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MF0004 (MF0013)) Solved Assignment ( Set 1 & 2)

MF0004 (MF0013)) Solved Assignment ( Set 1 & 2)

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Q.1 Write the differences between Auditing and Accounting?

Ans:- Difference between accounting and auditing Accounting is process of identifying, measuring, and communicating economic information to various users. Accounting is defined (by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) (AICPA) as "the art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof. Today, accounting is called "the language of business" because it is the vehicle for reporting financial information about a business entity to many different groups of people. Accounting that concentrates on reporting to people inside the business entity is called management accounting and is used to provide information to employees, managers, owner-managers and auditors.. Accounting requires that an accountant must have accounting knowledge while auditing work required that an auditor must have accounting as well as auditing knowledge. Accounting is concerned with current data. It is constructive in nature. Accounting is done on a day-to-day basis in business. It is the recording of transactions, the accounting for depreciation, debt, revenue, etc., that are all a part of reporting the company's financial activities. The main goal of accounting is to provide a company with clear, comprehensive, and reliable information about its economic activities and status of its assets and liabilities. This information is presented in the form of accounting reports like the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity (also called shareholders’ equity statement), and statement of cash flows (also called cash flow statement). By means of accounting reports it is possible to perform the following (list non-inclusive): • • • • Understand and re-allocate internal resources of the company to ensure its financial stability Review profitability of the company’s economic activities Understand the company’s cash inflows and outflows Verify conformity of a company’s economic activities to government regulations

Internal users of accounting reports are managers, owners, and employees. External users of accounting reports are investors, creditors, and government. Audit is independent appraisal performed by an independent expert of an activity or event. There are operational, technical, ecological and other types of audit. Most commonly, nevertheless, this term refers to audits of financial statements. Audit of financial statements is the process of examining the financial statements and the underlying records of the company in order to render an opinion as to whether the statements are

fairly presented. Most commonly financial audits are performed on a company’s request for the benefit of financial information users (i.e. internal and external). Auditors analyze and compare accounting reports and confirmation documents as well as verify conformity of a company’s accounting with established standards and regulations (e.g. US GAAP, IFRS). Therefore, the main goal of an audit is to perform thorough evaluation of a company’s financial records and reports and provide a company with improvement recommendations based on that evaluation. As we can see, accounting provides financial information to users of such information, and auditing is a means to ensure such information is reliable and comforts with established rules and regulations. Q.2 Write the factors to be considered while drawing up the audit programme an auditor should give attention? Ans:- Audit planning requires a high degree of discipline on the part of the auditor. In order to make the planning more meaningful, the auditor should take into consideration the following matters in relation to the audit engagement: (a) Preliminary Work to be Done in Addition to the Real Audit Work: This will include such matters as stocktaking, cash count, debtors’ circularisation and review of previous year’s working papers. This will remind the auditor of those matters brought forward from the previous year and any other points to be resolved in the current year or problems anticipated. (b) Changes in Legislation or any Auditing Standards or Guidelines: The promulgation of the Companies and Allied Matters Act, brought with it a lot of changes in accounting and auditing requirements of companies. Such legislations whether in respect of all companies or particular industrial group, must be reviewed ahead of the engagement in order to determine their effects on the operations or reporting requirements of the enterprise. (c) Analytical Review of Available Management Accounts and Other Management Information that Relate to the Accounts : This will assist in establishing valuable ratios and indicators that will guide the auditor. For instance, the computation of the gross profit percentage compared with that of the previous year will provide a good indicator to the auditor of the accuracy and reliability of sales and cost of sales. (d) Changes in the Business or Management : The appointment of a new Finance Controller and the establishment of a new business line or the creation of a new branch are significant changes in the circumstances of the company which will necessitate changes in the existing audit plans.

(e) Changes in the Accounting System : The introduction of computers such that when a company introduces significant changes in its operating procedures will require a review and evaluation of the system of internal control. (f) Deadlines Established for the Submission of Audit Report : Where a client has set deadlines for its statutory activities such as the annual general meeting, it is important for the auditor to work in line with such programmes. (g) Use of Rotational Testing and Verification : In practice, the auditor may not carry out a hundred percent testing or verification of the client’s transactions or segments of the business. Where rotational testing or verification is adopted, it will be necessary for the auditor to determine ahead of the date of the engagement which aspects of the businessshould be selected for testing or verification. An example of rotational testing could be applied on the client’s branches to be visited. Points for Consideration in Audit Planning Memorandum Audit planning memorandum should cover the following standing matters which are designed to achieve the desired audit objectives: (a) Terms of Engagement : In the case of a new audit engagement, a letter of engagement should be prepared as part of the overall plan of the audit. Even in subsequent visits,the letter of engagement should be reviewed in the light of current circumstances to ensure that all aspects of the work undertaken for the client are covered in the letter especially asthey relate to taxation, accountancy, staff development and executive search. (b) Audit Risk Areas : The auditor should critically review all the areas of high risk in order to ensure that the planned procedures adequately cover such areas and that competent staff have been assigned to these areas. High risk areas may relate to the nature of the items, such as cash for a retail establishment with numerous collection points and outdoor disbursement locations. Risk may also relate to a high probability of error as in the case of stocks whose quantities are subject to estimation and are susceptible to pilferage. The risk may also relate to the structure of the organization especially in cases of joint ownership of an organisation, where the owners are not equally represented in the management. There is therefore the risk of withholding key information from some of the directors. (c) Assets and Liabilities : These will require detailed plans since they are of continuing relevance to the financial statements of many years and the relevant vouchers may not be readily accessible. The plans relating to assets should clearly disclose their history such that current movements may easily be ascertained and adequately verified. These will apply mainly to plant and long term loans. (d) Presence of Internal Auditor : Wherever an internal auditor exists in an organisation, the auditor should develop suitable plans to review the technical

