vor|ed lxemo|es

to lurocode ? Vo|ume ]

A cement end concrete |ndustrv ou|||cet|on
|or tho dosign of in-situ concroto o|omonts in framod bui|dings
to 8S £N 1992-1-1: 2004 and its Uk Nationa| Annox: 2005
CH Coodchi|d bSc Clng MClOb MlStructl ot a|
2
|oroword
The introduction of European standards to UK construction is a significant event as, for the
first time, all design and construction codes within the EU will be harmonised. The ten design
standards, known as the Eurocodes, will affect all design and construction activities as all current
British Standards for structural design are due to be withdrawn in 2010.
The cement and concrete industry recognised the need to enable UK design professionals to use
Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, quickly, effectively, efficiently and with confidence.
Supported by government, consultants and relevant industry bodies, the Concrete Industry
Eurocode 2 Group (CIEG) was formed in 1999 and this Group has provided the guidance for a
coordinated and collaborative approach to the introduction of Eurocode 2.
As a result, a range of resources are being delivered by the concrete sector (see www.eurocode2.info).
The aim of this publication, Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1 is to distil from Eurocode 2,
other Eurocodes and other sources the material that is commonly used in the design of concrete
framed buildings.
These worked examples are published in two parts. Volume 2 will include chapters on Foundations,
Serviceability, Fire and Retaining walls.
Acknow|odgomonts
The original ideas for this publication emanates from the research project `Eurocode 2: Transition
from UK to European concrete design standards’, which was led by the BCA and part funded by
the DTI under their PII scheme and was overseen by a Steering Group and the CIEG. The work has
been brought to fruition by The Concrete Centre from early initial drafts by various authors listed
on the inside back cover. The concrete industry acknowledges and appreciates the support given
by many individuals, companies and organisations in the preparation of this document. These are
listed on the inside back cover.
We gratefully acknowledge the authors of the initial drafts and the help and advice given by Robin
Whittle in checking the text. Thanks are also due to Gillian Bond, Kevin Smith, Sally Huish and the
design team at Michael Burbridge Ltd for their work on the production.
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ou|||sh techn|ce| gu|dence |n suooort o¦ concrete des|gn end construct|on CCll ou|||cet|ons ere
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i
Contents
vor|ed lxemo|es
to lurocode ? Vo|ume ]
Symbo|s ||
1 |ntroduction ]
]] A|m ]
]? lurocode bes|s o¦ structure| des|gn 3
]3 lurocode ] Act|ons on structures 4
]4 lurocode ? Les|gn o¦ concrete structures 4
]S Net|one| Annexes S
]6 bes|s o¦ the wor|ed exemo|es |n th|s ou|||cet|on S
]/ Assumot|ons 6
]S Meter|e| orooert|es 6
]9 lxecut|on 6
2 Ana|ysis, actions and |oad arrangomonts /
?] Methods o¦ ene|vs|s /
?? Act|ons /
?3 Cherecter|st|c ve|ues o¦ ect|ons /
?4 Ver|e||e ect|ons |moosed |oeds S
?S Ver|e||e ect|ons snow |oeds ]?
?6 Ver|e||e ect|ons w|nd |oeds ]3
?/ Ver|e||e ect|ons others ]/
?S lermenent ect|ons ]S
?9 Les|gn ve|ues o¦ ect|ons ?]
?]0 loed errengement o¦ ect|ons |ntroduct|on ?S
?]] loed errengements eccord|ng to the
0l Net|one| Annex to lurocode ?S
?]? lxemo|es o¦ |oed|ng ?/
3 S|abs 3S
30 Cenere| 3S
3] S|mo|v suooorted one-wev s|e| 36
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e| 40
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e| S?
34 l|et s|e| /]
3S Ste|r ¦||ght 9S
4 8oams 9/
40 Cenere| 9/
4] Cont|nuous |eem on o|n suooorts 9S
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem ]04
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem ]]9
5 Co|umns ]34
S0 Cenere| ]34
S] ldge co|umn ]3S
S? ler|meter co|umn (|nterne| env|ronment) ]39
S3 lnterne| co|umn ]46
S4 Sme|| oer|meter co|umn su||ect
to two-hour ¦|re res|stence ]S/
6 wa||s ]66
60 Cenere| ]66
6] Sheer we|| ]6/
7 koforoncos and furthor roading ]S3
Appondix A: Dorivod formu|ao ]SS
Appondix 8: Sorvicoabi|ity |imit stato ]90
Appondix C: Dosign aids ]94
Vo|umo 2 (ou|||shed seoerete|v)
loundet|ons
Soec|e| dete||s strut 8 t|e
Serv|cee||||tv
l|re
kete|n|ng we||
ke¦erences end ¦urther reed|ng
Aooend|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
Aooend|x b Les|gn e|ds
ii
Symbols and abbreviations used in this publication
Symbol Definition
/ Cross-sect|one| eree, Acc|dente| ect|on
/ S|te e|t|tude, m (snow)
/ A|t|tude o¦ the s|te |n metres e|ove meen see |eve| (w|nd)
/, S, C Ver|e||es used |n the determ|net|on o¦ l
||m
/
c
Cross-sect|one| eree o¦ concrete
/
d
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ en ecc|dente| ect|on
/
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ e se|sm|c ect|on
/
re¦
ke¦erence eree o¦ the structure or structure| e|ement (w|nd)
/
s
Cross-sect|one| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement
/
s,m|n
M|n|mum cross-sect|one| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement
/
s,orov
Aree o¦ stee| orov|ded
/
s,req
Aree o¦ stee| requ|red
/
s]
Aree o¦ re|n¦orc|ng stee| |n |ever ]
/
s?
Aree o¦ comoress|on stee| (|n |ever ?)
/
s|
Aree o¦ the tens||e re|n¦orcement extend|ng et |eest /
|d
÷ J |evond the sect|on cons|dered
/
sM
(/
sN
) ¹ote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red |n svmmetr|ce|, rectengu|er co|umns to res|st moment (ex|e| |oed) us|ng
s|mo||¦|ed ce|cu|et|on method
/
sw
Cross-sect|one| eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement, Aree o¦ ounch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |n one oer|meter eround the
co|umn
/
sw,m|n
M|n|mum cross-sect|one| eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement, M|n|mum eree o¦ ounch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |n one
oer|meter eround the co|umn
/
t
Aree o¦ tens||e re|n¦orcement |n ¦|et s|e| co|umn str|os
o L|stence, e||owence et suooorts
o Ax|s d|stence ¦rom the concrete sur¦ece to the centre o¦ the |er (¦|re)
o An exoonent (|n cons|der|ng ||ex|e| |end|ng o¦ co|umns)
o lro|ect|on o¦ the ¦oot|ng ¦rom the ¦ece o¦ the co|umn or we||
o
|
L|stence |v wh|ch the |ocet|on where e |er |s no |onger requ|red ¦or |end|ng moment |s d|so|eced to e||ow ¦or the
¦orces ¦rom the truss mode| ¦or sheer ('Sh|¦t' d|stence ¦or curte||ment)
o
]
, o
?
, L|stence ¦rom edge o¦ suooort to centre o¦ suooort
o
]
, /
]
L|mens|ons o¦ the contro| oer|meter eround en e|ongeted suooort (ounch|ng sheer)
ems| A|t|tude e|ove meen see |eve|
/ Overe|| w|dth o¦ e cross-sect|on, or ¦|enge w|dth |n e ¹- or l-|eem
/ breedth o¦ |u||d|ng (w|nd)
/
e
l¦¦ect|ve w|dth o¦ e ¦|et s|e| (ed|ecent to oer|meter co|umn)
/
e¦¦
l¦¦ect|ve w|dth o¦ e ¦|enge
/
eq
(/
eq
) lqu|ve|ent w|dth (he|ght) o¦ co|umn /(/) ¦or rectengu|er sect|ons
/
m|n
M|n|mum w|dth o¦ we| on ¹-, l- or l-|eems
/
t
Meen w|dth o¦ the tens|on .one lor e ¹-|eem w|th the ¦|enge |n comoress|on, on|v the w|dth o¦ the we| |s te|en
|nto eccount
/
w
v|dth o¦ the we| on ¹-, l- or l-|eems M|n|mum w|dth |etween tens|on end comoress|on chords
/
]
le|¦ o¦ d|stence |etween ed|ecent we|s o¦ downstend |eems
C
e
lxoosure coe¦¦|c|ent (snow)
C
t
¹herme| coe¦¦|c|ent (snow)
C
w
Sheer centre
Symbol Definition
c
]
, c
?
L|mens|ons o¦ e rectengu|er co|umn lor edge co|umns, c
]
|s meesured oeroend|cu|er to the ¦ree edge (ounch|ng
sheer)
c
e|t
A|t|tude ¦ector (w|nd)
c
d
Lvnem|c ¦ector (w|nd)
c
d|r
L|rect|one| ¦ector (w|nd)
c
e,¦|et
lxoosure ¦ector (w|nd)
c
¦
lorce coe¦¦|c|ent (w|nd)
c
m|n
M|n|mum cover, (due to the requ|rements ¦or |ond, c
m|n,|
or dure||||tv c
m|n,dur
)
c
nom
Nom|ne| cover Nom|ne| cover shou|d set|s¦v the m|n|mum requ|rements o¦ |ond, dure||||tv end ¦|re
c
oe
(lxterne|) oressure coe¦¦|c|ent (w|nd)
c
oe,]0
(lxterne|) oressure coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or erees > ] m
?
(w|nd)
c
o|
lnterne| oressure coe¦¦|c|ent (w|nd)
c
oro|
lro|e||||tv ¦ector (w|nd)
c
seeson
Seeson ¦ector (w|nd)
c
s
S|.e ¦ector (w|nd)
c
v
, c
x
Co|umn d|mens|ons |n o|en
Dc
dev
A||owence mede |n des|gn ¦or dev|et|on
/ L|emeter o¦ e c|rcu|er co|umn, L|emeter
J l¦¦ect|ve deoth to tens|on stee|
J
?
l¦¦ect|ve deoth to comoress|on stee|
J
c
l¦¦ect|ve deoth o¦ concrete |n comoress|on
/ l¦¦ect o¦ ect|on, lntegr|tv (|n ¦|re), l|est|c modu|us
/
cd
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ modu|us o¦ e|est|c|tv o¦ concrete
/
cm
Secent modu|us o¦ e|est|c|tv o¦ concrete
/I bend|ng st|¦¦ness
/
s
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ modu|us o¦ e|est|c|tv o¦ re|n¦orc|ng stee|
lxo lxoress|on
lO0 Stet|c equ||||r|um
e lccentr|c|tv
e
0
M|n|mum eccentr|c|tv |n co|umns
e
?
Le¦|ect|on (used |n essess|ng /
?
|n s|ender co|umns)
e
|
lccentr|c|tv due to |moer¦ect|ons
e
v
, e
.
lccentr|c|tv, /
ld
/\
ld
e|ong , end · exes resoect|ve|v (ounch|ng sheer)
l] lector to eccount ¦or ¦|enged sect|ons (de¦|ect|on)
l? lector to eccount ¦or |r|tt|e oert|t|ons |n essoc|et|on w|th |ong soens (de¦|ect|on)
l3 lector to eccount ¦or serv|ce stress |n tens||e re|n¦orcement (de¦|ect|on)
/ Act|on
llM l|xed end moment
/
c
(/
s
) lorce |n concrete (stee|)
/
d
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ en ect|on
/
l
¹ens||e ¦orce |n re|n¦orcement to |e enchored
/
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on
/
reo
keoresentet|ve ect|on ( v/
|
where v ¦ector to convert cherecter|st|c to reoresentet|ve ect|on)
/
s
¹ens||e ¦orce |n re|n¦orcement
/
td
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the tens||e ¦orce |n |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement
D/
td
Add|t|one| tens||e ¦orce |n |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement due to the truss sheer mode|
iii
Symbol Definition
/
V,ld
¹ote| vert|ce| |oed (on |reced end |rec|ng mem|ers)
/
w
kesu|tent cherecter|st|c ¦orce due to w|nd (See sect|on ?6)
|
|d
0|t|mete |ond stress
|
cd
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ concrete comoress|ve strength
|
c|
Cherecter|st|c comoress|ve cv||nder strength o¦ concrete et ?S devs
|
ct,d
Les|gn tens||e strength o¦ concrete (a
ct
|
ct,|
/g
C
)
|
ct,|
Cherecter|st|c ex|e| tens||e strength o¦ concrete
|
ctm
Meen ve|ue o¦ ex|e| tens||e strength o¦ concrete
|
sc
Comoress|ve stress |n comoress|on re|n¦orcement et 0lS
|
vd
Les|gn v|e|d strength o¦ |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement, /
s|
|
v|
Cherecter|st|c v|e|d strength o¦ re|n¦orcement
|
vwd
Les|gn v|e|d strength o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
|
vwd,e¦
l¦¦ect|ve des|gn strength o¦ ounch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement
|
vw|
Cherecter|st|c v|e|d strength o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
O
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e oermenent ect|on
O
|,suo
0ooer cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e oermenent ect|on
O
|,|n¦
lower cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e oermenent ect|on
¡
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e oermenent ect|on oer un|t |ength or eree
/
|
lor|.onte| ect|on eoo||ed et e |eve|
/ le|ght o¦ |u||d|ng (w|nd)
/ Overe|| deoth o¦ e cross-sect|on, le|ght
/
eve
O|struct|on he|ght (w|nd)
/
d|s
L|so|ecement he|ght (w|nd)
/
¦
Leoth o¦ ¦oot|ng, ¹h|c|ness o¦ ¦|enge
/
s
Leoth o¦ s|e|
I Second moment o¦ eree o¦ concrete sect|on, lnert|e
I lnsu|et|on (|n ¦|re)
/ ked|us o¦ gvret|on
/ /
ld
//J
?
|
c|
A meesure o¦ the re|et|ve comoress|ve stress |n e mem|er |n ¦|exure
/ lector to eccount ¦or structure| svstem (de¦|ect|on)
/ Ve|ue o¦ / e|ove wh|ch comoress|on re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
/
v
A correct|on ¦ector ¦or ex|e| |oed
/
f
A correct|on ¦ector ¦or creeo
/ Coe¦¦|c|ent or ¦ector
/ ke|et|ve ¦|ex|||||tv or re|et|ve st|¦¦ness
/ C|eer he|ght o¦ co|umn |etween end restre|nts
/ le|ght o¦ the structure |n metres
/ (or /) length, Soen
/
0
l¦¦ect|ve |ength (o¦ co|umns)
/
0
L|stence |etween oo|nts o¦ .ero moment
/
0
Les|gn |eo |ength
/
0,¦|
l¦¦ect|ve |ength under ¦|re cond|t|ons
/
|
bes|c enchorege |ength
/
|d
Les|gn enchorege |ength
/
|,eq
lqu|ve|ent enchorege |ength
/
|,m|n
M|n|mum enchorege |ength
iv
Symbol Definition
/
|,rqd
bes|c enchorege |ength
/
e¦¦
l¦¦ect|ve soen
/
n
C|eer soen
/
v
, /
.
Soens o¦ e two-wev s|e| |n the , end · d|rect|ons
/ bend|ng moment Moment ¦rom ¦|rst order ene|vs|s
/ Moment ceoec|tv o¦ e s|ng|v re|n¦orced sect|on (e|ove wh|ch comoress|on re|n¦orcement |s requ|red)
/
0,lqo
l|rst order |end|ng moment |n ques| oermenent |oed com||net|on (SlS)
/
0]
, /
0?
l|rst order end moments et 0lS /nc/aJ/n¡ e||owences ¦or |moer¦ect|ons
/
0ld
lqu|ve|ent ¦|rst order moment |nc|ud|ng the e¦¦ect o¦ |moer¦ect|ons (et e|out m|d he|ght)
/
0ld,¦|
l|rst order moment under ¦|re cond|t|ons
/
?
Nom|ne| second order moment |n s|ender co|umns
/
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the eoo||ed |nterne| |end|ng moment
/
ldv
, /
ld.
Les|gn moment |n the resoect|ve d|rect|on
/
kdv
, /
kd.
Moment res|stence |n the resoect|ve d|rect|on
/
t
Les|gn trens¦er moment to co|umn ¦rom e ¦|et s|e|
m Num|er o¦ vert|ce| mem|ers contr||ut|ng to en e¦¦ect
m Mess
/ Ax|e| ¦orce
/ bes|c soen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-deoth ret|o, //J, ¦or / ]0
/
0ld,¦|
Ax|e| |oed under ¦|re cond|t|ons
NA Net|one| Annex
/
e
, /
|
long|tud|ne| ¦orces contr||ut|ng to /
|
/
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the eoo||ed ex|e| ¦orce (tens|on or comoress|on) et 0lS
NLl Net|one||v Leterm|ned leremeter(s) es ou|||shed |n e countrv's Net|one| Annex
n loed |eve| et norme| temoeretures Conservet|ve|v n 0/ (¦|re)
n Ax|e| stress et 0lS
n 0|t|mete ect|on (|oed) oer un|t |ength (or eree)
n ke|et|ve ex|e| ¦orce /
ld
/(/
c
|
cd
)
n
|e|
¹he ve|ue o¦ n et mex|mum moment res|stence
n
0
, n
s
Num|er o¦ storevs
C
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on
C
|]
(C
||
) Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e |eed|ng ver|e||e ect|on (Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en eccomoenv|ng ver|e||e ect|on)
a
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on oer un|t |ength or eree
a
|
bes|c w|nd oressure
a
o
lee| w|nd oressure
a
o

