Overview of Process Plant Piping System Design

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Overview of Process Plant Piping System Design
By: Vincent A. Carucci Carmagen Engineering, Inc.

Copyright © 2000 by

All Rights Reserved

........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Sample Problem 1 ............ 157 C................................. Assembly............................................................... 90 C......................................................... 151 B........................................................................................... 79 A............................................. 73 General ................................................................................ 110 Sample Problem 3 ................................................................................... Nonmetallic Piping... High Pressure Piping............... 78 E................................................................................. 122 B...... II.................. Layout Considerations ......... Flanges............ V................................... 140 A............. 116 Exercise 2: Determine Required Pipe Wall Thickness ........ 79 B..................................................................................................................................... Fittings... Pipe Supports and Restraints ......... 121 System Design .................................................................................................................... Piping Flexibility................................................................................................................. 151 A..................... IV............................................ Testing................................................................................................................................................... 100 A. Material Fracture Toughness ................. VII............................................................................................................... Valve Selection Process .................... Criteria for Allowable Equipment Nozzle Loads ....... 77 C............ 88 Solution ............................................................................. 132 F...................................................................................................................3.... Welding and Heat Treatment ................... Loads and Stresses............................................................................................................................. 129 D........Determine Flange Rating ........................................................... and Erection .................................................. Design Considerations for Piping System Stress Analysis ......................................... ........................................................................................................... 99 Design ..... 100 B.............. Flange Rating ............ 122 A............................................ XI... IX..... VI................................... 77 D................................................................... Scope of ASME B31.............................................. Pressure Design of Components ..... VIII.......................................... Primary Valve Types ........ 156 B................................................................ Category M Fluid Service.............3 BACKGROUND MATERIAL ......... Corrosion Resistance ............................................. 105 Sample Problem 2 ............................................................................................................................. 132 E.. Assembly and Erection.................................................................................... 134 G................................................................. Required Design Information for Piping Stress Analysis .................................................................................................................................................. What is a piping system ......... Fabricability ................................. X............................ 78 Piping Components.............. 75 B.............................. Valve Functions................................ 160 III.......................... 154 Other Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 73 Material selection considerations............................ 123 C................................................................. 89 B..............................Determine Pipe wall thickness .................TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: PART 2: I.............................................................................. 140 B.................................................................................................................................................................................. Strength.................. 89 A...................................................... Design Conditions ............. 101 C. 88 Valves ................................ When Should A Computer Analysis Be Used ............................................................. Inspection .............................................................................................. 75 A........................................................................................ and Gaskets............ PARTICIPANT NOTES .............. 158 Summary................................................................... 73 A................................... 73 B............... Availability and Cost . 156 A................... 134 Fabrication.......... 73 Introduction ............................. 98 Exercise 1 – Determine Required Flange Rating ...... 144 Quality Control ..........................................................

Part 1: Participant Notes 3 .

elbows.OVERVIEW OF PROCESS PLANT PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN By: Vincent A. gaskets. Carucci Carmagen Engineering.) • Flanges. Inc. bolting • Valves • Pipe supports 2 Notes: 4 . 1 Notes: Piping System Piping system: conveys fluid between locations Piping system includes: • Pipe • Fittings (e. reducers.g. etc. branch connections.

all fluid services: – Raw.ASME B31. air. and water – Fluidized solids – Refrigerants – Cryogenic fluids • Interconnections within packaged equipment • Scope exclusions specified 4 Notes: 5 . and finished chemicals – Petroleum products – Gas. steam.3 • Piping and piping components.3 • Provides requirements for: – Design – Materials – Fabrication – Erection – Inspection – Testing • For process plants including – – – – 3 Petroleum refineries Chemical plants Pharmaceutical plants Textile plants – Paper plants – Semiconductor plants – Cryogenic plants Notes: Scope of ASME B31. intermediate.

Strain Diagram S A B C E 6 Notes: 6 .Strength • • • • • • Yield and Tensile Strength Creep Strength Fatigue Strength Alloy Content Material Grain size Steel Production Process 5 Notes: Stress .

and leaves graphite in place. Occurs in cast iron exposed to salt water or weak acids. Graphitic Corrosion 8 Notes: 7 . Galvanic Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Localized corrosion similar to pitting. Reduces iron in cast iron. Concentration Cell Corrosion Occurs when different concentration of either a corrosive fluid or dissolved oxygen contacts areas of same metal. Occurs when two dissimilar metals contact each other in corrosive electrolytic environment. Result is extremely soft material with no metal loss. Usually associated with stagnant fluid. Anodic metal develops deep pits or grooves as current flows from it to cathodic metal. or moving fluids containing abrasives. May be combined with erosion if high-velocity fluids.Corrosion Resistance • Deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical action • Most important factor to consider • Corrosion allowance added thickness • Alloying increases corrosion resistance 7 Notes: Piping System Corrosion General or Uniform Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Uniform metal loss. Localized metal loss randomly located on material surface. and bolts where crevice exists. Occurs most often in stagnant areas or areas of low-flow velocity. Occurs at places such as gaskets. lap joints.

reducers. valves – Cast valves 10 Notes: 8 .Material Toughness • Energy necessary to initiate and propagate a crack • Decreases as temperature decreases • Factors affecting fracture toughness include: – Chemical composition or alloying elements – Heat treatment – Grain size 9 Notes: Fabricability • Ease of construction • Material must be weldable • Common shapes and forms include: – Seamless pipe – Plate welded pipe – Wrought or forged elbows. crosses – Forged flanges. tees. couplings.

Availability and Cost • Consider economics • Compare acceptable options based on: – Availability – Relative cost 11 Notes: Pipe Fittings • Produce change in geometry – – – – Modify flow direction Bring pipes together Alter pipe diameter Terminate pipe 12 Notes: 9 .

2 14 Cross Tee Notes: 10 .Elbow and Return 90° 45° 180° Return 13 Figure 4.1 Notes: Tee Reducing Outlet Tee Figure 4.

3 15 Notes: Welding Outlet Fitting 16 Figure 4.Reducer Concentric Eccentric Figure 4.4 Notes: 11 .

5 17 Notes: Lap-joint Stub End Note square corner R R Enlarged Section of Lap 18 Figure 4.Cap Figure 4.6 Notes: 12 .

7 Notes: Types of Flange Attachment and Facing Flange Attachment Types Threaded Flanges Socket-Welded Flanges Blind Flanges Slip-On Flanges Lapped Flanges Weld Neck Flanges Ring Joint Raised Face Flange Facing Types Flat Faced 20 Table 4.Typical Flange Assembly Flange Bolting Gasket 19 Figure 4.1 Notes: 13 .

Flange Facing Types 21 Figure 4.8 Notes: Gaskets • • • • Resilient material Inserted between flanges Compressed by bolts to create seal Commonly used types – Sheet – Spiral wound – Solid metal ring 22 Notes: 14 .

300.Flange Rating Class • Based on ASME B16.500.500) • Flange strength increases with class number • Material and design temperature combinations without pressure indicated not acceptable 23 Notes: Material Specification List 24 Table 4.2 Notes: 15 . 900.5 • Acceptable pressure/temperature combinations • Seven classes (150. 1. 2. 400. 600.

• Pipe Material: • Design Temperature: • Design Pressure: 1 1 Cr − 1 Mo 4 2 700°F 500 psig 26 Notes: 16 .10 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 505 345 25 Table 4. °F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1.8 150 235 220 215 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 620 570 555 555 555 555 555 545 515 510 485 450 320 215 400 825 765 745 740 740 740 740 725 685 675 650 600 425 290 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.9 300 750 750 720 695 695 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 320 215 400 1000 1000 965 885 805 785 785 710 675 650 600 425 290 190 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.3 Notes: Sample Problem 1 Flange Rating New piping system to be installed at existing plant. Classes Temp. Determine required flange class..Temperature Ratings Material Group No.Pressure .

Sample Problem 1 Solution • Determine Material Group Number (Fig. Check Class 150.9 • Find allowable design pressure at intersection of design temperature and Group No.2) Group Number = 1. allowable pressure = 570 psig • Required flange Class: 300 27 Notes: Valves • Functions – Block flow – Throttle flow – Prevent flow reversal 28 Notes: 17 . – Allowable pressure = 110 psig < design pressure – Move to next higher class and repeat steps • For Class 300. 4.

9. 11. 7. 15. 8. 10. 20. 4. 3.Full Port Gate Valve 1. 19. 18. 14. Handwheel Nut Handwheel Stem Nut Yoke Yoke Bolting Stem Gland Flange Gland Gland Bolts or Gland Eye-bolts and nuts Gland Lug Bolts and Nuts Stem Packing Plug Lantern Ring Backseat Bushing Bonnet Bonnet Gasket Bonnet Bolts and Nuts Gate Seat Ring Body One-Piece Gland (Alternate) Valve Port 29 Figure 5. 17. 22. 13. 16. 21. 2.1 Notes: Globe Valve • • • • • Most economic for throttling flow Can be hand-controlled Provides “tight” shutoff Not suitable for scraping or rodding Too costly for on/off block operations 30 Notes: 18 . 12. 5. 6.

Check Valve • • • • Prevents flow reversal Does not completely shut off reverse flow Available in all sizes. materials Valve type selection determined by – Size limitations – Cost – Availability – Service 31 Notes: Swing Check Valve Cap Pin Seat Ring Hinge Flow Direction Disc Body 32 Figure 5.2 Notes: 19 . ratings.

3 Notes: Lift Check Valve Seat Ring Piston Flow Direction 34 Figure 5.4 Notes: 20 .Ball Check Valve 33 Figure 5.

Wafer Check Valve 35 Figure 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Part Names Body Body Cap Ball Body Seal Gasket Seat Stem Gland Flange Stem Packing Gland Follower Thrust Bearing Thrust Washer Indicator Stop Snap Ring Gland Bolt Stem Bearing Body Stud Bolt & Nuts Gland Cover Gland Cover Bolts Handle 36 Figure 5.5 Notes: Ball Valve No.6 Notes: 21 .

or reverse flow prevention). 38 Notes: 22 . throttle. Identify potentially appropriate valve types and components based on application and function (i.e. valve function. 2.Plug Valve Wedge Molded-In Resilient Seal Sealing Slip 37 Figure 5. material. etc..7 Notes: Valve Selection Process General procedure for valve selection. Identify design information including pressure and temperature. block. 1.

Provide full technical description specifying type. material. flange rating. Determine valve application requirements (i. cont’d 3. 5.Determine Required Flange Rating • Pipe: • Flanges: • Design Temperature: • Design Pressure: 1 1 Cr − 1 Mo 4 2 A-182 Gr..e. design or service limitations). 39 Notes: Exercise 1 . Check factors to consider if two or more valves are suitable. etc. F11 900°F 375 psig 40 Notes: 23 .Valve Selection Process. Finalize valve selection. 4.

Exercise 1 . Identify material specification of flange A-182 Gr.3 with design temperature and Material Group No.Solution 1. Determine class using Table 4. Determine Material Group No. – The lowest Class for design pressure of 375 psig is Class 300. (Table 4.2) Group 1. – Class 300 has 450 psig maximum pressure at 900°F 41 Notes: Design Conditions • General – Normal operating conditions – Design conditions • Design pressure and temperature – Identify connected equipment and associated design conditions – Consider contingent conditions – Consider flow direction – Verify conditions with process engineer 42 Notes: 24 . F11 2.9 3.

Loading Conditions Principal pipe load types • Sustained loads – Act on system all or most of time – Consist of pressure and total weight load • Thermal expansion loads – Caused by thermal displacements – Result from restrained movement • Occasional loads 43 – Act for short portion of operating time – Seismic and/or dynamic loading Notes: Stresses Produced By Internal Pressure Sl Sc P t Sl Sc t P = = = = Longitudinal Stress Circumferential (Hoop) Stress Wall Thickness Internal Pressure 44 Figure 6.1 Notes: 25 .

cont’d • Peak stresses – More localized – Rapidly decrease within short distance of origin – Occur where stress concentrations and fatigue failure might occur – Significance equivalent to secondary stresses – Do not cause significant distortion 46 Notes: 26 .Stress Categorization • Primary Stresses – Direct – Shear – Bending • Secondary stresses – Act across pipe wall thickness – Cause local yielding and minor distortions – Not a source of direct failure 45 Notes: Stress Categorization.

° ° Material Carbon Steel C .0 20.1 15.½Mo 1¼ .6 16.4 17.1 2.8 13.4 1.8 9.7 16. 6.8 15.0 17.5 1000 1100 2.0 400 20.0 200 20.3 2.3 1.3 20.1 48 Notes: 27 .9 17.0 7.9 16.7 16.8 14.2 6.3 17.12Ni-2Mo pipe Spec. °F.5 18.3 500 18.4 1.6 15.5 15.7 12.5 4.½Mo 18Cr .3 15. No/Grade 100 20.7 4.4 2.3 Allowable Stresses in Tension Basic Allowable Stress S.2 17.0 Table 6.5 15.Allowable Stresses Function of – Material properties – Temperature – Safety factors Established to avoid: – General collapse or excessive distortion from sustained loads – Localized fatigue failure from thermal expansion loads – Collapse or distortion from occasional loads 47 Notes: B31.4 3.0 700 16.7 12.0 2.0 20. ksi.3 1.3 800 10.0 16.0 20.3 1200 1300 1400 1500 A 106 A 335 A 335 A 312 A 312 B P1 P11 TP304 20.3 18.9 600 17.0 300 20.5 17.0 TP316 20. At Metal Temperature.2 15.7 20.0 18.5 18.5 12.7 19.0 16.3 13.9 900 6.0 15.8Ni pipe 16Cr .0 18.

No.85 0.90 0.. . psig D = Pipe outside diameter. spot radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe. single butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe. 1.00 0. . ..80 0...85 0.Pipe Thickness Required For Internal Pressure • t= PD 2 (SE + PY ) P = Design pressure.. double butt seam Nickel and Nickel Alloy 1. All Seamless pipe and tube Welded pipe Welded pipe 1. psi E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor Y = Wall thickness correction factor • • 49 t m = t + CA t nom = tm 0.80 1. .00 0... Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.85 A 358 B 161 B 514 B 675 .. S = Allowable stress in tension. . Class (or Type) Carbon Steel Description Ej API 5L .. 3.875 Notes: Spec... straight or spiral seam Furnace butt welded Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Furnace butt welded pipe Seamless pipe Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel 1.. .00 A 312 .. . in. double butt.2 Notes: 28 .... Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Seamless pipe Stainless Steel 1.95 A 53 Type S Type E Type F .85 0. 100% radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe. double butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe.00 0...00 A 106 A 333 A 335 .. 4 5 2 Seamless pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.00 0.....00 0.60 1.85 1.80 50 Table 6..00 0. 1.