competence of the internal auditor, his degree of independence and scope and quality of his work in order to determine the extent of reliance to be placed on his work and to identify the areas of work overlap. (e) The Need for Specialists : The auditor should determine ahead of his visit those aspects of the work that may require the services of specialists. This may be internal or external specialists as relates to stocks, specialist valuation for insurance or computer applications. (f) Audit Approach : Based on the review of the system of internal control, the auditor should be able to decide on the audit approach to adopt. This will be based on the extent of reliance to be placed on the system of internal control. (g) Timetable : A critical aspect of the audit is the timetable. The auditor should establish plans to ensure that for each year, the audit is completed within any stated deadline for submission of the report. (h) Staffing : The auditor should plan for adequate number of staff with the required skill for the audit. The training of audit staff is a long term process which will require that even from the initial appointment of the auditor, he should take steps to train suitable staff in sufficient number to handle the audit of the client. (i) Fees : Based on plans already established in terms of time, staff and materials, the auditor should plan for his fees to cover staff salaries, overhead costs and leave a sufficient margin for the partners’ share of profit and pension scheme. The planned fees must be discussed with the client, if not already agreed. Understanding the Client’s Business The extent of the knowledge gained of the client’s industry and business organisation greatly facilitates the performance of the engagement staff. It is essential therefore that all staff engaged in the audit are encouraged to gain an understanding of the client’s business operations. Such understanding, in addition to enhancing the overall audit performance, also facilitates communication with client’s staff and in assessing the reliability of representations from management and making judgement regarding the appropriateness of the accounting policies adopted and their disclosure. The auditor may obtain knowledge of the client’s business by:
• •

• •

Personal visits to the client’s premises and operating bases and holding discussions with key officials of the company; Reading minutes of meetings and correspondence with the client; Reading internal audit report; Reading previous year’s audit files and permanent audit files;

• •

Reading other materials from within the firm, e.g. management consultancy reports and feasibility reports; and Reading relevant materials relating to the business e.g. trade journals, investment analysis and stockbroker’s report.

Other significant factors which should be considered by the auditor to determine the audit strategy are as follows:

• •

The auditor’s responsibilities in accordance with the terms of the engagement; The nature of the client’s business; The nature and significance of items in the year’s accounts; and The principal features of the client’s accounting system and the extent and effectiveness of the related internal accounting controls, which may be gained from a preliminary understanding of the system.

Consideration of the above factors should enable the auditor determine an appropriate audit strategy which should be set out in writing, in an audit strategy memorandum, which should be approved by the audit partner. However, the auditor should recognise that this strategy may, if necessary as a result of changing factors, be reviewed and revised as the audit progresses. For existing clients, the auditor should have much of the information he needs to determine his audit strategy in his audit files. Nevertheless, he should still discuss with the clients management whether there have been any changes in the company’s circumstances that might affect his audit approach. The external auditor is appointed to carry out audit in accordance with specific regulatory or statutory requirements, such as the Companies and Allied Matters Act or in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards within the country concerned. In these circumstances, the terms and conditions will not call for any special consideration when determining the audit strategy. The auditor should, however, consider whether additional responsibilities arise from request by the client’s management or because the client is required to conform to special regulatory or other requirements. Q.3 Write the Guidelines for internal check for Big Departmental stores? Ans:- Guidelines for internal check for Big Departmental stores 1. Stocks to be stores in assigned areas. 2. Stocks are to be insured against fire, theft, flood , riot etc. 3. Record of such insurance policies to be reviewed.

4. Value of stock for insurance purpose should be decided by top authority. 5. Perpetual stock records are to be kept. 6. Stock records are to be compared with accounting records periodically. 7. Periodical verification of inventory and reporting is a must. 8. Stock levels are to be maintained. 9. ABC analysis of inventory is to be made. 10. Inventory verification should be in a prescribe mode and time. 11. Verification should be done by independent person. 12. Variations should be properly explained.
13.

Stocks at other places like, with customers, consignees, contractors, warehouses or third parties to be confirmed by such parties.

14. Records to be maintained for scrap, by-products or returnable containers. 15. Requisition notes from production departments must be formal and duly authorized. 16. Valuation methods should be authorized and based on accounting standards. Q.4 Distinguish between internal control, internal check and internal Audit? Ans:- Distinguish between internal control, internal check and internal Audit Sometimes people get confused and interchange the terms-internal control, internal check and internal audit. Hence it is necessary to know the differences between these terms. Internal control is all the procedures and policies set up by management to achieve organizational goals. The process of internal control is designed to provide reasonable assurance that an organization's assets are safeguarded, that operations are managed effectively and efficiently, and that financial reports are reliable. They vary according to organizational size, complexity, and management structure. Internal check is “check on day to day transactions which operate continuously as a part of the

routine system whereby the work of a person is proved independently or is complementary to the work of another, the object being the prevention or early detection of errors or frauds” • • • Existence of checks on day-to-day transactions. Continuous operation of checking. Work of one person is checked by another person.

Thus basically internal check uses the features of “segregation of duties” of internal control. Thus internal check is only a part of internal control. Internal audit, as we have seen encompasses review and appraisal of internal control itself and hence is much broader concept. Internal audit is a kind of audit which is not a statutory audit. Internal audit is a tool of management and required for controlling the internal matter. Through the Internal audit the financial transactions are regular and the mistakes are detected. The Internal audit is done not only after completion of the year, but it can be done during each financial year whenever required. In many cares it becomes continuous or routine audit. In the care of statutory audit only statutory matters or points are audited which in care of internal audit almost all the financial transactions are audited. Q.5 Write the essential requirement of Computer Assisted Auditing Techniques (CAAT)? Ans:- In auditing with the computer, auditors employ CAATs with other auditing techniques to perform their work. As its name suggests, CAAT is a tool to assist auditors in performing their work faster, better, and at lower cost. As CAATs become more common, this technical skill is as important to auditing profession as auditing knowledge, experience and professional judgement. The implementation of computerization greatly improved accounting information processing speed and accuracy, can provide users with timely and accurate accounting information, the accounting industry in the history of an unprecedented leap forward. However, in this leap also audit work great, and summarized in the following aspects: An audit trail of changes in Since the implementation of computerization of accounting, so that the audit trail has greatly changed, the traditional manual accounting system audit trail in the computerized system will be interrupted or even disappear. In the manual system, from the original documents to the accounting vouchers, from posting to the financial statements have been prepared, documented every step, there are handling signature, audit trail is very clear. Auditor trial lines, as needed Shun can search, reverse search, or random. However, in computerized accounting system, the traditional is not the books, and most of the transcripts disappeared, replaced by the existence of accounting information disk and tape, which is based on the information on magnetic media, machine-readable form, the naked eye does not recognize. In addition, from the raw data into the machine, the output of the financial statements, which focused on the middle of all the