e
) lee| ve|oc|tv oressure et re¦erence he|ght ·
e
, (w|nd)
/ kes|stence, Mechen|ce| res|stence (|n ¦|re)
/
A
keect|on et suooort A
/
b
keect|on et suooort b
/
d
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the res|stence to en ect|on
· ked|us
·
m
ket|o o¦ ¦|rst order end moments |n co|umns et 0lS
SlS Serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stete(s) ÷ corresoond|ng to cond|t|ons |evond wh|ch soec|¦|ed serv|ce requ|rements ere no
|onger met
· Soec|ng
· Snow |oed on e roo¦
v
Symbol Definition
·
|
Cherecter|st|c ground snow |oed
·
r
ked|e| soec|ng o¦ oer|meters o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
·
t
¹engent|e| soec|ng sheer re|n¦orcement e|ong oer|meters o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
| ¹h|c|ness, ¹|me |e|ng cons|dered, breedth o¦ suooort
|
0
¹he ege o¦ concrete et the t|me o¦ |oed|ng
0lS 0|t|mete ||m|t stete(s) ÷ essoc|eted w|th co||eose or other ¦orms o¦ structure| ¦e||ure
a ler|meter o¦ concrete cross-sect|on, hev|ng eree /
c
a ler|meter o¦ thet oert wh|ch |s exoosed to drv|ng
a C|rcum¦erence o¦ outer edge o¦ e¦¦ect|ve cross-sect|on (tors|on)
a
0
ler|meter ed|ecent to co|umns (ounch|ng sheer)
a
]
bes|c contro| oer|meter (et ?J ¦rom ¦ece o¦ |oed) (ounch|ng sheer)
a
]
´ keduced contro| oer|meter et oer|meter co|umns (et ?J ¦rom ¦ece o¦ |oed) (ounch|ng sheer)
a
|
length o¦ the contro| oer|meter under cons|deret|on (ounch|ng sheer)
a
out
ler|meter et wh|ch sheer re|n¦orcement |s no |onger requ|red
\ Sheer ¦orce
\
ld
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the eoo||ed sheer ¦orce
\
kd,c
Sheer res|stence o¦ e mem|er w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement
\
kd,mex
Sheer res|stence o¦ e mem|er ||m|ted |v the crush|ng o¦ comoress|on struts
\
kd,cm|n
M|n|mum sheer res|stence o¦ mem|er cons|der|ng concrete e|one
\
kd,s
Sheer res|stence o¦ e mem|er governed |v the v|e|d|ng o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
.
|
bes|c w|nd ve|oc|tv
.
|,0
¹he ¦undemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|tv |e|ng the cherecter|st|c ]0 m|nute w|nd ve|oc|tv et ]0 m e|ove ground |eve| |n
ooen countrv
.
|,meo
lundemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|tv ¦rom l|gure NA] m/s
.
ld
lunch|ng sheer stress
.
ld
Sheer stress ¦or sect|ons u/|/oa| sheer re|n¦orcement ( \
ld
//
w
J)
.
ld,.
Sheer stress ¦or sect|ons w|th sheer re|n¦orcement ( \
ld
//
w
· \
ld
//
w
09J)
.
kd,c
Les|gn sheer res|stence o¦ concrete w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement exoressed es e stress
.
kd,mex
Ceoec|tv o¦ concrete struts exoressed es e stress
w
]
lector corresoond|ng to e d|str||ut|on o¦ sheer (ounch|ng sheer)
w
e
lee| externe| w|nd |oed
w
|
Cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ w|nd ect|on (Nb not |n the lurocodes end shou|d |e regerded es e ¦orm o¦ C
|
,
cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on)
u
|
Cherecter|st|c un|t w|nd |oed
u
|
Crec| w|dth
u
mex
l|m|t|ng ce|cu|eted crec| w|dth
`0, `A, `C Concrete exoosure c|esses
`L, `l, `S
\ Neutre| ex|s deoth
\ L|stence |etween |u||d|ngs (w|nd)
\ L|stence o¦ the sect|on |e|ng cons|dered ¦rom the centre ||ne o¦ the suooort
\, ,, · Co-ord|netes, l|enes under cons|deret|on
\
u
Leoth o¦ the neutre| ex|s et the u|t|mete ||m|t stete e¦ter red|str||ut|on
´ ?one num|er o|te|ned ¦rom meo (snow)
· lever erm o¦ |nterne| ¦orces
vi
vii
Symbol Definition
· ke¦erence he|ght (w|nd)
·
e
ke¦erence he|ght ¦or w|ndwerd we||s o¦ rectengu|er |u||d|ngs (w|nd)
a Ang|e, Ang|e o¦ sheer ||n|s to the |ong|tud|ne| ex|s, ket|o
a
A
A coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or use w|th e reoresentet|ve ver|e||e ect|on te||ng |nto eccount eree suooorted
a
]
, a
?
, a
3
lectors dee||ng w|th enchorege end |eos o¦ |ers
a
4
, a
S
, a
6

