Second edition

Ralph Tench
Professor Leeds Metropolitan University

Liz Yeomans
public Subject Group Leader, Relations dCo m m u n ica tions an Leeds Metropolitan iversity Un

Prentice Hall

Animpint of Peatson Education Harlow' England London New York Boston sanFrancisco.. ' ' ' Tolgnto. sydney. Singapore HongKong ' . Tokyo'Seoul 'Taipei '


Limlted Pearson Education Gate Edinburgh Harlow Essex CM202JE England the Companies throughout world andAssociated Visit us on the WorldWideWebat: Firstpublished 2006 Secondedltlonpublished2009 Education Limited 2006,2009 @ Pearson as ThBrightsof Ralph Tench to and LizYeomans be identified authors this workhavebeenasserted of Designs Patents 1988. and Act by them in accordance the Copyright, with No maybe reproduced, Allrightsreserved. partof this publication storedin a retrievalsystem, ortransmitted in photocopying, recording otheruise, anyformor by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, or without either the permitting priorwrittenpermission the publisher a licence restricted of or copying the United in Kingdom House, 5-10 KirbyStreet, issuedby the Copyright Licensing Agency Saffron Ltd, London EClN8TS. All trademarks of owners. useof anytrademark this text usedherein the property theirrespective are The in doesnotvestin the author publisher trademark or ownership rights suchtrademarks, doesthe use in any nor of of suchtrademarks implyanyaffiliation or endorsementthisbookby suchowners. with ISBN: 978-0-27 7594-8 3-7 British LibraryCataloguing-in-Publlcatlon Data A catalogue for Library record this bookis available fromthe British Llbraryof Congress Cataloging-in-PubUcatlon Data publicrelations [edited Ralph Exploring Liz by] Tench, Yeomans. 2nd ed. / Includes bibliographical references index. and lsBN978-0-27 7s94-8 3-7 1. Public relations.l. Tench, Ralph. ll. Yeomans, Liz. HM7227.E97 2009 659.2-dc22 200901 3610 10987654321 77 10 09

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somedetail.vtlsl lt l'.the crirr lr. examand 'don'ts' together ple Howard and Mathews(1985)includea l7-point crisis unknown' and the 'unknown unknown'.' this chapter will ainr to htdld In we standingby applyingtheoretical and pracliurl crisisscenarios.All thr* tff describing and dissecting crises. than client base and mismanagen€nt. to understand trrlrr tht' ptaysand particulirrlV lltr Internet. lc can a l 289): 'If a company is engaged in issrt* tl before.|.thrtl its and cisivechange. ruin managed crisis situations as in in just daysand even. the Enron executives crisis(Enron tompany Elergy and the had beenm. Ic. and.andassociated theproblems . upin.r usinH studies bothgoorl of arid plan in their mediarelations book. l{ management .rti ing an issue working quicklyand respotrrrlhly by lii lish or re-establish levelofcontrol dcsirnl ltt the stakeholders. . lrrlFlrff!. a consequencea poor.crisis an event woutd thisentire In there always is more of that disruptsnormaloperations a chapter.Eventually. by oneand slowlv pubtic relations Crisis manageffi the context eflt: literatureis filled with listsof 'dos' PR crisismanagement for In 1989SamBlackbroke crises down into thr with countless checklists. al i faxB ank Crisis (HBOS). as was operating company destroyed comrrercially managed crisis. Thepython. or company organisation if badty thanthe immediate will chapter tookat examples reputations This of can hard-won managed.:Andgmen irnplicated an attempted : with reports. somecases.r. a crisis. .ttt{*if qush it. As a startingpoint it is important to tlelrn* lh* (2008)describes Cornelissen crisismanagenlrtll t** of greatdifficulty or dangerto an organinrtlhrll: threatening existence continuity. modern protects capitalisation have nosetheir and market companies. fill book.r r ri*!t thol beforeit happen. 'l'ltt' I . alone tet this A is theirveryexistence. investigator an to Andersen's boardwerequicklyinto a situationof with a talks'seeklng merger rival 'tastdltchrescue Andersen a bnnd and as a as ffrms. effectively (note companies thedisastrous well as someof thosebadlyhandted destroy We in in effects 2008 of the 'creditcrunch' crises.anestablishbd trusted arising from of ' defining and undcrstaudingthe issucs. .the'slow-burning' crisis iliii* ot .the'sudden' crisis thisis o dit$rl*i suddenlyand takesthe companyconplrlrlr ht. LehmanB rothers. wittr '. and leaves in a crisis it situation.iustteingassociated Enronls in cover-up was . thatit does gctortlr{ not ' i nformati on ronrtr and whena crisisdor'.lt was respqcted auditing it caught and brand'As became . Part3 I RELATIONS SPECIALISMS PUBLIC r' lnlroouclron (PR) public H relations management e. during.rtiri i*ii I ports the link to crisis managementarrrl lrrglrlq*$ managing issues help prevent crisis. of a banksand businesses thecharacteristics crisis. on established Thekeyto Pli ( rlql? preparedness.'nr*.386 | .. will explore. thisclrirplpt In rryf the key principles frir crisis situation . it can mitigate . and others).perhaps prevent . Reference should be made to OhilFl$l deals with issues management which is olteftt ciatedwith the crisisplanningor prcpunrtirrtt in companies the world.of to to codedinstructions ernployges documents USfederal as 'cleanout' Enron-related prepared launch lnvestigation. at and. Seymour and Moore (2000:l0) usea srlnk*'l to arguethat crises comein two formsl Thecobra. and after a crisis (in othcr wltrlo.g. Sonrt ul llth relates to the preparations before a clisr: li** but generally listsand guidelines the r(!n(r'iir the situation in a practical senscaitcr rl ttlin pened. AIG of of Scotland aspects is one of the mostcritical price whose crisis Thetistof companies share Effective communications.ismanaging business falsifuing performance). and its financial it sawits business Mor€ rapidly dnstically reduced. issue stake. management because badty of managed crises can salvage dived reputations at times.a collection ksues of that stealup on tlr( (r.

SociCtd G6n6rale. lpur lilthnps owing to the nature of the organisation .outof linedin Table19. can (2006)defines Fearn-Banks 6ve stages a crisis. Asiantsunami. reactive to or onesto cope withthe crisis it comes if Containment Recovery Taking steps limitthe length the crisisor its effects to of Thisis the stage where effonis madeto getbackto the'normal' operational conditions effectiveness the organisation or of Thisis whenthe organisation reflects evaluates and the experienceconsider negative to the impacts theorganisation for positive andanypossible benefits forthe future Learning .l ) business econonic(thc late 1990sbrronr/bustin und numerous smalllTltechnologycompanies an example is of how economiccycles impactan organisation). ( I 997)categorised ofcrisisthat he eightgypes management failuresor environl{t lwo causes: are: The eight categories the ilor example. to a UK case beingthat of RobertMaxwelland the Mirror Groupof nationalnewspapers) (Enron is one of thc mosl management misconduct shocking examples this with both illegaland unethof ical practicesrife in the senior management the of practice seealsoAndersen. manufacturing or processingand prr spillage. later in See the chapter) deception(examples include deceiving employees about the amount of money in pensionfunds after it hasbeenusedby executives supportthe business.publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis management .which affected governments. such as placing bombs under the carsof executives whosestoressell cosmeticstested animals) on skewed management values(BaringsBank went out of business after managerswere accused turning a of blind eyeto'rogue'trader Nick Leeson who hid details of his massive financiallosses the currency in markets. e. and corporations. see nrc unpredictable.or direct action by animal rights campaigners.see alsoChapters and l8) 6 malevolence(product tampering by a private citizen. An act repeated 2008by )€r6meKerviewhen workin ing for the Frenchbank. The'unknown unknowns' areevents be predictedand that can come about from bchaviour. like the Tylenol case detailed later.1.t7 i* pythons about(andresearching) tlmethinking and list affectedorganisations . businesses of lves rrndsocialinfrastructure millions) 'A' fault car 4lca/(Mercedes Class had a design {f$llrclover') ' flve fi crlsis idapted Detection Banks Theorganisation is watching warning for signs what or (1993)calls (warning prodromes Barton signs) The Preparation/prevention organisation takesnoteofthe warning signsand prepares plansproactively avoidthe crisis.have as headings cobras pythons of and (Shell Oil whosepetrol stationssuffered confrontatiott a consumer boycottafterthe companywantedto sink an oil platform in the North Sea the Brent Spar. (below) eight of Lcrbinger's types crisis one list under of them.unconnectedevents or circumBeforereadingfurther. Mini case study l9.g.