accounting treatment of automatically by a computer program instructions according to preservation, the traditional audit trail here interrupted, and disappeared. The traditional guard of the computerized accounting entity is no longer fully applicable. In order to effectively audit the computerization of the accounting entity, in the computerized accounting system design and development of audit requirements must pay attention to the new audit trail left behind. For example, to leave a detailed record of each business, rather than leaving only the updated current balance. Some systems in the temporary files, after a certain period of time should be deleted. If the audit need to check these documents should be copied in order to search. Second, changes in the accounting system of internal control Modern international audit are based on system-based, that is the auditor of the accounting system to review and evaluate internal controls, as a development of the scope of the audit program and decide on the basis of spot checks. Because of the computerized accounting system implementation, manual control of the existing accounting system can not meet the new features of data processing can not effectively reduce the computerized accounting system-specific risk. For example, in computerized accounting systems, accounting information processing and storage are highly concentrated in the computer, make some of the manual accounting system, separation of duties, each send control system failure. In order to secure the system and the system processing and storage of accounting information accurate and complete, we must consider the characteristics of computerized systems, for its inherent risks, the establishment of new internal controls. In addition to these internal controls related to electronic data processing system for the implementation of process control and artificial, the internal control procedures of computerized accounting information system is an important feature. How to identify, review and evaluation of these new content control, especially the process of internal control is a computerized accounting for a further new audits. American Institute of Certified Accountants Association, No. 3 of the Introduction to Auditing Standards states: "If a customer in its accounting system, the use of electronic data processing, whether it is a simple band is complex, the auditor must fully understand the entire system, allowing to identify and evaluation system of basic accounting controls features. including the more complex electronic data processing applications, cases, the auditors in the implementation of the necessary audit program that will be on the application of specialized expertise in electronic data processing. " Computerized accounting conditions, due to changes in internal controls, and auditors must study computerized system of internal control, master of its assessment methods. Of process control, the auditor should audit the use of computer-assisted audit techniques. For Computerized Accounting Information System of internal control weaknesses, auditors must be able to assess its impact to the Pishendanwei suggestions for improvement. Third, changes in the contents of the audit Computerization of accounting under the conditions of the trial so that the monitoring functions, though not changed, but the audit of the substance was changed. In the computerized accounting

information systems, accounting matters automatically by a computer according to the procedures for processing, if the system an application error or unlawfully altered, then the computer will only process given the same wrong way to deal with all of the relevant accounting matters, the system can be without our noticing them embedded in illegal and corrupt process, criminals can use these procedures for a large number of corrupt misappropriation of property. Does the system deal with compliance, legal, safe and reliable, with the computer system processing and control functions are directly related. The characteristics of computerized accounting information system and its inherent risks, the decision to increase the content of the audit of the computer system processing and control functions under review. Under the condition of computerized accounting, the audit staff to spend more time and effort to understand and review the functions of a computer system to confirm the legitimacy of its processing, accuracy and completeness to ensure the system safe and reliable. When a system has been completed and put into use, and then to improve it, than in the system design, development stage is much more difficult, costs much more expensive. Therefore, in addition to right to vote after use computerized accounting information systems post-audit services, but also to promote the system's design, development stage, the audit should be carried out in advance, and things involved in the audit. They are in the system design and development at all stages of review and assessment should pay attention to the following questions: First, the system is functioning properly, complete, users can meet the accounting and management requirements; second is the system of data flow approach is in line with the accounting system, regulations, decrees and financial discipline requirements; third is whether the system is set up properly process control, to prevent or timely detection of unintentional errors or intentional fraud; 4 whether to keep the system a full audit trail, can successfully develop for the future the audit to provide the necessary conditions; 5 is the system's security measures and management system is sound, whether the system safe and reliable operation of the future system of development control. Audit staff also participated in the system debugging, testing and acceptance, as timely as possible to find that the system matters, and suggest improvements. Fourth, changes in audit techniques In the manual processing conditions, the audit can be carried out according to specific circumstances shun investigation, reverse search, or random. Review commonly used to review, check, compare, investigate and prove such. All the reviews are done by hand. Computerized accounting conditions, determine the characteristics of the accounting audit and technical change. Although a variety of manual review of technology is still very important, but machineassisted auditing techniques is essential to the audit. Computerized information processing and information storage of the electromagnetic, if not all of the accounts table printout paper documents, magnetic media on the accounting information is the naked eye can not recognize, the audit staff can only use computers to review it. Even though, the entire account must be in hard copy form, using the computer more quickly than the hand can be more effective to complete review, verification, analysis, comparison of the review. For example, the computer can help auditors to review the accounts file, find the accounting

records to meet the specified conditions; can be a large number of accounting matters of statistical sampling in order to extract samples of the auditors of the lack of further review; also be recorded in accordance with accounting information system to calculate various financial ratios, rates of change and conducting a variety of analysis and comparison and so on. Computerization of accounting under the conditions of both the computer system processing and control functions to review, but also using computer-assisted audit techniques. Review of the computer system functions, you must run the computer, let the computer perform various operations and processing, that is, the use of computers to carry out the audit. This review is not to leave the computer only by manual methods to complete. Another computer-assisted audit techniques, in computerized accounting information system design and development process, can be audited in advance of the embedded computer systems audit procedures. These programs can perform the audit oversight, to establish an audit trail documents, records the transactions meet the specified conditions and the operation processing of relevant information for future audit staff actively tracing. These programs can also perform some special audit function. Fifth, higher demand for auditors Computerization of accounting under the condition of content control as an audit trail, content, and auditing techniques change, the decision on the audit staff requirements high. The auditors do not understand computers because of changes in the audit trail can not be active audit; do not know the characteristics of computerized accounting systems and risk can not be identified and the trial of its internal controls; do not know how so that the computer can not review or use of computer the computer audit. Therefore, it requested the auditors not only have the accounting, auditing, and practical knowledge, but also access to computers and computerized accounting knowledge and skills. Seen from the above, the accounting computerization to the audit made a number of new, new requirements. The traditional manual audit can not meet the requirements of computerization. , And to carry out computer audit, the audit department and audit staff of new subjects and new tasks. Q.6 Write the Audit programme in an EDP environment? Ans:- EDP-AUDITING To give you a view about what Electronic Data Process (EDP) auditing is we give you first a definition about EDP auditing: “It is the independent and impartial appraisal of the reliability, security, effectiveness and efficiency of automated computer systems, the organization of the automation department and the technical/organizational infrastructure of the automated fact processing.”