..4 1000 0. Table 6. .4 950 0. conditions..4 0.7 0.. .4 0.Temperature.7 0..3 51 Notes: Curved and Mitered Pipe • Curved pipe – Elbows or bends – Same thickness as straight pipe • Mitered bend – Straight pipe sections welded together – Often used in large diameter pipe – May require larger thickness • Function of number of welds.4 0..4 1100 0.7 0.4 0. .5 0. size 52 Notes: 29 .4 0.7 0..5 0.7 0. °F Materials Ferritic Steels Austenitic Steels Other Ductile Metals Cast iron 900 & lower 0..4 1050 0.. .0 .4 0..4 1150 & up 0.

Solution t= PD 2(SE + PY) t= 1.4 )] t = 0.Sample Problem 2 Determine Pipe Wall Thickness Design temperature: 650°F Design pressure: 1. P11 ( 1 14 Cr − 12 Mo ). Gr.0625 in.380 psig. 53 Notes: Sample Problem 2 . Material: ASTM A335. 54 Notes: 30 .380 × 14 2[(16.200 × 1) + (1. Pipe outside diameter: 14 in. seamless Corrosion allowance: 0.577 in.380 × 0.

6395 in.6395 = 0. Reinforcement Zone Limits A3 A3 A4 L4 A4 A1 Tr c th Th Dh Nom. A2 d1 d2 d2 A2 β Pipe C 56 Figure 6.0625 = 0.731 in. t nom = 0.Sample Problem 2 Solution.2 Notes: 31 . cont’d tm = t + c = 0. Thk.577 + 0. Mill Tol. 0. Thk. Db Nom.875 55 Notes: Welded Branch Connection Tb Reinforcement Zone Limits tb c Mill Tol.

58 Notes: 32 . in. Tb = Minimum branch thickness.Reinforcement Area d1 = Db − 2(Tb − c) sin β d1 = Effective length removed from run pipe. in. c = Corrosion allowance. in. β = Acute angle between branch and header 57 Notes: Required Reinforcement Area Required reinforcement area. in. Db = Branch outside diameter. in. A1: A 1 = t h d1(2 − sin β) Where: th = Minimum required header thickness.

B for branch and header.500 psi • Design conditions: 550 psig @ 700°F • c = 0. S = 16.5% 60 Notes: 33 .0625 in.Reinforcement Pad • Provides additional reinforcement • Usually more economical than increasing wall thickness • Selection variables – Material – Outside diameter – Wall thickness æ (D − Db ) ö A4 = ç p Tr ç sin β è 59 Notes: Sample Problem 3 • Pipe material: Seamless. A 106/Gr. • Mill tolerance: 12.

Branch: 0. Branch: 0.395 × 15.263 in.375 × 0.875 − 0. Header: 0. • Branch connection at 90° angle 61 Notes: Sample Problem 3 .469 (2 − sin90°) = 6.2 62 Notes: 34 .Solution d1 = d1 = Db − 2(Tb − c) sin β 16 − 2 (0.375 in.469 in.Sample Problem 3.562 in. sin 90° A1 = thd1(2 − sinβ) A1 = 0.11in. cont’d • Nominal Pipe Thicknesses: • Required Pipe Thicknesses: Header: 0.395 in.0625 ) = 15.

664 in.0625 ) 2 = 0.664 (0.53 in.875 × 0.0.Sample Problem 3 Solution.375 − 0.0625) A2 = 0.5 (0.0625 ) = 0.469 in.562 0.875 × 0. A3.003 in.395 .15. A3 = 2L 4(Tb − tb−c ) sinβ L 4 = 2.469 . A2. sin 90° Notes: 35 . cont’d • • Calculate excess area available in branch.263 − 0.2 63 Notes: Sample Problem 3 Solution. A 2 = (2d2−d1)(Th−th−c ) d2 = d1 = 15. A2 = (2 × 15. < Dh = 24 in. cont’d • Calculate excess area available in header. A3 = 64 2 × 0.375 − 0.469) (0.875 × 0.

0625) + 0.073 in.875 × 0.16 in 66 Notes: 36 . • Total Available Area: AT = A2 + A3 + A4 AT = 0.5 (Th .0625) = 1.0. L42 = 2. thick • Recalculate Available Reinforcement L41 = 2. A4 = 0.5 (0.5 (0. cont’d • Reinforcement pad: A106. A4.2 available reinforcement.0. cont’d • Calculate other excess area available.562 (0.375 .533 in.5 (Tb . B.003 + 0 = 0. AT < A1 ∴ Pad needed 65 Notes: Sample Problem 3 Solution.562 in. Gr.Sample Problem 3 Solution.875 × 0.53 + 0.c) + Tr = 2.c) = 2.562 . 0.875) = 1.

cont’d Therefore.53 + 0.2 (vs.3 Tr sin β 0. A3 = 2L 4 (Tb − t b − c) sin β 2 × 1. pad diameter is acceptable 68 Notes: 37 .575 + = + 16 = 27.875) = 0. the 0.575 in.492 in.005 + 0 = 0.492 Sample Problem 3 Solution.073 in.005 in.0.562 (0.11 .535 = 5. cont’d Since 2d2 > Dp.2 67 Notes: • Calculate additional reinforcement required and pad dimensions: A4 = 6.0625 ) sin90 o A3 = A 3 = 0.2 previously calculated ) A T = A 2 + A 3 + A 4 = 0.2 Pad diameter.263 − 0.073 (0.375 − 0.003 in. L4 = 1.Sample Problem 3 Solution.875 × 0. Dp = A 4 Db 5.535 in. Dp is: Tr = 0.

112 in.000 psi – E = 1.0 – Y = 0.0 ) + (150 × 0. and 6. 6.125 Mill tolerance: 12.3 obtain values: – S = 20. B seamless Corrosion allowance: 0.1.4 • Thickness calculation: t= PD 150 × 30 = 2(SE + PY ) 2[(20.2. Pipe material: A 106.04 )] t = 0. Gr. 70 Notes: 38 .Solution • From Tables 6.Exercise 2 .000 × 1.5% Thickness for internal pressure and nominal thickness? Notes: Exercise 2 .Determine Required Pipe Wall Thickness • • • • • • • 69 Design Temperature: 260°F Design Pressure: 150 psig Pipe OD: 30 in.

237 = 0.271 in.237 in. Notes: Layout Considerations • Operational – Operating and control points easily reached • Maintenance – Ample clearance for maintenance equipment – Room for equipment removal – Sufficient space for access to supports • Safety – Consider personnel safety – Access to fire fighting equipment 72 Notes: 39 . cont’d • Corrosion allowance calculation: t m = t + CA = 0.Solution.875 = 0.112 + 0.Exercise 2 .875 0.125 t = 0. • Mill tolerance calculation: t nom = t nom 71 tm 0.

Pipe Supports and Restraints • Supports – Absorb system weight – Reduce: + longitudinal pipe stress + pipe sag + end point reaction loads • Restraints – Control or direct thermal movement due to: + thermal expansion + imposed loads 73 Notes: Support and Restraint Selection Factors • • • • • • Weight load Available attachment clearance Availability of structural steel Direction of loads and/or movement Design temperature Vertical thermal movement at supports 74 Notes: 40 .

2 Notes: 41 .Rigid Supports Shoe Saddle Base Adjustable Support Dummy Support Trunnion 75 Figure 7.1 Notes: Hangers 76 Figure 7.

limit.Flexible Supports Load and Deflection Scale Small Change in Effective Lever Arm Large Change in Effective Lever Arm Relatively Constant Load Typical Variable-Load Spring Support Typical Constant-Load Spring Support Mechanism 77 Figure 7. redirect thermal movement – Reduce thermal stress – Reduce loads on equipment connections • Absorb imposed loads – Wind – Earthquake – Slug flow – Water hammer – Flow induced-vibration 78 Notes: 42 .3 Notes: Restraints • Control.

cont’d • Restraint Selection – Direction of pipe movement – Location of restraint point – Magnitude of load 79 Notes: Anchors and Guides • Anchor – Full fixation – Permits very limited (if any) translation or rotation • Guide – Permits movement along pipe axis – Prevents lateral movement – May permit pipe rotation 80 Notes: 43 .Restraints.

Guides Guide Guide x Vertical Guide 82 Guide Figure 7.Restraints .4 Notes: Restraints .Anchors Anchor Anchor Partial Anchor 81 Figure 7.5 Notes: 44 .

Piping Flexibility • Inadequate flexibility – Leaky flanges – Fatigue failure – Excessive maintenance – Operations problems – Damaged equipment • System must accommodate thermal movement 83 Notes: Flexibility Analysis • Considers layout. restraint • Ensures thermal stresses and reaction loads are within allowable limits • Anticipates stresses due to: – Elevated design temperatures + Increases pipe thermal stress and reaction loads + Reduces material strength – Pipe movement – Supports and restraints 84 Notes: 45 . support.

Flexibility Analysis. thickness • Design temperature and pressure • End-point movements • Existing structural steel locations • Special design considerations Notes: 46 . cont’d • Evaluates loads imposed on equipment • Determines imposed loads on piping system and associated structures • Loads compared to industry standards – Based on tables – Calculated 85 Notes: Design Factors • Layout • Component design details • Fluid service • Connected equipment type • Operating scenarios 86 • Pipe diameter.

height. WRC 107. shell thickness. material Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Compressors API 610 API 617.1 Notes: Computer Analysis • Used to perform detailed piping stress analysis • Can perform numerous analyses • Accurately completes unique and difficult functions – Time-history analyses – Seismic and wind motion – Support motion – Finite element analysis – Animation effects 88 Notes: 47 . Shell. 1. Exchanger Nozzles WRC 297 Nozzle size. thickness.ASME Code Section and-Tube Heat VIII. nozzle elevation. tank diameter. vessel/exchanger diameter. reinforcement details. and wall thickness. Nozzle size. Nozzle size Tank Nozzles API 650 Steam Turbines NEMA SM-23 87 Table 7.85 times NEMA SM-23 allowable API 661 Nozzle size Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Pressure Vessels. Stress analysis required.Equipment Nozzle Load Standards and Parameters Equipment Item Industry Standard Parameters Used To Determine Acceptable Loads Nozzle size Nozzle size.

Computer Analysis Guidelines Type Of Piping General piping Pipe Size. ≥ 400°F ≥ 300°F ≥ 200°F any Any Any Any For rotating equipment For air-fin heat exchangers For tankage ≥3 ≥4 ≥ 12 89 Table 7. and restraints • Extent of analysis depends on situation 90 Notes: 48 . supports.2 Notes: Piping Flexibility Temperature • Analysis based on largest temperature difference imposed by normal and abnormal operating conditions • Results give: – Largest pipe stress range – Largest reaction loads on connections. NPS ≥4 ≥8 ≥ 12 ≥ 20 Maximum Differential Flexibility Temp.

use of design temperature rather than operating temperature) allows for process flexibility. while subject to solar radiation. Such situations can occur with Continues steam tracing and steam jacketing. Design for normal operation. flexibility should be checked for maximum While Heating metal temperature. For 125 psig steam.. piping flexibility should be checked. or decoking. If process flow can be stopped while heat is still being No Process Flow applied.4 Notes: 49 . Margin above operating temperature (i. Includes pipe that is normally at ambient temperature but can be blocked in. 92 Table 7.3 Notes: Abnormal Temperature Conditions To Consider Loss of Cooling Medium Flow Temperature changes due to loss of cooling medium flow should be considered. should be checked for tower at 300°F and piping at ambient plus 50°F. Requires multiple analyses to evaluate expected temperature variations. especially piping connected to or Gas Freeing upper parts of towers. and for switching from one piece of equipment to another. and switching from one service to the other. Piping connected to equipment which Steamout for Air will be steamed out. regeneration. An example is furnace decoking. Most on-site equipment and lines.e. Determine if heating or cooling cycles pose flexibility problems. Common example is piping for two or more pumps with one or more spares. 300°F is typically used for metal temperature. are freed of gas or air by using steam. This may govern flexibility of lines connected to towers that operate at less than 300°F or that have a smaller temperature variation from top to bottom. Startup and Shutdown Regeneration and Decoking Piping Spared Equipment 91 Table 7. if tower is heated while attached piping remains cold.Normal Temperature Conditions To Consider Stable Operation Temperature range expected for most of time plant is in operation. for no flow in some of piping. and many off-site lines. For example.

Extent of Analysis • Extent depends on situation • Analyze right combination of conditions • Not necessary to include system sections that are irrelevant to analysis results 93 Notes: Modifying System Design • • • • Provide more offsets or bends Use more expansion loops Install expansion joints Locate restraints to: – Minimize thermal and friction loads – Redirect thermal expansion • Use spring supports to reduce large vertical thermal loads • Use Teflon bearing pads to reduce friction loads 94 Notes: 50 .

spared pumps • Heat traced piping systems – Heat tracing + Reduces liquid viscosity + Prevents condensate accumulation – Tracing on with process off 95 Notes: System Design Considerations. cont’d • Atmospheric storage tank – Movement at nozzles – Tank settlement • Friction loads at supports and restraints – Can act as anchors or restraints – May cause high pipe stresses or reaction loads • Air-cooled heat exchangers – Consider header box and bundle movement 96 Notes: 51 .System Design Considerations • Pump systems – Operating vs.

6 Notes: Welding • • • • Welding is primary way of joining pipe Provides safety and reliability Qualified welding procedure and welders Butt welds used for: – Pipe ends – Butt-weld-type flanges or fittings to pipe ends – Edges of formed plate 98 Notes: 52 .Tank Nozzle NOZZLE SHELL BOTTOM 97 Figure 7.

and Thinner (c) Suggested End Preparation.2 Notes: 53 . max. (a) (b) (c) (d) 100 Figure 8. Pipe and Fittings Over 7/8 in. Thickness 99 Figure 8.1 Notes: Butt-Welded Joint Designs Unequal Thickness 3/32 in.Butt-Welded Joint Designs Equal Thickness (a) Standard End Preparation of Pipe (b) Standard End Preparation of Butt-Welding Fittings and Optional End Preparation of Pipe 7/8 in.

scale. welding process – Smooth with no slag from oxygen or arc cutting 102 Notes: 54 . wall thickness. • Ends must be: – Suitably shaped for material. etc. oil.3 Notes: Weld Preparation • Welder and equipment must be qualified • Internal and external surfaces must be clean and free of paint.Fillet Welds 101 Figure 8. rust.

3 • Averts or relieves detrimental effects – Residual stresses + Shrinkage during cooldown + Bending or forming processes – High temperature – Severe thermal gradients 104 Notes: 55 .Preheating • Minimizes detrimental effects of: – High temperature – Severe thermal gradients • Benefits include: – Dries metal and removes surface moisture – Reduces temperature difference between base metal and weld – Helps maintain molten weld pool – Helps drive off absorbed gases 103 Notes: Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) • Primarily for stress relief – Only reason considered in B31.

Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT). cont’d • Other reasons for PWHT to be specified by user – Process considerations – Restore corrosion resistance of normal grades of stainless steel – Prevent caustic embrittlement of carbon steel – Reduce weld hardness 105 Notes: Storage and Handling • Store piping on mounds or sleepers • Stacking not too high • Store fittings and valves in shipping crates or on racks • End protectors firmly attached • Lift lined and coated pipes and fittings with fabric or rubber covered slings and padding 106 Notes: 56 .

Pipe Fitup and Tolerances • Good fitup essential – Sound weld – Minimize loads • Dimensional tolerances • Flange tolerances 107 Notes: Pipe Alignment Load Sensitive Equipment • Special care and tighter tolerances needed • Piping should start at nozzle flange – Initial section loosely bolted – Gaskets used during fabrication to be replaced • Succeeding pipe sections bolted on • Field welds to join piping located near machine 108 Notes: 57 .

cont’d • More stringent limits for piping > NPS 3 • Prevent ingress of debris during construction 110 Notes: 58 .Load Sensitive Equipment. cont’d • Spring supports locked in cold position during installation and adjusted in locked position later • Final bolt tensioning follows initial alignment of nozzle flanges • Final nozzle alignment and component flange boltup should be completed after replacing any sections removed 109 Notes: Load Sensitive Equipment.

Flange Joint Assembly • Primary factors – Selection – Design – Preparation – Inspection – Installation • Identify and control causes of leakage 111 Notes: Flange Preparation. and Installation • • • • • • Redo damaged surfaces Clean faces Align flanges Lubricate threads and nuts Place gasket properly Use proper flange boltup procedure 112 Notes: 59 . Inspection.

“Criss-Cross” Bolt-tightening Sequence 113 Figure 8.4 Notes: Causes of Flange Leakage • • • • • • • • 114 Uneven bolt stress Improper flange alignment Improper gasket centering Dirty or damaged flange faces Excessive loads at flange locations Thermal shock Improper gasket size or material Improper flange facing Notes: 60 .

Inspection • Defect identification • Weld inspection – Technique – Weld type – Anticipated type of defect – Location of weld – Pipe material 115 Notes: Typical Weld Imperfections Lack of Fusion Between Weld Bead and Base Metal a) Side Wall Lack of Fusion b) Lack of Fusion Between Adjacent Passes Incomplete Filling at Root on One Side Only Incomplete Filling at Root c) Incomplete Penetration Due to Internal Misalignment d) Incomplete Penetration of Weld Groove External Undercut Root Bead Fused to Both Inside Surfaces but Center of Root Slightly Below Inside Surface of Pipe (Not Incomplete Penetration) Internal Undercut e) Concave Root Surface (Suck-Up) f) Undercut g) Excess External Reinforcement 116 Figure 9.1 Notes: 61 .

• • • Radiography • • • Magnetic Particle • • Butt welds. Porosity. Porosity.) beneath the surface. Seams.1 Notes: Testing • Pressure test system to demonstrate integrity • Hydrostatic test unless pneumatic approved for special cases • Hydrostatic test pressure – ≥ 1½ times design pressure 118 Notes: 62 . Liquid Penetrant • • • • 117 Table 9. Incomplete penetration. Surface defects. Simple and inexpensive. Subsurface flaws. Weld root pass. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ultrasonic Confirms high weld quality in pressurecontaining joints. Slag inclusions in thick plates. Girth welds.Weld Inspection Guidelines Type of Inspection Visual Situation/Weld Type All welds. Shrinkage. Cracks. Intermediate weld passes. • • • Defect Minor structural welds. Laminations. Cracks. Gas pockets. Folds. Cracks. For flaws up to 6 mm (1/4 in. Ferrous and nonferrous materials. Miter groove welds. Inclusions. Slag inclusions. Ferromagnetic materials. Lack of fusion. Slag inclusions.

Testing, cont’d
– For design temperature > test temperature:

PT =

1. 5 P S T S

ST/S must be ≤ 6.5
PT P ST S = Minimum hydrostatic test pressure, psig = Internal design pressure, psig = Allowable stress at test temperature, psi = Allowable stress at design temperature, psi



Testing, cont’d
• Pneumatic test at 1.1P • Instrument take-off piping and sampling piping strength tested with connected equipment




Nonmetallic Piping
• Thermoplastic Piping
– Can be repeatedly softened and hardened by increasing and decreasing temperature

• Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Piping (RTR)
– Fabricated from resin which can be treated to become infusible or insoluble



Nonmetallic Piping, cont’d
• No allowances for pressure or temperature variations above design conditions • Most severe coincident pressure and temperature conditions determine design conditions




Nonmetallic Piping, cont’d
• Designed to prevent movement from causing:
– Failure at supports – Leakage at joints – Detrimental stresses or distortions

• Stress-strain relationship inapplicable



Nonmetallic Piping, cont’d
• Flexibility and support requirement same as for piping in normal fluid service. In addition:
– Piping must be supported, guided, anchored to prevent damage. – Point loads and narrow contact areas avoided – Padding placed between piping and supports – Valves and load transmitting equipment supported independently to prevent excessive loads.



126 Notes: 66 . cont’d • Thermoplastics not used in flammable service. and safeguarded in most fluid services.Nonmetallic Piping. • Joined by bonding 125 Notes: Category M Fluid Service Category M Fluid • Significant potential for personnel exposure • Single exposure to small quantity can cause irreversible harm to breathing or skin.

– Sensitive leak test required in addition to other required testing. pulsation. 127 Notes: Category M Fluid Service. cont’d • Requirements same as for piping in normal fluid service. – All fabrication and joints visually examined. – No pressure-temperature variation allowances. – Detrimental vibration. and operation conducted with minimal impact and shock loads. In addition: – Design. layout. 128 Notes: 67 . resonance effects to be avoided or minimized.Category M Fluid Service. cont’d – Most severe coincident pressure-temperature conditions determine design temperature and pressure.

caulked joints. – Threaded nonmetallic flanges. 129 Notes: High Pressure Piping • Ambient effects on design conditions – Pressure reduction based on cooling of gas or vapor – Increased pressure due to heating of a static fluid – Moisture condensation 130 Notes: 68 . fabricated laps.Category M Fluid Service. – Expanded. – Nonmetallic valves and specialty components. cont’d • Following may not be used – Miter bends not designated as fittings. threaded. nonmetallic fabricated branch connections.

cont’d • Testing – Each system hydrostatically or pneumatically leak tested – Each weld and piping component tested – Post installation pressure test at 110% of design pressure if pre-installation test was performed • Examination 132 – Generally more extensive than normal fluid service Notes: 69 .High Pressure Piping. cont’d • Other considerations – Dynamic effects – Weight effects – Thermal expansion and contraction effects – Support. and terminal movement 131 Notes: High Pressure Piping. anchor.

materials. and testing • Course provided overview of requirements 133 Notes: 70 . fabrication. inspection. erection.3 covers process plant piping • Covers design.Summary • Process plant piping much more than just pipe • ASME B31.

Part 2: Background Material 71 .


A piping system consists of: • • • • • Pipe sections Fittings (e. pressure vessels. pharmaceutical.) Flanges. 73 . Scope of ASME B31. and bolting Valves Pipe supports and restraints Each individual component plus the overall system must be designed for the specified design conditions. and testing requirements for process plant piping systems.I. inspection. plus additional requirements and guidelines based on common industry practice. process heaters. the locations are typically one or more equipment items (e. or individual process plants that are within the boundary of a process facility. II. etc. GENERAL A. semiconductor. elbows.g. etc. fabrication.. What is a piping system A piping system conveys fluid from one location to another. and prepares participants to take more extensive courses if appropriate. branch connections. and related process plants and terminals. Process plants include petroleum refineries. materials.. Process Piping.3 specifies the design. The information contained in this course is readily applicable to on-the-job applications. Within a process plant.3 ASME B31. pumps.3. It discusses requirements contained in ASME B31. heat exchangers. INTRODUCTION This course provides an overview of process plant piping system design. textile. chemical. and cryogenic plants. B.g. reducers. gaskets. erection. paper.).

not just hydrocarbon services. Gas. and manifolds that are located inside a fired heater enclosure.3 applies to piping and piping components that are used for all fluid services. nontoxic. The scope also includes piping that interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged-equipment assembly. Tubes. heat exchangers. and water.3: • Piping systems for internal gauge pressures at or above zero but less than 15 psi. air. compressors. tube headers. steam. and finished chemicals. Petroleum products.ASME B31. provided that the fluid is nonflammable. This includes both internal piping and connections for external piping. Power boilers that are designed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and external boiler piping that must conform to ASME B31. Pressure vessels. and not damaging to human tissue. Fluidized solids. and other fluid-handling or processing equipment. Cryogenic fluids. crossovers. These include the following: • • • • • • Raw. and its design temperature is from -20°F through 366°F. intermediate. • • • 74 .1. The following are excluded from the scope of ASME B31. Refrigerants. pumps.

the material is said to be ductile. Alloy content.1 75 . and fatigue strengths. tensile.0 Yield and Tensile Strength A stress-strain diagram that is produced from a standard tensile test (Figure 3. S A B C E Typical Stress-Strain Diagram for Steel Figure 3. 1.III. MATERIAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Piping system material selection considerations are discussed below. The yield strength is the stress that is required to produce permanent deformation in the material (Point A in Figure 3. creep. If the stress is further increased. Strength A material's strength is defined by its yield. the material is brittle. the permanent deformation continues to increase until the material fails. its deformation also increases. material grain size.1). As the stress in a material increases. The maximum stress that the material attains is the tensile strength (Point B in Figure 3. the rupture point. If the strain in going from Point A to Point C is small. Steel is an example of a ductile material.1). If a large amount of strain occurs in going from Point A to Point C.1) illustrates the yield and tensile strengths. Gray cast iron is an example of a brittle material. A. and the steel production process are factors that affect material strength.

The number of cycles to failure of a material decreases as the stress resulting from the applied load increases.2. the strain in the material will increase with time. The initial bending beyond a certain point causes the paper clip to yield (i. the creep strength of a material is the minimum stress that will rupture the material during a specified period of time.0 Creep Strength Below about 750°F for a given stress. The fatigue strength of a material under cyclic loading can then be defined as the ability to withstand repetitive loading without failure. 3.” Examples of static fatigue are: creep fracture and stress corrosion cracking. This behavior is known as creep.” and the second type is called “cyclic.0 Fatigue Strength The term “fatigue” refers to the situation where a specimen breaks under a load that it has previously withstood for a length of time. or breaks during a load cycle that it has previously withstood several times.. For a particular temperature. like the yield and tensile strengths.e..e.e. varies with temperature. The clip could be bent back and forth several more times and still not break. Static fatigue will not be discussed further in this course. the strain in most materials remains constant with time. without yielding) cannot cause a cyclic fatigue failure. permanently deform) but not break. even with constant stress. 76 . not carbon steel) creep strength becomes a consideration at temperatures higher than 750°F. However after a sufficient number of bending (i..e. Above this temperature. Purely elastic deformation (i. The temperature at which creep strength begins to be a factor is a function of material chemistry. The first type of fatigue is called “static. the paper clip will break under this repetitive loading. The creep strength. One analogy to cyclic fatigue is the bending of a paper clip. For alloy materials (i.. load) cycles.


Corrosion Resistance Corrosion of materials involves deterioration of the metal by chemical or electrochemical attack. Corrosion resistance is usually the single most important factor that influences pipe material selection. Table 3.1 summarizes the typical types of piping system corrosion.

General or Uniform Corrosion

Characterized by uniform metal loss over entire surface of material. May be combined with erosion if material is exposed to high-velocity fluids, or moving fluids that contain abrasive materials. Form of localized metal loss randomly located on material surface. Occurs most often in stagnant areas or areas of low-flow velocity. Occurs when two dissimilar metals contact each other in corrosive electrolytic environment. The anodic metal develops deep pits or grooves as a current flows from it to the cathodic metal. Localized corrosion similar to pitting. Occurs at places such as gaskets, lap joints, and bolts, where a crevice can exist. Occurs when different concentration of either corrosive fluid or dissolved oxygen contacts areas of same metal. Usually associated with stagnant fluid.

Pitting Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion

Crevice Corrosion

Concentration Cell Corrosion

Graphitic Corrosion Occurs in cast iron exposed to salt water or weak acids. Reduces iron in the cast iron and leaves the graphite in place. Result is extremely soft material with no metal loss.

Typical Types of Piping System Corrosion Table 3.1 For process plant piping systems in corrosive service, corrosion protection is usually achieved by using alloys that resist corrosion. The most common alloys used for this purpose are chromium and nickel. Low-alloy steels with a chromium content of 1¼% to 9% and stainless steels are used in corrosive environments. C. Material Fracture Toughness One way to characterize the fracture behavior of a material is the amount of energy necessary to initiate and propagate a crack at a given temperature. This is the material's fracture toughness, which 77

decreases as the temperature decreases. Tough materials require a relatively large amount of energy to initiate and propagate a crack. The impact energy required to fracture a material sample at a given temperature can be measured by standard Charpy V-notch tests. Various factors other than temperature affect the fracture toughness of a material. These include the following: • • • Chemical composition or alloying elements. Heat treatment. Grain size.

The major chemical elements that affect a material's fracture toughness are carbon, manganese, nickel, oxygen, sulfur, and molybdenum. High carbon content, or excessive amounts of oxygen, sulfur, or molybdenum, hurts fracture toughness. The addition of manganese or nickel improves fracture toughness. D. Fabricability A material must be available in the shapes or forms that are required, and it typically must be weldable. In piping systems, some common shapes and forms include the following: • • • • • E. Seamless pipe. Plate that is used for welded pipe. Wrought or forged elbows, tees, reducers, and crosses. Forged flanges, couplings, and valves. Cast valves.

Availability and Cost The last factors that affect piping material selection are availability and cost. Where there is more than one technically acceptable material, the final selection must consider what is readily available and what are the relative costs of the acceptable options. For example, the use of carbon steel with a large corrosion allowance could be more expensive than using a low-alloy material with a smaller corrosion allowance.



A. Fittings, Flanges, and Gaskets 1.0 Pipe Fittings Fittings are used to make some change in the geometry of a piping system. This change could include: • • • • Modifying the flow direction. Bringing two or more pipes together. Altering the pipe diameter. Terminating a pipe.

The most common types of fittings are elbows, tees, reducers, welding outlets, pipe caps, and lap joint stub ends. These are illustrated in Figures 4.1 through 4.6. Fittings may be attached to pipe by threading, socket welding, or butt welding. An elbow or return (Figure 4.1) changes the direction of a pipe run. Standard elbows change the direction by either 45° or 90°. Returns change the direction by 180°.