in react? youwerea newsreporterl lf agenda be? ' rr'l : is how an organisationcommunicatesabout the crisis that makesthe real difference.the Herald of Free Enterprise. Now. Could anything worse happen to an over-thecounter product?|ohnson & Johnsondid not hesitateto act and act quickly. The potential6nancial consequcllcFl leadingproduct. holders(seeChapterll for a definition of stakeholders) ity was its key.In discussing the mass poisoning of Minimata Bay in fapan. . Exxon. hl to '' tfiiit leisohs WhatcouldExxon dsnebetterln have thinkin terms actions words? of and you environmentalist. Let us examinethe caseof the Exxon Valdezotl spill in March 1989.) or'parenthesis'factor that lingerson aftera crisis. considerthe frequentlydiscussed case fohnson at & Johnson. As a result of this failure of could actually see that the product was srrlr..and the subsequent damnge l. Poor management a lack of communication skills can have a powerful negativeeffect on a company'sbusiness. 'l'lrlr 'the public relationsdisaster'that was createdaround the r spill.S could not be well handledthat Iohnson& Iohnsurr's actually benefited the long term . pressand consumers. Exxon's stock market capitalisationdropped $3 bil. What youthlnkarethe do key casethat makethls cfisls.and P60. Seymour and Moore (2000:157)write: For Chissothe hundredsof deaths and thousandsof injuries represented financial burden.Part3 PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISMS public relations Crisis vs managementoperational ness effective from an operationalperHoweverwell a crisisis managed spective. and receiveda considerEven though the able amount of global media coverage.(Seymourand Moore 2000:-157) the Seymourand Moore (2000)describe 'association' ity r9. as one of the best-managed crises and the btn$*J did talk to the media as he blamed them for exaggerating priately)is still a success aroundthe workl.For the first'timein the product.fromov€f still discussed favourably? What !o. The'assoUnion ciation factor' lingerson over other companies. goi the company right? Howdid the right? -. communication. This action directly causedthe deaths of six people in the Chicago area. the company's (pain reliever)wascontamintrustedand leadinganalgesic ated with ryanide by a member of the public. particularly. the police. the media.Johnson acted swiftly and effectivelyboth l* Eventoduy"l nished. in n I to a// stakeholders shareholders. would what you had shares the company. or Tylenol.when mercurywasdumped by poisoning thousandsof into the seaover severaldecades.ferry safety. Insult was added to injury when the CEO finally operationand communication. . employcei. But.The spill took placein issued comprehensive produtl a ally pulled off the shelvesa// the capsuh the USA . How worrld ll How would it re-establish confidence the in the brand?How wasanyone trust a fohttrnn to product again? Could anyonewith a grievnllr* or another random'madman'claim lrnvr to product and effectively blackmailthenr? & nextresponse lrrrlh wns Johnson Johnson's of the few in true wildernesses the world. Alaska. without any douht. Tylenol. consumerswho ate polluted fish. lll r and. introducedtamper-evident It prt( in many ways.not just in the Chicago areawlrrf€ occurred.There is evidence that good communicationin a crisissituation can support or increase a company's reputation (British Midland.Johnson in * lion in the two weeksafter the Exxon Valdezoll spill in words and actionswere seento be in accofd. accident site was appropriately cleaned up (operational Exxon took far too long to address stakeits effectiveness). at the shntf municated exactlywhat it was doing.discussed later). caused ChissoCorporation. asidefrom the a fact that it would be linked with Minimata.2. its reputation was substantiallytar. the Exxon Valdez and oil Carbideand BhopaN spills.Over 25 yearsago Johnson& Johnsonfaceda potentially devastating crisis. Theggod. a very simple operationnlt termsof production. Now.a metalfoil to visilrly'rgeff duct plus two more physical barriers cntry.

might not always of ittgi rirtl and will go wrong. additives cancer-causing xhen potentially werethrown the of the crisis.liririrounsellors Strictlyconfidential' or ingested swallowed the boundsof its host organisation' ih frrrductsthat areeither beenfound on rubbish have hospitalrecords We llod. address. not arrive'The data but theNationalAudit Office.r* publicrelations 19 Crisis Chapter tt9 PAh.9O BHO bv tbc )MiG Ak. drink and oral pharmaceuticals' all paper-based have computers of or of 25 million numberand bank details the r*tlK in early2005showed extentof impend.On CDs tll of nearly500 products(seeFood Standards qu. wereasked for out asrubbish. andthe harddrives second-user how a damaged to lll .uk/news/newsarchive/2005/ details' to remainalertto fraudulentuseof their l fri rrn ra ti o n ). . ltul the source a crisis mail two unenof Customs(HMRC) sent via unregistered regardless A r risis can hit any organisation to the CDscontaining entirechildbenefitdatabase Whatever manufacturing crypted whlttt it represents. who it knows age when This is the information and communications somehowalwaysescapes information arguethat over 50% of crises highly confidential i. theydid i* rntployedor whateverinformation is disseminof birth' The food dye scandals on the disks included name.! VII lrl tlrc (sourcet Reuters/Corbis) O plantdisaster chemical the following Bhopal UnionCarbide against I flrotests from? come crises elo u[ of sugar but It's notwhatYouknow.NationalInsurance as HMRC chairmanPaul Gray resigned a conseresulted is easy understand or evgngoverncompany cause beenfound to containsensitive can or $roil*tuff pharmaceutical be a major and 2007HM Revenue be mentinformation..but over 7 million UK families t*ww.

loyaltymay turn . how can we forget the one-man crisis caused by Nick Leesonwho brought down the merchant bank Barings through his overzealous financial actions! These actionswerewell chronicledin a 1998film. cleaningup after an industrial accident. When a crisishits.1. not only costly.Rebuilcllng I Any organisation 10or more peoplewill always of have tion with stakeholders. Labour/employee concern Employeeswill naturally be concernedalttl0l jobs and financial welfare.often But when leastexpected. content among regulatorsand 'the chances ofregulatoryor politicalpressure t* {. On 24 fanuary 2008 French bank Soci6td Gdn€rale reported it had fallen victim to the activities of another rogue trading fraud and as a result lost almost €5 billion. to Kerviel statedthat his actionswereknown to his superiors as the transactions had beengoing on for over two years. Too fewr municate effectivelywith their employeer Employees who areboth well informed and a powerfrrlforcein timesof crisis. the people isation havea crisisto handle! Youwon'tbelieve whatso-and-so justtold me According to the Institute of Crisis Management. Legal actions We live in a 'do or sue' world. Againeffective communication key to is Under thesecircumstances.Market by confidence reputation and tion .and when feelings are running high.a trader with the company. EU or global level.oil spill. most thlngr Political backlash Whether at country. how cln they feel their concerns havebeenadequatsly When an organisation fails to communicnl€ with consumers.390 Part3 PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISMS In today'sclimateit is nearlyimpossibleto keepconfidential information confidential. key ershipteam arepreoccupied periodslhtt for several daysto several weeksand cannot business. remunerated and appreciated. security. is likely to seeits supporl it and marketshare plummetoften irretrievnhly. litigation. Withoul i isation will not exist. This may be driven hy tion to the crisis. their negative impact can be huge. a series rumours circulating.) and pickup systemsare required.With them. the damagethat can be done to a are minimal.However.around a quarter of global crises are caused or triggered by employees/members an organisation. Seymourand Moore (2000: 142)outline the characteristicsof rumoursundercrisisconditions: I I Accept that rumours alwaysgenerate interestand are often more attractivethan the facts. rumour can contributeto ing both public and market confidence. The disaffected employeeor former employeetaking someform of revengecan trigger a crisis . and injury or othet tion claimscan inflict hugefinancialdemsndl. (See and exacerbate alreadyseriousproblems. This is the mostsignificant costof organisation must plan for thr particularly in the areaofproduct liabilily.especially when a company is facingor handling a crisissituation. After the initial investigation police statedthey lacked evidenceto chargehim with fraud and chargedhim with abuse of confidenceand illegal access computers. of and regulators. as we have seen. so Customer reactions It is reassuring forgivingcustomers lrf .will alwaysbe filled by rumour and speculation. such as shareholderr. One disaffectedemployeebrought down the stock price of a leadinghealthcarefirmby 35o/o by giving incorrect researchinformation to a leading newspaper. The bank statedthat thesefraudulenttransactions were conductedby I6r6me Kerviel.Thus monitoring andB ox 19.clear financial costsinvolvedin withdrawing a product. Whatarethe realcostsof a crisis? With any crisis there are.Employees a of are company'sbest asset when they are effectivelymotivated.Any organisationshould expect that what is known on the inside is just as well known on the outside. Rogue Trader. Crises behaviourin individuals. etc.rt organisationare high. Silence or a vacuum caused lack of communica.comparedto Communicating a c during The examplesand experiences describedso lht chapter dramatically demonstratethat today ll li and more evidentwhy a companyor organitntktn .it can alsoInlg is achieve. Let's takea look at the real Managementistraction d Evenwhen a crisisis handledwell.