When we look at the six EDP auditing independent and impartial appraisals we see that these are the main factors for business processes for an EDP auditor. These are the key factors where an EDP auditor is checking a system described in the literature. At the Symposium were we presented our research a lecturer from Ernst & Young, an EDP auditor, had given his lecture about EDP auditing & Innovation. He told us that before he become an EDP auditor he had learned about these six key factors were the basic of EDP auditing was relied on but in the reality it is more than these factors. The first appraisal, Reliability, gives an EDP auditor the view about in which the business processes are reliable for the automated system. Nowadays the automated systems have more transactions and more processes than before. This gives an EDP auditor more processes to examine at the Reliability of the system. The second appraisal, Security, gives an EDP auditor the view about in which way the security has been established. His methodology focuses on the analysis of the structure and performance of control processes. Representative transactions are examined by the auditor to assure that these processes are functioning consistently and correctly. An EDP auditor has also different kind of checking tools to checks leaks in the automated system. The goal of the EDP auditor is not to check fraud because the perpetration of a fraud typically manipulates the purpose and content of specific transactions, rather than the process itself. For an EDP auditor this kind of fraud is not to see, because the manipulated transaction is fully blend into normal (legitimate) transaction flow and through the administrative process is being compromised . The third appraisal, Effectiveness, is about in which way an automated system is effective. How is the processes of the system effective regulated. In this way an EDP auditor views the system and gives recommendation in which way the system is effective. To do that an EDP auditor van use scripts or doing it by hand. Nowadays with the rise of the emerging information technologies the use of audit computer-assisted techniques are more effectively used because of the new generation system are using more data mining, object-oriented architecture and intelligent agents processes in the automated system. The fourth appraisal, Efficiency, is about in which way the processes are optimally regulated. In the efficiency method the EDP auditor looks if resources are optimally used in the automated system. Here the EDP-auditor can recommend whether the resources must be downgraded or be extended to give a better business performance. Nowadays EDP auditors have many specific tools to use like Cobit, but the use of these IT tools is less. Auditors are doing mostly their recommendation by hand and with their use of knowledge. The fifth appraisal, the organization of the automation department, is the fact in which way for example the segregation of duties is regulated for the employee to check or to place orders for in the system. The EDP auditor looks on this fact how does and how many employees are used for the resources of any business process in the system. He is using his experience and his

knowledge to recommend if there are more employees necessary or that it is better to re-engineer your system. The technical/organizational infrastructure of the automated fact processing is about in which way the automated processes are regulated at the company and how this is reliable for the goals of the company. The EDP auditor reviews this and recommends the business processes to be optimal and that the technical infrastructure is regulated in the way that gives the company an efficient and effective way of business performance. Work field EDP-auditor EDP auditor as his main function is to assure that management exercises effective control over the way in which the organizations assets are used and that these factors for business processes is related so that use are current and accurate. Its work is focused on the reasonableness and consistency of the processing methods used and the accuracy, completeness and currency of the data itself, this is called the fairness issue . Also where it is focuses on is the custody and use of organization assets in general. In these both instances significant attention is paid by the EDP auditor to the means used to detect and correct errors. If we look at the business processes at the work field for an EDP auditor we see that much of these factors can be automated to give a better and accurate decision support for an EDP auditor. Since the more using of complex systems and systems that are hand shaped for a company an EDP auditor needs more IT tools to give a better recommendation and spit through the resources for its decision support.

Q.1 What are the essential qualities and qualification of an auditor should possess for efficient discharge of duties. Ans:- These qualities are essential in every case of audit and in every type of auditorwhether internal or external. Independence:- Independence is the personal quality of an auditor. This quality is desirable for independent opinion on business activities. He cannot be influence directly or indirectly by other people. An auditor must be independent at the time of programming investigation and reporting. He cannot change his programme due to management interference. Integrity:- Integrity is acting honestly. It may also mean acting in a trustworthy manner. Stakeholders rely on auditor’s opinion. Acting dishonestly and providing wrong opinion might lead to wrong decision making by stakeholders of a business. Competence and Skill :- Auditor should be capable of handling an audit. He should have the required qualification, experience. He should also have knowledge of the business conducted by the auditee. This is more essential in case of internal audits. Objectivity:- Auditor should be impartial and unbiased during his audit. This quality is dependent on the qualities of independence and integrity. Due diligence and care:- Auditor should not be negligent in his duties. Due professional care is required at every stage during the audit. Documentation of audit will prove that auditor exercised this care during an audit. Confidentiality:- Just like in medical profession where confidentiality is maintained, confidentiality of the i9nformation of the auditee is to be maintained. Auditor cannot reveal the vital information about the business of his client to any person, unless he is legally bound. Tactful:- It is also the personal quality of an auditor. Technical information is required to comment and criticize the policies of management. In case of missing can collect it from the client. In addition to these basic qualities an auditor should also have qualities like good communication skills, logical ability etc. Qualification of an Auditor (Section 226 (1) and (2) Following persons are qualified to be appointed as auditor of a company.

1. Practicing Chartered Accounts (Sec 226 (1)J) :A person shall not be qualified for appointment as auditor of a company unless he is a chartered accountant within the meaning of the chartered accountant act 1949. A chartered accountant means a person who is the member of the institute of chartered accountant of Pakistan. He will be Deemed to be in practice. When individually or in partnership with other chartered accountants in practice he for consideration received or to be received. Practice of Accountancy : He engages himself in the practice of accountancy. Verification : He offers to perform or performs the services involving the auditing or verifications of the financial transactions, books of accounts or records or the preparation, verification or certification of financial accounting and related statement or holds himself out to the public as an accountant. Professional Services: He renders the professional services or assistance in or about matters of principal or detail relating to accounting procedure to the recording, presentation or certification of financial facts or data. Renders the Services : Renders the services as, in the opinion of the council are or may be renders by a chartered accountant in practice. 2. Certified Auditor (Sec 226 (2)) : A part from practicing chartered accountants, a person holding a certificate under the restricted auditor's certificate rules, 1965 is also qualified to be appointed as auditor of a company. Such certified auditors are subject to the rules framed in this behalf by the central Government. The object of the provisions as to qualified is to ensure that only persons of proven worth and standing and under the discipline of a statutory body, are appointed as auditor. Disqualification {Sec 226 (3)(4)(5)} The following person cannot become the auditor of the company according section 254.
• • •

A body corporate An officer or employee of the company A person who is the employment of an officer or employee of the

company. A person who is indebted to the company for an amount exceeding Rs. 1000 or who has given any guarantee of any third person to the company for an amount exceeding Rs. 1000.

