Motivation Motivation is a key factor when managing any business. Motivation is important for a high productivity level.
According to Greenberg (1999) motivation is defined "as a process of arousing, directing and maintaining behaviour towards a goal." Where directing' refers to the selection of a particular behaviour; and maintenance' refers to the inclination to behave with consistency in that manner until the desired outcome is met. Motivation is therefore the force that transforms and uplifts people to be productive and perform in their jobs. Maximising an employee's motivation is necessary and vital to successfully accomplish the organisation's objectives and targets. However this is a considerable challenge to any organisation's managers, due to the complexity of motivation and the fact that there is no ready made solution or an answer to what motivates people to work well. In recent years, the focus in project management has shifted from technical aspects of the profession (scheduling, planning etc.) to people-oriented factors such as motivation. This is reflected both in professional practice and academia. On the one hand there is a growing interest in courses on soft skills and leadership; on the other, an increasing number of research papers on these issues.
Background and Literature Review
Recent research indicates that asking the question, “How do I motivate my team members?” might actually be counterproductive because most people begin new initiatives with enthusiasm and a desire to contribute to, and consequently feel proud of their work and organisations. This suggests that project managers may be better served by focusing on how one can help people maintain their motivation levels through their work tasks and roles. The definition of motivation which is, “energising people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to change”, suggests that there is more to motivation than “maintenance of enthusiasm” by doing the “right things Motivation is inextricably linked with leadership and power. Research has shown that use of autocratic, coercive or laissez-faire leadership styles can have a detrimental effect on motivation. This is obvious to those who have worked
whereas the latter is a desire to do something because of some anticipated rewards not related to the activity. the former is a desire to do something because one finds it interesting. Such leaders employ a participatory approach that includes all team members in a meaningful way. Research indicates that an inclusive leadership or management style is conducive to intrinsic motivation whereas an exclusive approach (coercive or authoritarian) relies on extrinsic motivation. Types of motivation techniques used in an organisation 1) Achievement Motivation It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. Motivated staff will give their best to the company hence helping management to achieve organisation’s objective. Motivating the staff is a very critical factor for the following reasons: Resulting in higher output or productivity. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favourable attitudes and co-operation. After discussing motivation and its connection to leadership.e. Here. Motivated staffs are generally more pro-active and have greater sense of urgency hence making things happen faster. negotiator. the authors move on to reviewing research on the sources of motivation – i. coach and participant. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management (2) Affiliation Motivation It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Reduces wastages and produce higher quality works. The last one is interesting – if a leader is viewed as a participant – being “one of the groups” – loyalty and motivation emerge more unconditionally. In a nutshell. where motivation comes from. Motivation can be viewed as intrinsic or extrinsic. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success.
.with such managers! More effective leadership styles emphasise the leader as an initiator.
It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder. (5) Attitude Motivation Attitude motivation is how people think and feel.(3) Competence Motivation It is the drive to be good at something. allowing the individual to perform high quality work. their belief in them. For instance. How they feel about the work they are doing and the results received from that work directly impact an organization's performance and. Competence motivated people seek job mastery. (6) Incentive Motivation It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. (4) Power Motivation It is the drive to influence people and change situations. they will do whatever is necessary to achieve the goals of the organization as well as keep track of
. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so. (7) Fear Motivation Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is helpful in the short run. How Does Employee Motivation Impact Organizational Performance? Maintaining Stability Employees are a company's livelihood. ultimately. It is “You do this and you get that”. their attitude to life. if an organization's employees are highly motivated and proactive. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past. take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. It is their self confidence. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. its stability. They learn from their experience. attitude.
Reduction in Productivity Lack of motivation equates to less work being accomplished. operations and development. the company only has 50 percent of its expected revenue.