so gullible. don'tbelieve wordof it . there is why it cannotcommunicatc. a Let's takea lookat them.l'm aftaldI'm unable this to got whatto sayand the caller tellsyou they've a comment. Whatarethe facts? Whohasthat lnformation howis it bestunderstood represand and ented? Bothyouandyourorganisation thereis an feel escalating of events. else 'authority'. applying out But rationalthinking it.f€Slgnations the head of exploration Feedback you deadline whatever sayis going be quoted. trr.publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis management 391 wouldyou. or mobile panic Once setsin rational decision making recognise number... return I will PR You for the out-of-hours officer. happened what's and being done. that hapgens howit feels. You a story. and youandyour organisation feel loss control will a of over thesituationthere somany are different stakeholders that lg a distinctpatternof eventsand behaviour andtheywantto knownghtnow whathas actually during crisis. caller. enswer What next? to irrotional events exactly is what'scalledfor.ttrics argue against it. Roll downthe shutters crisis holidays 8 o'clock a Friday bank or on night leads to drama you're of when enjoying lgood a night l| week hell. study 19. Preparing for a crisis costs by experienced crisis management counscllors.youarein a goldfish af a senior crisisconsultant who describes and everyone peering lt's highly probable is in. as a trainee crisismanager. 'Those on yourtoesandyou canguarantee your arevery that serious allegations.&$ llrrrkrn bombings is about its situation r$fltlt. .. nrover in the And you're aboutl'you the don'tknow what on tell unaware the situation of untilthe issueis panic.bil stocks). is and scrutiny outside from the that . thinkyou 15 minutes. iua-stantial such these build accurate as to an Thinkaboutthe pointsjust examined how of and the . Before time. canlead a siege feeleveryone agalnst is themandtheirorganNew viduals In Chinait will happenduringChinese Thlsreaction invariably rapidly and leadsto Thanksgiving USA.1).ingin ontheorganisation bowl . rise! happen the mostinopportune at times Easter. These revelations the two resignationsYouneed quessystematicallyresearch answer to and price reputation tions impact share on and picture.' What happens next? effectively at the onset of a crisis (see also is often seen as an unnecessary luxury.'l llsually just after 'l a by someone . and to Asyouarethinking yourfeet. investment questions analysts asking are awkward and NGOs getting are involved. PR beginto piece together full impact Shellof its crisls? the on you you What should bethinking about? Whom should and reputation bethinking about? does future How Howhas the look? What suffered? is thewayforward? aboutits globaloit yourreputation Shellwasoveroptimistic '.tncyand it a regulator.. going bedone.' the but goes of thewindow. itr. Even when an $!*htrrurricate crisis. yourorganisation on so mayfeeltheydon'thave enough information deal to withthe crisis. lt's almostguaranteed if a crisiswereto There immense intense This to mentalltywhere indiin Japanit will be duringthe GoldenWeek company. flow Withinwhat mayfeel like moments. many organisation urgedto communicate Yet Case 1i. Everyone seems be lookto descriptionof o crisisis based on the notappropriate me lt for you yourcallwithin is notwhere leftit andyoucan'tfindthe to comment immediately. or to andsaid about it. thecompany isation. suggest go and pick on someone tlu$tomer're you I less phone Your rings. it'sa workphone. resulted This miscalculation plus n. media talking the are aboutthe situation.and crisis preparednesstraining oftena list of reasons suchas: '.

loeSimpson well and as Foster installed thenewchancelas as Brendan being presence campus. team for cruciaI to investigate prepare a situation. on as ffi .known Kelly Lucas Holmes. keystakeholders. team communications wereusedto dealing andoftenrunexpected situations attracted that media attention never but before thisscale. university's with real. of the 5pm university's communications tooka callfrom jour: team a bombers nalist suggesting oneofthe London that was gave name at Met. Dataprotection the gave not which communications could comment. need darnage the the limitation. on lor. I Mainconcerns objectives and The main concerns were havingthe university's name associated with Muslimfundamentalism the UK's and I identifu communicate priority and with operate a'business usual'basis. the spotlight afterit wasalleged journalists by that thebombers in Leeds hadmetat the tived and (so University urcetCorbis) firsthome-grown suicide bombers. made of the headof cornup mately.2 TheLondon Bombings crisis an is example howanorganisation getdrawn of can intoa crisis unexpectedly. associations Thefirstcrisismanagement meeting took place team couldimpact the university's on reputation andr the following morning. of security. the university's I and the main concerns. on of During the afternoon 12 Jutythe world'smedia huntforsusturned attention Leeds thepolice its as to pects the7July in closed ona largely to bombings Asian ln At Headcommunity Leeds. student numbers subsequent and fundlng.I off. to a mediafrenzy journalists as trii:dto identifu and The reveal information aboutthe bombers.Part3 RELATIONS SPECIALISMS PUBLIC suicidebombings In 2004 following London the of had Leeds Metropolitan University to respond 7 July. vice-chancellor munications. time and Picture 19. thlstimetheu'niversity's of ingley was in Campus hosting excess 3.deputy head a factors werecrucial the success the to of (the was himself wetcoming these anda dean vice-chancellor sity.000people festival graduation of eachdayduring four-day a cerelike included names Dame monies. for ment team discussed situation. I manage flow of information the avoiddistortion promote positive actively stories aboutthe phones Withmobiles switched the crisismanage. joumalist a a student Leeds The and and a from thecourse hadstudied wanted comment they legislation meant the university.Crisis management objectives were therefore VlPs ontoqampus theday's for ceremonies).there already media was a 12 one At approximately on Tuesday July. Radebe. happened Leedr This to Metropolitan when University it fellunder medit. which well.

provided considered. considered and tontacts researched articlesappearedin the nationalpress devel' regarding calls discuss to team unlcations made Muslimfundamentalism university on camincluding city puses. and much of the coverage was positive as the university in trust and knowledge the was reportedas having providedaccommodation lice-chancellot's to them displacedresidents. be in of the ensivestaffinductioninformsall staffof the Confident its actionsand 'policing' facilities.qed with the media. to team bersat 2pm. moredetailand spokespeople withnosecurity place reduce in impact. University Leeds of the university's lawswhenthe media to were not did not adhere dataprotection students lhat the namesof individual gave details of an Egyptian PhD studentwho was r. Following initial48 hourswhen they whntever to the lrn. way of contrast. governors chancellorturn Leeds other who. corporate citizenship ethical included strated management meetings team crisis uent of a pre" consideration how to manage largemulticuttural union the and from students' the By the of lslamic Sociegto reassure university. the to r*sponding iournatists' on called theircontacts theregional n$team Newspaper coverage with $nd outmore goodrelations thisstake' discuss Althoughteeds Met was mentioned many of the meant thattheycouldcomfortably in situation. university's state" at The ment led with offersof support the community to requests. nationaland regionalpress it was never headline news. *ummunications of campusfacilitiessuch as the prayerrooms and groups.wasconsiderably thanthat of the University and less of in The and thesituation. simply chancellor.andthe time the university beenableto verifiy actions further had its similar in dealingwith fundamentalism of Leeds all of whomwerereceiving over the previous E fiom the media. Fufihernationaland regional features were published which were more considered and demonand transparency. campusphotographs were nevershown.publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis managernent 393 i''. university offered hallsof residence The Further coverage during this facilities support theirneeds to ulher of uncertainty.l . on comment one wa5 of thebomber's and themthat the university $ltuation assured Met. Responses were discussed 10 yearsand identifu the protocols and accessibitity teamgaveadvice. suspected rentingout the flat where the bombs of were made. by its frsm.. com" affected. that it was appropriate team office communications decided to frsmthepress thepress refer calls any fu to providesome journalists with access the vice" to rrvas this reinforcing may and organisations in Leeds be ir the support.'i (continued) 19. the morelengthy. tight and advised university'swithjournatists.thecommunications wasable had been that at leastone of the bombers cpnfirm f* ). eommunications heauthorised securityon campus to resources needed bestmanage contributed this. student that was S-r*rlll sentto all staffrequesting anycalls press referred the communications team.He was latercleared any involvement of groups and personat detaits resid. the journalists werelookingfor any detailsthey could regarding bombers.a resutt. to tfrr. Conclusion the namesof the the time the policeconfirmed Leeds wasquick implement Met limitation to a damage governors including security being tough very strategy. thewhole. a.Increased team.. university's the of head communications in As the coverage of Foster otherkeygovernors themedia and fellorBrendan passing on was.but not beforehis photograph of of learned thenumber displaced University newson of nationat bombers hadappeared the frontpage every where the from communities theatleged papet followingdetailsreleased the university.1 press a student theuniversity. association Leeds Coverage with with the policeinvestigation manag.This led to furthermediaenquiries which the with otherstakehotders by in education colleges the city.

the of applications relationship with the communities The university's affected has gone from strength to strength.the adtn H -.whitetlte . as priority well as governors students as and A Tanweet.. Theuniversity in national and international newspapers websites and i . i ththe C s ti o Daily Moil and Mirrar caught trying to accessFairfax Hall) .'. from CivicQuarter.rt l.r f**h#S plus regular mettllrrtq .ii:. a French cameramen to speaking rfiete':{ with the headof humanresources nt.. to improve and Police Metropolitan wereconl{tit*S The (London) to they bookedan appointment visit . .: ing a LeedsMet studentShezhad Shezhadl*rllffig* statementwas issued confirming had all By midday University etiminated but one of was a LeedsMet studentand identifoing '.e: Hall iveteamin Fairfax werethe mainsourcl.rrrr q!. fromhealth employment skilts ranging of withinthe communities audits. --:a modation evacuated -# Itl -i * Posfalso carriedporlllv. includirrg age of the University's t. identified pol i tan ol i ce damage limitation strategy: staffandsecurity r r t { .394 Pa T t3 REL AT IONS PUBL IC SPECIALIS MS case study19.fil for 8 system was checked approximately namt*4. the support theirSenior The uni versi tyrecei vedmenti onsi n .50pm a press statement teamwas scrambled identify to A crisismanagement issued by llrr hirii.B information Further Timeline l3luly 2OO5 Wednesdoy that 12 Following mediareportlate on Tuesday Juty a was a LeedsMet studenta full one of the bombers studentdatabase) searchof Banner(the university's took place on Wednesday luly at 8am revealing 13 that att three suspectedbombers'names matched (somenameswere records LeedsMet's database on spettdifferently) rj$ accessto a spokesperson campuses or was issued was permitted. nationaland international -ffi!. ' radioandtelevision Herald.with a second tlte and issuing ling callsat the CivicQuarter the statement and a third team searching wr. received around media 15 Theuniversity who ri:luig$j. websites. Times HigherEducation ory at the prestigious Met recorded highestper' the In the sameyearLeeds in in centageincrease studentapplications the UK.i. u=i f f l newspalrtr* regional.4. the furtherrequests throughout day . withoutpoliceconfirmation holding the university to was offering the evacuatetlttrrtftr#e' was issued statement itiesin Leeds received TheUniversity over50 media callsandsecurity (BBC turnedawayat leastfive journalists/cameramen Radio 4's Today programmewas escorted off the w He a d i n g l e ya mp u a mi n i mu m f three mes.: of with searches. briefholdingstatement the on requesl BBCtelevision'sLook North's5pm bulletinrtrtl ft*€!* .}*. tirtsff:-*iMetwas providing FiveLivereported that Leeds residents for .and delivery courses employabitity aspirations.=.r1i.t . tlxt!-l* Evening TheYorkshire graduations. frilift*i .rpffiJ:.. a At 3.'t*ru=et.l medi a menti ons of on Vice-chancellor consulted a number orr aali Thursdoy14 luly 2005 +l and TheMetropolitan Police visitedcampus t.lj*= doctorates scheme) ! with no furlltet All but the main accessto the halls at Headingley Theuse of the officialstatement of werelocked with security the campus basedat eachof the mentavailable to seemed reduce amount rrrvgr66 journalists media mainentrances prevent to intruding in Leeds Met received the national received mentions at least15 regional.. l of the P confi rmed names suspet'.'' graphsof honorary l+ and Kids@Uni r*:.nlve@f|* foltowing morning offictls in Otherdepartments the registrar's tr-'Brll the communications team.til. in were a whenmostuniversities experiencingdecrease following introduction tuitionfees.1#i '... | .and staff are engaged research and inequalities.studentsengagewith these of as elements their communities partof the citizenship activities in studies.. "irs+rl proximately hourswith the headof commtlrll 2 tsi and ovtrr statement handed who gave official an '"rt 4 of one suspectand his best friend.1(continued) Met was awarded In 2006 Leeds 'gold'in the category contribution the local community of 'outstanding to of award'and 'silver'in the 'university the year'categawards. the thr' a a but t its students..4 j-J ::. Many to studentscontinue come from the ethnic minority in communities Leeds.. .'trq calls.includingArab Newsand the Ner.

