LINGUISTIC INNOVATIONS IN THE JEJEMON PHENOMENON _______________________________________

A Final paper For the fulfillment of the requirements For the course LING 205N Sociolinguistics

By Cacha, Sweet Kristel N. Tubac, Angelo O.

May 2010

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale of the study Language changes constantly. The way we communicate to express our ideas and thoughts is evolving with time. At this modern era, people convey their message through different media and in different forms. Recent technological improvements pave the way for language innovation. One of which is the computer – mediated communication. Computer networked exchange, facilitate – Mediated It Communication is the (or (CMC) by is defined people as any

communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more computers. and process which using decoding make, that perceive system information non-networked and networked messages.

telecommunications

computers)

encoding,

transmitting

(http://www.december.com/cmc/study/center.html) Technology 2008) Tiempo often enhances points and out reflects that the rather fast than of

precipitating linguistic and social language. (Taglimonte and Denis (2006) also growth technology has brought many changes in the language of the people. Communication which occurs within a computer-mediated format has an effect on many different aspects of an interaction. establish or maintain connections with others. It Facebook, a also gives social network site, allows individuals to present themselves, and opportunities for users to express themselves innovatively. One of the noticeable language innovations is the jejemon phenomenon, which most Facebook users employ.

messages. due opportunities linguistic innovations become possible. this study is conducted to examine the morphological transformations employed by the users of the jejemon phenomena and to describe the patterns depicted in these jejemon style of writings. a jejemon is someone who has managed to subvert the English language to the point of incomprehensibility. Theoretical Background Developments in electronic instrumentation and computer science have already altered the way we look at the language (Crystal. Consequently. Yates (1996).com. Thus. generation) Facebook. The jejemon phenomena have varying impact on the way users of Facebook interact with one another. says that a new medium of communication such as the Internet does not only draw upon existing practice. this type of writing has been very popular to the younger generation. but also generates new forms of . of have been As a result. and the Department of Education has expressed their disapproval to this phenomenon. It is the interest reported in the of the researchers to further understand this phenomenon since it national television network. It is a term to describe those individuals who have developed their own language and written text. The electronic age has changed for our ways to of the transmitting advancement have and of delivering technology. the widespread particularly use of these by computer-mediated influenced occurrences although there have been different responses to this kind of phenomenon.Many people in the online communities in the Philippines are experiencing the jejemon phenomena. has been printed in the national newspapers. however. users (mostly the younger communication. as mentioned in Gao (2008).1995). linguistic practices. According to the UrbanDictionary.

In today’s era of advancements. the use of Facebook. As "SMS language" developed where shortened in order to fit the 160-character limit. communication is mediated through technology.Tagliamonte and Denis‘s (2008) study on Computer – Mediated Communication (CMC) points out that CMC language is on the forefront of linguistic change and ongoing processes of linguistic changes are currently under way in the speech community in which teenagers live. These linguistic innovations are usually prompted by the use of CMC. has been a type of short messaging words are service in which each text message is limited to 160 characters. Certain transformations in the use of language are inevitable and can occur due to the limitations of the medium of interaction. as the such who are are more exposed and to technological in by their their such internet. sounds. The changes of the language use by the younger generations are noticeable not only in the way they speak but also in their written communication. According to Tecson (2008) “transformations may result in language styles”. in this study. for interaction public. blogs. which allows users (mostly teenagers) to be dynamic. This combines several available private videos. which can include text. including and one-to-one and messages. create accepted innovations shared innovations speech community. These . vivid and creative especially in the use of language. This manner of communicating is also prevalent in social websites such as Facebook. Facebook bulletin board is a medium messages. an One example is texting. channels for interacting with other users. Teenagers use among themselves these ongoing linguistic processes especially in computer-mediated communication format. Facebook is an example of a growing number of websites dedicated to social networking. images. a result. or private profile pages. advancements language and Teenagers. As one form of CMC format.