." author Dean Spitzer states that 50 percent of employees put just enough effort into their work to keep their job. Internet surfing or taking longer lunches cost the organization time and money. it is usually transferred to aspects not related to the organization's work. Negative Changes to Reputation Word travels fast. is only reaching 50 percent of its clients and has 50 percent fewer resources for staff. Reduced productivity can be detrimental to an organization's performance and future success.industry performance to address any potential challenges. having the reputation of having an unpleasant work environment due to low employee motivation will ultimately impact how existing and potential clients or partners view working with an organization. This means that if only half the employees in a company are working in a full capacity. Plan for the future by sharing these statistics with staff. Reconnecting with the reality of the business is often an effective way of improving performance. A reputation can precede an organization and dictate its future in the industry. Do not point the finger but reinvigorate their interest and motivation. This two-prong approach builds an organization's stability. No matter what the cause. Planning for Future Trends In "Super Motivation. Things like personal conversations. Be honest and upfront about any steps that will be taken to improve organizational performance as well as any consequences of not meeting the organization's performance standards. Low employee motivation could be due to decreased success of the organization. Productivity does not disappear. negative effects from the economy or drastic changes or uncertainty within the organization. An organization whose employees have low motivation is completely vulnerable to both internal and external challenges because its employees are not going the extra mile to maintain the organization's stability. An unstable organization ultimately underperforms.
then the organization will face a problem leading to disastrous consequences. an organization relies heavily on the efficiency of their production employees to make sure that products are manufactured in numbers that meet demand for the week. The top manager of the organization must recognize these needs in order to motivate his employees to work the best of their abilities (Gabriel 224). no matter how efficient the technology and equipment may be. compensation program. Therefore. top managers must understand how to motivate their employees and how they can use to direct employees toward attaining organizational goals and objectives. the success of a business is often the result of motivated employees. The manager is able to achieve his goals when he can satisfy both the employees’ needs and those of the organization (Gabriel 224). It is predicted that some six out of ten employees are planning to leave their present jobs for other organizations within the next two years. the organizations need to use motivational techniques such as providing a fun workplace.Motivation and Management As human beings. The personal needs of an employee are satisfied as long as he or she is motivated to perform the assigned tasks. a leading job-search Web site. people have their own drives. and training and development program. The survey found that nearly one in four employees now dissatisfied with their present jobs. To be effective. a similar survey made by the Society for Human Resource Professionals (SHRM) revealed that more than eight out of ten
. Also. Motivation is the process of initiating and directing behaviour. revealed the level of employees’ dissatisfaction. There are increasing numbers of employees who are eager to find a balance in work and family life. The employees are the greatest assets of the organization. An employee who is unmotivated means there is some imbalance or dissatisfaction in his or her relationship to the environment. motivation can have an effect on the output of an organization and concerns both quantity and quality. Job satisfactions are declining among the employees of the organization. However. For instance. If these employees lack the motivation to produce completed products to meet the demand. Nowadays. employee motivation is essential for every organization. aspirations and needs. In order to motivate the employees. there will be a 20 percent increase over 2001 levels. In November 2003 a survey made by Career Builder.
as well as reduced productivity associated with low motivated employees. obligations and reporting relationships up. Employees need to feel that their work is meaningful and beneficial to their organization. clear terms as well as lays out their responsibilities. some as low as a few hundred dollars to as high as four times the annual salary of an employee. a fun and excited workplace would be best for employees to work together as an organization to accomplish specific goals and objectives. it is important and necessary for the top manager to create a positive working environment in the organization. In addition. the top manager can also encourage the employee to identify what he or she would rather be doing as well as find opportunities for improving their skills and knowledge. Clearly. Although
. Most of the time and expense go into this process. The increasing numbers of job dissatisfaction can bring negative effects to the organization’s performance. Employees who are not happy with their current jobs tend to leave for other organizations. Estimated costs vary from organization to organization. their productivity and work quality will continue to decrease. selection. Additionally. In contrast. indirect costs include increased workloads and overtime expenses for co-workers. Direct costs include recruitment. It can significantly affect the financial performance of an organization. These turnover costs are such as direct costs and indirect costs. It is a document that clearly and objectively defines the employee's job in rational. As a result. Eventually. turnover costs are very high and expensive. In this step the top manager can put leadership skills to work. the top manager should act as a motivator to lighten up their employees’ passion and purpose in achieving organizational goals. and the organization will begin to notice that there will be an increase in mistakes and bad judgment.workers are going to look for a new job when the economy goes up. Employees who have been doing the same tasks for a long time. Therefore. down and across the organizational hierarchy. The first logical step in improving this negative situation is to create an accurate job description. In addition. and training of new employees. It will also help the organization see opportunities for change and growth in the position and in the employees’ career path. employee turnover will become a serious problem in today’s corporate environment. it is quite likely they are bored and their job performance is below average.