.r :'' : r:I .1gr+l f'ress: variety mentions .J!tr sponsorship...' .:.T ..#:..lf therewasa problem.i t:. td!tt4f:'i f11rilllij i. Longlsland.ify Leeds Thomas rr/ere tlrrrt shared among press the offices LeedsMet staff member quoted in the lndependent fi*+ot' saying: you .' :.rnteclfilm the university to supportto svd'r.i s a n a g e m e te a mc o n ti n ued meeti n the :r 7 ?iilirrlrrg having mettwiceeachdayof the previous two Looking forward . i. . not to..*r"i. . tsryorrurtm the University Leeds .!4t presswith two 'hats'on .: :. ate positive stories. 1 t lc r. Professor SimonLee(vice-chancetlor) r Two mentionsin the Yorkshire Post.NewYork edtyinvolved a race-hate in street murder no evidbut enceto take him to court.. . -..'.. t t.1. Is.:..tls Council the university aware Overten mentions the media. ' .Fi City but was 1r'r.rom theSundayTelegraph persistent and rude. ' . community work. ..r* :.. firmlyshifted the University Leeds stlt'ntion to of $. . press: briefmentions Leeds Met in the Daily of tl *gil . ot..b**r. ..i'. .-: :+: .rrronal press: brief mentionsin the Brisbane -:' t:rttul* Mail andNewsday. g.' . sent out proactively local contacts The SundayTelegraph a separate to ' *** '. t { llr rri s m a n d H o s p i ta l i ty n a gement Ma speaki ng ltrtl' of I Promotepositivemessages summerschools. . headof communications The spoketo him .. :'':: ..' as -:_ -11 ".regionalcollegenetwork.iJi...lligher Educationa! requested inter.r 4 . -Hfrli.graduation stories *i?llt{ivce.: .i:r. r r1. .l itrvolve .#-* tt . ' ...r.rlDailyMirror.:rit l. i1.:. ' i. : i ! : : .. . would I report I'venever it.rx Farrarspoke to the lndependenton Sunday 1 g y *l. 1. ff. : '..rjrfi..{:.. l r. ! i *r1gg . r. 3.'y. which he agreed on the issues integration diversity of and :i.r... 11 ' . with security on full alertto evictjournalists stitl ' ':: :i I Continue keep an eye on devetopments the to in press staff not .rrc e l l o ro n s u l te o n a n u mb er occasi ons c d of categorically 'l can tell that at Leeds Metropolitan University Leeds and University thereare groups no radical there..trr:uld ready otherdevelopments be for should broadsheets. rrrrr+ C r . .rtement ran articlewith the had fully i: ...1.luests forthe lateststatement inctuding GMW ' ili4ri providing \tu.i:ii iiiu*.F..hancellor consulted a number occasions on of it:. in including mostof the . '.1. .' university not cooperated with in the headline goesunderground Brit' 'lslamic extremism at ish universitles. luly 2005 errltr rt*. 6.l ll+.:. : Sundoy 77 luly 2005 The lndependenton Sundoy claimed Mohammed Sadique Khan andHasina Patel at Leeds (Saturmet Met day'slndependenf claimedthey had met at Dewsbury positive College) a of including r.. ir r t r .r. lr.$** rfli issued of and Danby state. 'l t. The Sunday l"elegraph opinion (Niall Ferguson) said aboutTanweer: wasnot uneducated.. you 'He assuming regarda degreein sporlsseiencr-.r.-l:..1***.9..Monday 18 Supplement ..1gprrrr" through a memberof* as a member Larkia. LeedsMctrofrom politanUniversity education.ame of staffinthe Schoot I Downgrade keepvigilant but message security to . ... 5.. hadto...rlt:d residents . r.:i1*rlrit* beingadvised to speakto the press.&+ ( : li.:!+-d r.T* '.r.rtt".. i i p' . llr M.r0 '$i. l. q.e Source: Laville(2008) .a. Jenning's 'i. r..1(continued) ffi' b.'. rrr ei s s u e n L e e d s e n e ra tl(a sked to speak th i not S ome j ournal i stsw ere sti l l requesti ngmor e on 6lr lr rr! e d sMe ts p e c i fi c a tl y ) te Shezhad Tanweer Leeds and Met'sviewon Muslim fun.including some ": 1:r goodpressaboutVerity thesison 'Chavs'.ikev Met..1.?.Chapter publicrelations 19 Crisis managemenl 395 .':?it.. Saturdoy16luly 2005* . p i t*+ rt& :'- f. rr. Harrog4t'e festival Muslimcommunity Leedsand as a LeedsMet in r..fux*&..l"t graauation ourcommunity from and support -^l : .: ... .++t .. . the Mirror mentionedthat the at of was underscrutiny l.: for the regional and localpress. .l..' damentalism inctuding BBC Today programme the R4 m nt to lhr ' r rr. ..i2.i. jj : #!ltll.. Leeds l 'l: "1 Reported the Sunthat Shezhad :it in Tanweerwas report" ...:.lultllh..i:: ' i.). .: :1..i rl .r. broader comment ?:'4iltiint doingfurtherstatements..'.:: . .i:.'.arA.. .$*nr'' journalistsstill soughtstatements lggressive press I Somecontacts the regional in keento gener" .8.. !:#davl5 luly2oo5 .: rf irf H *: . 'i.

annual and other reportsand members the pubticand 'eyewitnesse$'i of companies and organisations.r ri they . former employees.ot 11lumgelve! areprepared they appropriately. nalistsl newspaper cuttings.1 ilifih'.r'i'. Havethey beenprepared crisis for for the leadingquestionsof journatists whn appear be their bestfriend? to Theyhaveir vuh.* f? the mediawilt let them soeak. coastguard.396 Part3 SPECIALISMS PUBLIC RELATIONS 19.' hidingsomething. records.r a going to put anyoneup against seasoned of on suchasf eremyPaxman the BBC'sNews. The fear of revealingproprietary information or revealing competitiveinformation that may give the problems.i +i shotrlrll. neigh social services.' 'They're 'Guilty!' of doesnot take control a crisis Whenan organisation the immediately.and their everysinglecrisissituationcompanies different. l ) t o b e c l l t 'r l l r r !l :r r .r I 'inqq to ir Selectinga spokesperson spokespeoplc or tq. security. website. situationand faits to communicate to mediawitl go to a wholerangeof othersources get Takea look at the foltowing theyneed. and charltls* psychologists organisations. and other medical. Tatking the media to T i.' to Thecompany to was unwilling take Themediasay:'Thecompany partin this programme.iffi whathappens when 'Nocomment'wilt companies notrespond other politicians.. for instance it fears that by mentioning the individual brand. and'disaster' specialist f writersand correspondents. experts.basedon consultancyexperience seniorcrislr ttt:rrtr#v. { the toyal anddependable.they are all readily tion and 'expert' opinion in a crisis situation:the services emergency the Internet.€ -'{ most important decisionsin the effectivclr. government government ministersand departments. company police. ambulance. directors.iL intervicwer 'hard'news programme). scientific authorities. too arean inyeisj resource a company.. The way a company communicates thc lnr'(lt. fire. etc. any crisis. the information of sources informa" available list . picture llbrarlt{|. I I The need to assembleall the factsbefore it communicates. But how muchdo they reallyknow? How youthinkthey know? Maybe theyknowmots localauthorities.' Consumers think:'No smokewithoutfire. trade unlotill groups fessional bodiesand pressure andolhpi Themediawill atsotatk to the company the friendly facewho's beenon the frontdsik enting the organisation the tast 25 ysfrr-*l for speakto the nightsecurity officeror the perunfl panyoveralls who keepsthe boilergoingutrrllt leaving plant at 6 o'clockin the mornln6. .ur. to Feedback like maygo something this: Thesequence events of I I I chooses say:'No comment. l'he desire to avoid panic... to spokesperson lf a company Whatwouldyou think if you werethe is yourreaction? journalistaskingthe question? a customer the of or c om pa n y ? nesses.'. new competitive company Concern Clarity Control Confidence Competence I I SeeThink about n F i g u r e1 9 .. what refuses comment. customers clients. night(a late-evening I lt has had other problemsrecentlyand cannot talk it about this problembecause will impacton its overreputation. business othera and your demics..ii:'r. arethefaceof thr.. will be substantially solutions.Whoever actsas spokesperson not have a trained spokesperson and is not television p r o p o s e d5 C s m o d e l ( F i g u r c l 9 .' . all corporate The issueof how to solvethe crises no one knows ofthe crisis. 1 T h e 5 C s e f f e c t i v ec o m m u n i c a t i o n t i r tl r l . how to solve problemat the outbreak the face. peoplewill think the corDorate brand is 'infected' as well. film. . mountain rescue.

