi: Orient Longman. 1995. Special issue of Daedalus. 1993. 297-397. 2001. Sharma. Lallemant eds. Narayan Rao and Pollock. Nos. Monica Juneja. Pollock famously outlined his idea of the second Christian millennium as a ‘vernacular millennium’ wherein languages that did not travel very far came to acquire their own grammar and literature across Asia and Europe. 3: 41-74. Histories. Nagaraju. 23. Social Scientist (Special Issue). 10-12. 1. 127. this long chapter on language and literature helped collate some basic pieces of information on the development of regional languages and literature. 439-47. (ii) Beginning of Regional Literature • Majumdar. First published in Anna L. History and Culture of the Indian People: The Struggle for Empire. Sheldon. Z. R. 16-44. Islam and Indian Regions. ed.S.C.d. Temple Niches and Mihrabs in Bengal. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. • Sheldon Pollock. 1998. Although the essay is a general reflection on the question of transition from ancient to medieval. In Early Modernities. Transition from Ancient to Medieval. Particularly relevant are the essays by S. ed. Its theoretical grid has since been questioned but it is still useful for putting together so much relevant information together. vol. In Architecture in Medieval India: Forms. by R. Shmuel Eisenstadt. 60 .
Breckenridge. Tamil. 61 . Sheldon. especially by way of problematizing the binary juxtaposition of cosmopolitan and vernacular. Special Issue of Public Culture.) and the vernaculars (Telugu. etc. Bengali. 12. Marathi. The Cosmopolitan Vernacular. The article investigates the complex inter-relationship between the ‘cosmopolitan’ languages (Sanskrit. Sheldon. Persian. 1: 6-37. In Cosmopolitanism. The Journal of Asian Studies. C. 3: 591-625. Cosmopolitan and Vernacular in History.) during the medieval period. et at. etc. 2000.• Pollock. ed. 57. • Pollock. This essay qualifies some of the arguments made by Pollock in his Daedalus article cited above. A. 1998.
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