180° Return Elbow and Return Figure 4.1 79

A tee (Figure 4.3) changes the diameter in a straight section of pipe.2) provides for the intersection of three sections of pipe. or integrally reinforced branch connection (Figure 4.2 A reducer (illustrated in Figure 4. A reducing-outlet tee has a branch diameter which is smaller in size than the run diameter. Tee Figure 4. • • • A straight tee has equal diameters for both the run and branch pipe connections. whereas they are offset in an eccentric type.4) has all the reinforcement required to strengthen the opening contained within the fitting itself.3 Eccentric A welding outlet fitting. A cross permits the intersection of four sections of pipe and is rarely seen in process plants. 80 . Concentric Reducer Figure 4. The centerlines of the large and small diameter ends coincide in a concentric reducer.

4 A pipe cap (Figure 4.5) closes off the end of a pipe section.6 81 .5 A lap-joint stub end (Figure 4.Typical Integrally Reinforced Branch Connection Figure 4. The wall thickness of a butt-welded pipe cap will typically be identical to that of the adjacent pipe section. Note square corner R R Enlarged Section of Lap Lap-Joint Stub End Figure 4.6) is used in conjunction with lap-joint flanges. Cap Figure 4.

inspection. or operational reasons. Figure 4.7 shows a typical flange assembly.2. Flanges are normally used for pipe sizes above NPS 1½. The type of attachment defines how the flange is connected to a pipe section or piece of 82 .7 A flange type is specified by stating the type of attachment and the type of face. valve. Flange Bolting Gasket Typical Flange Assembly Figure 4.0 Flanges A flange connects a pipe section to a piece of equipment. or another pipe such that relatively simple disassembly is possible. Disassembly may be required for maintenance.

equipment (e.g., welded). The type of flange face or facing defines the geometry of the flange surface that contacts the gasket. Table 4.1 summarizes the types of flange attachments and faces. Figure 4.8 illustrates flange facing types.

Flange Attachment Types Threaded Flanges Socket-Welded Flanges Blind Flanges Slip-On Flanges Lapped Flanges Weld Neck Flanges

Flange Facing Types Flat Faced

Raised Face

Ring Joint

Types of Flange Attachment and Facing Table 4.1


Flange Facing Types Figure 4.8



Gaskets A gasket is a resilient material that is inserted between the flanges and seated against the portion of the flanges called the “face” or “facing”. The gasket provides the seal between the fluid in the pipe and the outside, and thus prevents leakage. Bolts compress the gasket to achieve the seal and hold the flanges together against pressure and other loadings. The three gasket types typically used in pipe flanges for process plant applications are: • • • Sheet. Spiral wound. Solid metal ring.


Flange Rating ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, provides steel flange dimensional details for standard pipe sizes through NPS 24. Specification of an ASME B16.5 flange involves selection of the correct material and flange "Class." The paragraphs that follow discuss the flange class specification process in general terms. Flange material specifications are listed in Table 1A in ASME B16.5 (excerpted in Table 4.2). The material specifications are grouped within Material Group Numbers. For example, if the piping is fabricated from carbon steel, the ASTM A105 material specification is often used. ASTM A105 material is in Material Group No. 1.1. Refer to ASME B16.5 for additional acceptable material specifications and corresponding Material Group Numbers.


ASME B16.5, Table 1A, Material Specification List (Excerpt) Table 4.2 After the Material Group has been determined, the next step is to select the appropriate Class. The Class is determined by using pressure/temperature rating tables, the Material Group, design metal temperature, and design pressure. Selecting the Class sets all the detailed dimensions for flanges and flanged fittings. The objective is to select the lowest Class that is appropriate for the specified design conditions. Table 2 of ASME B16.5 provides the information that is necessary to select the appropriate flange Class for the specified design conditions. ASME B16.5 has seven classes: Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, and 2,500. Each Class specifies the design pressure and temperature combinations that are acceptable for a flange with that designation. As the number of the Class increases, the strength of the flange increases for a given Material Group. A higher flange Class can withstand higher pressure and temperature combinations. Table 4.3 is an excerpt from Table 2 of ASME B16.5 and shows some of the temperature and pressure ratings for several Material Groups. Material and design temperature combinations that do not have a pressure indicated are not acceptable. Specifying the flange size, material, and class completes most of what is necessary for selecting an ASME B16.5 flange. The flange type, facing, bolting material, and gasket type and material must be


Material Group No. Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Excerpt) Table 4.10 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 505 345 ASME B16. Discussion of these other factors is beyond the scope of this course.5.3 87 . Classes Temp.9 300 750 750 720 695 695 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 320 215 400 1000 1000 965 885 805 785 785 710 675 650 600 425 290 190 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.8 150 235 220 215 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 620 570 555 555 555 555 555 545 515 510 485 450 320 215 400 825 765 745 740 740 740 740 725 685 675 650 600 425 290 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.. °F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1.added to complete the flange selection process.

The material specification for forged flanges would be A182 Gr. This is only 110 psig and is not enough for this service. Find the 1¼ Cr – ½ Mo material in the Nominal Designation Steel column.DETERMINE FLANGE RATING A new piping system will be installed at an existing plant. Refer to Table 2 for Class 150 (excerpted in Table 4. 88 . The allowable pressure in this case is 570 psig.2). It is necessary to determine the ASME class that is required for the flanges. Read the allowable design pressure at the intersection of the 700°F design temperature and Material Group 1.SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 . The required flange Class is 300.9. and the corresponding material Group Number is 1. Design Pressure: 500 psig. which is acceptable. F11. The following design information is provided: • • • Pipe Material: 1¼ Cr – ½ Mo. Design Temperature: 700°F. Now check Class 300 and do the same thing.3).9. SOLUTION Determine the Material Group Number for the flanges by referring to ASME Table 1A (excerpted in Table 4.

A valve may be used to block flow. It might be necessary to throttle flow to regulate the filling rate of a pressure vessel.0 Preventing Flow Reversal It might be necessary to automatically prevent fluid from reversing its direction during sudden pressure changes or system upsets. 3. or to control unit operating pressure levels. throttle flow. or to automatically prevent backflow into the upstream part of the system due to process reasons. 89 . and valves are used to control the flow.0 Blocking Flow The block-flow function provides completely on or completely off flow control of a fluid. or prevent flow reversal. Fluid flows through a pipe.0 Throttling Flow Throttling may increase or decrease the amount of fluid flowing in the system and can also help control pressure within the system. VALVES A. Preventing reverse flow might be necessary to avoid damage to a pump or a compressor. Valve Functions The possible valve functions must be known before being able to select the appropriate valve type for a particular application. 2.V. generally without throttling or variable control capability. 1. or to separate two portions of a single system to accommodate various operating scenarios. It might be necessary to block flow to take equipment out of service for maintenance while the rest of the unit remains in operation.

About 75% of all valves in process plants are gate valves. Primary Valve Types 1.0 Gate Valve Most valves in process plants function as block valves. 90 .1 illustrates a typical full-port gate valve.B. Figure 5. The gate valve is not suitable to throttle flow because it will pass the maximum possible flow while it is only partially open. The gate valve is an optimum engineering and economic choice for on or off service.

6. 5. Body 21.1 2. 7.1. Stem Packing 12. Bonnet Gasket 17. Seat Ring 20. Gland Lug Bolts and Nuts 11. 4. Gate 19. Lantern Ring 14. 2. they are 91 . Valve Port Full-Port Gate Valve Figure 5. 9.0 Globe Valve The globe valve is the type most commonly used to throttle flow in a process plant. Plug 13. Bonnet 16. Bonnet Bolts and Nuts 18. 8. 3. In the smaller sizes. Handwheel Nut Handwheel Stem Nut Yoke Yoke Bolting Stem Gland Flange Gland Gland Bolts or Gland-Eye Bolts and Nuts 10. One-Piece Gland (Alternate) 22. Backseat Bushing 15.

and pin. Ball and lift check valves are usually the choice for sizes NPS 2 and smaller. cost. seat ring. and disc seating is accomplished by gravity and/or flow reversal. Valves which contain a disc or discs that swing out of the flow passage area usually create a lower pressure drop in the system than those which contain a ball or piston element. For all process designs. not to effect complete leakage-free. These latter elements remain in the flowstream and the port configurations frequently include an angular change in flow direction. The valve is kept open by the flow.2) are the body. availability. 92 . In larger sizes. they serve as temporary flow controllers when control valves must be taken out of service. The selection of a particular check valve type generally depends on size. Typical check valve applications are in pump and compressor discharge piping and other systems that require protection against backflow. They provide relatively tight shutoff in control valve bypasses during normal operations. The disc is hinged at the top and closes against a seat in the valve body opening. disc hinge. It swings freely in an arc from the fully closed position to one that provides unobstructed flow. disc. applications are limited primarily to bypasses at control valve stations.typically used as hand-control valves. pressure-tight shutoff of reverse flow.1 Swing Check Valve The main components of a swing check valve (Figure 5. and service. they are not suitable for piping systems that require scraping or rodding. 3.0 Check Valve Check valves prevent flow reversal. Globe valves are rarely used for strictly on/off block valve operations because conventional gate valves adequately serve that function at a lower cost and a much lower pressure drop. while swing check and plate check valves are used in the larger sizes. the intended purpose of check valves is to prevent gross flow reversal. 3. cap. Because all globe valve patterns involve a change in flow direction.

similar to a typical globe valve body). provided the pressure drop is not a concern.Cap Pin Seat Ring Hinge Flow Direction Disc Body Swing Check Valve Figure 5. Their low cost usually makes them the first choice for valves sized NPS 2 and smaller. The basic types are the straight-through. Ball check valves are available in sizes NPS ½ through 2 in all ratings and materials used in process plants.2 Ball Check Valve The ball check valve utilizes a ball to prevent flow reversal (Figure 5.2 3. 93 .3).and globe-type (90° change in direction.

On reverse flow. the piston or disc is forced against the seat to block further flow. a piston or disc is lifted off the seat by the fluid while being retained in the valve by guides. Some lift check valves utilize spring loading to assure positive seating.3 3. and where tighter shutoff is required. They are most commonly used in the higher ASME B16.or piston-type mechanism are available in sizes from NPS ½ through 2 in all ratings and materials used in process plants. Lift check valves employing the disc. 94 .4) usually depends on gravity for operation. Valves of this type should only be used in clean services. Under forward flow.5 ratings (Class 300 and greater).Ball Check Valve Figure 5.3 Lift Check Valve A lift check valve (Figure 5.

4 Wafer Check Valve The wafer body or flangeless valve is a valve body without flanges (Figure 5.4 3. The lug-wafer (or single-flanged) valve is also shown in Figure 5.5). 95 . or stud bolts which thread into the valve body. Valves of this type are placed between pipe flanges and held in place by the compressive force between the flanges and transmitted through the gaskets. Valves of this type are mounted between pipe flanges and are held in place by cap screws.Seat Ring Piston Flow Direction Lift Check Valve Figure 5. machine bolts.5.

5 3. The pressure/temperature ratings for ball valve soft seats above ambient temperatures are usually lower than the ASME ratings for steel valves. 96 .6) usually function as block valves.Figure 5. This is because of the lower physical properties of the soft-seat materials. Soft-sealed ball valves are not normally used for throttling service because the softseats are subject to erosion or distortion/displacement caused by fluid flow when the valve is in the partially open position.5 Ball Valve Ball valves (Figure 5. Ball valves are well suited for conditions where quick on/off and/or bubble-tight shut-off is required.

97 . The soft-seal-types may have lower temperature/pressure ratings than the ASME ratings for steel valves because of the lesser physical properties of the soft-seat materials.6 3.7) usually function as block valves.6 Plug Valve Plug valves (Figure 5.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Part Names Body Body Cap Ball Body Seal Gasket Seat Stem Gland Flange Stem Packing Gland Follower Thrust Bearing Thrust Washer Indicator Stop Snap Ring Gland Bolt Stem Bearing Body Stud Bolt & Nuts Gland Cover Gland Cover Bolts Handle Ball Valve Figure 5. They are well suited for conditions where quick on/off and/or bubble-tight shutoff is required. Soft-seal plug valves are not normally used for throttling service since the soft seals are subject to erosion or distortion/displacement caused by fluid flow when the valve is partially open.

1. check. design or service limitations). Identify the necessary design information. Finalize valve selection.e. Determine valve application requirements (i. 3. 2.. butterfly. This is done by specifying the valve type.e. block. flange rating.. etc.7 C. Provide a full technical description. material. 98 . Check which factors need consideration if two or more valves are suitable. Valve Selection Process The steps that follow provide a general procedure for selecting valves and valve components.e. or reverse flow prevention). etc. This includes design pressure and temperature.Wedge Molded-In Resilient Seal Sealing Slip Plug Valve Figure 5. throttle.. 4. material. ball.) and components based on application and function (i. Identify potentially appropriate valve types (i. 5. etc. valve function.

F11 900°F 375 psig 99 .182 Gr.Exercise 1 – Determine Required Flange Rating For the piping system described below. determine the required flange rating (or Class) in accordance with ASME B16. Pipe: Flanges: Design Temperature: Design Pressure: 1¼ Cr – ½ Mo A .5.

suitable margins are determined by the user based on his experience. Determining the design pressure and design temperature for the equipment. The design temperature is used to determine the material basic allowable stress and other design requirements. Design Conditions 1. short-term variations stated in the applicable code. ASME B31. Identifying the equipment to which the piping system is attached. 2. excluding failure of any operating device.3 does not specify what margins should be used between operating and design conditions.VI. DESIGN A. Design conditions are those which govern the design and selection of piping components. Startup and controlled shutdown of plants and similar foreseeable events are included within normal operation. 100 . operator error. Piping system design conditions generally are determined based on the design conditions of the equipment to which the piping is attached.0 General Normal operating conditions are those expected to occur during normal operation. and are based on the most severe conditions expected to occur in service. A suitable margin is used between the normal operating and design conditions to account for normal operating variations.0 Determining Design Pressure and Temperature The design pressure and temperature are used to calculate the required thickness of pipe and other design details. Determining the piping design conditions consists of: 1. 2. The values for design pressure and temperature are based on process requirements. and the occasional.

internal pressure produces both circumferential (i. and occasional loads. Design pressure is defined as the maximum sustained pressure that a piping system must contain without exceeding its allowable stress limits. 101 .3. thermal expansion loads.0 Classification of Loading Conditions Pipe loads are classified into three principal types: sustained loads. The pressure load (caused by the design pressure) usually refers to internal pressure. hoop) stress and longitudinal stress in the pipe wall. Loads and Stresses 1. Verifying the values with the process engineer. As shown in Figure 6. Considering contingent design conditions. although some piping systems may also be designed for external pressure. 5. Design pressure is normally the governing factor in determining the minimum required pipe wall thickness. B.. 4. Sustained loads are those that act on the piping system during all or most of its operating time. Considering the direction of flow between the equipment.e. such as upsets not protected by pressure-relieving devices. Sustained loads consist of two main categories: pressure and weight.1.