• •

The spouse of a director of the company.

A person who was a director other officer or employee of the company at any time during the preceding three years.

A person who is a partner of a director, officer or employee of a company

According to Section 226(4) a person shall not be qualified for appointment as auditor of any body corporate. Further if the auditor already holds the appointment as auditor in the specified number of companies as per Section {Section 224(1-13)}, he will be disqualified for further appointment as auditor in any other company. Q.2 Write the short notes on 1. Cash Audit 2. Special Audit 3. Periodical Audit 4. Social Audit 5. Partial Audit

Ans:- 1. Cash Audit Cash audits are an important internal control for businesses to use when reviewing proper procedures for cash. Restricting the number of individuals involved in the cash process or the number of duties handled by any one individual in the cash process limits any type of fraudulent activity regarding cash. Cash Access : Cash process audits should determine how many individuals handle cash at the main cash collection point. Cashiers and front office managers should be the only individuals who handle money as it comes into the business. Audits should also ensure that money is entered into a log book or safe and is signed off by the cashier and front office manager. Two individuals should be present when the cash is removed from the safe and taken to the accounting office or bank. Deposit Preparation: Preparation of the cash for a bank deposit should be handled by individuals other than the cashier or front office manager. Audits should determine which individuals prepare the deposits and if they are reviewed by a supervisor in the accounting office. Most companies require several forms to be filled out when

recording and preparing the deposit. Each form should be audited to ensure that all deposit-preparation procedures have been followed. Deposit Posting: Audits should focus on the posting system that records each deposit in the accounting information system. Electronic records should be reviewed to ensure that each deposit was posted to the system in a timely manner. Delayed deposit posting creates tough situations in an accounting office by lengthening the cash flow collection period. In most companies, deposits are posted to the information system by individuals separate from those who prepare the deposits. Bank Reconciliation: After the deposits are recorded into the accounting information system, bank reconciliations are prepared and reviewed by the accounting department to ensure that all deposits are processed by the bank in a timely manner. Depending on the size of the company, reconciliations may be prepared on a daily or monthly basis. When auditing bank reconciliations, auditors should review when the deposits are recorded by the bank and if they are consistent with dates entered into the information system in the accounting office. Reconciliation audits should also test that the account balances from the information system match the reconciled balances of the bank statement. Disbursement Review : Cash disbursements should be audited in a similar fashion to cash deposits. Accounts payable (A/P) invoices entered into the accounting information system should be reviewed to ensure that the invoice amount matches the system amount. Checks cut to vendors for payments should also be reviewed on the bank reconciliation statement to ensure that all checks are cleared through the bank. Any outstanding checks should be reviewed for validity. If a company requires A/P clerks to balance invoices to vendor statements, these reconciliations should be audited for accuracy and validity.

2. Special Audit A special audit report is the report issued by an auditor after inspecting the financial records of a company following a directive for the audit to be performed before the usual annual audit. The government may order a special audit conducted on a corporation if there is evidence that its financial affairs are not being run in accordance with proper accounting practice. Shareholders of a company may also pass a resolution to have a special audit done on their company if they feel recent management decisions have put its survival in jeopardy. Unqualified Opinion :This is a special audit report whose conclusion is that the

financial records of the company are in order. This means that the company management has presented a true reflection of the real financial transactions without hiding some or exaggerating others. The company's financial reporting has complied with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Qualified Opinion : A qualified opinion special audit report is issued when an auditor discovers anomalies in the financial statements of an organization. Situations that make an auditor give a qualified opinion report include when a company's financial statements have failed to include certain transactions over a certain period or to reflect depreciation in the value of asserts. The auditor gives an opinion that they should be corrected. Adverse Opinion : An adverse special audit report is issued when an auditor discovers outright distortions that make the financial statements of a company unreliable. In most cases, these discrepancies are a deliberate attempt to conceal the real financial position of the company being audited. An American company may, for instance, fail to state that it sold its South African subsidiary for $3 million so as to hide the fact that the money was siphoned out of the business after the sale. Disclaimer of Opinion : A disclaimer of opinion special audit report is issued when an auditor is unable to conduct an audit of a particular organization. The reasons range from the deliberate failure of the organization's management to provide crucial financial information to interference in his audit. An extreme case of this interference would be an attempt to bribe the auditor so that he can give a positive report. Internal Audit : This is a special audit report that is commissioned by a company's management. It may be initiated by the company's executive management or the board of directors. The aim of the internal audit may be to establish the value of the company or investigate internal fraud. External Audit : External special audit report is commissioned from outside the company. A multinational company that owns subsidiaries in foreign countries may commission a special audit of these subsidiaries so as to determine their viability. A government may also commission a special audit of one of its ministries to establish how money for a certain project was used. External audits are usually the most credible though critics have accused audit firms of unethical behavior.

3. Periodical Audit An audit which is commenced at the end of the financial year or trading period and is carried on by the auditor until its completion. This kind of audit is adopted by almost all business concerns but in case of large business concerns it takes more time to complete the audit. MERITS

The merits of final audit are: • • Checking Complete Records : All the facts about the financial year relating to the accounts for the year under review are before the auditor. Less Danger of Alteration : After final audit it becomes very difficult for any one to change the figures of accounts fraudulently as the checking of these accounts have already been conducted by the auditor. Cost Effective : Final audit is comparatively less expensive as compared to continuous audit as less time is consumed to conduct this kind of audit. Convenient : Final audit saves both the parties, i.e. the client and the auditor from continuous disturbance, as the auditor needs not to make frequent visits and simultaneously the Work of the client is not dislocated. Sequence of Work not lost : There is no interval in this type of audit and it caries on until its completion, hence, the audit staff do net lose the sequence in the work already performed.

• •

DEMERITS The demerits of final audit are given below: • • No Detailed Checking : It is extremely difficult for the auditor to check the accounts in detail and hence he applies test check in order to save time. Delay in Report Presentation : If the work of audit will not be completed in time, the audit report cannot be presented before the shareholders. This creates problems for the company’s business and its good will. Work not Up to Date : As the auditor visits once a year, i.e. after the close of the financial year, so his visit has no moral impact on the client staff to maintain the accounts books up to date and correct. Early Detection and Rectification of Errors Impossible : As the mistakes cannot be discovered by the auditor at an early stage, hence, rectification of certain errors becomes next to impossible before the close of the financial year.