mixture of Words are created by rearranged and our letters in a word. 2010 when an internet post showing a fake poster of Binay labeled as “Jejemon Binay”. called Jejenese.com accounts different users. over-usage of the letters H. The post indicated that he was the Jejemon's preferred vice presidential candidate. The jejemon style of writing originated from short-handed typing through the short messaging service. Their alphabet. is derived from English. Later the use of word Jejemon to refer such people made rounds in various Filipino internet message boards. X or Z and numeric characters normal alphabet . captured the attention of many on April 14. uses the Roman alphabet. mutilply. the jejemon style is often visible in the different walls of the Facebook users. The Jejemon phenomenon from began in the different Facebook and it multiple. including the Arabic numerals and other special characters. and etc. alternating capitalization. One among the many innovations in language styles is the jejemon style of writing. The language of the Jejemons.com. Jejemon is defined by Urban Dictionary as one who has managed to subvert the English language to the point of incomprehensibility and who has developed their own language and written text. In Facebook. Jejebet. Consequently. This jejemon phenomenon is a style of writing shared among many teenagers in some social networks like Facebook. Filipino and their code-switched variant Taglish.transformations are evident in the language used by the jejemon extremist. where they made comments about the post of their friends and usually this will lead into a thread of conversation.

or marks to show omission. e. and2 ‘nandito’) Another modification is phonological substitution which is the use of graphemes to represent fricatives “x” and “c” and closely similar to clipping and novel spelling. characters of pasenxa ‘pasensya’ .h8‘hate’.ndi ‘hindi’) Next is the letter a word with the use of letters and numbers. (e.. One morphological transformation is clipping and novel spelling which is the dropping of sounds and replacement of letters is with sounds similar to those that are deleted. The shorter the expressions are made. :( for Moreover.(wikepedia.g. the more stylish the writer is (e.com). Crystal (2001) as cited in Claros(2009) asserts that new forms of communication have triggered an evolution in concepts such as a . + numbers to represent words which is the changing of some of the (e.g. use used uses of to of morphological transformations are not only restricted with the use words letters The unconventional marks is punctuation gAga Ba marks. Such stylistic expressions may involve morphological transformations.g nmn ‘naman’.g “:) for a smiling face or a of sad face. overuse ) punctuation the emphasize intensity of feeling of the user. y U mAke me fil xo wiD yaH. In addition. It is used for the omission from an expression of a word clearly implied. (e. a pause. transformation can also include omission or shortening of an entire word or words. and They are used but to also convey with of one’s the feelings. the use of period is not. Formulaic expressions are a feature in which the style of one’s writing is determined on how one can turn an expression into a more stylish way. Ellipsis is the use of the period three times within or after the sentence.!!!???!! Although multiple punctuation marks are considered unusual. According to Tecson (2008). aQ ‘ako’)Emoticons are also included in which non-words or symbols are used to communicate meanings. morphological transformations are the changes that a word undergoes.g.

ellipsis 2. environment communities social friends years matter exploded the networks only no communicate physical location but also pave the way for linguistic innovations to take place. phonological substitution d. questions: 1. What types of morphological transformation are found in the selected computer – mediated communication as mentioned by Tecson (2008)? a. have to Facebook in recent not and other create a mediated in or virtual time communication popularity. formulaic expressions f. What are the noticeable patterns in the jejemon style of the study seeks to answer the following writings? . Statement of the Problem This study intends to describe and analyze the phenomenon of Jejemon in different Facebook accounts. Specifically. clipping and novel spelling b.spoken and written These for language. emoticons/ emotext e. letters + numbers to represent words c.

. The conclusions made are only isolated to the context of this study. Other generalizations may not be suitable to conclude for the entire attributes of the jejemon phenomenon. that they may find relevance or difference of their study to this study. To the teachers that they may become aware of the effects of jejemon to the characteristics of spoken and written aspects of communication and also its educational implications To the future researchers that they may realize and appreciate that features of such language transformation may make way to new ideas for future studies that may further expand the studies made on CMC.Significance of the Study This study would be beneficial to the following: To the students who major in Applied Linguistics and other areas of language study that may acquire data done locally for future studies concerning language innovations. Limitations of the study This study is conducted for only a very limited length of time. To the linguists whose studies are focused language innovations and various sociolects. because of time constraints only 12 posts were collected to identify the morphological transformations and the patterns prevalent in the phenomenon.