a
cc
(a
ct
) A coe¦¦|c|ent te||ng |nto eccount |ong term e¦¦ects o¦ comoress|ve (tens||e) |oed end the wev |oed |s eoo||ed
a
e
Modu|er ret|o /
s
//
cd
a
n
A coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or use w|th e reoresentet|ve ver|e||e ect|on te||ng |nto eccount num|er o¦ storevs suooorted
b Ang|e, ket|o, Coe¦¦|c|ent
b lector dee||ng w|th eccentr|c|tv (ounch|ng sheer)
g lert|e| ¦ector
g
C
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or concrete
g
l
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or ect|ons, /
g
C
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or oermenent ect|ons, O
g
C|,suo
lert|e| ¦ector to |e eoo||ed to O
|,|n¦
g
C|,|n¦
lert|e| ¦ector to |e eoo||ed to O
|,suo
g
O
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or ver|e||e ect|ons, C
g
M
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or meter|e| (usue||v g
C
or g
S
)
g
S
lert|e| ¦ector ¦or re|n¦orc|ng stee|
d ked|str||ut|on ret|o eque|s ret|o o¦ the red|str||uted moment to the e|est|c |end|ng moment (] ÷ % red|str||ut|on)
e
cu
0|t|mete comoress|ve stre|n |n the concrete
e
cu?
0|t|mete comoress|ve stre|n ||m|t |n concrete wh|ch |s not ¦u||v |n oure ex|e| comoress|on essum|ng use o¦ the
oere|o||c÷rectengu|er stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|o (numer|ce||v e
cu?
e
cu3
)
e
cu3
0|t|mete comoress|ve stre|n ||m|t |n concrete wh|ch |s not ¦u||v |n oure ex|e| comoress|on essum|ng use o¦ the
||||neer stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|o
e
sc
Comoress|ve stre|n |n re|n¦orcement
e
st
¹ens||e stre|n |n re|n¦orcement
n lector de¦|n|ng e¦¦ect|ve strength ( ] ¦or < CS0/60)
n
]
Coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or |ond cond|t|ons
n
?
Coe¦¦|c|ent ¦or |er d|emeter
y Ang|e, Ang|e o¦ comoress|on struts (sheer)
y
|
lnc||net|on used to reoresent |moer¦ect|ons
l S|enderness ret|o
l lector de¦|n|ng the he|ght o¦ the comoress|on .one ( 0S ¦or < CS0/60)
l
¦|
S|enderness |n ¦|re
l
||m
l|m|t|ng s|enderness ret|o (o¦ co|umns)
m
|
, m
]
, m
?
Snow |oed sheoe ¦ectors
m
¦|
ket|o o¦ the des|gn ex|e| |oed under ¦|re cond|t|ons to the des|gn res|stence o¦ the co|umn et norme| temoereture
|ut w|th en eccentr|c|tv eoo||ce||e to ¦|re cond|t|ons
v Strength reduct|on ¦ector ¦or concrete crec|ed |n sheer
j keduct|on ¦ector/d|str||ut|on coe¦¦|c|ent lector eoo||ed to O
|
|n bS lN ]990 lxo (6]0|)
r kequ|red tens|on re|n¦orcement ret|o
r Lens|tv o¦ e|r (w|nd)
r ke|n¦orcement ret|o ¦or requ|red comoress|on re|n¦orcement, /
s?
//J
viii
Symbol Definition
r
]
lercentege o¦ re|n¦orcement |eooed w|th|n 06S/
0
¦rom the centre ||ne o¦ the |eo |e|ng cons|dered
r
|
ke|n¦orcement ret|o ¦or |ong|tud|ne| re|n¦orcement
r
|v,
r
|.
ke|n¦orcement ret|o o¦ |onded stee| |n the , end · d|rect|on
r
0
ke¦erence re|n¦orcement ret|o |
c|
0S
]0
÷3
s
gd
Les|gn ve|ue o¦ the ground oressure
s
s
Stress |n re|n¦orcement et SlS
s
s
A|so|ute ve|ue o¦ the mex|mum stress oerm|tted |n the re|n¦orcement |mmed|ete|v e¦ter the ¦ormet|on o¦ the crec|
s
sc
(s
st
) Stress |n comoress|on (end tens|on) re|n¦orcement
s
sd
Les|gn stress |n the |er et the u|t|mete ||m|t stete
s
su
0nmod|¦|ed serv|ce stress |n re|n¦orcement determ|ned ¦rom 0lS |oeds (See l|gure C3)
h(e,|
0
) l|ne| ve|ue o¦ creeo coe¦¦|c|ent
h

l¦¦ect|ve creeo ¦ector
f ber d|emeter
c lectors de¦|n|ng reoresentet|ve ve|ues o¦ ver|e||e ect|ons
c
0
Com||net|on ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on (eg used when cons|der|ng 0lS)
c
]
lrequent ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on (eg used when cons|der|ng whether sect|on w||| heve crec|ed or not)
c
?
Oues|-oermenent ve|ue o¦ e ver|e||e ect|on (eg used when cons|der|ng de¦ormet|on)
w Mechen|ce| re|n¦orcement ret|o /
s
|
vd
//
c
|
cd
< ]
1
Introduction
Aim
¹he e|m o¦ th|s ou|||cet|on |s to |||ustrete through wor|ed exemo|es how bS lN ]99?÷]÷]
|]|

(lurocode ?) mev |e used |n orect|ce to des|gn |n-s|tu concrete |u||d|ng structures lt |s |ntended
thet these wor|ed exemo|es w||| exo|e|n how ce|cu|et|ons to lurocode ? mev |e oer¦ormed
lurocode ? str|ct|v cons|sts o¦ ¦our oerts (lerts ]÷], ]÷?, ? end 3)
|]-4|
|ut ¦or the ourooses o¦
th|s ou|||cet|on, lurocode ? re¦ers to oert ]÷] on|v, un|ess que||ued ¹he wor|ed exemo|es w|||
|e cerr|ed out w|th|n the env|ronment o¦ other re|event ou|||cet|ons ||sted |e|ow, end |||ustreted
|n l|gure ]]
¹he other three oerts o¦ lurocode ? N
Other lurocodes N
Meter|e| end execut|on stenderds N
lu|||cet|ons |v the concrete |ndustrv end others N
¹here ere, there¦ore, menv re¦erences to other documents end wh||e |t |s |ntended thet th|s
ou|||cet|on, re¦erred to es wo·/eJ e\omo/e·, cen stend e|one, |t |s ent|c|oeted thet users mev
requ|re severe| o¦ the other re¦erences to hend, |n oert|cu|er, Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
|S|
, wh|ch
summer|ses the ru|es end or|nc|o|es thet w||| |e common|v used |n the des|gn o¦ re|n¦orced
concrete ¦remed |u||d|ngs to lurocode ?
BS EN 1991–1–1
BS EN 1992–1–1
DESIGN OF
CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
BS EN 1991–2
ACTIONS
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
–2
–3
–4
–6
PD6687
1–2
–3
–2
WORKED EXAMPLES
TO EUROCODE 2
VOL 1
CONCRETE INDUSTRY
PUBLICATIONS
WORKED
EXAMPLES
PUBLICATIONS
BY OTHERS
Fire
Bridges
Liquid retaining
Fire
Snow
Wind
Execution
Densities and
imposed loads
VOL 2
General
STANDARDS
PRECAST
WORKED
EXAMPLES
BS EN 1990
BASIS OF
DESIGN
CONCISE
EUROCODE
2
HOW TO
DESIGN
CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
www.
Eurocode2
.info
RC SPREAD
SHEETS
PRECAST
DESIGN
MANUAL
MANUALS
DETAILERS
HANDBOOK
DESIGN
GUIDES
BS EN 13670
EXECUTION
OF
CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
Noto
¹he term Stenderds encomoesses br|t|sh Stenderds, lurocodes, Net|one| Annexes (NA) end lu|||shed Locuments
|iguro 1.1
workod oxamp|os in contoxt
¹he des|gns ere |n eccordence w|th bS lN ]99?÷]÷]
|]|
, es mod|ued |v the 0l Net|one| Annex
|]e|

end exo|e|ned |n lL 66S/
|6|

lntroduct|on
1
1.1
2
Cenere||v, the ce|cu|et|ons ere cross-re¦erenced to the re|event c|euses |n e|| ¦our oerts o¦
lurocode ?
|]÷4|
end, where eooroor|ete, to other documents See l|gure ]? ¦or e gu|de to
oresentet|on ke¦erences to bS S]]0
|/|
re¦er to lert ] un|ess otherw|se steted
Cenere||v, the 's|mo|e' exemo|es deoend on equet|ons end des|gn e|ds der|ved ¦rom lurocode ?
¹he der|ved equet|ons ere g|ven |n Aooend|x A end the des|gn e|ds ¦rom Sect|on ]S o¦ Conc/·e
/a·ocoJe ?
|S|
ere reoeeted |n Aooend|x b
¹he exemo|es ere |ntended to |e eooroor|ete ¦or the|r ouroose, wh|ch |s to |||ustrete the use o¦
lurocode ? ¦or |n-s|tu concrete |u||d|ng structures ¹here ere s|mo|e exemo|es to |||ustrete how
tvo|ce| hend ce|cu|et|ons m|ght |e done us|ng eve||e||e cherts end te||es der|ved ¦rom the Code
¹hese ere ¦o||owed |v more dete||ed exemo|es |||ustret|ng the dete||ed wor||ngs o¦ the Codes
ln order to exo|e|n the use o¦ lurocode ?, severe| o¦ the ce|cu|et|ons ere oresented |n dete|| ¦er
|n excess o¦ thet necesserv |n des|gn ce|cu|et|ons once users ere ¦em|||er w|th the Code ¹o en
extent, the des|gns ere contr|ved to show ve||d methods o¦ des|gn|ng e|ements, to g|ve |ns|ght
end to he|o |n ve||det|ng comouter methods ¹hev ere not necesser||v the most eooroor|ete, the
most econom|c or the on|v methods o¦ des|gn|ng the mem|ers |||ustreted
Sections 1 and 2 Worked examples
Cl. 6.4.4
ke|event c|euses or ¦|gure num|ers ¦rom bS lN
]99?÷]÷] (|¦ the re¦erence |s to other oerts, other
lurocodes or other documents th|s w||| |e |nd|ceted)
Cl. 6.4.4
NA
lrom the re|event 0l Net|one| Annex (genere||v to
bS lN ]99?÷]÷])
NA
Cl. 6.4.4 & NA lrom |oth bS lN ]99?÷]÷] end 0l Net|one| Annex
Cl. 6.4.4 & NA
Fig. 2.1
Section 5.2
ke|event oerts o¦ th|s ou|||cet|on
Fig. 2.1
Section 5.2
EC1-1-1: 6.4.3
lrom other lurocodes bS lN ]990, bS lN ]99],
bS lN ]99?÷]÷?, etc
EC1-1-1: 6.4.3
PD 6687
[6]

Soc/¡·oanJ oooe· |o c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\e·
S´ // '99?-'
PD 6687
[6]
Concise Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
|S|
Concise
How to: Floors
[8]