4. Social Audit The social audit is a business statement published every year to present a set of information about the social projects, benefits and actions addressed to employees, investors, market analysts, shareholders and the community at large. It also functions as a strategic instrument to evaluate the practice of corporate social responsibility. Through its social audit the company shows what it does on behalf of its professional staff, their families, collaborators and the community at large. Transparency is given to the activities developed to improve quality of life. Its main function is to make public the company's social responsibility, thereby strengthening the links

between company, society and environment. When put together by multiple professionals, the social audit shows and measures the company's concern about people and about life in our planet.

Social Audit is a systematic, regular and objective accounting procedure that enables rganisations to establish social values and criteria against which they can measure external and internal performance and their social plans. Local Livelihoods has developed a practical Social Audit model designed for Community Enterprises to plan, manage and evaluate non-financial activities and to create a system for communicating with stakeholders. The four main components of a Social Audit are: Statement of Purpose – engaging the community in setting priorities: long term vision – medium term strategy – short term operational criteria 2. External View - stakeholder and service assessment: benefits received – problems identified – solutions designed, planned and implemented 3. Internal View – organisational assessment: effectiveness of operational methodology – efficiency of management systems – satisfaction of board members, staff and volunteers 4. Review and Planning – the learning loop: learning lessons from the previous years planned and actual results, making changes and planning the next years strategy and criteria
1.

The Social Audit cycle starts with the Statement of Purpose and Planning, this reviews the results of last year's purpose and plans and establishes this year's purpose and plans. The External View engages a wide range of stakeholders and forms a view of the organisation's position within the wider context. The Internal View engages with the board of directors, staff and volunteers in assessing and designing satisfactory ways of working and reward, and makes sure the organisation management and systems are able to achieve the purpose and plans.

The Monitoring and Evaluation element is where the Social Audit Team manages the Social Audit and measures performance. For each stage a number of practical exercises have been designed to fit within the overall methodology of Social Audit. The progressive accumulation of understanding that can be gained from measuring and managing social performance enables organisations to manage effectively.

5. Partial Audit In a partial audit, the work of the auditor is curtailed. The auditor is asked to check a few books, e.g. he may be asked to check the payment side of the cash book. Partial audit is not permitted in case of limited companies because according to the Companies Act, the duties of an auditor of a company cannot be curtailed. Again in case of a very big proprietary firms, it may not be possible for the proprietor himself to disburse all payments and if he suspects misappropriation of cash , he may appoint an audit or to check only the cash book. When an auditor is appointed to conduct partial audit, he must make it clear in his report that he has performed partial audit as per the instruction of client. Advantages of Partial Audit • • • • It serves the specific interest of the client. There is much scope to render quick service, as the auditor has to deal with only one or two aspects of business transactions. Critical analysis of the book of account relating to a particular item or group of items is made possible. It may act as a moral check on the part of persons who intend to falsify account.

Disadvantages of Partial Audit • • • • The conduct of this type of audit is strictly restricted under the Companies act. The audit report does not reflect the financial position of the business as a whole. It cannot be widely used. This type of audit is conducted only for a particular purpose.

Q.3 “Discuss Continuous Audit Double edged Weapon”. Ans:- Auditing is always a double edged sword. When you need to determine what happened, you want all the information that you can possibly have. However when you don't have issues, you have this huge volume of information to wade through, most of which doesn't really make

sense. Balancing these two can be difficult, but it is something that you want to keep in mind and think long and hard about what you audit and how much you keep. You also want to be sure that you capture enough information that you can trace back the true issues that you face. So how do you decide what you audit? Well, the first place I start is with any regulations that apply. If you work in the financial arena, chances are that your database needs to audit any transactions that take place with some type of audit trail. If you manage a database the runs a meat packing plant, you might need to audit slightly different items. I usually start by looking back at issues in the past where you have not been able to determine what happened or who made a change. These are usually prime fields for auditing. Since I don't know your system, I'll work with one that I do know, an Asset Tracking system. This system is designed to ensure that assets in the company are accounted for and maintained properly. Now there is quite a bit of data work that has to be manually input, and this system can't control that, instead, it's designed to ensure that what data is put into the system is intact and is not altered.

In fact it's a double edged weapon. For Example, if you file an amended return, it will raise eyebrows and IRS may take your return for audit. But at the same time, if you do it correctly, your chances of getting audited are reduced considerably! Sometimes you make mistakes inadvertently. Your math is fine, your supporting papers are appropriately inserted, your tax strategies are correct, but then some things slip off your mind. Don't worry. This is not something incurable. If you find a mistake in your tax return, the best way is to correct it quickly. It may be a modified W-2 in favour of IRS or an unclaimed deduction in your favor, just proceed to correct it. There is a specific form for such corrections - Form 1040X This form is very easy to fill in. It has three parts - one for what you filled in originally, then one for what changes you wish to make and the last one for final numbers. You can explain the changes at the back of the form.

Take this opportunity to show your sincerity to IRS. If you are claiming a deduction which was originally missed, then attach relevant receipt. If you want to correct any third party document, attach a copy. This will support your changes. This will minimize your chances of making it in the audit list. Just because you have filed an amended return, it will NOT initiate the audit process. There are some extra checks which IRS will perform on amended returns. The concerned officer will call up the original return and compare it with changes you have made in the amended return. This gives IRS an opportunity to double check your return. So its important to 'prove' your intentions. For example, if you have missed out a charitable contribution, then its better to attach a receipt with the amended return, which will automatically resolve the issue. This will convince the reviewing person that you are sincere in your approach and you know the rules. Within how much time you can amend your return? The legal limitation is three years. So you get three years from the date your original return was due. For example, amendment to your return filed on April 15, 2005 should have been made before April 15, 2008. So if you have filed a return by April 15, 2006, then you can still amend it before April 15, 2009. But take my advice, don't prolong too much! This provision of limitation is very important if you are due for a refund and still not filed your return for the current year. Some people just delay it, thinking that they don't owe anything to IRS so delay is fine. But they are wrong in that assumption, because if the period of three years expires, they lose their tax refunds. In fact that refund of overpaid money could have been used for paying your subsequent taxes. But due to the delay, the money is lost. IRS admits from time to time that it is holding billions of dollars in unclaimed refunds. Remember, there are penalties for non-filing - even if you don't owe any tax. So just go ahead and file. IRS computers may be looking for the corrections! If you file an amended return claiming a deduction, which was legitimate and unclaimed, say before two years, IRS will give you interest on holding your money. (That interest is taxable, of course!) Q.4 Explain the Auditor in relation with Computer based system? Ans:- An audit of a computer application will typically contain steps to assess the integrity of the application, including the completeness, timeliness, and accuracy of the data. An audit of an operational entity, on the other hand, may rely on the data from an application system, but will