1 The weight refers to the total design weight load. Thermal expansion loads are created when the free expansion and contraction of the piping is prevented at its end points by connected equipment. or prevented at intermediate points by supports and/or restraints that are installed. The resulting loads cause thermal stresses in the pipe. Increasing the restraint in a system increases the loading and results in higher thermal expansion stresses. Another cause of pipe thermal loads can be from the thermal expansion of equipment at 102 . the fluid in the pipe. valve operators. The weight loads produce a longitudinal stress in the pipe wall. The total weight load includes the weight of the pipe.Sl Sc P t Sl Sc t P = = = = Longitudinal Stress Circumferential (Hoop) Stress Wall Thickness Internal Pressure Stresses Produced By Internal Pressure Figure 6. insulation. valves. supports and any other concentrated loads. flanges. A piping system will expand or contract due to changes in its operating temperature. fittings. internal lining.

or bending stresses generated by the loading. shear. steam/water hammer. The degree of seismic loading that must be considered varies with geographic location and is defined by a seismic zone (Ref. Occasional loads involve seismic and/or dynamic loading. causing displacements in the piping system. and peak stresses. The basic allowable stress provides an upper limit for the actual stresses. Secondary stresses. Peak stresses occur in areas such as welds. unlike primary stresses. and wind loads. Secondary stresses cause local yielding and minor distortions. and safety factors. Peak stresses are considered equivalent in significance to secondary stresses. ANSI/ASCE 7). temperature. • • Primary stresses are the direct. The third type of loading comes from occasional loads. fittings.pipe-to-equipment nozzle attachment points. • 3. Peak stresses are more localized stresses which die away rapidly within a short distance from their origin. surge due to pump start-up and shutdown. branch connections. are not a source of direct failure from a single load application. but they do not cause any significant distortion. secondary.0 Allowable Stresses The basic allowable stress is a function of material properties. and other piping components where stress concentrations and possible fatigue failure might occur. 103 . Occasional loads act during a small percentage of the system’s operating time. valve operation (both opening and closing). Secondary stresses are those acting across the pipe wall thickness due to a differential radial deflection of the pipe wall.0 Stress Categorization To evaluate the stresses in a piping system. 2. it is necessary to distinguish among primary. Dynamic loads may be caused by safety-relief valve discharges.

• Allowable stresses for sustained loads are established to prevent general collapse or excessive distortion of the piping system. Table 6. Allowable stresses for thermal expansion loads are established to prevent a localized fatigue failure. 104 .1 (excerpted from ASME B31. Allowable stresses for occasional loads are established to prevent wind and earthquake type loads from collapsing or distorting the piping system. • • Actual stresses are calculated for the following load cases: • • • Sustained loads Occasional loads Stress range due to differential thermal expansion The piping system is designed such that the calculated stresses are no larger than the appropriate allowable stresses.3 Table A-1) lists basic allowable stresses in tension versus temperature for several materials.

9 600 17.0 700 16.0 20.0 18.1 C.0 7.5 1000 2.0 300 20..0 20. steamout.8Ni pipe 16Cr . Basic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metal Table 6.4 1.3 18. Material Carbon Steel C .4 3.½Mo 1¼ .4 1. 2.7 20.0 2.) and must be designed for external pressure. This section only discusses the internal pressure design of straight sections of pipe. Some piping systems may be subject to a negative pressure or vacuum condition during operation (e.3 for design requirements for external pressure.g.0 17.3 500 18.0 400 20.5 4. Most piping systems need only be designed for internal pressure.3 2.5 15.8 9.9 17.1 15.8 14. process vacuum conditions. etc.8 13. At Metal Temperature.5 12.5 18.3 1.5 17. °F. Table A-1 (Excerpt).0 15.0 20.0 Required Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure of Straight Pipe The required wall thickness for internal pressure is calculated using the following equation: t= PD 2 (SE + PY ) Where: t P = Required thickness for internal pressure.½Mo 18Cr .5 18.12Ni-2Mo pipe Spec.0 16.7 12. ksi.3 800 10.4 17. 6.3 13. = Internal design pressure.5 15.7 16.3 20. Pressure Design of Components 1.2 17.8 15.3.0 200 20.3 17.0 16.0 20.7 4.3 15.9 16.7 19.7 12. Refer to ASME B31.0 General Two different types of pressure may be imposed on a piping system: external or internal.9 900 6.1 2. No/Grade A 106 A 335 A 335 A 312 A 312 B P1 P11 TP304 TP316 100 20.4 2.2 6.0 20.7 16.6 15.3 1200 1300 1400 1500 ASME B31.6 16. psig 105 .Basic Allowable Stress S. in.0 18. underwater lines.3 1100 1.2 15.

3) The longitudinal-joint quality factor is based on: • Whether the pipe is seamless or has a welded longitudinal seam The pipe material and welding process (if welded pipe) • The wall thickness correction factor is based on the type of steel and the design temperature. 106 . psi = Longitudinal-joint quality factor (Table 6.2) = Wall thickness correction factor (Table 6.1).S E Y = Allowable stress in tension (Table 6.

. 4 5 2 Seamless pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.2 107 ..00 0.80 0. All Seamless pipe and tube Welded pipe Welded pipe 1.3. Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints... Class (or Type) Description Ej Carbon Steel API 5L . spot radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe.00 A 106 A 358 ASME B31..00 1. . .00 0.. double butt. 3...85 0.85 0.. double butt seam Nickel and Nickel Alloy B 161 B 514 B 675 . 1. Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Seamless pipe Stainless Steel A 312 . No.00 0. ....80 1...00 0. .00 0.85 1..85 0. Ej Table 6... Table A-1B (Excerpt)..85 1. straight or spiral seam Furnace butt welded Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Furnace butt welded pipe Seamless pipe Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel A 333 A 335 ..95 A 53 Type S Type E Type F . double butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe...Spec.00 0...80 1.. Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Electric fusion welded pipe. single butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe..90 0. 100% radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe. . .60 1. 1.

ASME B31. .. The typical pipe mill tolerance is 12..7 0.4 0.4 1000 0.1. Values of Coefficient Y Table 6...1 (Excerpt).. . Table 304.5% thinner than the nominal thickness and still meet its specification requirements. °F Materials Ferritic Steels Austenitic Steels Other Ductile Metals Cast iron 900 & lower 0. in.3.5 0..3 Two additional thickness allowances must be considered to determine the final required pipe wall thickness: corrosion allowance and mill tolerance. Mill tolerance accounts for the difference between the actual manufactured pipe wall thickness and the “nominal” wall thickness specified in the relevant pipe dimensional standard.5 0. The corrosion allowance is based on experience and data for the particular pipe material and fluid service.7 0.4 0.4 1150 & up 0..7 0.7 0.4 0.4 950 0.4 0.4 1100 0.0 ..4 0.5%. This means that the as-supplied pipe wall thickness can be up to 12.4 0..4 1050 0. .7 0.Temperature. . Corrosion allowance (CA) is an additional thickness that is added to account for wall thinning and wear that can occur in service. Use the following equation to determine the minimum required nominal thickness to order: 108 . Thus: tm = t + CA Where: tm = Total minimum required wall thickness..

in. 3. depending on the number of miter welds. Each pipe size has several standard nominal thicknesses that are available. Refer to ASME B31. etc. A mitered bend is generally less expensive than a wrought elbow for large pipe sizes (over ~ NPS 24).875 Where: tnom = Minimum required nominal pipe wall thickness. design conditions. 109 . A mitered bed is fabricated by welding straight pipe sections together to produce the direction change. The minimum required thickness for a miter may be greater that that of the connected straight pipe sections.3 for thickness calculation requirements.0 Curved and Mitered Pipe Segments The minimum required thickness of curved pipe (elbows or bends) is the same as that required for straight pipe sections.t nom = tm 0. The nominal pipe thickness that is specified for a system must be selected from those readily available and be at least equal to tnom. size.

P11 (1¼ Cr – ½ Mo). P 11 material: S E Y = 16.1.0 [Table A-1B of ASME B31.3 at 650°F = 1.150 psi. since the material is ferritic and the temperature is below 900oF. The material is ASTM A335.380 psig. [Table A-1 of ASME B31. spare heat exchanger. Gr. 14 in. You have been assigned the responsibility to determine the required wall thickness for the pipe from the heat exchanger to several pumps. Corrosion allowance is 0.3] = 0.SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 . Gr. The piping system will have a design temperature of 650°F. the required internal pressure thickness may be calculated as follows: 110 . seamless.380 psig. Since all the required parameters have now been determined.3.DETERMINE PIPE WALL THICKNESS A piping system must be modified to add a new. For the A335.1 of ASME B31. The pipe outside diameter is 14 in.0625 in. The design pressure is 1. What is the minimum required thickness for this pipe? SOLUTION The following equation applies: t= PD 2 (SE + PY ) Based on the given information: P D = = 1.4 [Table 304.

577 in.0 Branch Reinforcement Requirements A pipe with a branch connection is weakened by the required opening. Branch connections can also be made using forged or wrought fittings (i.731 in.875 4. Therefore: tm tm = = t + c = 0.. laterals.0625 in. or half-couplings). couplings. ASME B31. tnom = 0.6395 in. crosses. additional reinforcement must be provided. This section discusses only branch connections that are fabricated by welding a branch pipe to the run pipe. 111 . Reinforcement calculations are not required for forged or wrought type branch connections because they have adequate inherent reinforcement and have been designed and tested to meet ASME B31.6395 = 0.380 × 14 2 [(16. or an integrally reinforced branch connection.3 contain rules for determining the required reinforcement for both welded and extruded outlet-type branch connections. tees.380 × 0. 0. corrosion allowance has been specified.3 requirements. a 0. Unless the wall thickness of the pipe is sufficiently greater than that required to sustain the pressure.0625 0.150 × 1) + (1. In this case.577 + 0.4)] t = 0.e.t= 1.

and the intersection is viewed in crosssection. An imaginary plane is passed through the branch and run pipes.2 4. This reinforcement: 112 . Nom. Db c Mill Tol. Thk. However. Reinforcement Zone Limits Tb Reinforcement Zone Limits tb A3 A3 A4 L4 A4 A1 Tr Th Dh Nom. A2 d1 d2 d2 A2 β Welded Branch Connection Figure 6. The removed volume of pipe wall is then looked at as an area (see Figure 6. a simplification is made when evaluating branch reinforcement requirements.2). The branch connection must have adequate reinforcement to compensate for the weakening caused by cutting a hole in the run pipe. Thk.2 Limits of Reinforcement Zone The reinforcing zone is the region where credit may be taken for any reinforcement that is present.4. Pipe C c th Mill Tol.1 Area Removed By Branch Connection A volume of metal is removed from a pipe wall when a hole is cut in it for a branch connection.

saddle. in. additional metal may be added.• Must be located reasonably close to the opening to provide any practical benefit. Minimum branch thickness. Additional reinforcement added in the form of a pad. in. • • Excess thickness available in the branch or header pipe. If excess thicknesses in the branch and header pipes do not provide enough reinforcement. 4. Acute angle between branch and header 113 . ring. or both. Corrosion allowance. or weld metal. May be located in the branch pipe. in. the run pipe. 4. • Additional material located outside of this zone is not effective for reinforcement. in.3 Branch Connection Reinforcement Branch connection reinforcement located within the reinforcement zone may come from one or more of the following sources. This is calculated using: d1 = D b − 2(Tb − c ) sin β Where: d1 Db Tb c β = = = = = Effective length removed from the run pipe. Branch outside diameter.4 Reinforcement Area The required reinforcement area is based on the metal area removed.

Db = Tr = Outside diameter of the branch. β= 114 . in. in. A1. The acute angle between the branch and header pipes. it is usually more economical to provide a reinforcement pad to supply the additional reinforcement. the following equation is used: æ (D p − D b ) ö A4 = ç Tr ç sin β è Where: D01p = Outside diameter of the pad. Pad thickness. There are three variables to select in designing the reinforcement pad: • • • Material Outside diameter Wall thickness To calculate the area of the reinforcement pad. is then calculated using : A1 = t h d1(2 − sin β) Where: th 4. and may be provided by locally increasing the thickness of either the header or branch pipe. Reinforcement Pad Additional branch reinforcement is needed when the required area exceeds the available area. in. in. However.5 = Minimum required header thickness.The required reinforcement area. A4.

The pad material is generally equivalent to that of the pipe. The following Sample Problem illustrates the branch reinforcement calculation procedure. 115 .The pad must be large enough to provide the additional reinforcement needed and be within the reinforcement zone.

375 in.SAMPLE PROBLEM 3 A new steam turbine is being installed within a process plant. SOLUTION See Figure 6. • • The required thicknesses for pressure were given.395 in.5% less than the nominal thickness). and that its thickness equals the header thickness. d1 = Db − 2(Tb − c ) sin β 116 .e.263 in. Branch: 0. This will require a new NPS 16 steam supply line to be connected to an existing NPS 24 distribution header. 0. Assume that the pad material is equal to the header material. the actual pipe wall thickness may be up to 12..Seamless. 12. This equals the corroded inside diameter of the branch connection after accounting for mill tolerance (i. neglecting the area of any welds. size the reinforcing pad.5% Header: 0.562 in. A 106/Gr. Design temperature Design pressure Allowable stress Corrosion allowance Mill tolerance Nominal Pipe Thicknesses Required Pipe Thicknesses for Pressure 700°F 550 psig 16. The following design information has been determined: • • • • • • • • • Pipe material . must be calculated. d1.2 for the relevant nomenclature. Header: 0. Determine if additional reinforcement is required for this branch connection. Next. the value for the effective length removed from the run pipe. Branch: 0. B for both the branch and header. The branch connection is made on top of the header at a 90° angle. If it is. and does not penetrate a header weld.0625 in.500 psi.

or.395 .375 − 0.0.875 − 0.11in. may be calculated.0625 ) + 15. (Tb−c ) + (Th−c ) + d1 2 ..469 in. but less than the header diameter.0. A2 = (2 x 15.469 . which is less than the header diameter of 24 in.d1 = 16 − 2(0. 117 .53 in.2 • Calculate the excess area available in the branch.0625 ) + (0. Dh = 8.0625 ) sin 90° d1 = 15.562 − 0.875 x 0. A2.469) (0.2 The available reinforcement areas in the header and branch pipe are now calculated.375 × 0. A2 = (2d2 − d1)(Th − th − c ) First determine d2 which is the greater of d1. • Now the required reinforcement area.469 (2 − sin90°) A1 = 6.0625) A2 = 0.43 in. • Calculate the excess area available in the header. Disregard any contribution from nozzle attachment welds since this is minimal.469 in. This is determined using any “excess” thickness available in the header and branch that is not necessary to withstand the pressure (or other) loads. A1. (0. A1 = t h d1 (2 − sinβi A1 = 0.395 × 15. A3.562 .469 2 ∴ d2 = d1 = 15.875 × 0.15.875 × 0.