infor' sensitlve containing afticle. they will handle hla. situation. to chase rumour andexpect enc e Itttrt nlso demonstrate competence and reflect how.they needto havevery clearmessaysat the outset will be Whnt the spokesperson the durationof the crisis. wrong. ions needto talk with clarity. for it becausemakes slmply of scale theproblem a media make drama to Expect the story. lrue concern about Activity 19. a better outof yourcrisis.fhamenf1s lie u . I I I f 1o aans prevdntlt. personalised. An exclusive did the mation that. wanttohave walting has witt Someone saythisdisaster been to happen. will have their 'own take' on the crisis needs situation.spokespeople the thr tnessages. on in will ' Experts becalled to comment theprobin 'fieldsof lem. might react a iournallst a crisls? What mightyoil wantto knowif youwereln their What you would wantto speak? To situation? whom How on to doyouneed getyourstory thefrontpage? for be wouldyourquestions if youworked different publicatlon? or thelocalpaper a transport must takeconlelkingto the media. often sensationallsed. a mafor report a crisis on asked'to you in as How crash. trllrcsentative of the organisation. concernis a simple hungry media. the especially newsand 'their own perspective' everyone.the environmentand d e n ce acrosswith lixrlrrtpcrson must get the key messages e. can be llrfr$.These'specialists' various ' expertise' discuss wrong went of what ldeas will andhowit haPpened.) for the people affected (See hrr hnppenedand concern Itfl in the future .there may also be €filotion. concern about very well-informed specialistcorrespondents consider. crisls the witl'be Thetiming orthespokes' ab?oad theirdeputies outoftown. to'roundup' the the right!Expect media even. organisation not made known.including potential customers/ rrrliorrs of the 5Cs model in F'igure lr lirllows. trut without appearingcomplacent or arrogant Feedback whatkindof media lf youwerein this situation.t instance. As well as generalreporters.ltr prcdictablc' are While theseinitial questions generally how the mediawill act and how they will report a crisis fronr asksquestions Everyone should neverbe assumed. are iitll tluestions likelyto be thosein Box 19. wlll team be wrong. Starting from the futturrof the crisis. experience you You coverage should expect? could thefollowing: I wilt Theinitialmediareports be speculatlve. will the mediareact? the fu lir. br confusedwith legalliability.4. phone been stolenl wlllhave person's moblle re' media wlll and Opinlons rumours dominate does porting especiallytheorganlsation not if fact rumours become to Expect effectively.of course.2. very exaggerated. lltroughout A crisisfroma journalist's perspective belng of in Put yourself the position a iournalist rail say scenario. respond rumour. mediawill want to know the facts. The organisation'sspokesperson to the problem. or spiteful hurtful andpossibly.

September organisations. phonenumberto tell callers that NTL clid trd seevirusescrippling so many of our computer systems. corporatevoicescan quickly be ignored.32fortheOberatidflal ing to'estabush frsm the. one thata 6er!qt8 broken (mostunusual train out in probably andthatthere were many fatalities.the l-:. puter.the mediaenvironmenthaschanged The once limited media market has becomeglobal and highly sophisticated. Michaelflodder. . chapter. At 08. It is impossible censorthe Internet .and the average usergetsincreas.via inInternet caf€s. The speedwith which communications can be delivered is phenomenal and availableto so many people. In 20()4. -The tpeed dfupread. But when considering management teamsmust accept that the mediarepresent only part of an array of communication channels albeit [n onc of the mostnoisyand demanding. As technologies advance.3 . havinggone throughthree stop'signals. pulled of the platform out at At 08. frontof inbound GNER express traln.someonesomewhere will be giving their own.need only think back to the resources deploycd lru ingly concerned about losing control of their own com.thereare a host of bollt I and securityissues that affectthe operationand nessof an organisation.contfolllng at Slough a serious that accident had involving of theirtrains. the Now it is possible a small group to drive campaigns for acrossthe internet.while at the sametime empowering individuals to express their opinions at the click of a tnousc. interfere with emailand raise mannerof all anythingtheywant or create specific This costsa considerable websites criticise that amount of time and nlrlt$f for can becomeunmanageable. . often live. : : r:. which is dedicated prob. 1ffi. distorted or each drownedout by theincessant noisethat characterizes and everycrisis cisis situation. .tiid impact they have on our day-to-daylives bcr. At the same time single-issue .) B whereindividualscan gain access a company'r to The totally unregulatednature of the Internet thus .com.a maliciousindividual or organisation can rtrlft givesorganisations huge cause concern. through to corporatecommunications frastructure. the Sefmour and Edelman(2004)describe new chalposedby the lnternet: lenges how to turn around a crisistoday. It tookuntil08. Overthe last tenyears. At a corporate level. .06.:the Thames Tralnploughi{. Butifanyone had beenon the lnternet a would have been to read'breaking able of a railaccident Ladbroke at Grove serious injuries and a severe fire. . tnanagement and communications have beenforced to develop response a series in to oftechnology IT-driven and groups and changes. a basic we service is On level.. impactthe Internethason crisis The managementtoday is enormous.The Internet views.from home computers. about their problem and they shouldjust get n lll+l from worms to Trojans. companies and specific industries(see.which is both its strengthand its weakness vehiclefor the dissemination but it is a highly effective as of information and opinion that may masquerade information.398 Part3 PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISMS In T he te r n e t dp u blic an re l at ions is is ana g e m e n t cr m Sincethe daysofthe Tylenol crisisreferredto earlierin this dramatically. NGOs were recognizing potential of the internet.enforcesome new policiesor give spurluur for has becomethe new rumour mill where peoplecan say ments.www.rnr._'- . U|{ example. so these vinrrr apparent .adversarial organisations and NGOs. the Internet is very effective to in putting a message out.If somethinghappens. or www. version of events.11.parations the 2000newyear( company NTL had its systems to saboltgnt lems with United Airlines. '': :.they are. Considerwebsitelurrr ( S ee o x 1 9 .mercedes-benz-usa. a world dominated by low trust and the corrosive fficts of cynicism.the new for . From individuals.untied.:of lnbrmatioir: newcommunication is well era PaddingtonAadbroke accldent Grove 5 October 1999. an annoyance.through online communities. a sitewhoseagenda obviousl). hackerchanged a the outgoingmessage ilr lurlr on com/. at best.

results.publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis management r9t .) Crisis manual Another meansof preparation a crisismanual. a for It might an operational be change. the assessment help build a comprehensive can (Scc system managing for crisis communications. additionto beingableto train a crisis ln team.unisation) addressing their staff directly at a Doing crisis a audit lf youwere place conductingcrisis a auditforyour of you study or:work. will asktoughquestions to It r**lrnunications rr lhe most likely scenario that could happen. audit is Ftrt rtcp in preparation to conductan audit that of and strengths the lhe current vulnerabilities The audit will research key !' ol organisation.*F1'115. environmental experts.The {iloup estimates that global spendingon Y2K ilrdxlhillion. legal ? r.change how a in a product labelled howthe company maris or is keted.A well-prepared crisismanual can serveas a guide for many of the basictasks.) The auditofteh shows companiesneed change.s. rather than take any chances. court cases. tixll lirr the inevitable le *rch as research the form of crisis audits.A good is crisismanualcontains simplesystem rapiclcommuna of ications. suchas scandals. (SeeBox 19. marketing. which have to clearer led to newstudents aboutsymptoms proper and actions to take.but drr(ome asa surprise or irirtion. aridit.2).Anythinglonger will not be usedin a crisis. identify which stakeholders woulcl bc affectedand help management build sccnarios train to a key crisis team with the techniques effective crisis of management. for would have potential problems to consider originating staff from or students.. How couldyoufindoutwhether organ. people.# lhcr was a fear that all computer systemswould choseto spendlarge Irr r*' how many companies *f tlt{incy'on IT.basicmessages audience identification and and shouldnot be more than 10 pages long.example. employee relations. Activity l e. Itnw well prepared the company is to deal with it resources. is thereforea positive whetherthat be two individualsfaceto facein icw or the CEO of a 'megacorp' (major multiutg. lrr lr ls operations.llrcrit hasall the necessary The audit results can then be usedto identilythc kcy trouble spots. such as activating the crisisteam and facilities. parand communication lrrcc-to-face y rlurirrg a time of crisis. a change whatresearch openly or in is discussed theregulator.commercial public sector canpreand everycompanyshould. in il1ia crisismanual and conductingcrisis simulaare better *t training will ensure that organisations I to handle any crisis. with Aneducational organisation. airlsismanual. government. generally. simulation .l' regular crisis training. exam protests. whatwould need know? to Make a list of the keyareas where something mightgo your wrong. *lrr. of guidance forexample.4. a crlsib : :. and allowsmore time for the crisisteamto focuson the more criticalissues (see Figure19. isation a crisisplan? has What it wouldyouexpect to contain? Feedback for to prepare a crisis and at unexpected times. Some colleges universities have and also had crises due to outbreaks meningitis..