probably not fully assess the integrity of that data. Thus, the auditor is at risk of drawing inappropriate conclusions. The degree of risk associated with using the data in an audit is proportional to the reliance the auditor places on the results of the data analyses. When the results are an integral part of the audit, the data's reliability is crucial to satisfying the audit objectives. In such cases, the auditor should make a more complete assessment of the integrity of the data before using that data to assess the client's operations. The issue of data integrity requires the auditor to determine how and to what degree the data integrity must be examined. How much is too much, resulting in over-auditing, and when is the examination not enough, risking under-auditing? The answer to this dilemma can be determined by first assessing the "reliability risk," or the inherent risk of relying on the data analyses, and then determining the amount of data testing that must be done. Assessing Reliability Risk As a general rule, auditors cannot simply assume that the computer-based data are reliable. Steps must be taken to provide reasonable assurance that the data and the results of the analyses will be valid. The evaluation of the data integrity begins with an assessment of the reliability risk. The reliability risk depends on the planned use of the data, or how integral the data is to the audit, and on the auditor's knowledge of the system. Planned Use Knowledge of System = Reliability Risk The more reliance the auditor is going to place on the results of the data analyses and the less experience the auditor has with the system, the higher the risk of drawing inappropriate conclusions. The relationship between these variables can be depicted as follows: Reliability Risk The integrity of the data may be the single most significant limitation in the use of CAATTs. However, by following the guidelines such as those described, the auditor can reduce the likelihood of over-auditing the data where the controls are strong and the integrity is judged to be high, or under-auditing the data where the integrity is questionable and the analysis is a key factor in the assessment of the client operations. The auditor should always evaluate the situation when determining whether or not CAATs should be used to assess the client operations. There may be times when a 15 percent error rate in the data does not adversely affect the audit results, but there may also be times when a three percent error rate invalidates the audit findings. Data testing results can provide the auditor with a much needed measure of the integrity of the data and may also identify ways to reduce the likelihood of forming invalid opinions. A good

understanding of the data integrity issues can help to ensure that CAATTs remain an effective audit tool. The development of audit assertions should naturally evolve from this early survey work. The assertions enumerate expected outcome resulting from anticipated shortcomings in performance. For example, an audit assertion might state, "Inventory levels are likely to be high in relation to usage levels." Expressed this way, the assertion constitutes a hypothesis against which an audit test could be designed. At this stage, however, internal auditors should focus on indentifying risk exposures rather than choosing the specific CAAT applications to use in testing Q.5 List of accounting standards formulated by the Accounting standards Board of India. Ans:- Accounting standards The term standard denotes a discipline, which provides both guidelines and yardsticks for evaluation. As guidelines, accounting standard provides uniform practices and common techniques of accounting. As a general rule, accounting standards are applicable to all corporate enterprises. They are made operative from a date specified in the standard. The Institute of Chartered Accountant of India (ICAI) constituted the Accounting Standards Board (ASB) in April, 1977 for developing accounting standards. However, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was set up in 1973, with its headquarter in London (U.K.). The Accounting Standards Board is entrusted with the responsibility of formulating standards on significant accounting matters keeping in view the international developments, and legal requirements in India. The main function of the ASB is to identify areas in which uniformity in standards is required and to develop draft standards after discussions with representatives of the Government, public sector undertaking, industries and other agencies. In the initial years the standards are of recommendatory in nature. Once an awareness is created about the benefits and relevance of accounting standards, steps are taken to make the accounting standards mandatory for all companies. In case of non compliance, the companies are required to disclose the reasons for deviations and its financial effect : Till date, the IASC has brought out 40 accounting standards. However, the ICAI has so far issued 29 accounting standards. These are : AS-1 Disclosure of accounting policies (January 1979). This standard deals with the disclosure of significant accounting policies in the financial statements. AS-2 Valuation of Inventories (June 1981). This standard deals with the principles of valuing inventories for the financial statements.

AS-3 (Revised) Cash flow statement (June 1981, Revised in March 1997). This standard deals with the financial statement which summaries for a given period the sources and applications of an enterprise AS-4 Contingencies and events occurring after the Balance Sheet date (November 1982, Revised in April, 1995) This standard deals with the treatment of contingencies and events occurring after the balance sheet date. AS-5 Net profit or loss for the period, prior period (period before the date ofbalancesheet) items and changes in accounting policies (November 1982, Revised in February 1997). This standard deals with the treatment in financial statement of prior period and extraordinary items and changes in accounting policies. AS-6 Depreciation Accounting (November 1982). This standard applies to all depreciable assets. But this standard does not apply to assets in the category of forests, plantations and similar natural resources and wasting assets. AS-7 Accounting for construction contracts (December 1983, revised in April 2003). This standard deals with accounting for construction contracts in the financial statements of contractors. AS-8 Accounting for Research and Development (January 1985). This standard deals with the treatment of costs of research and development in financial statements. AS-9 Revenue Recognition (November 1985). This standard deals with the bases for recognition of revenue in the statement of profit and loss of an enterprise. AS-10 Accounting for fixed assets (November 1991). This standard deals with recognition of fixed assets grouped into various categories, such as land, building, plant and machinery, vehicles, furniture and Mgifts, goodwill, patents, trading and designs. AS-11 Accounting for the effects of change in foreign exchange Rates. (August 1991 and Revised in 1993). This standard deals with the issues relating to accounting for effect of change in foreign exchange rates. AS-12 Accounting for Government grants (April 1994). This standard deals with the accounting for government grants. AS-13 Accounting for investments (September 1994). This standard deals with accounting aspect concerning investments in the financial statements. These include classification, determination of cost for initial recognition, disposal and re-classification of investment.