/ou |o Je·/¡n conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/n¡
/a·ocoJe ?
|S|
//oo··
How to:
Floors
[8]
Grey shaded tables
ln Aooend|ces, der|ved content |n te||es not ¦rom
lurocode ?
|iguro 1.2
Cuido to prosontation
As some o¦ the dete|||ng ru|es |n lurocode ? ere genere||v more |nvo|ved then those to bS S]]0,
some o¦ the des|gns oresented |n th|s ou|||cet|on heve |een extended |nto erees thet heve
tred|t|one||v |een the resoons|||||tv o¦ dete||ers ¹hese extended ce|cu|et|ons ere not necesser||v
oert o¦ 'norme|' des|gn |ut ere |nc|uded et the end o¦ some ce|cu|et|ons lt |s essumed thet
the des|gner w||| d|scuss end egree w|th the dete||er erees o¦ resoons|||||tv end the degree o¦
ret|one||set|on, the extent o¦ des|gn|ng dete||s, essessment o¦ curte||ment end other esoects
thet the dete||er shou|d underte|e lt |s recogn|sed thet |n the vest me|or|tv o¦ ceses, the ru|es
g|ven |n dete|||ng menue|s
|S,9|
w||| |e used lowever, the exemo|es ere |ntended to he|o when
curte||ment, enchorege end |eo |engths need to |e determ|ned
3
lntroduct|on
Eurocode: Basis of structural design
ln the lurocode svstem bS lN ]990, lurocode So·/· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/¡n
|]0|
overerches e|| the
other lurocodes, bS lN ]99] to bS lN ]999 bS lN ]990 deunes the e¦¦ects o¦ ect|ons, |nc|ud|ng
geotechn|ce| end se|sm|c ect|ons, end eoo||es to e|| structures |rresoect|ve o¦ the meter|e| o¦
construct|on ¹he meter|e| lurocodes deune how the e¦¦ects o¦ ect|ons ere res|sted |v g|v|ng ru|es ¦or
des|gn end dete|||ng o¦ concrete, stee|, comoos|te, t|m|er, mesonrv end e|um|n|um (see l|gure ]3)
Structural safety,
serviceability and durability
Actions on structures
Design and detailing
Geotechnical
and seismic
design
BS EN 1990, Eurocode:
Basis of structural design
BS EN 1991, Eurocode 1:
Actions on structures
BS EN 1992, Eurocode 2: Concrete
BS EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Steel
BS EN 1994, Eurocode 4: Composite
BS EN 1995, Eurocode 5: Timber
BS EN 1996, Eurocode 6: Masonry
BS EN 1999, Eurocode 9: Aluminium
BS EN 1997, Eurocode 7:
Geotechnical design
BS EN 1998, Eurocode 8:
Seismic design
|iguro 1.3
1ho £urocodo hiorarchy
bS lN ]990 orov|des the necesserv |n¦ormet|on ¦or the ene|vs|s o¦ structures |nc|ud|ng oert|e|
end other ¦ectors to |e eoo||ed to the ect|ons ¦rom lurocode ] lt este|||shes the or|nc|o|es end
requ|rements ¦or the se¦etv, serv|cee||||tv end dure||||tv o¦ structures lt descr||es the |es|s ¦or
des|gn es ¦o||ows
A structure she|| |e des|gned end executed (constructed) |n such e wev thet |t w|||, dur|ng |ts
|ntended ||¦e, w|th eooroor|ete degrees o¦ re||e||||tv end |n en econom|ce| wev
Suste|n e|| ect|ons end |n¦|uences |||e|v to occur dur|ng execut|on end use N
keme|n ¦|t ¦or the use ¦or wh|ch |t |s requ|red N
ln other words, |t she|| |e des|gned us|ng ||m|t stetes or|nc|o|es to heve edequete
Ste||||tv N
Structure| res|stence (|nc|ud|ng structure| res|stence |n ¦|re) N
Serv|cee||||tv N
Lure||||tv N
lor |u||d|ng structures, e des|gn wor||ng ||¦e o¦ S0 veers |s |mo||ed
bS lN ]990 stetes thet ||m|t stetes shou|d |e ver|ued |n e|| re|event des|gn s|tuet|ons oers|stent,
trens|ent or ecc|dente| No re|event ||m|t stete she|| |e exceeded when des|gn ve|ues ¦or ect|ons
end res|stences ere used |n des|gn ¹he ||m|t stetes ere
0|t|mete ||m|t stetes (0lS), wh|ch ere essoc|eted w|th co||eose or other ¦orms o¦ structure| N
¦e||ure
Serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stetes (SlS), wh|ch corresoond to cond|t|ons |evond wh|ch soec|¦|ed N
serv|ce requ|rements ere no |onger met
A|| ect|ons ere essumed to verv |n t|me end soece Stet|st|ce| or|nc|o|es ere eoo||ed to err|ve et the
megn|tude o¦ the oert|e| |oed ¦ectors to |e used |n des|gn to ech|eve the requ|red re||e||||tv |ndex
(|eve| o¦ se¦etv) ¹here |s en under|v|ng essumot|on thet the ect|ons themse|ves ere descr||ed |n
stet|st|ce| terms
1.2
EC0: 2.1
4
1.3
1.4
Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
Act|ons ere deuned |n the ]0 oerts o¦ bS lN ]99] lurocode ] /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
|]]|

bS lN ]99]÷]÷] ?00? /en·/|/e· ·e/|-ue/¡/| /moo·eJ /ooJ· |o· /a//J/n¡·
bS lN ]99]÷]÷? ?00? /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· e\oo·eJ |o |·e
bS lN ]99]÷]÷3 ?003 ´nou /ooJ·
bS lN ]99]÷]÷4 ?00S w/nJ oc|/on·
bS lN ]99]÷]÷S ?003 I/e·mo/ oc|/on·
bS lN ]99]÷]÷6 ?00S /c|/on· Ja·/n¡ e\eca|/on
bS lN ]99]÷]÷/ ?006 /cc/Jen|o/ oc|/on·
bS lN ]99]÷? ?003 /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· I·o||c /ooJ· on /·/J¡e·
bS lN ]99]÷3 ?006 C·one· onJ moc//ne·,
bS lN ]99]÷4 ?006 ´//o· onJ |on/·
¹h|s ou|||cet|on |s me|n|v concerned w|th des|gn|ng ¦or the ect|ons deuned |v lert÷]÷]
/en·/|/e· ·e/|-ue/¡/| /moo·eJ /ooJ· |o· /a//J/n¡·
Les|gn ve|ues o¦ ect|ons end |oed errengements ere covered |n Sect|on ?
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
lurocode ? /e·/¡n o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e·
|]÷4|
ooeretes w|th|n en env|ronment o¦ other lurooeen
end br|t|sh stenderds (see l|gure ]3) lt |s governed |v bS lN ]990
|]0|
end su||ect to the ect|ons
deuned |n lurocodes ]
|]]|
, /
|]?|
end S
|]3|
lt deoends on ver|ous meter|e|s end execut|on stenderds
end |s used es the |es|s o¦ other stenderds lert ?, S·/J¡e·
|3|
, end lert 3, //aa/J ·e|o/n/n¡ onJ
con|o/nmen| ·|·ac|a·e·
|4|
, wor| |v exceot|on to lert ]÷] end ]÷?, thet |s, c|euses |n lerts ? end 3
conurm, mod|¦v or reo|ece c|euses |n lert ]÷]
BS EN 1990
EUROCODE
Basis of Structural Design
BS EN 1991
EUROCODE 1
Basis of Structural Design
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
Design of concrete structures
Part 1–1: General Rules for
Structures
Part 1–2: Structural Fire Design
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
Part 3:
Liquid Retaining
Structures
BS EN 1995
EUROCODE 5
Design of
Composite
Structures
BS EN 13670
Execution of
Structures
BS 8500
Specifying
Concrete
BS EN 206
Concrete
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
Part 2:
Bridges
BS EN 1997
EUROCODE 7
Geotechnical Design
BS EN 1998
EUROCODE 8
Seismic Design
BS EN 13369
Precast
Concrete
BS EN 10080
Reinforcing
Steels
BS 4449
Reinforcing
Steels
Noto
lor c|er|tv Net|one| Annexes end exo|enetorv documents (eg lL 66S/, end
Non-Contred|ctorv Como|ementerv ln¦ormet|on ÷ NCCl) ere not shown
|iguro 1.4
£urocodo 2 in contoxt
5
lntroduct|on
1.5
1.6










































National Annexes
lt |s the oreroget|ve o¦ eech ClN Mem|er Stete to contro| |eve|s o¦ se¦etv |n thet countrv As e
resu|t, some se¦etv ¦ectors end other oeremeters |n the lurocodes, such es c||met|c cond|t|ons,
dure||||tv c|esses end des|gn methods, ere su||ect to conurmet|on or se|ect|on et e net|one| |eve|
¹he dec|s|ons mede |v the net|one| |od|es |ecome Net|one||v Leterm|ned leremeters (NLls)
wh|ch ere ou|||shed |n e Net|one| Annex (NA) ¦or eech oert o¦ eech lurocode ¹he Net|one|
Annex mev e|so |nc|ude re¦erence to non-contred|ctorv como|ementerv |n¦ormet|on (NCCl),
such es net|one| stenderds or gu|dence documents
¹h|s ou|||cet|on |nc|udes re¦erences to the re|event Net|one| Annexes es eooroor|ete
Basis of the worked examples in this publication
¹he des|gn ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s ou|||cet|on ere |n eccordence w|th
bS lN ]990, N /a·ocoJe So·/· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/¡n
|]0|
end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|]0e|

bS lN ]99], lurocode ] N /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· |n ]0 oerts
|]]|
end the|r 0l Net|one|
Annexes
|]]e|

bS lN ]99?÷]÷], lurocode ? ÷ lert ]÷] N /e·/¡n o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· onJ
·a/e· |o· /a//J/n¡·
|]|
end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|]e|

bS lN ]99?÷]÷?, lurocode ? ÷ lert ]÷? N /e·/¡n o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· -
´|·ac|a·o/ |/·e Je·/¡n
|?|
end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|?e|

lL 66S/, bec|ground oeoer to the N c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\e·
|6|

bS lN ]99/, lurocode / N Oeo|ec/n/co/ Je·/¡n - /o·| ' Oene·o/ ·a/e·
|]?|
end |ts 0l Net|one|
Annex
|]?e|

¹hev use meter|e|s con¦orm|ng to
bS SS00÷] N Conc·e|e - Como/emen|o·, S·/|/·/ ´|onJo·J |o S´ // ?06-' /e|/oJ o| ·oec/|,/n¡
onJ ¡a/Jonce |o |/e ·oec/|/e·
|]4|

bS 4449 N ´|ee/ |o· |/e ·e/n|o·cemen| o| conc·e|e - we/Jo//e ·e/n|o·c/n¡ ·|ee/ - So· co// onJ
Jeco//eJ o·oJac| - ´oec/|/co|/on
|]S|

¹hev me|e re¦erence to severe| ou|||cet|ons, most note||v
N Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ? |o· |/e Je·/¡n o| /n-·/|a conc·e|e |·omeJ /a//J/n¡· |o S´ // '99?-'-'
?004 onJ /|· c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\ ?00'
|S|

N /ou |o Je·/¡n conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/n¡ /a·ocoJe ?
|S|

¹he execut|on o¦ the wor|s |s essumed to con¦orm to
lL 66S/ N Soc/¡·oanJ oooe· |o |/e c/ /o|/ono/ /nne\e· S´ // '99?-'
|6|

NSCS, N /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/n¡ con·|·ac|/on, 3rd ed|t|on
|]6|
Mev
?004
Or, when eve||e||e
bS lN ]36/0 N /\eca|/on o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· Lue ?0]0
|]/|
As |mo|emented |v
soec|¦|cet|ons such es
NSCS, N /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/n¡ con·|·ac|/on, 4th ed|t|on
|]S|

CCll-0S0, due ?0]0
6
Assumptions
Eurocode 2
lurocode ? essumes thet
Les|gn end construct|on w||| |e underte|en |v eooroor|ete|v que||¦|ed end exoer|enced oersonne| N
Adequete suoerv|s|on end que||tv contro| w||| |e orov|ded N
Meter|e|s end oroducts w||| |e used es soec|¦|ed N
¹he structure w||| |e edequete|v me|nte|ned end w||| |e used |n eccordence w|th the des|gn |r|e¦ N
¹he requ|rements ¦or execut|on end wor|mensh|o g|ven |n lN ]36/0 ere como||ed w|th N
The worked examples
0n|ess noted otherw|se, the ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s ou|||cet|on essume
EC0: Table 2.1 A des|gn ||¦e o¦ S0 veers N
Table 3.1 ¹he use o¦ C30/3/ concrete N
BS 4449 ¹he use o¦ Crede A, b or C re|n¦orcement, des|gneted 'l' |n eccordence w|th bS S666 N
|]9|

Table 4.1,
BS 8500: Table A.1
lxoosure c|ess `C] N
Building Regs
[20,21]
] hour ¦|re res|stence N
Cenere||v eech ce|cu|et|on |s rounded end |t |s the rounded ve|ue thet |s used |n env ¦urther ce|cu|et|on
Material properties
Meter|e| orooert|es ere soec|ued |n terms o¦ the|r cherecter|st|c ve|ues ¹h|s usue||v corresoonds
to the |ower S% ¦rect||e o¦ en essumed stet|st|ce| d|str||ut|on o¦ the orooertv cons|dered
¹he ve|ues o¦ g
C
end g
S
, oert|e| ¦ectors ¦or meter|e|s, ere |nd|ceted |n ¹e||e ]]
1ab|o 1.1
Þartia| factors for matoria|s
Dosign situation g
C
- concroto g
S
- roinforcing stoo|
ULS – persistent and transient ]S0 ]]S
Accidental – non-fire ]?0 ]00
Accidental – fire ]00 ]00
SLS ]00 ]00
Execution
ln the 0l, LL lNV ]36/0
|??|
|s current|v eve||e||e |ut w|thout |ts Net|one| Aoo||cet|on Locument
lor |u||d|ng structures |n the 0l, the |ec|ground document lL 66S/
|6|
cons|ders the orov|s|ons o¦
the Net|one| Structure| Concrete Soec|ucet|on (NSCS)
|]6|
to |e equ|ve|ent to those |n lN ]36/0 ¦or
to|erence c|ess ] vhen ou|||shed, bS lN ]36/0
|]/|
end, |¦ eooroor|ete, the corresoond|ng Net|one|
Aoo||cet|on Locument w||| te|e orecedence
1.7
1.7.1