Communications CCT Crisis Communications Team Figure79.!t! into { The final stepin crisisplanningis to conductsimulation tions plan to make surethe team understands r. the crisisplan and finallyexamines tests and the importance communityand employee of rclatiorrt.'ry* of of workshops exercises crucial to ensurethat any weaknesses are are SolutionsLtd. panies who havenot prepared trainedwill bc relrrorr or Crisis simulation training and . evaluates communications the tools to find weak spots.400 Part3 PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISMS Crisisor Dotential crisis identified Stage 1 Initial analysis Complete template1: Initialcrisis assessment Highrisk Complete template2: External communications strate$/ Template 3: Internalcommunications strates/ Stage 2 j Convene CCT [g':::l i I Crisis Initial crisis I management I management at local level level I at local Keep ECT informed Stage 3 Key: ECT External Team. just over one-quarter corrrPiurlF* of Suchexercises rangefrom desktopexercises full-blown (27o/o)researchpossiblevulnerabilitiesbut only ln& to globaltests the team. Today in the UK.It integrates group and indi.webservesolutions.lrnu.Repetition crisissimulationand conductregularcrisispreparedness (Wsl*r.2 Crisiscommunicationsaction plan A usefulmethodthat canalsohelp preparcir rurrriigsil is to incorporate debriefing sessions the col. a real atmosphere crisis. to what they are doing in terms of cornrrnrtfil.rrr r*{ spokespeople.relations of and how they areworking with the ncwctt l+:q}1: vidual exercises. l'host' rclti addressed. teststhe skills of the spokesperson or niques crisismanagement. in Theyshouldalsobc irw. Crisis simulationtraining is designed create ging www.liet tlrc training.

4 Assume worst-case itrgcncyplans.**-*--. control a team business concerns.irlesare Crises.Johnson for he the fohnsonCEO.then all spokespeople dtrrw the trainedso asto communicate satne lrrding how to managecrisis PR situations. in very practical terms. However.These message. x '7 't: of ftllfrationalfactorsand often the key aspects comnlion readinessand planning have been neglected. lim Burke.-rfl .:.i'$.itoldersthink about the product.5and described concer ns . . and commercial non-commercial . why are (stakeholders).with a teamfr omdaily These lsolate cr isis situations. the brand and $nrp{ and Johnson & Johnson (in the rl crisis coveredearlier in the chapter) commisrcscarch throughout their situation to find out werethinking. on interruption. haveone 'central place'as the focus. Paul Bremer. enveloping. s) principles tn crisis Centralise at leastcontrol or information flow m ilnage ent rir ol'crises in a range of international settings. l)efine both the short-termproblem .Thereis iuly' what their key audiences it tlrtdcncl'to judge what the audience thinks on the gl'nredia headlines.the mustbe rigorously Be sensitivities terrnsof and t0 key principleshave been identified. A r'ompany better .6 the Always resist combative the instinct.$$kr. depend oneindividual.f$*tlnrt. Both MattessonsWalls (seethe Peperamr {iir:. former Chairman of the lonulTerrorismCommissionbeforehe wasassigned tllifttiion in Iraq..and thc long-tcrnr ensurethe brand/corporation recovers ternrsof both in marketshare and reputation. insisted became brand manager principles fglsmanagement Tylenol. dayjob hasto be a the put on hold. This soundsto are I likr over-confidence. In the case & ofTylenol. which can lead to overreaction olisnlilnagementof a crisis.cstudy 19.pthrrrr in business in summarised Box 19. the Centralise at least or informatlon flow.He wasableto delegate many leadership tasks his and this enabled him to focuson doing the right thing for nethe realproblem while relieving him of his day-to-day ir lhc most critical aspect of effective PR crisis manIohnson& Johnson . . of I crisisis knowItrr of I he hallmarks a well-managed of prepared when it knowswhat is .havecome under closerscrutiny lr I :: Donotfully focushasbeen . that they could handlea cisis. are by their very nature all . a. This applies itemsof information to both comingin and goingout.risis strategy the middle of their first major L.i'i Understand themedia there. it to this chaptertogetherand support studentstn is not feasible haveone centre. ' 3 lsolate crisls ftomdaily ofplans and IT aspects is no doubt that physical planning posltlon. x0 Recognise value short-term the sacrifice.a poll of CEOsin the US showedthat 85o/o 'lul to manage crisis during their time in ffice but a 50t)to admitted to having a plan. businesscontinuiry security and 5.r$lhtt elctailbelow.1 publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis management {01 in lhrir . awareof language rg readilyfrom onelanguage that of Iru*'d on the experience leadingcrisisconsultants reference may not translate over three decades and influenced by the to another. However 970/owere Define realproblem. a i: . the situation problctrtIn right now . Remember constituents all the 9 Contain problem. If thereis a we have seen.hopethat more businesses u hard lookat theirDlans.. stated in an article in the Harvard w Aprtl2O02: Review 9/11.will If makecommunication within the organisation easier.This. main thr 9/ll tragedy. While managing crisis.address responsibilities.

402 Part 3 SPECIAL IS MS REL AT IONS PUBL IC that in representatives 1999 acknowledged Coca-cola than any worstbelowwas bigger the crisisdescribed They atso Coca-Cola they could have imagined. o T he p o p u ta ti o n f Be l g i u mw a s s ti l l reel i ngfrom had a crisis mansgti most definitety of Coca-Cola fears about mad cow diseaseand the presence control.ranging panydelayed apologies triedto denythe futl and lemand its responsibility. or defencc. !i'o I I . Son-re v e s t e di n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a a n d w i l t r l lr ' l "i 'i ' r t h e i r o w n o r t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t 's e p u t a t i o l l .:: by the influence of one departn-rent subtleties can be worked out at a laler datc' llrt I' r' '. TheCEO shape your D o n o t l e t o th e r s ta k e h o l d e rs reputation. cause. ' ' t in terms of what could happcn to 1hc bralrtl . case scenario that speculated the problem sources theyhad lostcontrol. complicating are rumours strong I on Donotfullydepend oneindividui r l tttt The personmanagingthe crisismusl dc1-rctltl llt' r !' ' t e a m f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . 2a r r t lli r i . \\'ritrl' i-r-: l'" in anger. 'in Sr s n T h i n k ' o u ts i d ie ' . seniorexecutive Cocd Meanwhile.' televi' on in Enterprises 7999.not just precedent. ere' of was Coca-Cola caughtout by a combination and authorities regulatory sensitive extremely parents theirchitdren. wlrlt llti r .::' .3.emotions.4 mittionin revenue to of sionsaid:'Perhaps [we]lost control the situation had 'reservations' of day and 79o/o consumers a certainextent.t'lltllrlil 1987 in an attempt to defusc a run on the cxtltittrli.i tl tei .may bc temporarily salisll'rrr1' the best position firr tltr r tiri. : i .' a l l y m o r e t h a n o n e d e p a r t m c n l 's i n t c r n a l t ( l l t rl .r l t". "g .A n o r g a n i s a t i o nm u s t d e m ( ) l l s t ti r l ' l l i " i l c o n t r o l d u r i n g t h c c r i s i s . p A s s u mea wo rs t -c a s e la n n in gp o ' . .p l a nm e s s a g eand acti ons H ' ba s e d o n s ta k e h o l d e rsp e rs p ecti ves. of the Hong Kong Stock Exchangesuspcndcrllr.itrri*+"' manageror the organisation.ttr . li r . b u t n e v e r r e l y o t t i r rl """"'' team nlenlbcts rrr'!rr'' from just one individual. pubticly that perhaps admitted C be due to contami nated O" and creosot€.i organisatiort.l 'lt palletsand werequotedas saying: may mElE with Coca-Cola a PhilippeL'Enfant.! l l tl L \\'oi s i u. Be betterprepared think'worstcase'. feel sick.i s t. t h c l i n e w h c n a c r i s i sh i t s . not rePresent they n-ray When Ronald l. o t h e r sa sp o s s i b l e( S e eM i n i c a s e s t u c l y1 9 .in an interview Belgian was losingan estimated $3.T h e o u t c o t l l eo f b c i n l l t ti ti tl '''' could well destroy the brand or reputatiotl. il t r i 1 r l i t [ : i n s u r cl r c c t i s i st t 'l r t t r h i r t l <sl l r . factors.ll" i::. r " : speculations/ rule do Facts notatways . tl i . I I I I instinc t r the Alwaysesist combative D o n o t g o i n t o b a t t l c w i t h t h c m e d i a .i.More often than not. L rt1t t w o t s l ..# :# tr :a: 'S1 i m p o r t a n t t o b r a i n s t o r n r a n d g c t a s n l t t c l t r r r l r '1 i ' .rr' al':: to l i atr dl r . ( llr. severaI th€ from rat poisonto extortion. :!. PeoPlc (rlltlrrltc tli tlr worst from their own perspectivc. and howto reform to find a resolution the problem is whatthe company doing). (demonstrate regret' and resolution reform Regret. (these be could otherproducers on Call yourallies or of suppliers materials packaging)' or communications and Message alignment internal in are key (to maintainconsistency messages th a n c i rc u l a ti nig s i d e n do u ts i d e e organi sati on). . .trr. products were ba were found and Coca-Cola as White publicspeculated the countries. :{s 5S.I t t s tttl l ":i i * :" t h a t t h e m e s s a g ep u t o l l t d u r i n g a c r i s i sa r c t l t t l r ttl "+r r r I s ovcr itttollt' t ll. i . but of strategy it stitlfounditselflosing dioxinin animalfeed when reports the carcinogen afterdrinklng schoolchildren beinghospitatised Morecasesfrom otherpartsof E Colasurfaced.but it is not harmfut.' drinking Coke. N ( i O s ' r o tl 1 "'ti i "" o r s u p p l i e r s . fi*. keento protect mustbe visible.