The data was tabulated in order to get the frequency and the percentage of the . It aims to describe and analyze the morphological transformations and the noticeable patterns in the jejemon style of writings in different Facebook accounts. The data gathered are classified and categorized according to its morphological transformation category. analysis. After the occurrences were identified.Research Methodology This study is qualitative in nature. frequency the and substitution. The researchers conducted the study by identifying the jejemon occurrences in the different Facebook accounts. Textual analysis was also done to further explain the noticeable patterns of jejemon writings. The researchers looked into the different walls of different Facebook users to identify the jejemon occurrences. Research Data Twelve posts of jejemon phrases in different Facebook accounts are used as the corpus of the study. These posts + were analyzed to in order to identify the different morphological transformations like clipping novel spelling. Treatment of Data. emoticons/ emotext. ellipsis. After the gathered were percentage of tabulated in the total order to occurrences identified morphological transformation. Research Procedure Gathering of Data. Twelve and posts were seen. phonological expressions. data the letters and numbers represent words. formulaic noticeable get of the the other word formations. The patterns of the jejemon writing were also considered. the corpuses were analyzed according to the morphological transformations and the noticeable patterns in the jejemon style of writings.

Additionally. . An analysis was also done to explain the noticeable patterns of the jejemon phenomenon. Facebook is a social networking website launched in February 2004 and operated and privately owned by Facebook. and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. deliberately exaggerate ordinary words by adding or subtracting letters. Anyone over the age of 13 can become a Facebook user (http://en. The website's name stems from the colloquial name of books given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the US with the intention of helping students to get to know each other better. Unconventional use of letters is the exaggerated and extravagant use of letters to the extent that it will draw confusion to the readers. Inc.occurrences of the morphological transformations. DEFINITION OF TERMS Jejemon phenomenon is defined in this study as young people who are part of the subculture. by using a mixture of capitalized and not capitalized letters in words. and even adding numbers.wikipedia. users can join networks organized by workplace. especially those who do not belong to the same sub-culture.org/wiki/Facebook) Capitalization in this study refers to the writing of a word as a majuscule (upper-case letter). Users can add friends and send them messages. school. or college.

specifically.34% 2. and to mark hesitation. the ellipsis received the highest percentage of 40. were described. the formulaic expression which is used to emphasize the content words was not seen in any of the 12 corpuses.CHAPTER 2 PRESENTATION. patterns prevalent also analysis and interpretation of data based on the results collected transformations and phenomenon. morphological transformations from different accounts. morphological in the of jejemon the This presentation.21% wherein it is used to denote an unfinished statement. Over-all Morphological Transformations Morphological Transformation Clipping and Novel Words Letters and Numbers to Represent Words Phonological Substitution Emoticons / Emotext Formulaic Expressions Ellipsis Total Frequency 35 10 11 2 0 39 97 Percent (%) 36.21% 100 % As shown in Table 1. On the other hand. Clipping and Novel Words . Table 1.06% 0 40.31% 11. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This Facebook on the study aims to describe chapter and deals analyze with the the linguistic features.08% 10. to indicate deleted material. style In of writing the noticeable other – found addition. features jejemon jejenese.

E.g. they can still be understood when read.g. it'S harD 2 piCk uP d piEceS oF my liFe…. Clipping was characterized by the omission of some letters. This was normally done to come up with a speedy and easy way of relaying the message. jaz aDD me uP" Phonological Substitution .Occurrences of clipping and use of novel words are frequently used in the data. pa EPAL. Although the words were shorter. usually vowels.. 1. LIARS and anything na mga BAD ATTITUDE 2. pra wlng awai eh di wlang paki alamanan !! 3. This type was often employed for the convenience on the part of the users.. gS2 p0wh nMiNG luMbz sA amInG Outer shelL P0wh ~ We wnT 2 reVeal ~ 2 D world HU WE wnt 2 BE ~ P0wh. Novel words were characterized by replacement of letters with sounds to those that are deleted. Letters and Numbers to Represent Words Another feature evident in the data was the use of numbers and letters to represent words. 1.. "dont lyk pipol hu r very: PLASTIKS. There were no specific factors that were found to justify the use of such features. (Huh? Who?)!!! "and if u want me to ur friend. teaqa aa|Lisz atou d2 mena weak and2 auco tsa mena weak 2. Tiempo (2006) and Tecson (2008) pointed out that these features were used for time saving reasons. E. Letters and numbers were usually substitutes for words that have similar sounds. like hu r vry gud. veRy complicated 3.