1.7.2
1.8
1.9
Cl. 1.3
PD 6687
[6]
Table 2.1 & NA
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
7
2
2.1
2.1.1

2.1.2
2.2




2.3




Analysis, actions and load arrangements
Methods of analysis
ULS
At the u|t|mete ||m|t stete (0lS) the tvoe o¦ ene|vs|s shou|d |e eooroor|ete to the oro||em |e|ng
cons|dered ¹he ¦o||ow|ng ere common|v used
l|neer e|est|c ene|vs|s N
l|neer e|est|c ene|vs|s w|th ||m|ted red|str||ut|on N
l|est|c ene|vs|s N
Cl. 5.1.1(7)
lor 0lS, the moments der|ved ¦rom e|est|c ene|vs|s mev |e red|str||uted orov|ded thet the
resu|t|ng d|str||ut|on o¦ moments reme|ns |n equ||||r|um w|th the eoo||ed ect|ons ln cont|nuous
|eems or s|e|s w|th |
c|
< S0 Mle the m|n|mum e||owe||e ret|o o¦ the red|str||uted moment to
the moment |n the ||neer ene|vs|s, d, |s 0/0 where C|ess b or C|ess C re|n¦orcement |s used or
0S0 where C|ess A re|n¦orcement |s used
Cl. 5.5.4 & NA
v|th|n the ||m|ts set, coe¦uc|ents ¦or moment end sheer der|ved ¦rom e|est|c ene|vs|s mev |e
used to determ|ne ¦orces |n regu|er structures (see Aooend|x b) ¹he des|gn o¦ co|umns shou|d |e
|esed on e|est|c moments w|thout red|str||ut|on
Cl. 5.1.1
l|est|c ene|vs|s mev |e used ¦or des|gn et 0lS orov|ded thet the requ|red duct|||tv cen |e essured,
¦or exemo|e |v ||m|t|ng \
u
/J (to < 0?S ¦or concrete strength c|esses < CS0/60), us|ng C|ess b
or C re|n¦orcement, or ensur|ng the ret|o o¦ moments et |ntermed|ete suooorts to moments |n
soens |s |etween 0S end ?0
Cl. 5.6.2
SLS
At the serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stete (SlS) ||neer e|est|c ene|vs|s mev |e used l|neer e|est|c ene|vs|s
mev |e cerr|ed out essum|ng
Cross-sect|ons ere uncrec|ed end reme|n o|ene (|e ene|vs|s mev |e |esed on concrete N
gross sect|ons)
l|neer stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|os N
¹he use o¦ meen ve|ues o¦ e|est|c modu|us N
Cl. 5.4(1)
Actions
Act|ons re¦er to |oeds eoo||ed to the structure es deuned |e|ow
lermenent ect|ons ere ect|ons ¦or wh|ch the ver|et|on |n megn|tude w|th t|me |s neg||g|||e N EC1-1-1: 2.1
Ver|e||e ect|ons ere ect|ons ¦or wh|ch the ver|et|on |n megn|tude w|th t|me |s not neg||g|||e N
EC1-1-1:
2.2, 3.3.1(2)
Acc|dente| ect|ons ere ect|ons o¦ short duret|on |ut o¦ s|gn|¦|cent megn|tude thet ere N
un|||e|v to occur on e g|ven structure dur|ng the des|gn wor||ng ||¦e
EC1-1-7
lmoosed de¦ormet|ons ere not cons|dered |n th|s ou|||cet|on
Characteristic values of actions
¹he ve|ues o¦ ect|ons g|ven |n the ver|ous oerts o¦ lurocode ] /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
|]]|
ere te|en
es cherecter|st|c ve|ues ¹he cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on |s deuned |v one o¦ the ¦o||ow|ng
three e|ternet|ves
EC0: 4.1.2
lts meen ve|ue ÷ genere||v used ¦or oermenent ect|ons N
8
An uooer ve|ue w|th en |ntended oro|e||||tv o¦ not |e|ng exceeded or |ower ve|ue w|th en N
|ntended oro|e||||tv o¦ |e|ng ech|eved ÷ norme||v used ¦or ver|e||e ect|ons w|th |nown
stet|st|ce| d|str||ut|ons, such es w|nd or snow
A nom|ne| ve|ue ÷ used ¦or some ver|e||e end ecc|dente| ect|ons N
Variable actions: imposed loads
General
lmoosed |oeds on |u||d|ngs ere d|v|ded |nto cetegor|es ¹hose most ¦requent|v used |n concrete
des|gn ere shown |n ¹e||e ?]
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.7, 6.9
& NA
1ab|o 2.1
Catogorios of
imposod |oads
Catogory Doscription
A Arees ¦or domest|c end res|dent|e| ect|v|t|es
B O¦¦|ce erees
C Arees o¦ congreget|on
D Shooo|ng erees
E Storege erees end |ndustr|e| use (|nc|ud|ng eccess erees)
F ¹re¦¦|c end oer||ng erees (veh|c|es < 30 |N)
G ¹re¦¦|c end oer||ng erees (veh|c|es > 30 |N)
H koo¦s (|neccess|||e exceot ¦or me|ntenence end reoe|r)
I koo¦s (eccess|||e w|th occuoencv cetegor|es A ÷ L)
K koo¦s (eccess|||e ¦or soec|e| serv|ces, eg ¦or he||cooter |end|ng erees)
Notos
1 Cetegorv } |s not used
2 lor ¦or|||¦t |oed|ng re¦er to bS lN ]99]÷]÷] C| 6?3
Characteristic values of imposed loads
Cherecter|st|c ve|ues ¦or common|v used |moosed |oeds ere g|ven |n ¹e||es ?? to ?S
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
1ab|o 2.2
A: domostic and rosidontia|
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
) J
k
{kN)
A1 A|| useges w|th|n se|¦-conte|ned dwe|||ng un|ts Commune|
erees (|nc|ud|ng ||tchens) |n sme||
a
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
]S ?0
A2 bedrooms end dorm|tor|es, exceot those |n se|¦-conte|ned
s|ng|e ¦em||v dwe|||ng un|ts end |n hote|s end mote|s
]S ?0
A3 bedrooms |n hote|s end mote|s, hoso|te| werds, to||et erees ?0 ?0
A4 b||||erd/snoo|er rooms ?0 ?/
A5 be|con|es |n s|ng|e-¦em||v dwe|||ng un|ts end commune| erees
|n sme||
a
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
?S ?0
A6 be|con|es |n hoste|s, guest houses, res|dent|e| c|u|s Commune|
erees |n |erger
a
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
M|n 30
b
M|n ?0
c
A7 be|con|es |n hote|s end mote|s M|n 40
b
M|n ?0
c
Notos
a Sme|| ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets ere those w|th < 3 storevs end < 4 ¦|ets oer ¦|oor/ste|rcese Otherw|se thev ere
cons|dered to |e |erger ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
b Seme es the rooms to wh|ch thev g|ve eccess, |ut w|th e m|n|mum o¦ 30 |N/m
?
or 40 |N/m
?
c Concentreted et the outer edge
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
1ab|o 2.3
8: officos
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
) J
k
{kN)
B1 Cenere| use other then |n b? ?S ?/
B2 At or |e|ow ground ¦|oor |eve| 30 ?/

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
9
1ab|o 2.4
C: aroas of congrogation
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
J
k

C1 Aroas with tab|os
C11 lu|||c, |nst|tut|one| end commune| d|n|ng rooms end
|ounges, ce¦es end resteurents (Note use C4 or CS |¦
eooroor|ete)
?0 30
C12 keed|ng rooms w|th no |oo| storege ?S 40
C13 C|essrooms 30 30
C2 Aroas with fixod soats
C21 Assem||v erees w|th ¦|xed seet|ng
a
40 36
C22 l|eces o¦ worsh|o 30 ?/
C3 Aroas without obstac|os for moving poop|o
C31 Corr|dors, he||wevs, e|s|es |n |nst|tut|one| tvoe |u||d|ngs,
hoste|s, guest houses, res|dent|e| c|u|s end commune|
erees |n |erger
b
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
30 4S
C32 Ste|rs, |end|ngs |n |nst|tut|one| tvoe |u||d|ngs, hoste|s,
guest houses, res|dent|e| c|u|s end commune| erees |n
|erger
b
||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
30 40
C33 Corr|dors, he||wevs, e|s|es |n other
c
|u||d|ngs 40 4S
C34 Corr|dors, he||wevs, e|s|es |n other
c
|u||d|ngs su||ected to
whee|ed veh|c|es, |nc|ud|ng tro||evs
S0 4S
C35 Ste|rs, |end|ngs |n other
c
|u||d|ngs su||ected to crowds 40 40
C36 ve||wevs ÷ l|ght dutv (eccess su|te||e ¦or one oerson,
we||wev w|dth eoorox 600 mm)
30 ?0
C37 ve||wevs ÷ Cenere| dutv (regu|er two-wev oedestr|en
tre¦¦|c)
S0 36
C38 ve||wevs ÷ leevv dutv (h|gh-dens|tv oedestr|en tre¦¦|c
|nc|ud|ng esceoe routes)
/S 4S
C39 Museum ¦|oors end ert ge||er|es ¦or exh|||t|on ourooses 40 4S
C4 Aroas with possib|o physica| activitios
C41 Lence he||s end stud|os, gvmnes|e, steges
d
S0 36
C42 Lr||| he||s end dr||| rooms
d
S0 /0
C5 Aroas subjoctod to |argo crowds
C51 Assem||v erees w|thout ¦|xed seet|ng, concert he||s, |ers
end o|eces o¦ worsh|o
d,e
S0 36
C52 Steges |n ou|||c essem||v erees
d
/S 4S
koy
a l|xed seet|ng |s seet|ng where |ts remove| end the use o¦ the soece ¦or other ourooses |s |moro|e||e
b Sme|| ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets ere those w|th < 3 storevs end < 4 ¦|ets oer ¦|oor/ste|rcese Otherw|se thev ere
cons|dered to |e '|erger' ||oc|s o¦ ¦|ets
c Other |u||d|ngs |nc|ude those not covered |v C3] end C3?, end |nc|ude hote|s end mote|s end
|nst|tut|one| |u||d|ngs su||ected to crowds
d lor structures thet m|ght |e susceot|||e to resonence e¦¦ects, re¦erence shou|d |e mede to NA?]
e lor grendstends end sted|e, re¦erence shou|d |e mede to the requ|rements o¦ the eooroor|ete
cert|¦v|ng euthor|tv
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
10
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2
& NA.3
1ab|o 2.5
D: shopping aroas
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
) J
k
{kN)
D Shopping aroas
D1 Arees |n genere| rete|| shoos 40 36
D2 Arees |n deoertment stores 40 36
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.3, 6.4
& NA.4, NA.5
1ab|o 2.6
£: storago aroas and industria| uso {inc|uding accoss aroas)
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
) J
k
{kN)
£1 Aroas suscoptib|o to accumu|ation of goods inc|uding accoss aroas
E11 Cenere| erees ¦or stet|c equ|oment not soec|¦|ed
e|sewhere (|nst|tut|one| end ou|||c |u||d|ngs)
?0 ]S
E12 keed|ng rooms w|th |oo| storege, eg |||rer|es 40 4S
E13 Cenere| storege other then those soec|¦|ede ?4/m /0
E14 l||e rooms, ¦|||ng end storege soece (o¦¦|ces) S0 4S
E15 Stec| rooms (|oo|s) ?4/m he|ght
(m|n 6S)
/0
E16 leoer storege end stet|onerv stores 40/m he|ght 90
E17 Lense mo|||e stec||ng (|oo|s) on mo|||e tro||evs |n
ou|||c end |nst|tut|one| |u||d|ngs
4S/m he|ght /0
E18 Lense mo|||e stec||ng (|oo|s) on mo|||e truc|s |n
werehouses
4S/m he|ght
(m|n ]S0)
/0
E19 Co|d storege S0/m he|ght
(m|n ]S0)
90
£2 |ndustria| uso See bS lN ]99]÷]÷]
¹e||es 6S 8 66
lor|||¦ts C|esses ll] to ll6
koy
a lower |ound ve|ue g|ven More soec|¦|c |oed ve|ues shou|d |e egreed w|th c||ent
1ab|o 2.7
| and C: traffic and parking aroas
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
) J
k
{kN)
| 1raffic and parking aroas {vohic|os < 30 kN)
¹re¦¦|c end oer||ng erees (veh|c|es < 30 |N) ?S S0
C 1raffic and parking aroas {vohic|os > 30 kN)
¹re¦¦|c end oer||ng erees (veh|c|es > 30 |N) S0 ¹o |e
determ|ned ¦or
soec|¦|c use
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
11