Moreover. this is an opportunity for top manager or Human Resource manager to explain the next steps. thus further increase in their sense of accomplishment and value to the organization. greater skill development and enhanced abilities. Once the job description has been created. author of The Motivation to Work. This is a good strategy for organizations because many of the jobs an employee may be asked to do. The process of job rotation is motivating because the additional tasks and responsibilities are new and different . on the career ladder that would lead to a promotion. employees are given a wider extent of tasks and responsibilities within their own job. For example. accounts receivable employee may increase the number of accounts they are responsible for or may expand their tasks by sending late notices to a wider geographical area or be in charge of more names in the client list. in the finance department. job enlargement and job enrichment. such as more knowledge. The first technique of employee motivation is job rotation which involves cross training employees. employees will feel a sense of achievement by expanding their job knowledge and capabilities. this is a key source of motivation that will help employee see opportunities for professional growth. The value in cross training for the organization is that individuals can stand-in for each other when illness or vacations come up.
. For instance. employee from accounts payable can learn the accounts receivable function and vice versa. the organization can look for further source of motivation to liven up and regain the strength of bored employees. in the finance department. In fact. Another source of motivation is job enlargement. Frederick Hertzberg. said that employees can best be motivated by three techniques which include job rotation.the employee may not have any idea what else they would like to be doing. The process of participating in the creation of a job description can serve to clarify the employee's roles and responsibilities as well as to encourage their enthusiasm for work again. In this technique. or teaching employees about each other’s jobs.
Clayton Alderfer's (1972) ERG (existence–relatedness–growth) theory condenses Maslow's five needs into three broader categories and alters Maslow's progression principle to: existence. the available rewards and possible work outcomes. external. Adam's equity theory recognises that social comparisons take place when rewards are distributed in the workplace. as Hitt et al. Another content theory of motivation is David McClelland's (1961) acquired needs theory which identifies three types of needs: affiliation. expectancy and goal setting theories are all process theories of motivation. or extrinsic motivation)? Because employees' values and beliefs are not the same.e. based on their individual preferences. they will respond differently to the motivating (or demotivating) features of an organisation. This is certainly the basis for Abraham Maslow's (1943) hierarchy of needs. Individuals generally act or behave in ways that will lead to the satisfaction of their needs. which is closely associated with leadership . The equity. relatedness and growth. Is motivation primarily an internal (or intrinsic) capability that an individual brings to the job or is it the responsibility of management and the organisation to provide a motivating environment (i.Team work and motivation in an organisation
Motivation is a management technique. When employees believe that they have been inequitably treated in comparison
. call them 'hygiene factors') in motivating employees. These theories focus on how employees make choices regarding their work behaviours. The theory points out the importance of both job content (satisfiers or motivators) and job context factors (dissatisfiers or. power. Frederick Herzberg's (1987) twofactor theory also offers insight in to what motivates workers. process theories and reinforcement theories. Content theorists assume that an effort or behaviour results from an unsatisfied need (either an individual or group need). Different theories of motivation give insights into this complex psychological process and we will briefly discuss three major types of motivation theories: content theories. achievement.
One of the approaches to reinforcement motivation is referred to as operant conditioning which was popularised by Skinner (1948). Fear of reprimand. The way in which the employee performs the task yields a specific performance level. Some managers find intimidation a potent tool. Porter and Lawler (1968) further developed this theory into the expanded expectancy theory model. fear of losing one's job and fear of missing out on promotion are all effective motivators [ahh.
. whether their performance will be rewarded and whether the reward will be commensurate with the effort expended. but it is more difficult to implement when dealing with unskilled workers. By comparison. negative reinforcements. Operant conditioning is 'the control of behaviour by manipulating its consequences'. Reinforcement theory recognises that human behaviour is influenced by its environmental consequences and is based on Thorndike's (1911) Law of Effect which states that behaviour followed by a pleasant consequence is likely to be repeated. Empowerment is a sensible approach to take with professionals who are capable of taking responsibility and making decisions. According to this model. In spite of the theories. Hitt et al. difficult but achievable (stretch goals are the most common example of this) and set through participatory means. Research by Luthans and Kreitner (1975) confirmed that operant conditioning techniques can influence employee behaviour. they will try to eliminate the discomfort and restore a sense of equity to the situation. goal setting theory focuses on how employees set and strive to achieve goals?emphasising the motivational power of goals. Employees tend to be highly motivated when task goals are specific rather than ambiguous.to others. there is a place for fear as a motivation tool. wage-slavery]. The individual's experience will then be applied to his/her subsequent perception of the value of rewards for further task accomplishment. The employee will have his/her own perception about the appropriateness of the rewards received and the individual level of satisfaction will depend upon this perception. punishments and extinction. especially when combined with the formation of teams who can make important decisions. Empowering staff can be a powerful motivator. a psychologist. (pages 434–437) describes four reinforcement strategies: positive reinforcements. The level of performance leads to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. but it does require a certain type of personality. the value of expected reward combines with an employee's perception of efforts required for the reward and the probability of achieving it to produce a certain level of effort. Vroom's expectancy theory (1964) suggests that individuals' motivation depends on their perceptions about whether they can perform a task.