AS-14 Accounting for amalgamation (October 1994). This standard deals with accounting treatment of any resultant goodwill or reserves in amalgamation of companies. AS-15 Accounting for retirement Benefits in the financial statements of employers (January 1995). This standard deals with accounting for retirement benefits in the financial statements of employers. AS-16 Borrowing Costs (April 2000). This standard deals with the uses involved relating to capitalization of interest on borrowing for purchase of fixed assets. AS-17 Segment reporting (October 2000). This standard applies to companies which have an annual turnover of Rs 50 crores or more. These companies have to present financial statements and consolidated financial statements. AS-18 Related party disclosures (October 2000 revised 1st July 2003). This standard requires certain disclosure which must be made for transactions between the enterprise and related parties. AS-19 Leases (January 2001). This standard deals with the accounting treatment of transactions related to lease agreements. AS-20 Earning per share (April 2001). This standard deals with the presentation and computation of earning per share (EPS). AS-21 Consolidated financial statements (April 2001). This standard deals with the preparation of consolidated financial statements with an intention to provide information about the activities of a group. AS-22 Accounting for taxes on Income (April 2001). This standard deals with determination of the account of tax expenses for the related revenue. AS-23 Accounting for investments in Associates in consolidated financial statements (July 2001). This standard deals with the principles and procedures to be followed for recognising, in the consolidated financial statement. AS-24 Discontinued operations (February 2002). This standard deals with the principles of discontinuing operations of an enterprise with the activities which are continuing. AS-25 Interim financial reporting (February 2002). This standard deals with the minimum content of interim financial report.

AS-26 Intangible Assets (February 2002). This standard prescribed the accounting treatment for intangible assets which are not covered by any other specific accounting standard. AS-27 Financial reporting of interest for joint venture (February 2002). This standard sets principles and procedure for accounting for interest in joint venture. AS-28 Impairment of Assets (2004). This standard prescribed procedure to ensure that an asset is carried at no more than its carrying amount and procedures as to when to recognise an asset as impaired. AS-29 Provision for contingent labilities and contingent assets (2004). This standard deals with measurement and recognition criteria in three areas, namely provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets. All the above standards issued by the Accounting Standards Board are recommended for use by companies listed on a recognized stock exchange and other large commercial, industrial and business enterprises in the public and private sectors. Q.6 Write the CAAT or special Techniques for Auditing in EDP environment? Ans:- Electronic data processing is the function of planning, recording, managing and reporting business transactions by the use of computers and related peripherals. In EDP data is first taken from source documents such as invoices, revenue receipts, payment vouchers, written checks etc. There after data inputs to the computer where it is entered via the keyboard or other data entry peripherals. The entered data is then processed according to the accounting package in use; since there are different structures of modules used in sundry accounting application software, processing of the same data may differ from one package to another. As I said earlier that reporting is one of processing features, then it is apparent or undoubted that types of reports produced by different packages may vary from one system or package to another. For example some system may provide almost all basic financial reports such as
• • • • •

The trial balance, The statement of financial position commonly known as the balance sheet , The statement of financial performance which is commonly known as the statement of income and expenditure or The profit and loss account, The statement of cash flows, The statement of changes in equity

These types of packages offering almost all financial reports may be said to be compatible to all types of financial processing needs and are really expensive and used in many business and non business entities.

AUDITING IN EDP ENVIRONMENT EDP Audit can be conducted with the help of following parameters: Planning Process: The auditor should gather information about the EDP environment that is relevant to the audit plan, including information on: • • • • How the EDP function is organized and the extent of concen¬tration or distribution of computer processing throughout the entity, The computer hardware and software used by the entity, Each significant application processed by the computer, the nature of the processing (e.g., batch, online) and data retention policies, and Planned implementation of new applications or revisions to existing application.

While formulating his overall plan, the auditor should consider matters such as the following: • • • Determining the degree of reliance that he expects to place on the EDP controls in his overall evaluation of internal control. Planning how, where and when the EDP function will be reviewed including scheduling the work of EDP experts, as applicable. Planning auditing procedures using computer-assisted audit techniques.

Skills and Competence of the professional: For conducting audit in an EDP environment, the auditor should have an understanding of computer hardware, software and processing systems sufficient to plan the rendezvous and to understand how the EDP affects the study and appraisal of internal control and the application of auditing procedures including computer assisted audit techniques. The auditor should also have a good working knowledge of EDP to put into operation the auditing procedures, depending on the particular audit come within reach of adoption.. Work Performed by others: In support of forming and expressing an independent judgment on the financial statements that is to say, Income statement and Balance sheet examined by him, an auditor to some extent has to depend upon the work of others. While delegating work to his staff or using the work of pervious auditors or experts, the auditor must be contented with the EDP techniques to direct, administer and review the work of his staff and to obtain reasonable declaration that the work performed by other auditors or experts with EDP skills is adequate to serve his rationale, as applicable. Accounting System and Internal Control: At some stage in the review and preliminary assessment of internal control, the auditor should acquire knowledge of the accounting system to gain an understanding of the overall control environment and the flow of transactions. If the auditor plans to rely on internal controls in conducting his audit, he should consider the manual

and computer controls affecting the EDP function (general EDP controls) and the specific controls over the relevant accounting applications (EDP application controls). Audit Evidence : An EDP environment may have an effect on the application of observance and substantive procedures in several ways. The use of computer-assisted audit techniques may be required due to: • • • The absence of input documents (e.g., order entry in online systems) or the generation of accounting transactions by computer programs (e.g., automatic calculation of discounts) which may prevent the auditor from examining documentary evidence. The lack of a visible audit trial, which would preclude the auditor from visually following transactions through the computerized accounting system. The lack of visible output that may necessitate access to data retained on files readable only by the computer.

Timing of Audit: The timing of auditing procedures may be affected because data may not be retained in computer files for a sufficient length of time for audit use, and the auditor may have to make specific arrange¬ments to have it retained or copied. The effectiveness and efficiency of auditing procedures may be improved through the use of computer-assisted audit techniques in obtaining and evaluating audit evidence, for example: • • Some transactions may be tested more effectively for a similar level of cost by using the computer to examine a greater number of transactions than would otherwise be selected. In applying analytical review, procedures, transactions or balance details may be reviewed and reports of unusual items printed more efficiently by using the computer than by manual methods.

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