2 is obviously much less than the required reinforcement area of 6.0625 ) sin 90° A3 = 0.0625) 0. no reinforcing pad initially) and Th is greater than Tb. Therefore. The available total reinforcement of 0. AT = AT = AT = A2 + A3 + A4 0.003 + 0 0. 118 .003 in.375 − 0. The reinforcement pad will now be sized. • Total Available Area: The total available reinforcement area.2 available reinforcement.11 in.e.2 • Calculate other excess area that may be available. a reinforcing pad is required.375 .875 x 0.664 in. 2 × 0. L4 is based on the second equation.A3 = 2L4(Tb − tb−c ) sin β First determine L4. L4 = L4 = A3 = 2.2. whichever is smaller .. Therefore. is calculated by adding the contributions from each source.875 × 0.533 in.533 in. There is no reinforcing pad and the area contribution from the branch weld is being disregarded. A4.0.5 (Tb−c ) + Tr.5 (Th−c ) or 2. L4= 2. Since Tr = 0 (i.53 + 0. AT. A4 = 0.263 − 0.664 (0.5 (0.

375 − 0. B material will be used for the reinforcement pad. Its thickness is set to be equal to the header nominal thickness of 0.11in.875 × 0.562 (0.375 .005 + 0 A T = 0. the additional reinforcement area to be provided in the pad. the available reinforcement in the branch must be recalculated since the height of the reinforcement zone in the branch pipe will change slightly. Gr.5 (Tb .2.A106.562 .0625) sin 90 o A 3 = 0. the 0.5 (0.535 in.0625) 1.073 in.2 available reinforcement A3 = • Calculate additional reinforcement required and the pad dimensions: The required reinforcement area is 6. 2. Therefore.2 (vs. • Recalculate Available Reinforcement: Now that a reinforcing pad is being used. L4 = 1.875 × 0.875) 1.2 previously calculated) A T = A 2 +A 3 + A 4 A T = 0. is: 119 .2.c) 2.005 in. Therefore.073 in.073 (0.53 + 0.0.562 in. A3 = 2L 4 (Tb − t b − c) sin β 2 × 1.263 − 0.535 in.0625) + 0.c) + Tr 2.5 (0.16 in.0. L41 = L41 = L41 = L42 = L42 = L42 = 2.875 × 0.003 in.5 (Th . and the available area is 0. A4.

875) = 0. Db = 16 in.5 A4 Tr 0.3 in. to provide adequate reinforcement. 0. The following approach of calculating the required pad width.575 Lr = 0.A4 = A4 = 6. Tr = 0..575 + 16 0.492 L r = 5.11 .66 in.562 (0. Since 2d2 = 30.938 in.575 in. Lr.492 in. this pad diameter is within the reinforcement zone along the header and is acceptable.0.535 5.5 × 5. The pad diameter must be at least 27. Lr = 120 .492 D p = 27. Dp.3 in. may be used as an alternative to calculating the pad diameter.2 • Determine the diameter of the pad. Dp = Dp = A4 Db + Tr sin β 5.

has been specified for the pipe. The fluid being transported will have a design temperature of 260°F. A corrosion allowance of 1/8 in. 121 . B seamless pipe. Gr. The system design pressure is 150 psig. b.3. All piping within the tank farm is designed in accordance with ASME B31.2 and 6.1 along with Tables 6.EXERCISE 2: DETERMINE REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS A new project is being considered to transport 48° API crude oil in a carbon steel pipe between two areas within a tank farm. What is the thickness required for internal pressure? What is the minimum required nominal wall thickness? Use Table 6. the pipe outside diameter is 30 in.. Assume there is a 12. and the pipe being used is A 106. a.5% mill tolerance.3 for the necessary information.

This section discusses how these factors influence piping layout.0 Maintenance Requirements The piping system must be laid out so that its components can be inspected. sample points. SYSTEM DESIGN A. maintenance. and vents) should be located so that they can be used safely and easily.g. or replaced with minimum difficulty. drains. sample points. and other equipment that may require operator attention. • • 122 .g. flanges. cranes) and for vehicles (e. For example.. vessel flanges. and safety considerations influence the layout of a piping system. valves. Heat exchanger bundles must be pulled out for cleaning. There must be enough space to access and remove large pieces of equipment if they require maintenance. 2.0 Operations Requirements Operating and control points (e.. There must also be enough lateral space to access valves. • Access near rotating equipment is important because cranes must reach the equipment when removal or realignment is required.. Access must be provided so supports can be maintained. These factors must be recognized when designing the layout and spacing of piping and equipment. Large valves must be removed to repair or replace their seats. repaired. Layout Considerations Operational. There must be ample clearance for maintenance equipment (e. valves must be located so that they can be reached. trucks). 1. There must be enough clearance above and below the pipe to perform basic operations on valves and flanges.g. instruments.VII.

Availability of nearby structural steel that is already there. Need to permit vertical thermal movement at a support. Firewater piping must be routed so that it would not be damaged by piping containing hazardous fluids that could rupture. Direction of loads to be absorbed or movement to be restrained. Restraints control or direct the thermal movement of a piping system. Selection of a specific type of support or restraint to use in a particular situation depends on such factors as: • • • • • • Load to be supported or absorbed.0 Rotating equipment requires frequent monitoring and maintenance.• 3. Supports absorb system weight and reduce longitudinal pipe stress. This specifically includes access for fire fighting equipment and fire prevention. The control of thermal movement may be necessary either to keep pipe thermal expansion stresses within allowable limits. Fire fighting equipment needs clearance to access major pieces of equipment (e. or to limit the loads that are imposed on connected equipment. and end point reaction loads.. There must be enough space beneath pipeways for people to walk and work. 123 . pipe sag. heat exchangers. Safety Considerations Piping layout must consider the safety of personnel near the pipe. Pipeways must be routed and designed to provide the necessary clearances. Pipe Supports and Restraints A piping system needs supports and restraints because of the various loads that are imposed upon it.g. Clearance available for attachment to pipe. and tankage). vessels. Design temperature. B.

Shoe Saddle Base Adjustable Support Dummy Support Trunnion Rigid Supports Figure 7. and will permit lateral movement and rotation.1. They support pipe from structural steel or other facilities that are located above the pipe and carry piping weight loads in tension.1 Hangers are a type of rigid support. Pipe hangers are typically 124 .0 Rigid Supports Rigid supports are used in situations where weight support is needed and no provision to permit vertical thermal displacement is required.1. will sometimes prevent vertical thermal movement upward. A rigid support always will prevent vertical movement downward. See Figure 7.

See Figure 7.one or more structural steel rods bolted to a pipe attachment and to the overhead member. Weight is supported by the use of a coil spring having an appropriate stiffness to carry the applied weight 125 .2 2. A hanger rod is designed to move freely both parallel and perpendicular to the pipe axis. and not restrict thermal expansion in these directions.2. Hangers Figure 7.0 Flexible Supports Flexible or resilient supports allow the piping system to move in all three directions while still supporting the required weight load. A hanger will prevent movement both down and up.

126 . it permits vertical thermal movement while still carrying the weight.load.1 Restraints Restraints have two primary purposes in a piping system. the amount of vertical load exerted by the support changes as a result of the pipe thermal movement (which compresses or extends the spring).3. Since the spring is resilient. and vertical thermal expansion must also be permitted. There are two basic types of flexible supports: variable load and constant-load-type. Load and Deflection Scale Small Change in Effective Lever Arm Large Change in Effective Lever Arm Relatively Constant Load Typical Variable-Load Spring Support Typical Constant-Load Spring Support Mechanism Flexible Supports Figure 7.0 Typical Restraints and Anchors 3.3 3. The amount of vertical load exerted by a constant-load type support does not change throughout its movement range. See Figure 7. In the variable-load type flexible support. This type of support is used in situations where support must be provided at a particular location.

127 . Anchors provide full fixation of the pipe. water hammer. A directional anchor which restrains the line only in its axial direction is more commonly used. 3. The selection of which type to use and its specific design details depends primarily on the direction of pipe movement that must be restrained. An anchor is used in situations where it is necessary to totally isolate one section of a piping system from another from the standpoint of load and deflection. Restraints absorb loads imposed on the pipe by other conditions such as wind. Figure 7. the location of the restraint point. earthquake. permitting very limited. and the magnitude of the load that must be absorbed.2 Anchors An anchor is a special type of restraint that stops movement in all three directions. if any.4 provides several examples of anchors. A total anchor that eliminates all translation and rotation at one location is not used as commonly as one or more restraints that act at a single location. It is also possible to restrain more than one direction at one location in a piping system.• Restraints control. limit. or cause flange leakage. or redirect the unrestricted thermal movement of a pipe. or flow-induced vibration. • There are several different types of restraints that may be used. Excessive loads could result in high pipe stress or equipment reaction loads. or to combine a restraint with a support. They are used to either reduce the thermal stress in the pipe or the loads exerted by the pipe on equipment connections. translation or rotation. slug flow.

4 3.3 Guides A guide is a particular type of restraint that permits movement along the pipe axis while preventing lateral movement.Anchor Anchor Partial Anchor Restraints/Anchors Figure 7. Common situations where guides are used are in long pipe runs on a pipe rack to control thermal movement and prevent buckling. and in straight pipe runs down the side of a tower to prevent wind-induced movement and control thermal expansion.5. pipe rotation may or may not be restricted. See Figure 7. 128 . Depending on the particular guide details employed.

and damaged equipment. fatigue failure of the pipe. Piping systems must be designed to ensure that they do not fail because of thermal stresses or produce excessive forces and moments at connected equipment. Piping Flexibility Piping must have sufficient flexibility to accommodate thermal expansion (or contraction) effects. the results can be leaky flanges. excessive maintenance.Guide Guide x Vertical Guide Guide Examples of Guides Figure 7. operations problems. 129 . If a system does not provide adequate flexibility.5 C.

wind. and then decide if they are acceptable. It is also often necessary to limit the pipe movement at specific locations to protect sensitive equipment. However. If these thermal movements are allowed to occur without any restraint whatsoever. Elevated design temperatures or various operating scenarios may cause sufficient pipe thermal stress or reduce material strength such that supplementary structural assistance to support the piping system is required. supported.0 Rationale for Piping Flexibility and Support Design Support and flexibility design is a combination of art and science with multiple factors to consider and usually more than one way to design the system. stresses are developed in the pipe and moments and forces are imposed on the connected equipment and at supports and restraints installed in the system. design details that spread the applied load over a wider portion of the pipe surface are used. 130 . and the supports and restraints required for the system. or to resist external forces (e. control vibration. 1. earthquake. Attention must also be paid to pipe support/restraint design details to ensure that localized stresses in the pipe wall are kept within allowable limits. no pipe stresses or reaction loads result. A thermal flexibility analysis is done to ensure that the piping system is laid out.g. or shock loading). in real systems. A piping system can be described as an irregular structural frame in space because of its relatively slender proportions when compared to structural steel systems. It requires knowledge of how the operating and design conditions of a piping system influence its overall design. The basic problem is to determine the internal pipe stresses and the external loads.A structure that is subject to a change in temperature will change in dimensions. In those situations. and restrained such that the thermal stresses in the pipe and the loads on the end points are within allowable limits.. Planning for pipe supports and restraints should be done simultaneously with establishing possible layout configurations to achieve the most cost-effective design.

Pipe diameter and thickness. vibrationprone services.e.. • Examine the layout and operation of the piping system to identify: Layout geometry. - • • • • • Determine the potential effects of those conditions (e.g. loads. If required. Relevant operating scenarios..g. Fluid service. Interpret the results of the analysis. Locations of existing structural steel.e. there is no single procedure or design method applicable for all situations. long radius or short radius). End-point movements. orientation of loads). The following is one way to approach the problem.0 Approaches to Design Due to the complexity of the piping flexibility and support design process. Special design considerations (e.2.. including its potential danger. identify which conditions apply for the analysis and utilize an appropriate computer program. rotating or fixed). Piping component design details such as branch connection details and type of elbows used (i. wind. and stresses). 131 . Determine if the situation warrants a detailed computer analysis. and locations of any changes in these parameters. Determine the types of support or restraint required and their approximate locations. thermal movements. Type of connected equipment (i. Design temperature and pressure..

3. whether the equipment is a rotating 132 . Pipe diameter and wall thickness. including whether it is dangerous. Extent of analysis required to identify most severe case. E.3 piping systems are designed for a minimum of 7000 cycles. on connected equipment. several things must be considered: • • • • Applicable design conditions and operating scenarios for the piping system. restraint. Such programs have the capability to consider any combination of pipe geometry. End-point movements. Type of connected equipment. This influences piping flexibility design because the allowable flexibility stress is based on fatigue failure. Design conditions that must be known to perform a detailed pipe stress analysis are listed below: • • • • • • • • Layout geometry of the piping system. if any. Simflex. Structural steel located in the vicinity. support. Criteria for Allowable Equipment Nozzle Loads A poorly designed piping system can cause damage to the equipment it is connected to.D. Required Design Information for Piping Stress Analysis Detailed piping stress analysis is done using a computer program such as Caesar II. Load limitations. or Triflex. Design temperature and pressure. and load conditions. All ASME B31. Another consideration is the number of cycles that the system will undergo during its design life. Allowable stresses from ASME B31. Systems that will undergo more than 7000 operating cycles during their design life are designed using a reduced allowable stress basis. However. Special design considerations and load cases. Fluid service.

and/or maintenance problems at levels well below those that would cause pipe or equipment stress concerns. nozzle elevation. and the parameters that are used to determine the allowable loads. Other times.. The allowable values can sometimes be read from a table contained in the applicable industry standard. Shelland-Tube Heat Exchanger Nozzles API-610 API-617. Stress analysis required. Nozzle size Equipment Item Industry Standard Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Compressors Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Pressure Vessels. material Nozzle size Nozzle size. WRC-107. 1. Nozzle size. pressure vessel or heat exchanger). shell thickness. height.85 times NEMA SM-23 allowable API-661 ASME Code Section VIII.type (e. reinforcement details. vessel/exchanger diameter. the allowable loads or the equipment stresses that they cause must be calculated. tank diameter. Parameters Used To Determine Acceptable Loads Nozzle size Nozzle size. Loads that are imposed by the piping system on connected equipment are determined from the results of the piping flexibility analysis. Equipment vendors will sometimes have allowable load criteria that must be considered.1 summarizes industry standards that apply to equipment nozzle load evaluations. and wall thickness.1 133 . Rotating equipment is the more sensitive with respect to imposed piping loads because of the moving parts and small clearances involved in its design. pump or compressor) or stationary type (e.. Table 7. poor operation.g.g. thickness. Excessive piping loads imposed on rotating equipment can cause damage. WRC-297 Tank Nozzles API-650 Steam Turbines NEMA SM-23 Equipment Nozzle Load Standards and Parameters Table 7. These loads are then compared to allowable values based on industry standards for particular types of equipment to determine if they are acceptable.