2.4.3



1ab|o 2.8
H, | and k: roofs
Sub-
catogory
£xamp|o |mposod |oads
j
k
{kNIm
2
) J
k
{kN)
H koofs {inaccossib|o oxcopt for maintonanco and ropair)
koo¦ s|ooe, a° < 30° 06
09 30° < a < 60° 06(60 ÷ a)/30
< 60° 0
| koofs {accossib|o with occupancy catogorios A - D)
Cetegor|es A ÷ L As ¹e||es ?? to ?S eccord|ng to
soec|¦|c use
k koofs {accossib|o for spocia| sorvicos, o.g. for ho|icoptor |anding aroas)
le||cooter c|ess lC] (< ?0 |N) (su||ect to
dvnem|c ¦ector f ]4)
÷÷ ?0
le||cooter c|ess lC? (< 60 |N) ÷÷ 60
Notos
1 koo¦s ere cetegor|.ed eccord|ng to the|r eccess|||||tv lmoosed |oeds ¦or roo¦s thet ere norme||v
eccess|||e ere genere||v the seme es ¦or the soec|¦|c use end cetegorv o¦ the ed|ecent eree lmoosed
|oeds ¦or roo¦s w|thout eccess ere g|ven e|ove
2 ¹here |s no cetegorv }
EC1-1-1:
6.3.4.1(2), Tables 6.9,
6.10, 6.11 & NA.7
EC1-1-1:
6.3.4 & NA
Movable partitions
¹he se|¦-we|ght o¦ move||e oert|t|ons mev |e te|en |nto eccount |v e un|¦orm|v d|str||uted |oed,
a
|
, wh|ch shou|d |e edded to the |moosed |oeds o¦ ¦oors es ¦o||ows
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (8) & NA
lor move||e oert|t|ons w|th e se|¦-we|ght o¦ ]0 |N/m we|| |ength N
a
|
0S |N/m
?

lor move||e oert|t|ons w|th e se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?0 |N/m we|| |ength N
a
|
0S |N/m
?

lor move||e oert|t|ons w|th e se|¦-we|ght o¦ 30 |N/m we|| |ength N
a
|
]? |N/m
?

leev|er oert|t|ons shou|d |e cons|dered seoerete|v
Reduction factors
General
koo¦s do not que||¦v ¦or |oed reduct|ons ¹he method g|ven |e|ow como||es w|th the 0l
Net|one| Annex |ut d|¦¦ers ¦rom thet g|ven |n the lurocode
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10)
6.3.1.2(11) & NA
Area
A reduct|on ¦ector ¦or |moosed |oeds ¦or eree, a
A
, mev |e used end shou|d |e determ|ned
us|ng
a
A
]0 ÷ A/]000 ~ 0/S
where
/ |s the eree (m
?
) suooorted w|th |oeds que||¦v|ng ¦or reduct|on (|e cetegor|es A to l es
||sted |n ¹e||e ?])
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10)
& NA Exp. (NA.1)
12
Number of storeys
A reduct|on ¦ector ¦or num|er o¦ storevs, a
n
, mev |e used end shou|d |e determ|ned us|ng
a
n
]] ÷ n/]0
a
n
06
a
n
0S
¦or ] < n < S
¦or S < n < ]0
¦or n > ]0
where
n num|er o¦ storevs w|th |oeds que||¦v|ng ¦or reduct|on (|e cetegor|es A to L es ||sted |n
¹e||e ?])
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (11) & NA
Use
Accord|ng to the 0l NA, a
A
end a
n
mev not |e used together
Variable actions: snow loads
EC1-1-3:
5.2(3)
ln oers|stent or trens|ent s|tuet|ons, snow |oed on e roo¦, ·, |s deuned es |e|ng
· m
|
C
e
C
t
·
|
where
EC1-1-3:
5.3.1, 5.3.2 & NA
m
|
snow |oed sheoe ¦ector, , e|ther m
]
or m
?
m
]
undr|¦ted snow sheoe ¦ector
m
?
dr|¦ted snow sheoe ¦ector
lor ¦et roo¦s, 0° a (w|th no h|gher structures c|ose or e|utt|ng),
m
]
m
?
0S
lor she||ow monoo|tch roo¦s, 0°< a < 30° (w|th no h|gher structures c|ose or
e|utt|ng), m
]
0S, m
?
0S (] ÷ a/30) lor other ¦orms o¦ roo¦ end |oce| e¦¦ects
re¦er to bS lN ]99]÷]÷3 Sect|ons S3 end 6
EC1-1-3:
5.2(7) &Table 5.1
C
e
exoosure coe¦uc|ent
lor w|ndsweot tooogreohv C
e
0S
lor norme| tooogreohv C
e
]0
lor she|tered tooogreohv C
e
]?
EC1-1-3:
5.2(8)
C
|
therme| coe¦uc|ent, C
|
]0 other then ¦or some g|ess-covered roo¦s, or s|m||er
EC1-1-3:
& NA 2.8
·
/
cherecter|st|c ground snow |oed |N/m
?
0]S(0]´ ÷ 00S) ÷ (/ ÷ ]00)/S?S
where
´ .one num|er o|te|ned ¦rom the meo |n bS lN ]99]÷]÷3 NA l|gure NA]
/ s|te e|t|tude, m
l|gure NA] o¦ the NA to bS lN ]99]÷]÷3 e|so g|ves ugures ¦or ·
|
et ]00 m ems|
essoc|eted w|th the .ones
lor the me|or|tv o¦ the South lest, the M|d|ends, Northern lre|end end the north o¦
lng|end eoert ¦rom h|gh ground, ·
|
0S0 |N/m
?

lor the vest Countrv, vest ve|es end lre|end the ugure |s |ess lor most o¦ Scot|end
end oerts o¦ the eest coest o¦ lng|end, the ugure |s more See l|gure ?]
Snow |oed |s c|ess|ued es e ver|e||e uxed ect|on lxceot|one| c|rcumstences mev |e treeted es
ecc|dente| ect|ons |n wh|ch cese re¦erence shou|d |e mede to bS lN ]99]÷]÷3
2.5
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (11)
& NA Exp. ( NA.2)
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
13
1
1
1 Zone 1 = 0.25 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.40 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.50 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.60 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
Zone 1 = 0.70 kN/m
2
at 100 m a.m.s.l.
2
3
4
5
1
1
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5 5
1
|iguro 2.1
Charactoristic ground snow |oad map {ground snow |oad at 100 m a.m.s.|. {kNIm
2
)
EC1-1-3: NA Fig.
NA.1
Variable actions: wind loads
¹h|s Sect|on oresents e verv s|mo|e |nteroretet|on o¦ lurocode ]
|]], ]]e|
end |s |ntended to
orov|de e |es|c understend|ng w|th resoect to rectengu|er-o|en |u||d|ngs w|th ¦et roo¦s ln
genere|, mex|mum ve|ues ere g|ven w|th more |n¦ormet|on e |ower ve|ue m|ght |e used ¹he
user shou|d |e cere¦u| to ensure thet env |n¦ormet|on used |s w|th|n the scooe o¦ the eoo||cet|on
env|seged ¹he user |s re¦erred to more soec|e||st gu|dence
|?3, ?4|
or bS lN ]99]÷]÷4
|?S|
end
|ts 0l Net|one| Annex
|?Se|
¹he Net|one| Annex |nc|udes c|eer end conc|se ¦ow cherts ¦or the
determ|net|on o¦ oee| ve|oc|tv oressure, a
o

ln essence cherecter|st|c w|nd |oed cen |e exoressed es
u
|
c
¦
a
o(.)
where
c
¦
¦orce coe¦uc|ent, wh|ch ver|es, |ut |s e mex o¦ ]3 ¦or overe|| |oed
a
o(.)
c
e(.)
c

a
|
where
c
e(.)
exoosure ¦ector ¦rom l|gure ?3
c

town terre|n ¦ector ¦rom l|gure ?4
a
|
0006.
|
?
|N/m
?
where
.
|
.
|,meo
c
e|t
EC1-1-4:
Figs NA.7, NA.8
where
.
|,meo
¦undemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|tv ¦rom l|gure ??
c
e|t
e|t|tude ¦ector, conservet|ve|v, c
e|t
] ÷ 000]/
where
/ e|t|tude ems|
EC1-1-4:
Fig. NA.1
Svm|o|s e||rev|et|ons end some o¦ the ceveets ere exo|e|ned |n the sect|ons |e|ow, wh|ch
together orov|de e orocedure ¦or determ|n|ng w|nd |oed to bS lN ]99]÷]÷4
2.6
14
Determine basic wind velocity, v
b

.
|
c
d|r
c
seeson
c
oro|
.
|,0
EC1-1-4:
4.2(1) Note 2
& NA 2.4, 2.5
where
c
d|r
d|rect|one| ¦ector
Conservet|ve|v, c
d|r
]0
(c
d|r
|s e m|n|mum o¦ 0/3 or 0/4 ¦or w|nd |n en eester|v d|rect|on,
30° to ]?0°)
EC1-1-4:
4.2(2) Note 3
& NA 2.7: Fig. NA.2
c
seeson
seeson ¦ector
lor e 6 month return oer|od, |nc|ud|ng w|nter, or greeter,
c
seeson
]00
EC1-1-4:
4.2(1) Notes 4 & 5
& NA 2.8
c
oro|
oro|e||||tv ¦ector
]00 ¦or return oer|od o¦ S0 veers
.
|,0
.
|,meo
c
e|t
EC1-1-4:
4.2(1) Note 2
& NA 2.4: Fig. NA.1
where
.
|,meo
¦undemente| |es|c w|nd ve|oc|tv ¦rom l|gure ??
EC1-1-4:
4.2(2) Note 1
& NA 2.5
c
e|t
e|t|tude ¦ector
Conservet|ve|v, c
e|t
] ÷ 000]/
where
/ e|t|tude o¦ the s|te |n metres ems|
vhere orogreohv |s s|gn|ucent (|e the s|te |s c|ose to e s|ooe
steeoer then 00S), re¦er to NA ?S
Calculate basic wind pressure, q
b

a
|
0Sr.
|
?
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 2 & NA 2.18
where
.
|
es e|ove
r dens|tv o¦ e|r
]??6 |g/m
3
( ]?0 N/m
3
) ¦or 0l
Calculate peak wind pressure, q
p(z)

EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17
a
o(.)
c
e(.)
a
|
¦or countrv |ocet|ons
c
e(.)
c

a
|
¦or town |ocet|ons
where
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1, NA 2.17
& Fig. A.NA.1
a
|
es e|ove
c
e(.)
exoosure ¦ector der|ved ¦rom l|gure ?3 et he|ght · (see |e|ow)
c
e,¹
exoosure correct|on ¦ector ¦or town terre|n der|ved ¦rom l|gure ?4
· the he|ght et wh|ch a
o
|s sought
lor e w|ndwerd we|| end when / < /, a
o
|s ce|cu|eted et the re¦erence he|ght
·
e
/ lor other esoect ret|os // o¦ the w|ndwerd we||, a
o
,|s ce|cu|eted et
d|¦¦erent re¦erence he|ghts ¦or eech oert (see bS lN ]99]÷]÷4)
where
/ he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
/ |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng
lor |eewerd end s|de we||s,
· he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17:
Fig. NA.8
EC1-1-4: 7.2.2(1),
Note & NA 2.26
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17:
Fig. NA.7
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
15
30
31
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
200
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
z
-
h
d
i
s
(
m
)
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
≤0.1 1 10
Distance upwind to shoreline (km)
≥100
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
1.5
2.0
10
Use 1.0 in this area
0.9
0.8
0.7
200
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
z
-
h
d
i
s
(
m
)
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
≤0.1 1 10
Distance inside town terrain (km)
≥20
Noto
Subjoct to a|titudo corroction.
Noto
Conora||y a
dis
= 0. |or torrain catogory |V {towns otc.) soo 8S £N 1991-1-4: A.5.
|iguro 2.2
Map of fundamonta| basic wind
vo|ocity, o
b,map
, {mIs)
|iguro 2.3
£xposuro factor \
o{z)
for sitos in country
or town torrain
|iguro 2.4
Mu|tip|ior for oxposuro corroction for
sitos in town torrain
EC1-1-4: 4.2(1)
Note 2 & NA 2.4: Fig. NA.1
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17: Fig. NA.7
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17: Fig. NA.8
Calculate characteristic wind load, w
k

u
|
a
o(.)
c
¦

where
a
o(.)
es e|ove
c
¦
¦orce coe¦uc|ent ¦or the structure or structure| e|ement
Cenere||v
c
oe
÷ c
o|
where
EC1-1-4:
7, 8 & NA
c
oe
(externe|) oressure coe¦uc|ent deoendent on s|.e o¦ eree cons|dered end .one
lor erees e|ove ] m
?
, c
oe,]0
shou|d |e used
EC1-1-4:
7.2.1(1) Note 2 &
NA. 2.25
Overall loads
lor the we||s o¦ rectengu|er-o|en |u||d|ngs, c
oe,]0
mev |e determ|ned ¦rom
¹e||e /] o¦ bS lN ]99]÷]÷4
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
NA.2.27
lowever, ¦or the determ|net|on o¦ overe|| |oeds on |u||d|ngs, the net oressure
coe¦uc|ents g|ven |n ¹e||e ?9 mev |e used ln th|s cese |t w||| |e unnecesserv
to determ|ne |nterne| w|nd oressure coe¦uc|ents
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
NA.2.27, Table NA.4
Cladding loads
lor erees e|ove ] m
?
, c
oe,]0
shou|d |e used c
oe,]0
mev |e determ|ned ¦rom
¹e||e /] o¦ bS lN ]99]÷]÷4 See ¹e||e ?]0
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
NA.2.27
2.6.4
16
EC1-1-4:
7.2.3, NA.2.28 & NA
advisory note
Flat roofs
lor ¦et roo¦s, eccord|ng to the Adv|sorv Note |n the NA some o¦ the ve|ues
o¦ c
oe,]0
|n ¹e||e /? o¦ bS lN ]99]÷]÷4 (see ¹e||e ?]]) ere s|gn|ucent|v
d|¦¦erent ¦rom current orect|ce |n the 0l lt recommends thet des|gners shou|d
cons|der us|ng the ve|ues |n bS 6399? to me|nte|n the current |eve|s o¦ se¦etv
end economv See ¹e||e ?]?
BS 6399:
Table 8 & Fig. 18
EC1-1-4:
NA.2.28 & NA
advisory note
lor other ¦orms o¦ roo¦ re¦er to bS lN ]99]÷]÷4 end the 0l NA
lt w||| e|so |e necesserv to determ|ne |nterne| w|nd oressure coe¦uc|ents ¦or
the des|gn o¦ c|edd|ng
EC1-1-4:
7.2.9(6) Note 2
c
o|
|nterne| oressure coe¦uc|ent
lor no dom|nent ooen|ngs c
o|
mev |e te|en es the more onerous o¦ ÷0? end ÷03
EC1-1-4:
NA 2.27, Table NA.4
1ab|o 2.9
Not prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
, for wa||s of roctangu|ar p|an bui|dings*
a(] Not prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
5 ]3
1 ]]
~ 0.25 0S
Notos
1 ´ |n e¦¦ect these ve|ues ere ¦orce coe¦¦|c|ents ¦or determ|n|ng overe|| |oeds on |u||d|ngs
2 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
3 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (oeroend|cu|er to w|nd)
4 J deoth o¦ |u||d|ng (oere||e| to w|nd)
5 Ve|ues mev |e |nteroo|eted
6 lxc|udes ¦unne|||ng
EC1-1-4:
7.2.2(2) Table 7.1,
Note 1 & NA 2.27:
Tables NA.4a , NA.4b
1ab|o 2.10
£xtorna| prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
, for wa||s of roctangu|ar-p|an bui|dings
Zono Doscription
\
po,10
Max. Min.
Zone A lor we||s oere||e| to the w|nd d|rect|on, erees w|th|n
0?m|n|/, ?/| o¦ w|ndwerd edge
÷]?
Zone B lor we||s oere||e| to the w|nd d|rect|on, erees w|th|n
0?m|n|/, ?/| o¦ w|ndwerd edge
÷0S
Zone C lor we||s oere||e| to the w|nd d|rect|on, erees ¦rom
0?m|n|/, ?/| to m|n|/, ?/| o¦ w|ndwerd edge
÷0S
Zone D v|ndwerd we|| ÷0S
Zone E leewerd we|| ÷0/
Zones D
and E
Net ÷]3
Notos
1 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
2 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (oeroend|cu|er to w|nd)
EC1-1-4:
7.2, Table 7.2 & NA
1ab|o 2.11
£xtorna| prossuro coofficiont, \
po,10
for f|at roofs*
Zono Doscription
\
po,10
Sharp odgo
at oavos
with parapot
Zone F v|th|n 0]m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end w|th|n
0?m|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (oere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷]S ÷]6
Zone G v|th|n 0]m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end outw|th
0?m|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (oere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷]? ÷]]
Zone H koo¦ |etween 0]m|n||, ?h| end 0Sm|n||, ?h| ¦rom
w|ndwerd edge
÷0/ ÷0/
Zone I keme|nder |etween 0Sm|n||, ?h| end |eewerd edge ±0? ±0?
Notos
1 ´ Accord|ng to NA to bS lN ]99]-]-4, th|s te||e |s not recommended ¦or use |n the 0l
2 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
3 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (oeroend|cu|er to w|nd)
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
17
1ab|o 2.12
£xtorna| prossuro coofficiont, \
po
, for f|at roofs
Zono Doscription
\
po
Sharp odgo
at oavos
with parapot
Zone A v|th|n 0]m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end w|th|n
0?Sm|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (oere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷?0 ÷]9
Zone B v|th|n 0]m|n||, ?h| o¦ w|ndwerd edge end outw|th
0?Sm|n||, ?h| o¦ return edge (oere||e| to w|nd d|rect|on)
÷]4 ÷]3
Zone C koo¦ |etween 0]m|n||, ?h| end 0Sm|n||, ?h| ¦rom
w|ndwerd edge
÷0/ ÷0/
Zone D keme|nder |etween 0Sm|n||, ?h| end |eewerd edge ±0? ±0?
Notos
1 / he|ght o¦ |u||d|ng
2 / |reedth o¦ |u||d|ng (oeroend|cu|er to w|nd)
EC1-1-4:
7.2.3, NA.2.28 &
NA advisory note.
BS 6399:
Table 8 & Fig. 18
Calculate the overall wind force, F
w

/
w
c
s
c
d
Su
|
/
re¦
where
EC1-1-4:
5.3.2, Exp. (5.4)
& NA
u
|
es e|ove
EC1-1-4:
6.2(1) a), 6.2(1) c)
c
s
c
d
structure| ¦ector, conservet|ve|v
]0
or mev |e der|ved
EC1-1-4:
6.2(1) e) & NA.2.20
where
c
s
s|.e ¦ector
c
s
mev |e der|ved ¦rom lxo (6?) or te||e NA3 Leoend|ng on ve|ues o¦
(/ ÷ /) end (· ÷ /
d|s
) end d|v|d|ng |nto ?one A, b or C, e ve|ue o¦ c
s

(e ¦ector < ]00) mev |e ¦ound
EC1-1-4:
6.3(1), Exp. (6.2) &
NA.2.20, Table NA3
c
d
dvnem|c ¦ector
c
d
mev |e der|ved ¦rom lxo (63) or ugure NA9 Leoend|ng on ve|ues o¦ d
s