2).lt unrelated charges insidertrading). manufacturing e..3). students' ?Sll as the localcommunity. may it usefutat stage refer find this to to other chapters thebook in about issues management(Chapter andimage. le'rs.*$81&. (in community Ygrllltles the localcommunity). administrators ffirviceworkers. : t. .For example. experts.l. doyouwant know what to about the products buy? you Make listandtryto organise a the you issues are interested Putthemin themes in.a university. safety. distributors. government. of issue a major challenge. Recognise valueof shor well as studentsand their stakehslders factories localauthorities.. When a heckler threw an egg at Mr limited to just the UK despite productbeingwidely the lll. shouklbc an objcctit electioncampaign the UK. Asa consumer.liir searching a goodstory. location production. university accountable the is to grant-making research bodies.ln and note down all the stakeholders 11 informaSeealsoChapter for further stakeholders.fronr local a li. prothe cess. A firm can assertthe factsas il sees thcnt and thus defuse an'on-the-face-of-it' story. llttling the 2001general (Case in case study 19. il was not particularlv newsworthv. stokeholders andtheir families. medicaldepartment. suppliers.publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis managemcnl 40t (publics) holders you wellor areintersn organisation know .rw. bodies. found out only the affected l. as Feedback Now thinkabout you companies products expeand rience everyday. You etc.The crisisplan has to lakc all thc stakeholders (SeeActiviry '|9.) into consideration.6.ter m r i fi c e the sac This might involverecalling productor disrnissing the rhe rsta n d h yth e me d i a r ether e w a personresponsible causing problem. for the are for The valueofshort-term sacrifice be well illustrared can |rlg nrr'.ltuly Prime Minister John Prescott batch was only beingsold in the UK. and manif unions applicable. con- customers.5. Consumer reaction a crisis to Consider thesequestions related the Peperami to (Case case study 19. Rfilent. He actually endedup in prison the internatiorral rnediaand thc lnternel.2on Peperami alsoCase (see study I 9.rltlrat closingthe exchange was outsideMr Li's sibleto preventit becoming biggerproblem. 18) identity reputaand tion(Chapter 12). Why consumers sopositively Mattessons did react to Walls' handling thiscrisis? of Themarket share the product of increased 7Lo/o by * why post-retaunch doyouthink happened? this b* usefulto breakstakeholders down into aRdexternal follows. is hlowever. parentsand local authorities. financial the community reland A NGOs. or categories. But when available throughoutEurope.r's. Rem ember constituents ( stakehol der s ) al[ It is not just the media that need {hst and relcvanl responses during a crisis.r'r'nade worsewhen he lost his cool with a jour. thescdaysof or ln ' *l llrtt'ltctringto suehim.. :* Lnrcr' and effect'.it wasin all the l'tl*:ott replied r lirr days.localising an (firr . .i rv.g.2). managers corporate supervisors.Contain the pr oblem pressconference. could You thinkabout the you or college considered Activity in 19.Theyneedfocus. ownsthe comof who pany. *t llte subsequent The journalist Reduce problemto assmalla geographical asposthe arca tr.somethingthat their audience will by Case study I 9. F*nllne community. relate to.ll the impact of a violent reaction from someone to focus the problem led to the subsequent recall being tlr prrlrlic eye. Mr Li responded by demanding his name to national nationalto international. regulator(s). ive.each groupwith its own hierand unions. and leaders. Efforts i l+r. the Peperami in i. In Sfid there be employees academics. with a left-hookpunch. shippers.

is remembered crisesin Australian for beingone of the bestmanaged history. 1'. . Mattesons to meat snacks th P e p e ra md o mi n a te d e s a l a mi .'of inrlirtlrt**i for the foreseeable future. .During recal[ of couldbe foundin a hugerange retailoutlets. t'tffi (Sainsbury) label. affected fromthe bar code.000 a to industry was $At00 mitlion day.l' . the '$ . of produced ii P e p e ra ms i u s to n eo f m a n yme a tp roducts wasto limit Walls anda keyearlypriority by Mattessons Result to o a t he i m p a c t f th e s a l mo n e l lp ro b l e m the P eperami publ i c f f f t Ninety-elghl t*a*'= totally dependent thisoneplant.I encedmediarelations 24 centre as alg$ w w eek..llt stakeholders.invokedemergen(y gas rh*-. 1l1'.404 Pa r t 3 SPECIALIS MS PUBL IC REL AT I0 NS Actions A mediacontrolcentre was set up.andmediareporting of facedthe prospect cold shi'wct*1 miltions peopte of -i. t* Walls updates wersSfvf{t employees regular and parent Walls' company. despite intrridur the product froma national of a competitive 5uperrrre*ffi *.& Effects let Finatty. hgfr*.with 80o/o marketshare and widespread up to datewith developments.1. . Unilever.l -F. hightlghtrd to restrict use. maiorcorporate 6f 1.'tir*'****{' workers cutting supplies factori€s. l4$. to of consumers problem.000 outlets. it was crucial Meanwhile. used for products. the Department Healthfor the way it had h{ilffi of fromthe Peperami distancing and not a manufacturer. . executive workert eachmediarelations clubsand pubs.: and private homes across state.ffffi and showed problem a becoming the situation.:€ Event at at A major explosion the Exxonrefinery Longford. exactty how consumers thoughtthe crisis$r.lilo gas to bl. S: : ': w W threemonths ful to i s h a re e fa c ts n th e c a s ea n dc o m m uni cate ty al l draw aI as handted. as Walls waspositioned an importer Mattessons atl s Mattessons brand.) own 'e. stoodat 94o/o.The recatt by identified consumers for Employee wereprepared atl Matt statements to the wholeof the UK. that more fhuti. and 'ta. notifiable a of to an outbreak salmonelta The decisionwas taken to recall illnessin the UK. ing supermarkets. but for into Austratia.styl e i g '}i r. W recei ved commen4 '3.-! -! :i* . 1. 14olo a increase. market.Peperami wrtt t]ff the and the time the product includ. us take a look at a crisis that puts alt the into perspective: Melbourne these key principtes Gas crisis that threw the entire state of Victoria.7.rrr'l. research parent to company stopa product .VENCorp.Manufacturing +r*ts-: and emptoyees the estimdterf stooddown150. individual heattheditorfromeachnational ngw of to and a member the teamwasappointed lidt&f Strategy the D epartment H eal th.ttffi:+: tributorof gas for Victoria. teamcrucial i the on theimpact washaving it beyond medln the of ln 7987the UKDepartment HeatthlinkedPeperami poisoning. Friday September on partof the plant. corner stores.r! handl ed anal yse rpercepti ons the of and thei giving management brand.killingtwo and injuring eightrefinery . : 1.A consumer ephone tel givendaily operators lishedwith telephone Tracking research initiated d was to briefings. chaos a fortnight. due to the packaging but affected batchcouldnot be precisely the the product. on Thestateof Victoria highly was dependent ehe. df*-*" lltr pl.(See Activity 19.. extended wastherefore of market. productdistribution across40.# were impressed with the way the w#5.-. i thi n th Peperami's shareof the satamisnackfoorl:. manned bY people hoursa day. on tret gas Victoria's customers wouldhaveno gat titiiffi'.rirS*#'i of and its population morethan 3 mitlionw*rcalffrd. 7998 destroyed 25 Melbourne.