134 . and for complicated piping systems. NPS ≥4 ≥8 ≥ 12 ≥ 20 ≥3 ≥4 ≥ 12 For rotating equipment For air-fin heat exchangers For tankage Maximum Differential Flexibility Temp. A piping system designer should remember that a computer program only gives quantitative guidelines. and bends.2 G. a computer program can often be used to finalize and optimize the final design. Even though hand calculations can be used in many situations. When Should A Computer Analysis Be Used Computer programs can perform numerous analyses with many different combinations of design conditions and system geometries. A computer analysis should also be used when there are several operating combinations to be considered and other methods would be inadequate or too time consuming. Design Considerations for Piping System Stress Analysis The following paragraphs discuss several design considerations in piping system stress analysis. They can perform many functions that would be difficult for a piping analyst to do “by hand. when greater accuracy is required due to the nature of the system. branches.F.” Computers can also perform unique functions that would be difficult or impossible to do by hand or other methods with sufficient accuracy.2 may be used to help determine when a computer analysis should be performed: Type Of Piping General piping Pipe Size. ≥ 400°F ≥ 300°F ≥ 200°F any Any Any Any Computer Analysis Guidelines Table 7. to which they must apply common sense and judgement. Computer programs are also very useful for analyzing the stresses and loads at piping components such as valves. The guidelines listed in Table 7.

An example is the decoking of furnaces.e. For example. Note that more than one of these items might require consideration in a particular system and lead to the need for multiple computer calculations to identify the case that governs the system design.. supports. use of the design temperature rather than operating temperature) allows for process flexibility. if a tower is heated while some attached piping remains cold. Requires multiple analyses to determine if the piping is adequate for the expected variations of temperature. and restraints. Must be designed for normal operation. and for switching from one piece of equipment to another. Tables 7.4 provide guidelines to determine the temperatures to consider in a flexibility analysis. and switching from one service to the other. A common example is the piping for two or more pumps with one or more spares.1.3 and 7. for no flow in some of the piping. Some margin above equipment operating temperature (i. Must be examined to determine if the heating or cooling cycles pose flexibility problems. and the largest reaction loads imposed on equipment end connections. or decoking.0 Piping Flexibility Temperature Flexibility analysis should be made for the largest temperature difference that may be imposed on the pipe by normal and abnormal operating conditions.3 135 . This results in the largest pipe stress range to be considered in fatigue failure evaluation. Startup and Shutdown Regeneration and Decoking Piping Spared Equipment Normal Temperature Conditions To Consider Table 7. regeneration. Stable Operation Gives the temperature range expected for most of the time a plant is in operation. the piping flexibility should be checked for that case.

This includes pipe that is normally at ambient temperature but can be blocked in. while subject to solar radiation. and many off-site lines. especially piping connected to the upper parts of towers. Most on-site equipment and lines. the ambient temperature). For 125 psig steam. Pipe thermal movement is caused by a temperature change from the piping installation temperature (i. a condition of high temperature and low pressure may govern the piping flexibility design while the wall thickness is based on a higher pressure but a lower temperature. Then. the piping flexibility should be checked for the maximum metal temperature. Steamout for Air or Gas Freeing No Process Flow While Heating Continues Abnormal Temperature Conditions To Consider Table 7.Loss of Cooling Medium Flow Temperature changes due to a loss of cooling medium flow should be considered. Piping connected to equipment which will be steamed out. Piping analysis computer programs typically include a “default” ambient temperature (commonly 70°F). should be checked for the tower at 300°F and the piping at ambient plus 50°F. A realistic ambient installation temperature (typically lower than 70°F) must be used for the specific plant site to accurately calculate the maximum thermal stress range and reaction loads.. Such situations can occur with steam tracing and steam jacketing. are freed of gas or air by the use of steam. Piping flexibility depends only on the temperature. This situation may govern the flexibility of lines connected to towers that operate at less than 300°F or that have a smaller temperature variation from top to bottom. 136 .e. Therefore. 300°F is typically used for the metal temperature.4 Metal temperatures that govern the flexibility design of a piping system are not necessarily the ones associated with the most severe coincident pressure and temperature which govern the wall thickness of the pipe. If process flow can be stopped while heat is still being applied. all thermal movements and resulting thermal stresses are calculated based on the difference between the specified pipe design temperature and the default ambient temperature.

These make the system more flexible and reduce the thermal stresses. The following guidelines may help the situation. and any alternative operating scenarios. and the applicable load criteria for connected equipment. complex system in the analysis to simplify the modeling. or use more expansion loops within the same space. The engineer must also decide if it is desirable and acceptable to not include portions of a large. including an NPS 4 branch run in the model of a NPS 24 main system may not be necessary. Judicious installation of anchors or other restraints in a large system could also help simplify the modeling by separating the system into sections. The engineer must analyze the right combination of operating conditions to determine where. The overall purpose of the analysis is to provide enough flexibility for the system. 137 . Locate intermediate points of restraint and define any limitations that they impose on piping movement. material.2. • • • • 3. Select a suitable analysis method and calculate the loads and stresses. layout. additional flexibility is needed to reduce pipe stresses or loads at end points. number of temperature cycles. wall thickness. Compare the results with the allowable stress range for thermal expansion stresses. and if.0 Extent of Analysis The extent of a piping system analysis depends on the situation. maximum differential temperature. Use the following steps to develop the piping design: • Define line size. the allowable stress at design temperature for weight-plus-pressure stresses. Determine conditions of end-point restraint and movements.0 Modifying System Design The initial piping system layout may not be satisfactory for thermal flexibility stresses or loads on connected equipment. For example. • Provide more offsets or bends.

Thus. the use of expansion joints should only be considered as a last resort. Avoid fixed supports that result in large thermal stresses.• Install expansion joints. They may affect the life of the system since they are more susceptible to damage than pipe. • • • 4. This might be done either to reduce liquid viscosity to allow the necessary flow. Use Teflon bearing pads at supports for large-diameter pipe or other large weight loads if friction loads are excessive on equipment connections or structural members. Restraints could also be used to direct pipe thermal expansion into a section of the system that has more inherent flexibility to absorb it. this approach should be the exception rather than the rule. However. fluidized solids transfer lines). various scenarios of operating vs. spared pump(s) must be considered since portions of the system near the pumps will be hot while other portions are cold. or to prevent condensate accumulation.0 System Design Considerations Each type of piping system has particular factors that must be considered when performing a detailed analysis. or if thermal expansion causes pipe to lift off fixed supports.g. One situation where expansion joints must be used is where pressure drop or other process requirements dictate the use of relatively straight pipe runs (e. Thus. Use spring supports if large vertical thermal movements are expected. The condition with the process flow off while the heat tracing remains on must also be considered since the pipe metal temperature for this case may be higher than the normal design temperature. Strategically locate restraints to minimize thermal and friction loads at equipment. Piping systems connected to atmospheric storage tanks must be designed considering movement that occurs at • • 138 . and can create maintenance and operational problems. Expansion joints represent a "weak link" in a piping system. For example: • Pump systems will often be installed with spared pumps. Piping systems are sometimes heat traced..

or where large concentrated weight loads are supported near equipment nozzles. The manifold is located directly above or below the exchanger header box. straight sections of pipe to connect the manifold to the exchanger nozzles.the tank nozzle. which will resist lateral movement of the bundle. The most common configuration for air-cooled heat exchanger piping uses short.7). When the tank is filled with liquid. the shell will bulge outward and the nozzle will rotate down due to this shell bulging (see Figure 7. friction loads can restrict pipe movement and cause unexpectedly high pipe stresses or end point reaction loads. The heat exchanger tube bundle is allowed to move laterally to accommodate the thermal expansion of the pipe manifold. The flexibility analysis should include the restraining effect of friction from movement of the exchanger bundle. it is often necessary to use a flexible-type pipe support located near the tank nozzle to ensure that the tank nozzle is not overloaded. If large enough.7 • It may be necessary to consider pipe frictional effects at support points. NOZZLE SHELL BOTTOM Tank Nozzle Figure 7. Over a period of time. • 139 . Typical situations where it may be necessary to consider friction loads are for long horizontal pipe runs. Because of these expected tank movements. the tank may also settle down into its foundation with respect to the pipe.

preheat and interpass temperatures.VIII. or by using weld metal to provide a smooth transition as shown in Figure 8. Individual spool pieces are then assembled and erected in the field.e. welding process (including whether it is manual or automatic). electrode type and material. or to weld the edges of formed plate together when plate is used to manufacture pipe. spool pieces)..1 are typically used for ends of equal thickness. Butt-welded joints in piping systems are primarily of the single-V configuration and are welded from the pipe outside surface. to weld butt-weldtype flanges or fittings to pipe ends. Welded joints represent the ultimate in safety and reliability. geometry).e. 140 . The transition between ends of unequal thickness may be accomplished by taper grinding the thicker pipe to match the thinner. etc. Included in the welding procedure are: base-metal specification. FABRICATION.g. joint preparation (i.0 Butt-Welds Butt-welds are made between two components whose edges are in close proximity. ASSEMBLY. The joint preparation and the procedure that is used ensure that there is complete fusion between the edges of the components being joined. and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) requirements. All design codes call for welding to be carried out using a qualified procedure and welders. vertical. techniques.2. Welding and Heat Treatment Welding is one of the primary ways of joining pipe. A. Butt-welds are always used to weld pipe ends together. AND ERECTION Individual sections of pipe must be fabricated into convenient sections (i.. 1.). weld position (e. electrical details. overhead.. Joint designs shown in Figure 8.

1 3/32 in. The size of a fillet weld is stated as a leg length of the largest inscribed right isosceles triangle. Thickness Butt-Welded Joint Designs Equal Thickness Figure 8.2 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) Butt-Welded Joint Design Unequal Thickness Figure 8.0 Fillet Weld The fillet weld generally requires no special joint preparation. and for welding 141 . In piping systems. Pipe and Fittings Over 7/8 in. fillet welds are only used for slip-on flanges. max.(a) Standard End Preparation of Pipe (b) Standard End Preparation of Butt-Welding Fittings and Optional End Preparation of Pipe 7/8 in. socket welds. and Thinner (c) Suggested End Preparation. It is an angular weld bead that joins components normally positioned at a 90° angle to each other.

3. Fillet Welds Figure 8.attachments to piping components (e.). etc. See Figure 8.3 142 .. supports.g. reinforcing pads.

0 Welding Preparation Steps The following outlines the overall steps that are required for welding. • • 4. Specific heat treatment temperature and procedure requirements are specified in 143 .0 Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) PWHT averts or relieves the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe temperature gradients that are inherent in welding.3. rust. along with heat treatment. wall thickness. scale. Helps drive off absorbed gases (e. hydrogen) which could contribute to weld porosity..g. and welding process involved. The following identifies the benefits of preheating: • • Dries the metal and removes surface moisture which could result in weld porosity. to minimize the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradients that are inherent in welding. This lowers the weld hardness and reduces cooling/shrinkage stresses. • • 5. or other material that would be detrimental to either the weld or base metal when heat is applied. Internal and external surfaces to be welded shall be clean and free from paint. oil. • The individuals and equipment executing the welding procedure must be confirmed to be qualified to produce acceptable results.0 Preheating Preheating is used. and relieves residual stresses that are created by bending and forming. Helps maintain the weld pool molten longer to permit maximum separation of impurities. Reduces the temperature difference between the base metal and the weld to reduce the cooling rate of the weldment. The ends of the components to be welded must be set to the correct geometric shape suitable for the materials.

• • • B.. PWHT is required to prevent caustic embrittlement of welded carbon steel pipe that handles alkaline solutions.0 Storage and Handling Improper handling and storage of pipe materials and welding filler metals can cause damage and result in poor construction quality and failures during operation. Minimizing weld hardness reduces the tendency to crack. 144 .e.ASME B31. wet H2S). Assembly and Erection Additional piping fabrication requirements must be considered. After welding the normal grades of stainless steels (i. Caustic embrittlement is a form of stress corrosion where the residual stresses due to welding are sufficient to cause failure.3.g.. Residual stresses will remain in the pipe and result from shrinkage as the weld and adjacent pipe metal cool down from elevated welding temperatures.3 based on the pipe material and wall thickness being joined. Several of these are discussed below. If these residual stresses are too high. Other reasons for PWHT (e. This is the only consideration for the PWHT requirements specified in ASME B31. 1. especially in certain process environments (e. Residual stresses will also remain after bending or forming processes. they can lead to premature failure of the pipe. those that are not stabilized with alloy additions). due to process considerations) must be specified by the user or contractor.. The following summarizes the principal reasons for PWHT: • Stress relief is the most common reason for specifying PWHT.g. PWHT is sometimes necessary to reduce weld hardness in certain materials. the material must be heat treated to restore its maximum corrosion resistance.

Rotation of flanges. threads. which could result in corrosion.• Pipe should not be stored directly on the ground to help prevent rainwater accumulation around the pipe. Lined and coated pipes and fittings should be lifted with wide fabric or rubber-covered slings and padding to prevent damage. Lateral translation of branches and connections from centerline of run should not exceed ±1/16 in. Flattening of bends. The tolerance for axial dimensions. Pipe should not be stacked so high that pipes or their coatings may be damaged. • • Pipe fitup for welded joints shall be as required by the welding procedure. measured as the difference between the largest and smallest outside diameter at any crosssection. centerto-face. from the square position. a slight mismatch may be permissible. face-to-face. • • • • 145 . flange faces.0 Pipe Fitup and Tolerances Good joint fitup is essential to making a sound weld and minimizing the loads imposed on the piping system and connected equipment. Flange bolt holes shall straddle the centerlines. tolerance is often necessary for flanges at load-sensitive equipment. Depending on the welding process used. • • • • 2. End protectors should be firmly attached to prevent damage to weld bevels. Fittings and valves should be stored in shipping crates or on racks to provide protection until used. measured as the offset between elevation of bolt holes on opposite sides of a flange centerline. or socketweld ends. Use of a 1/64 in. maximum. should not exceed ±1/16 in. The tilt of flanges measured at the periphery across any diameter should not exceed 1/32 in. and location of attachments should be ±1/8 in. should not exceed 5% of the nominal diameter of the pipe (3% at the ends).