:P was used to tease and :) .. In this study... In order to save time.. !!hmp!!WTF Ellipsis . xkul. 11 maluluxaw nua laat nan mena anti-jejemon/jejebuster !!:P 2. there were no observable occurrences of formulaic expression that took place. Facebook users minimize the usage of excessive use of words by simply substituting the words that can be represented by a single sound symbol.g.g. LIARS and anything na mga BAD ATTITUDE Emoticon Emoticon is used to convey one’s feelings with the use of nonwords or symbols.eh care nio jejemon na an gagamitin qchu 3. "dont lyk pipol hu r very: PLASTIKS. 2.. expressing using the emoticons or special symbols to describe one’s feeling and facial expression essential preferred communication and the mood of the participant. Since facebook users is cannot talk face-to-face and on the for internet.. to express a happy mood. 1.den s outside n.Phonological substitution which is the use of graphemes to represent similar sounding letter/s is also noticeable in the data. i pRoTeCT my fRieNdS. E. E.. This was not frequently used in the data. For this case.aNd pRoTeCt YoUrs :) Formulaic Expresssions Formulaic Expressions occur when function words are dropped to give more importance to content words. pa EPAL. psenxa na ha !! qng maxadong OVER an JEJEMON !!. This feature is similar to clipping and novel spelling. TAMAAA ! c kua LUCKY.

These insertions made the words very complicated and no definite position inserted numbers and letters. is derived from English. pointed out that speakers made use of the ellipsis in beyond its traditional to mark within or indicate material. Jejebet. it'S harD 2 piCk uP d piEceS oF my liFe…. Hacker(2003)as cited in Raclaw(2006) in his study ways on that Ellipsis went deleted as a Discourse Marker uses in Computer-Mediated writing: to to Communication.g. uses called Jejenese.Ellipsis is the repetitive use of period. Filipino and alphabet.. hesitation. This feature is the most used in the data.kk?? JEJENESE The Their language of the Jejemons. Ellipsis is also used as a conjoining marker and as a pragmatic marker to separate textual play (Raclaw. . YoU MuZ ReMEmBeR eVeRYtHinGs hAs a reasons . veRy comPlicaTed . buT noT noW.. Insertion of unnecessary numbers and letters It was observed all through out the corpus that jejemons inserted explicit unnecessary pattern as numbers to the and letters in writing of their posts... The following are the observed characteristics of jejenese: 1. 1.. their code-switched the Roman variant Taglish. overusage of the letters and mixture of numeric characters and our Roman alphabet (wikipedia. alternating capitalization.com) The data consisted of words that do not follow the conventional style of writing.. Words are created by re-arranging letters in a word. mild jejemon lharn aman an gmit qchu !!. 4. suggest unfinished thoughts.. DoNt ! DArE mE COz YoU DoNt knOw wHaT CaN I dO 2. 2006) as in the case of this study. alphabet. including the Arabic numerals and other special characters. E.