Complex psychologically and sociologically based theories are difficult to implement in practice and require a set of skills which are otherwise of little use to the organisation. seek creative solutions. Individual efforts are not obvious—it is the team performance that is visible. need to be used exclusively within a bounded region. The effective implementation of self-managing teams can require enormous preparation including company-wide training. Members of cross-functional teams are expected to share information. Cross-functional teams bring members together from different departments and help improve lateral relations and integration in organisations. On the other hand. the middle category of need is 'belonging'—and being part of a good team satisfies this need more effectively than any other organisational arrangements. Task forces tend to be established to deal with a specific problem or opportunity. Group process
. meet project deadlines and not be limited in performance by purely functional concerns and demands. the employment of appropriate staff and a substantial restructuring of the lines of responsibility and information channels within the organisation. Unfortunately. usually with a degree of urgency. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs. An informal group emerges from relationships and shared interests among organisation members. Without the right motivation —the personal responsibility for goals—the group is not a team at all. it is difficult to sustain informal groups in the long term. organisations usually possess reasonably welldeveloped remuneration systems and capabilities which can be easily adjusted to motivate employees. An interesting phenomenon associated with informal groups is that they tend to be quite effective and make minimal resource demands on the organisation in the short term. Informal groups can also develop within the formal structure of the organisation. such as a division.Remuneration is an attractive motivation technique for organisations. explore new ideas. It is a much more difficult task to motivate a team. The way members of any team actually work together as they transform inputs into outputs is called the group process. Committees tend to be set up for the long-term and deal with issues that are on-going (such as customer complaints or strategic planning). An effective team achieves high levels of task performance as well as membership satisfaction. so motivation is the key to forming and maintaining teams. Committees and task forces are used to facilitate operations and allow special projects to be completed. Self-managed teams cannot be implemented on an ad hoc basis and. at the very least.
A manager needs to master three roles. & Adams. Most teams pass through a normal life cycle involving initiation. the tasks to be performed. It is commonly accepted that there are five stages of team development. A task activity is an action taken by team member that directly contributes to the group's performance purpose and a maintenance activity is an action taken by a team member that supports the emotional life of the group. and the level of collaboration and team norms. Team members must recognise that the behaviour is expected for group membership. members tend to conform to norms. The second role that a manager has to master is that of leading a team. Bernhard. The manager or leader of a team has a particular responsibility to provide strong and principled leadership. Four group input factors that can influence the group process and consequent team effectiveness are: nature of task. but they are a good guide to the operations of most teams. is important since it can have positive or negative implications for organisational productivity. storming.com * en. team size. As Hitt et al. the structure and operation of the team. This function is described as distributed leadership and is important for the long-term effectiveness of the team.org/wiki/Motivation 11
. the commitment of the team members. the results to be achieved (McKew. maturity and termination. norming. Norms are expected behaviour to be followed by the team members. forming. says (page 472). Jonathan(Project Management Journal) *eight2late.wordpress. which defines quality and quantity standards. organisational setting. The performance norm. It is essential that both types of activities are shared and distributed among all team members. 2001).
References: *Schmid.. Two types of activities that are essential for team members to work together effectively are task activities and maintenance activities. In highly cohesive teams. without which the team's outputs are unlikely to be of benefit to the organisation. development. Team leaders must be particularly focused on: team goals. First.is essential to team effectiveness.wikipedia. performing and adjourning. Teams with positive norms and high level of cohesion are usually very effective. membership characteristics. these five stages do not apply automatically to all teams. he/she needs to be an effective member of a team. The most important stage is the norming or consolidation stage.