The number and location of these field welds are determined such that they will permit final position adjustments to achieve acceptable flange alignment at the machine nozzle. • Installation of piping that is connected to rotating equipment should preferably start at the machine nozzle flange. Proceed to any other adjacent supports which should be similarly adjusted. flange alignment must be within more stringent limits than is • • • • • • • 146 . If spring-support adjustment is insufficient. in attaching pipe to rotating equipment. Bolt on succeeding pipe sections as appropriate up to the first support. This will reduce the possibility of having a large mismatch between the pipe and machine flanges if pipe installation is begun from the opposite end of the system.3. Piping that requires any sections to be removed for flushing after completing field welds should have final nozzle alignment and component flange boltup completed after replacing flushed sections. One or more field welds are typically used to join the piping nearest to the machine with the rest of the system. Adjust this support as required to just contact the pipe at its bearing point. especially rotating equipment. Spring supports should be locked in their cold position during pipe installation. Specifically. For piping over NPS 3 connected to machinery. All spring supports will be adjusted in the locked position just until they contact their respective support points. the installation should avoid putting excessive forces and moments on the machinery nozzles which could result in misalignment. Final bolt tensioning of component flanges close to the machinery should be done after initial alignment of nozzle flanges. modifications to associated structural members or shimming will be required.0 Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment Special care must be taken for load-sensitive equipment.

0 Flange Joint Assembly Flange joint assembly procedures directly affect the ability of the flange to be leak-tight in service. 5. • 147 . In many low-pressure. All gasket and flange surfaces should be clean. and/or nonflammable services. Reface flanges with tool marks or scratches across the gasket seating surface. Inspection. Flanged joint assembly and leakage control are discussed below. and installation of the flanged joint. Proper preparation. 4. Clean Faces. Identifying and controlling the causes of leakage. Warped or badly corroded flanges should be replaced or refaced. rust. However. Remove all burrs. many rules of good flanged joint design and makeup can and have been violated with no adverse consequences. • Redo Damaged Surfaces.specified for general piping systems. it is dangerous to break these rules in critical. high-temperature services since the results can be serious leakage problems with consequent fires. and dirt from flange faces with scrapers or wire brushes. • Precautions should be taken to prevent ingress of debris into machine internals during construction of connecting pipework. The primary factors for successfully making up a flanged joint and controlling leakage are the following: • • • Proper selection and design of the flanged joint.0 Flange Preparation. More stringent limits are required to minimize the loads that are imposed by flange boltup. inspection. low-temperature. and Installation The following discusses the primary steps that are required to achieve a properly assembled flanged joint.

The most important aspects of a proper boltup procedure. again to help centering. an impact wrench. a high-temperature grease may be used sparingly in systems that operate at less than 200°F. Place Gasket Properly. or adhesive should be used to hold gaskets for systems operating at 200°F or more. a torque wrench. Flanges may be made up using a wrench and hammer. as the residual stress increases with increasing diameter for the same amount of misalignment. with the flanges practically mating before the bolts are installed. The gasket must be centered on the flange faces to achieve a reliable joint. or a stud tensioner. Lubrication helps increase the amount of bolt load that goes into tightening the flange rather than into overcoming friction. No grease.• Align flanges. but holding the gasket in place can be a problem. Bringing the flanges into alignment should not leave any residual stresses in the piping system. • • Use Proper Flange Boltup Procedure. Residual stresses could lead to flange leakage in service or overload problems in systems that are connected to load-sensitive equipment. Lubricate the bolt threads and the nut faces where they will contact the flange. paste. If something must be used to hold the gasket. regardless of method. burn out at operating temperature. are to: 148 . and thus provide a leakage path. This becomes more important with increasing pipe diameter. which could damage the gasket and cause leakage. but never on the seating surfaces. • Lubricate Threads and Nuts. Thin cellophane tape may be used on the outside edges of a gasket. Centering rings on spiral-wound gaskets help by allowing the gasket to be supported in the proper position by a few bolts while the other bolts are inserted. Sheet gaskets should be cut so that their outside diameter corresponds to the bolt position. Flanges at rest should be within the alignment tolerances previously discussed. The high temperature causes these materials to burn off. Tape on the seating surfaces will deform the gasket during joint assembly.

and subsequent leakage. scale. a maximum stud stress during boltup of 40-50. Common causes of this are inadequate flexibility. Excessive piping system forces and moments at flanges can distort them and cause leaks.4.- Use a "criss-cross" pattern bolt-tightening sequence. as is used when bolting a wheel onto a car. These are summarized below: • Uneven Bolt Stress. local crushing. This approach helps to achieve a uniform bolt load around the flange. causes uneven gasket compression.0 Causes of Flange Leakage Most of the primary causes of flange leakage are directly related to poor inspection or installation. Dirty or Damaged Flange Faces. when the heavily loaded bolts relax during operation. Improper Gasket Centering. using excessive • • • • 149 . protrusions. Improper flange alignment. torque wrench or stud tensioner).000 psi is the normal target.. See Figure 8. An incorrect boltup procedure or limited working space near one side of a flange can leave some bolts loose while others crush the gasket. there is greater assurance that uniform bolt load is achieved. with two rounds at the maximum load. In this way. especially nonparallel faces. For such applications. This approach helps achieve uniform bolt load around the flange circumference. For the most critical high-temperature or highpressure flanges. Improper Flange Alignment. or weld spatter on gasket seating surfaces provide leakage paths or can cause uneven gasket compression that results in leakage. This is especially troublesome in high-temperature services. Dirt.e. it will be unevenly compressed and more prone to leakage. use a method that permits measuring the applied load (i. Use at least three rounds of tightening around the flange. - - 6. Excessive Loads in the Piping System at Flange Locations. increasing the applied load in each round. scratches. If a gasket is off-center.

Typical "Criss-Cross" Bolt-Tightening Sequence Figure 8. Using the wrong gasket size or material can cause leakage. Rapid temperature fluctuations can cause flanges to deform temporarily and leak. and improper location of supports or restraints. • • • Thermal Shock.force to align flanges. A rougher flange-surface finish than specified for spiral-wound gaskets can result in leakage.4 150 . Improper Gasket Size or Material. Improper Flange Facing.

where they are typically used. 151 . The following requirements are based on ASME B31. Excess external reinforcement. Incomplete penetration of weld groove. Lack of fusion between weld bead and base metal. including individual components and overall workmanship. Not all welds are inspected in the same manner. The following are common weld defects (illustrated in Figure 9.IX. Incomplete penetration due to internal misalignment.1 summarizes the primary weld inspection methods. weld type. each piping installation. anticipated type of defect. Cracks.1): • • • • • • • • Lack of fusion between adjacent weld passes. location of weld. However.3. QUALITY CONTROL A. Concave root surface. Determining the proper type of weld inspection is a function of technique. A good weld starts with a proper design and is executed using a qualified procedure and welder. shall be examined. and the types of defects they can locate. Defects must be identified before a piping system can be tested or go into operation. Table 9. Defect identification is especially important in welded areas. Inspection Prior to initial operation. the quality that is achieved in a particular instance may not be acceptable for a variety of reasons. and pipe material. Undercut. The method of weld examination needed to ensure that welds of acceptable quality are achieved must be specified.

1 152 .Typical Weld Imperfections Figure 9.

For a welded branch connection. Thus. the examination of and any necessary repairs to the pressure-containing weld shall be completed before any reinforcing pad or saddle is added.1 The following inspection guidelines also apply: • ASME B31. examination shall be performed after heat treatment. any defects caused by heat treatment will be present. and 5 materials. 4. • • 153 . Normal.. Thus. For P-Nos.e. 3. Severe Cyclic Conditions. the reinforcement will not prevent inspection and repair. beneath the surface Ferrous and nonferrous materials Intermediate weld passes Weld root pass Simple and inexpensive • • • • • • • • • • • • • Magnetic Particle • • Liquid Penetrant • • • • Ultrasonic Confirms high weld quality in pressure-containing joints • • • Guidelines for Weld Inspection Table 9. and Category D fluid services).Type of Inspection Visual Situation/Weld Type All welds • • • Defect Minor structural welds Cracks Slag inclusions Gas pockets Slag inclusions Incomplete penetration Cracks Porosity Lack of fusion Cracks Seams Porosity Folds Inclusions Shrinkage Surface defects Laminations Slag inclusions in thick plates Subsurface flaws Radiography • • • Butt welds Girth welds Miter groove welds Ferromagnetic materials For flaws up to ¼ in.3 specifies weld examination requirements and acceptance criteria based on fluid service category (i.

The pressure test demonstrates the mechanical integrity of the system before it is placed into operation. except that the value of ST/S shall not exceed 6. Piping in severe cyclical service requires additional examination. by inprocess examination. and other joints. shall be visually inspected. • • • • • B. 100% of fabrication for longitudinal welds. Random visual examination of the assembly of threaded. Testing The piping system must be pressure tested after it has been completely fabricated. the minimum test pressure shall be calculated as follows. b) For design temperatures that are above the test temperature. Random visual examination during the erection of piping. bolted. The following highlights several test requirements.5 PS T S 154 . except in components made in accordance with a listed specification. Not less than 5% of circumferential butt.and miter-groove welds shall be examined fully by random radiography or random ultrasonic examination. and inspected.5: PT = 1. The hydrostatic test pressure at any point in a metallic piping system shall be as follows: a) Not less than 1½ times the design pressure.• • At least 5% of all fabrication shall be visually examined. • • A hydrostatic test must be used unless otherwise approved for special situations. erected. Not less than 5% of all brazed joints shall be examined.

psig Allowable stress at test temperature. psi Allowable stress at design temperature. Instrument take-off piping and sampling system piping. up to the first block valve.Where: PT P ST S = = = = Minimum hydrostatic test pressure. shall be conducted at 110% of the design pressure. • • Pneumatic strength tests. the test pressure may be reduced to the maximum pressure that will not exceed the yield strength at test temperature. psi c) If the test pressure as defined above would produce a stress in excess of the yield strength at test temperature. psig Internal design pressure. 155 . shall be strength tested with the piping or equipment to which it is connected. when approved.

Nonmetallic Piping The following highlights several aspects of nonmetallic piping design.X. or both. In addition to the requirements of flexibility and support for metallic piping in normal fluid service: • 156 . Examples of nonmetallic piping include: • Thermoplastic Piping. are generally not valid. the assumptions that stresses throughout the piping system can be predicted from strains. Leakage at joints. metallic piping in normal fluid service include: • Allowances for variations of pressure or temperature. Detrimental stresses or distortions in connected equipment. or by chemical means. pressure expansion.3 for additional details. Piping systems shall be designed to prevent thermal expansion or contraction. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS A. Piping fabricated from a plastic which is capable of being repeatedly softened by an increase of temperature and hardened by a decrease of temperature. or by application of heat. Refer to ASME B31. or that displacement strains will produce proportional stress because of fully elastic behavior of the piping materials. Therefore. or movement of piping supports and terminals from causing: Failure of piping supports from overstrain or fatigue. The most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature will be used to determine design conditions. • • The stress-strain behavior of most nonmetals differs considerably from that of metals. Piping fabricated from a resin capable of being changed into a substantially infusible or insoluble product when cured at room temperature. Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Piping (RTR). above design conditions are not permitted. • Some differences in the design of nonmetallic piping vs.

• B. • • 157 . and a single exposure to a very small quantity of the toxic fluid can cause irreversible harm to breathing or points of bodily contact. wrapping. Category M Fluid Service The following highlights several aspects of Category M fluid service. and anchored to prevent damage to the piping. or resonance effects should be avoided or minimized. guided. No allowances may be made for pressure-temperature variations. bolted. Point loads and narrow areas of contact between piping and supports shall be avoided. layout. Nonmetallic piping is joined by bonding. and operation of piping shall be conducted to minimize impact and shock loads. Thermoplastics shall not be used in flammable fluid service above ground and shall be safeguarded when used in most fluid services. The following highlights several provisions. Suitable padding shall be placed between piping and supports where piping damage may occur. A sensitive leak test in addition to the required leak test must be included. as well as all threaded. Category M defines a fluid service in which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to be significant.• Nonmetallic piping shall be supported.3 for additional details. All fabrication. and other mechanical joints. hot gas welding. shall be visually examined. The coincident pressure-temperature conditions requiring the greatest wall thickness or the highest component rating will determine design temperature and pressure. and solvent cementing. pulsation. • • • Design. heat fusion. that apply to Category M Fluid Service. Valves and equipment that would transmit excessive loads to the piping shall be independently supported. in addition to those specified for normal fluid service. Bonding can be achieved through many methods including adhesive. Conditions which could lead to detrimental vibration. Refer to ASME B31.

• C. The heating of a static fluid in a piping component causes a pressure increase. there are no specific pressure limitations for the application of the rules for high pressure piping. Design Conditions and Criteria Piping is generally considered to be high pressure if it has a pressure over that allowed by Class 2500 for the specific design temperature and Material Group. Consideration must be given to the ambient effects on a piping system.3 for additional details. Refer to ASME B31. • • • The cooling of a gas or vapor may reduce the pressure sufficiently to create a vacuum. the greatest thickness or highest component rating is required. The following may not be used: Miter bends not designated as fittings. The design temperature of each component in a piping system is the temperature at which. However. and nonmetallic fabricated branch connections Nonmetallic valves and specialty components Threaded nonmetallic flanges Expanded. In most cases. threaded. the design pressure of each component in a high pressure piping system must be at least equal to the pressure at the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature expected during service. Moisture condensation can result in atmospheric icing when piping system design minimum temperature is less than 32°F. under the coincident pressure. fabricated laps. and caulked joints High Pressure Piping The following highlights several aspects of high pressure piping design. 158 .

Wall thickness calculation requirements. Effects of Support. then the additional test is not necessary. dead loads).In any case.g. an additional test of the installed piping system shall be conducted at a pressure not less than 110% of the design pressure. 100% of the material and components must be examined.0 Dynamic Effects (e. only 5% of the fabrication must be examined for normal fluid service. live loads. Allowable stresses. For example. it must be more extensive. If the initial testing is done on the installed piping. earthquake. in normal fluid service.. each piping system shall be either hydrostatically or pneumatically leak tested.g. a sample selected at random per the inspector's judgement is sufficient to make a determination as to the acceptability of the material. Anchor. Each weld and each piping component (except bolting and individual gaskets to be used during final assembly) shall be tested. vibration. 3. the design must allow the system to either withstand or provide some type of relief from the ambient effects. impact. 159 .0 Testing Prior to initial operation. Weight Effects (e.g. discharge reactions). Examination While the examination of High Pressure Piping is very similar to that of piping in normal fluid service. and Terminal Movements. miters).. Thermal Expansion and Contraction Effects. whereas 100% of fabrication must be examined in high pressure piping. Other effects to consider include: • • • • • • • • 2. If the testing is done on the equipment prior to installation. No allowance for pressure above the design pressure permitted. wind. Particular fabrication details not permitted (e.. Also. In high pressure piping.

flange assemblies.XI.). and are prepared to take more extensive courses if appropriate. etc.. including items that are not explicitly included in B31. pipe supports. inspection. fabrication. and restraints. ASME B31. equipment nozzle load requirements. It also includes fittings.3 (e. materials.3 specifies the design. Participants can use this information on their jobs. This course provided an overview of process plant piping system requirements. SUMMARY A process plant piping system includes much more than just straight sections of pipe. valves. 160 . valve selection and design.g. and testing requirements for process plant piping systems. flexibility analysis guidelines. erection.

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