phfue b.. psenxa na ha !! qng maxadong OVER an JEJEMON !!.qCkEimUsXztUaHqCkeYuOeh???? . They were used to express emotions and/or emphasis...maganda ako’ 3.. Unconventional use of punctuations Punctuations like question marks and exclamation points were the ones used in an exaggerated manner.. aqchu c. mHEii or p0w ‘po’ ‘me’ or aq0uh ‘ako’ 2. mAdAnDa aqEw ‘sabi ko naman.... or The otherwise.a. using substitutions of other characters.. Unique orthography based on how the words sound One of the distinctive characteristics of jejenese is its unique approach to orthography. kamusta na kayo?’ b.. use of to represent a letter or letters and numbers closely resemble (to varying degrees) the sound for which they stand.. eHyUoeW fPuoEh .. sVi qEw nAMn. In this case. a.. letters in letters a word.! ShH3EehtTh…! ‘ pati ako nawawal….. eHyUoeW fPuoEh .. Shit…!’ c. qCkEimUsXztUaH qCkeYuOeh???? ‘hello po..pra wlng awai eh di wlang paki alamanan !! cguro nmn naiintindihan nio an type quh ??!!. a. PhAtTtii AhcKQeOWh nHaAHhhAaWhAhH. ahm. “hello” is spelled as eHyUoew or in other cases “eow” and a variety of similar-sounding derivatives. TAMAAA ! kua LUCKY. b...

. bzt4h b. d aQ mAartE!(pWerA LnG iF tiNO2pAk aQ!) c. Alternate use of lower and upper case The combination of the lower and upper case letters is another characteristic pattern as to of a jejenese. tnx pfowh jejeje b. TAMAAA ! c kua LUCKY. psenxa na ha !! qng maxadong OVER an JEJEMON !!. In this case. a. Numbers to substitute letters Replacement of letters with numbers is distinct to jejenese. WE wnT 2 BE~ P0wh. maluluxaw nua laat nan mena antijejemon/jejebuster !!hmp!!WTF !!:P c.. aj3j3j3 . Jejemons tend to substitute letters with numbers that relatively look similar.. a. n0h? b. AnD becaUSE Of tHIZ. denoting laughter. the Spanish spelling of “hehe”.~ 0L D~ 0THEr JeJEm0nZ Came AWTz 2 P0whz. g34hin ‘basta’ ‘ajejeje’ ‘gayahin’ 5. The “hmp!” indicated irritation or annoyance and lastly “ajujuju” indicating fake sadness or tears due to the smiley face that comes after it. a. use of the There lower was and no upper particular the case letters. ajujuju :) .4. 6. c. Use of onomatopoeic lexis/emotional language Most of the emotional language of the jejenese comes from “jeje”. letter A to number 4 and letter E to number 3. iSNT iT gREaT.

qumaqayhat c. χ. α.7. waq ‘mag’ ‘gumagaya’ ‘wag’ Aside from the previously stated attributes which were also stated in the prior studies of Tecson (2008). It is usually employed for aesthetic appeal. maq b.. β. These eight characteristics made the jejemon phenomenon distinctive from the rest of the other styles of writing that had emerged. Substitution of spelling Jejemons change the spelling as long as it looks like the original word. It could represent sustained utterance of the speaker in order to catch the hearer’s attention.. TAMAAA ! c kua LUCKY. so the lines and loops of letters and numbers are exploited. . a. Lengthening of vowels and consonants The lengthening of letters also illustrated emphasis. there were eight observed characteristics which are identified in this study. Kayo ang nagpapababa ng kahulugan ng pagiging rocker 8. This leads to the relentless popularity of jejemon in the different schools. Ayuneeeee! Ops.. wala akong sinabi.! Tsssssssss..

These were: a. emoticons/ emotext. c. e. language of jejemon. this study might serve as a useful tool for future researchers whose field of concentration is of similar nature. Summary of Findings The the purpose of this the other study was to describe and analyze the phenomenon of Jejemon in different Facebook accounts. Insertion of unnecessary numbers and letters. the conclusions drawn from the findings and recommendations based on the results relevant to this study. Alternate use of the lower and upper case letters. phonological substitution. c. Substitution of spelling. clipping words. Lengthening of vowels and consonants and lastly. Numbers to substitute letters.CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. and novel spelling. b. Specifically. Unique orthography based on how words sound. h. the researchers came up with the following findings: . Based on the gathered data. f. formulaic expressions and f. The morphological transformations included in the study were: a. ellipsis. + numbers to represent e. Use of onomatopoeic lexis/emotional language. d. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the findings gathered in the study. Distinct features of jejenese were also evident in the data. Unconventional use of punctuations. g. letters d. Likewise. b. study determines and different features morphological distinct to transformation jejenese – the (Tecson 2008).