Alan Stockdale.l l rt c ri s i ste a m ma d e e d i to riat contentand a .3 mi l ti o n ro c hures eresentto 2.rl gas supply emergency Thisincidenthas been monaged well as it could .trs from the call centres were advertised daily .d r' !rlt:rrtif early as a challenge Victoria.havebeenreconnected to the gas supply now.t' h o l da n ds ma l b u s i n e s s e s ongsi de maj or .rsin-house coordination development of and r$ :llii1ll1a. a s l al !. ed se e w . I consider this to be the best-handled issuethat I have seen since I have been interestedin public affoirsissues this state. out of a total of 1.:.including wife. 5i? l r.11116 asked scriptsand the top 10 frequently . .ri'..L i F:. b a a sai dat an A ustral i an A ssoci ati on Gas meeti n g 16 on were -.. ils llyrrrrd i a ri e fi n g s t 1 O a m n d 3 p m.indicating that the wide-rangingsafetyprogram has been very successful.rfrnation was set up offeringinterpreter line it ifivir *:. jr rrlilri. . *ll lr rl .tnilated into 20 languages distributed. :l . .: 4i*rlti Lrrrffu0g€ brochure the focus of a safe retight i.. : i r r tJt. .-.l*.lrd to the j. F rtr 19' E.. . {i. '.lirrilr' developed as a keyelement a safe was and of r s lii i l ri g ra mme ... ii: So we called in communications experts.rt p re d cal I llt. f.C hapter 19 C ri si spubl i c rel ati onsnti l t. + *l+ . and and tslre .ro a:.'in 100 languages. brochure in the lr.. $'r' . i+p r. nt t l i rr. i{!i lrllr.J!rr on the government as l . ri1 '.: :.1 million domesticcustomers. : .is takreconnection ing place in such a safe and orderly monner.'r. on the massivescale.t r r r .: .thereis no higherproise i. 1 l i r} n \i a e dp re -e mp ti v s s u e s anagement provn ie m gi. K eyspokes.. i$.i:{iriirilvwas readyto be reintroduced.: .that this my was the ftrstdocument of fholdingup the brochure] the kind thot theyhavereadand clearlyunderstoad what they rreeded do and what they shouldn't to do.i and bothconsumers the system and needed *i.and that the so program.tnme rg e n c y rv i c v o l unteersereused i:-*lilgir'ufl gasmeters.rtitsrrrrr{. .Havingback-up communication or public relations consultontsexperienced. Treasurer Victoria. . t.567 l sa day. S". .tli' te d ia . N ovember 1998: :::' { r } .rFrl twicehy a team of 15 peopleand arranged " . . tr te l e v i s i oa d c a m p a i g n . the . in I havebeentold by many. cal[centres wereestabtished and . *.rrtw.i.rrr(l n '. E * f..'i' gi. fij:: . helped make the differencebetween success and failure for us at the end of the day. Manager Communications V[NCorp. . this is what . when the Operationalty.o**l*tv particularly protect gas network. odd/even r trumbers wouldbe usedto phasegas supplyin . . )|. : l.' ..:::: i r r r rrrrrrn i c a tiw g th e e th n i c c o mmuni ti es as n i th w : ir.{clrtnrrrnications programme.'.. " . givenmediatraining.1'rr11' seamless communication.David Guthrie-.rti ('nti ' rrt 405 Assessment Whenthe gas supplywas restored therewere only 9 rel i ght acci dents and 12.rl i o n o m m i tte e n d c ri ti c a servi ces orki ng w c a l havepossiblybeendone . ..11 K. of said at a government pressbriefing Friday October on 1998: 9 I think every Victoriancan takepride in the fact thot our community has responded well. & . ffi. ii' lt E* Iri ' [s* ffi.trl. m '.r:.. We estimatethat 1.i++il.:r' .000appl i ance repa ir s.lones. percentof domesticcustomers Eighty-five have been able to reconnectwithout assistance.lJrF i' fu tr* 1.'*irrflii. c e i v e 1 3 7. I contellyou this..35million.-stablished 24-hourmedia response centre a than that. . t ' ri tr th e c ri s i s e a k . s.' r.lfi111ont .. crisis in management absolutely is cruciolto the success of hondling large scale emergencies . l:i F ** ffi$ 9' F+ .. Fi:- Li'.. F+ *...who sent on excellentteam of experience and enthusiasm to help with aur crisiscommunication strategyond implementation.pared be protected to from retighting accid' i' . communications the '. b w t.

Speculation application and of 'common sense' Led a selection bio-technology by expert$ of quickly to whatcouldhnv*'r developed as sideeffects. and the effectson the volunfg€f$ Ctinical trial of TGNl412 (intendedfor treatmentof arthritis).j one the commonpractice.should volufi!€ef* of paidfor theirtime? Howwouldtheybe r€( otherwise? . someof whichwas confidential..406 Part3 RELATI0NS SPECIALISMS PUBLIC anda range politicians variaus with of fftgl range issues of below). of Initialstatements abouthowthis wasthe f{f?}. a wereimmediately leadmediastorymixing Theevents humaninterestand horror. and a German in in Thereis alwaysconfusion the early the antibody. sucheventshad happened a clinical in fflal frlr into thfrtt!1$. Parexel Medicinesand Healthcare on them developed the antibody. thetimeof the crisis employed TeGenero At iust had a portfolioof products 15 people.oftheapproval comptexity six separate of the tion of the volunteers: hospitaldoctorstreating vl*l** of andconflicting who Range issues who conducted triah TeGenero the them. of of the volunteers. The tem was clearly deficient.The side effectswere completely of therehavingbeenno evidence risk in unexpected. of a relatively one 'tr*H treatments.Thisincluded of of establish appropriatenessthe species animal the used in safetytests. (excluding who weregiven two and atl trialvolunteers reactions within placebo)experienced inflammatory Within12 to 16 of the 90 minutes receiving antibody. leukaemia rheumatoid multipte on companyParexel by Trialwas conducted research Park in leasedfrom Northwick six volunteers premises The clinicaltrial beganon 13 March 2005 Hospitat. stages a crisis. implication lhn! of 99. much which of washighly compler . of foltowinga powerfulearly was heightened exposure of interview with a girlfriend one of the participants (whohappened be a BBC employee). of this complexity animaltesting andasanexample why of ises a ln addition theseparties greatnumberof further to becameinvolvedincludingthe famity stakeholders the ]awyers representing members the volunteers. the development TGN1412 com' pany had compliedwith the extensiveregulatory to in requirements orderto proceed a phase1 ctinical questions to responding detailed to triat. to * release to be dueto cytokine syndrome goinginto overdrive but the fgit* system clear and neither it easy establl*h was to due to the condition the volunteer3.9o/o trials which were safewere safe bv *: a of involve range stakeAll crises.:. rather to patients thanheatthy volunteerf?r s1 practice a treatment fg{rh not common for whh clinicalprofite). longtime quicklydevetoped notions Stakeholders wirr. by of thisonetrialwastherealmarker ths I holders. theirverynature. (MHM) who approved productsRegulatory the Agency A wide rangeof issueswereinvolved the erisig: in who also approved trial. is reasonable it thal effectswerenot predicted). parties linkedto the condi. and sclerois. Thewaters werefurther muddied the co by information behindthe trial.TGN141? sfi* monoclonal antibody. The company was by far the most in development TGN1472 but the of In advanced. nlr r r r i of . werecritically hours participants the that majorcrises TheTGN1412 crisisis a clearexample of the and cancomeout of nowhere affect smallest com' panies. pharthe industryassociations and biotechnology maceutical I Ethics humantrials.The clinicaltrial crisis includedthe added while system. pre-clinicat tests. 'shouldn'tit have b*gl!r. l* bothasanexample whyanimal of testing addedto that.o' I (you shoutd give surety doses at a time|. without the benefitof hindsightafl:l standardprocedures. Atongside were expert commentary many analyra* i ng on that mostuncommon thi ngs. ill. of questions soughtinformation the dcv6 on TGN1412. management the hospital. howtheymight have been and (several or evenprevented investigations thave that. this casethe common*eii** In mixedwith the benefit hindsight. the local ethicscommittee company who manufactured I Animaltestingthe events thetriatwsl8 the trial.The elements tragedy.

question askedit wasoverlooked tested.continue come forward? conference to volunteers aloneon the afternoon the flrst day of of people interview Margaret media:attention. the time lt wasalsorunknown facing Job'when had beencaused incorrect by conduct the of phrase to events the adapted well-known fournalist by of that cando. a as forTeGeneropresent face quickly to tmBortant questions alsoto showhow but bleto answer and by thecompanywas. Preparing the unexpected inevitable but for enbut r$. byTGN1412 was this of TeGenero notbe seenas an example could proRebutting rumour wasa majoractivity alongside pharma') vidinginformation it became as On available.publicrelations Chapter 19 Crisis manaSement 407 19. TeGenero Whlle commun(withln quickly icated and openty limlted resources).: an errorin the production the drugbeing 'those or itself.)and involved trials(student testing. trial. thosethat can'tregulate'. to and TeGenero's insolvency. whichhejokedthat 'is to only doghaddied. larly the ethics as relating recruitment under to come a scrutinv. was also the main sourceof to stlonto respond mediaand otherstakeholder im$. officerconducted press future the chief scientific comefrom a crisis. the shorttermthis difference to led In themainassociation withTeGenero than rather being However. to hisgirlfriend when discussing participation the in but his $crutiny) alsoforctinical trial. (whichwould receive closerand tracedbackto a ioke madeby one of the volunteers trialsgenerally.a crisis. out. howstunned having received previous no media Despite *ysnts..4(continued) .lt mediatepriorityfor the chief scientificofficerof 8f0was to workwith the doctorstreatingthe triai he eet5. ity). Parexel chose offeronlylimited to by comment written statements. Such a small staff was imrnediately and by ofthe events stretched the magnitude {$verage. hrye positlon icate openly leftthemin an exposed has wlth of independently. no history engagement.*irsgement thereare keyingredients: controt and communication sures that any organisation takethe dramaout of calmness. the secure bestpossible i-*.tll*c an organisation . Although source therumourwas apparent the of never for sometime laterit was suggested it that wouldbringimplications similartreatments confirmed. TGNl412 never had been tested dogsand on theywouldrecover. Furthergovernment 'up the mediahaving institutions suchas the MHRA at whether the private powerful companies?mor€r. timeandparticularly following over (entrewasestablished receive process Parexel. given in fuctno animals diedas a result being had of :oulckly of that the implications the TGNl/+12. was to communicate dy decision than remain part of the Parexelresponse. Parexel's refusal communto of volume calls. a Arguablyparticularly a interesting element thiscrisis of is the difference between approaches the two of the primarlly companies involved. the in baslchumaninterest why thesepeoplehad firstdayit waswidely reported a doghaddiedin that in debt etc. can il Bepctalion. Some have research argued clinical that organlsations profite donotneed payclose to attention theirpublic to particubutastheindustry develops may this change.Shehadasked it safe'.They may even help to find the opportunity cancomefroma crisis(thecharacters that that represent in 'crisis management' both Chinese crisis and Japanese for is no guaranteed recipe successful actuallymean 'danger'and 'opportunknowledge.However.Many have with a verypersonal been surprised to kding such learn inexperience howimportant trialsare) ofthescientific officeds at handling MPabout seenthe press confefence.

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