the parameters to be considered a jejemon are still unclear. In fact. Conclusion Based on the findings of the study. The common notion about jejemons is that they are inferior in intelligence. are distinct to the jejenese. insertion and. Unlike texters who found it tiring to compose complete words and found it easier to shorten their text. There are countless ways to spell words and sentences—breaking them apart. which dominated in the data. However. jejemons do otherwise. to catch attention. the following generalizations may be stated: The Morphological Transformation evident in jejenese were not necessarily employed to provide convenient facility of the language. Most of the features emotion. These morphological transformations did not time-saving techniques unlike the SMS language.The linguistic various morphological demonstrated transformations were employed show illustrated to any convey the one’s linguistic innovations that existed in the jejenese. the Manila Standard Today online article by Ed Biado . Jejenese is characterized by exaggerated aesthetics incorporated in textual representation. mixing English and Filipino. Other linguistic features. or to express creative flare. the jejemon language has no defined rules or patterns. They are distinguished solely by the way jejemons (users of jejenese) construct written words and sentences. is characterized by addition. compounding them. Because of insufficient knowledge on the phenomenon.where the manner of jejenese writing originated. exaggeration of the use of the characters. Jejemon writing – jejenese.

especially those that were not found in this study. 3.jejemons are individuals with low IQ. jejemons inferior intellect (“.com. language mirrors the reality of that society that will also undergo transformation. science high schools and some of them are even on the honor roll. Future researchers can contemplate and do further research on other linguistic innovation phenomena evident in computer-mediated communication. However. Interested researcher of Jejemon phenomena may also consider a large number of corpuses in order to further understand the other features.pointed expressed out in that .. Gao (2007) pointed out that when the society changes. especially when used repeatedly in extensive amounts. Recommendation These are the researchers’ recommendations based on the study conducted: 1. 2. there are many like the English teachers.”). are especially not of those urbandictionary. who believe that indulging in jejemonism impairs the youth’s language skills. Nevertheless. BIBLIOGRAPHY . There should also be an avenue for research on other networking sites (another research environment).contrary to some beliefs.. The rapid development of Internet communication has created a huge impact on the language.. They exist in exclusive schools..

Biado.dukejournals. The Cambridge Encyclopedia Language. The jejemon phenomenon.2010 from http://americanspeech. Cebuano-english code-switching. No. Linguistic Ruin? LOL! Instant Messaging and Teen Language.org/cgi/reprint/83/1/3.com/insideLifestyle. Linguistic Styles of DoTA Male Players. C. Language Change in Progress: Evidence from ComputerMediated Communication. Cambridge University Press. (n. University of San Carlos. (2008). J. Tagliamonte. and fricative production in short messaging services (SMS).manilastandardtoday.com/cmc/study/center. Teen talk linguistic styles in electronic mails. ‘ya’. and Derik D.htm? f=2010/april/30/lifestyle4. of the English December. University of San Carlos. (2008). Retrieved May 25. (1995).E.d). M. and Maningo. Retrieved May 20. 2 .pdf Crystal. Retrieved May 20. What is Computed Mediated Communication retrieved May 10. L.pdf Tiempo.pdf Generoso.december. D. and ‘si’: A Case Study.html Gao. 2010 from http://chinalinks. 2010 from http://jaltcall.(2010). M and Isharyanti N. 2010 from Manila Standard Website. University of San Carlos Graduate Journal Vol.osu. text jargon.isx&d=2010/april/30 Cárdenas. Undergraduate Thesis. J. XXVI. Tecson.edu/naccl-20/proceedings/19_gao_l. http://www. Retrieved May 25.org/journal/articles/5_3_Cardenas. Code switching and code-mixing in internet chatting between ‘yes’. S. A.Masteral thesis. (2006). 2010 from http://www.

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