(|oger|thm|c decrement o¦ structure| demo|ng) end ///, e ve|ue o¦ c
d
(e ¦ector >
]00) mev |e ¦ound
EC1-1-4:
6.3(1), Exp. (6.3) &
NA.2.20: Fig. NA9
c
d
mev |e te|en es ]0 ¦or ¦remed |u||d|ngs w|th structure| we||s end mesonrv
|nterne| we||s, end ¦or c|edd|ng oene|s end e|ements
/
re¦
re¦erence eree o¦ the structure or structure| e|ement
EC1-1-4:
5.3.2, Exp. (5.4)
& NA
Variable actions: others
Act|ons due to construct|on, tre¦uc, ure, therme| ect|ons, use es s||os or ¦rom crenes ere outs|de
the scooe o¦ th|s ou|||cet|on end re¦erence shou|d |e mede to soec|e||st ||tereture
EC1-1-6, EC1-2,
EC1-1-2, EC1-1-5,
EC1-3 & EC1-4
2.6.5
2.7
18
Permanent actions
¹he dens|t|es end eree |oeds o¦ common|v used meter|e|s, sheet meter|e|s end ¦orms o¦
construct|on ere g|ven |n ¹e||es ?]3 to ?]S
Act|ons er|s|ng ¦rom sett|ement, de¦ormet|on end creeo ere outs|de the scooe o¦ th|s document
|ut genere||v ere to |e cons|dered es oermenent ect|ons vhere cr|t|ce|, re¦er to soec|e||st
||tereture
1ab|o 2.13
8u|k donsitios for soi|s and matoria|s
[11, 26]
8u|k donsitios kNIm
3
8u|k donsitios kNIm
3
Soi|s Matoria|s
C|ev ÷ st|¦¦ ]9÷?? Concrete ÷ re|n¦orced ?S0
C|ev ÷ so¦t ]6÷]9 Concrete ÷ wet re|n¦orced ?60
Crenu|er ÷ |oose ]6÷]S C|ess ?S6
Crenu|er ÷ dense ]9÷?] Cren|te ?/3
S||tv c|ev, sendv c|ev ]6÷?0 lerdcore ]90
Matoria|s l|mestone (lort|end stone ÷ med we|ght) ??0
Asohe|t ??S l|mestone (mer||e ÷ heevvwe|ght) ?6/
b|oc|s ÷ eereted concrete (m|n) S0 Mecedem oev|ng ?]0
b|oc|s ÷ eereted concrete (mex) 90 MLl S0
b|oc|s ÷ dense eggregete ?00 l|ester ]4]
b|oc|s ÷ ||ghtwe|ght ]40 l|vwood 63
boo|s ÷ |u|| storege S÷]] Sendstone ?3S
br|c|wor| ÷ ||ue ?40 Screed ÷ send/cement ??0
br|c|wor| ÷ eng|neer|ng ??0 Stee|/|ron //0
br|c|wor| ÷ ¦|etton ]S0 ¹errecotte ?0/
br|c|wor| ÷ london stoc| ]90 ¹|m|er ÷ Loug|es ¦|r S?
br|c|wor| ÷ send ||me ?]0 ¹|m|er ÷ lurooeen |eech/oe| /]
Ch|o|oerd 69 ¹|m|er ÷ Crede C]6 36
Concrete ÷ eereted ]00 ¹|m|er ÷ Crede C?4 4]
Concrete ÷ ||ghtwe|ght ]S0 ¹|m|er ÷ lro|o/tee| 64
Concrete ÷ o|e|n ?40
2.8
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
19
1ab|o 2.14
1ypica| aroa |oads for concroto s|abs and shoot matoria|s
[11, 26]
1ypica| aroa |oads kNIm
2
1ypica| aroa |oads kNIm
2
Concroto s|abs Shoot matoria|s
lrecest concrete so||d un|ts (]00 mm) ?S0 l|ester s||m coet 00S
lrecest concrete ho||owcore un|ts
a
(]S0 mm) ?40 l|ester|oerd (]?S mm) 009
lrecest concrete ho||owcore un|ts
a
(?00 mm) ?S/ l|ester|oerd (]9 mm) 0]S
lrecest concreteho||owcore un|ts
a
(300 mm) 40/ l|vwood (]?S mm) 00S
lrecest concrete ho||owcore un|ts
a
(400 mm) 4S4 l|vwood (]9 mm) 0]?
k|||ed s|e|
b
(?S0 mm) 400 Ouerrv t||es |nc|ud|ng morter |edd|ng 03?
k|||ed s|e|
b
(300 mm) 430 ke|sed ¦|oor ÷ heevv dutv 0S0
k|||ed s|e|
b
(3S0 mm) 4/0 ke|sed ¦|oor ÷ med|um we|ght 040
ve¦¦|e s|e|
c
÷ stenderd mou|ds (3?S mm) 600 ke|sed ¦|oor ÷ ||ghtwe|ght 030
ve¦¦|e s|e|
c
÷ stenderd mou|ds (4?S mm) /30 kender (]3 mm) 030
ve¦¦|e s|e|
c
÷ stenderd mou|ds (S?S mm) S60 Screed ÷ S0 mm ]]S
Shoot matoria|s Screed ÷ ||ghtwe|ght (?S mm) 04S
Asohe|t (?0 mm) 046 Ste|n|ess stee| roo¦|ng (04 mm) 00S
Ceroet end under|ev 00S Susoended ce|||ng ÷ stee| 0]0
Ch|o|oerd (]S mm) 0]? Susoended ¦||re|oerd t||es 00S
Lrv ||n|ng on stud (?0 mm) 0]S ¹8C |oerds (]SS mm) 009
le|se ce|||ng ÷ stee| ¦rem|ng 0]0 ¹8C |oerds (?? mm) 0]?
le|t (3 |ever) end ch|oo|ngs 03S ¹||es ÷ cerem|c ¦|oor on |edd|ng ]00
C|ess ÷ dou||e g|e.|ng 0S? bettens ¦or s|et|ng end t|||ng 003
C|ess ÷ s|ng|e g|e.|ng 030 ¹||es ÷ c|ev roo¦ (mex) 06/
lnsu|et|on ÷ g|ess ¦||re (]S0 mm) 003 ¹||es ÷ neture| s|ete (th|c|) 06S
lev|ng stones (S0 mm) ]?0 ¹||es ÷ |nter|oc||ng concrete 0SS
l|ester ÷ two coet gvosum (]? mm) 0?] ¹||es ÷ o|e|n concrete 0/S
koy
a lo||owcore ¦|gures essume no tooo|ng (S0 mm structure| tooo|ng : ]?S |N/m
?
)
b k|||ed s|e|s ]S0 we| © /S0 centres w|th ]00 mm th|c| ¦|enge/s|e| ve| s|ooe ]]0
c ve¦¦|e s|e|s ]S0 r||s © 900 centres w|th ]00 mm th|c| ¦|enge/s|e| ve| s|ooe ]]0
20
1ab|o 2.15
Loads for typica| forms of construction
[26]
Cavity wa|| {kNIm
2
)
br|c|wor| ]0?S mm ?40
lnsu|et|on S0 mm 00?
b|oc|wor| ]00 mm ]40
l|ester 0?]
1ota| 4.0
Lightwoight c|adding {kNIm
2
)
lnsu|eted oene| 0?0
lur||ns 00S
Lrv ||n|ng on stud 0]S
1ota| 0.40
Curtain wa||ing {kNIm
2
)
A||ow ]00
Þrocast concroto c|adding {kNIm
2
)
lec|ng ]00
lrecest oene| (]00 mm) ?40
lnsu|et|on 00S
Lrv ||n|ng on stud 0]S
1ota| 3.60
Dry |ining {kNIm
2
)
Mete| studs 00S
l|ester|oerd end s||m × ? 040
1ota| 0.45
1imbor stud wa|| {kNIm
2
)
¹|m|er studs 0]0
l|ester|oerd end s||m × ? 040
1ota| 0.50
Offico f|oor {kNIm
2
)
Ceroet 003
ke|sed ¦|oor 030
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Susoended ce|||ng 0]S
Serv|ces 030
1ota| 7.03
Offico coro aroa {kNIm
2
)
¹||es end |edd|ng, e||ow ]00
Screed ??0
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Susoended ce|||ng 0]S
Serv|ces 030
1ota| 9.90
Stairs {kNIm
2
)
]S0 mm we|st ( z]/S © ?S |N/m
3
) 440
¹reeds 0]S × 0?S × 4/? © ?S |N/m
3
]SS
Screed 00S © ?? |N/m
3
]]0
l|ester 0?]
l|n|sh t||es 8 |edd|ng ]00
1ota| 8.60

2.5c Loads for typica| forms of construction
1ab|o 2.14
2.5c Loads for typica| forms of construction
kosidontia| f|oor {kNIm
2
)
Ceroet 00S
l|oet|ng ¦|oor 0]S
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Susoended ce|||ng 0?0
Serv|ces 0]0
1ota| 6.75
Schoo| f|oor {kNIm
2
)
Ceroet/¦|oor|ng 00S
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Susoended ce|||ng 0]S
Serv|ces 0?0
1ota| 6.60
Hospita| f|oor {kNIm
2
)
l|oor|ng 00S
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| 6?S
Screed ??0
Susoended ce|||ng 0]S
Serv|ces (|ut cen |e greeter) 00S
1ota| 8.70
||at roofIoxtorna| torraco {kNIm
2
)
lev|ng or greve|, e||ow ??0
veteroroo¦|ng 0S0
lnsu|et|on 0]0
Se|¦-we|ght o¦ ?S0 mm so||d s|e| ce|||ng 6?S
Susoended ce|||ng 0]S
Serv|ces 030
1ota| 9.50
1imbor pitchod roof {kNIm
2
)
¹||es (renge 0S0÷0/S) 0/S
bettens 00S
le|t 00S
ke¦ters 0]S
lnsu|et|on 00S
l|ester|oerd 8 s||m 0]S
Serv|ces 0]0
Ce|||ng |o|sts 0]S
1ota| porpondicu|ar to roof 1.45
1ota| on p|an assuming 30° pitch 1.60
Mota| docking roof {kNIm
2
)
lnsu|eted oene| 0?0
lur||ns 0]0
Stee|wor| 030
Serv|ces 0]0
1ota| 0.70

Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
21
Design values of actions
General case
¹he des|gn ve|ue o¦ en ect|on, /
d
, thet occurs |n e |oed cese |s
/
d
g
l
c /
|
where
g
l
oert|e| ¦ector ¦or the ect|on eccord|ng to the ||m|t stete under cons|deret|on ¹e||e
?]6 |nd|cetes the oert|e| ¦ectors to |e used |n the 0l ¦or the com||net|ons o¦
reoresentet|ve ect|ons |n |u||d|ng structures
c /
|
mev |e cons|dered es the reoresentet|ve ect|on, /
reo
, eooroor|ete to the ||m|t stete
|e|ng cons|dered
where
c e ¦ector thet converts the cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on |nto e reoresentet|ve
ve|ue lt ed|usts the ve|ue o¦ the ect|on to eccount ¦or the neture o¦ the ||m|t
stete under cons|deret|on end the |o|nt oro|e||||tv o¦ the ect|ons occurr|ng
s|mu|teneous|v lt cen essume the ve|ue o¦ ]0 ¦or e oermenent ect|on or c
0

or c
]
or c
?
¦or e ver|e||e ect|on ¹e||e ?]/ shows how cherecter|st|c ve|ues o¦
ver|e||e ect|ons ere converted |nto reoresentet|ve ve|ues ¹h|s te||e |s der|ved
¦rom bS lN ]990
|]0|
end |ts Net|one| Annex
|]0e|

/
|
cherecter|st|c ve|ue o¦ en ect|on es deuned |n Sect|ons ?? end ?3
1ab|o 2.16
Þartia| factors {g
|
) for uso in vorification of |imit statos in porsistont and transiont dosign situations
Limit stato Þormanont actions
{@
k
)
Loading variab|o action
{J
k,1
)
Accompanying variab|o
actions {J
k,i
)
d
a) £qui|ibrium {£QU)
]]0 (09)
a
]S0 (00)
a
c
0,|
]S0 (00)
a
b) Strongth at ULS {S1kIC£O) not invo|ving gootochnica| actions
Either
lxo (6]0) ]3S (]0)
a
]S c
0
]S
or the worst case of
lxo (6]0e) ]3S (]0)
a
c
0
]S c
0
]S
and
lxo (6]0|) ]?S (]0)
a
]S c
0
]S
c) Strongth at ULS {S1kIC£O) with gootochnica| actions
Worst case of
Set b ]3S (]0)
a
]S (00)
a
and
Set C ]0 ]3
d) Sorvicoabi|ity
Cherecter|st|c ]00 ]00 c
0,|
]00
lrequent ]00 c
],]
]00 c
?,|
]00
Oues|-oermenent ]00 c
?,]
]00 c
?,|
]00
o) Accidonta| dosign situations
lxo (6]]e) ]0 /
d
b
c
],|
(me|n)
c
?,|
(others)
f) Soismic
lxo (6]?e/|) ]0 /
ld
c
c
?,|
koy
a Ve|ue |¦ ¦evoure||e (shown |n |rec|ets)
b leed|ng ecc|dente| ect|on, /
d
, |s un¦ectored
c Se|sm|c ect|on, /
ld
d ke¦er to bS lN ]990 A]?? 8 NA
Notos
1 ¹he ve|ues o¦ c ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?]/
2 Ceotechn|ce| ect|ons g|ven |n the te||e
ere |esed on Les|gn Aooroech ] |n
C|euse A]3](S) o¦ bS lN ]990, wh|ch |s
recommended |n |ts Net|one| Annex
EC0:
Tables A1.2(A), A1.2(B),
A1.2(C), A1.4 & NA

2.9
2.9.1
22
Design values at ULS
EC0: 6.4.3.2(3)
lor the 0lS o¦ strength (S¹k), the des|gner mev choose |etween us|ng lxoress|on (6]0) or the
worst cese o¦ lxoress|on (6]0e) or lxoress|on (6]0|)
Single variable action
At 0lS, the des|gn ve|ue o¦ ect|ons |s
e|ther
lxo (6]0) ]3S O
|
÷ ]S C
|,]

or the worst cese o¦
lxo (6]0e) ]3S O
|
÷ c
0,]
]S C
|,]
end
lxo (6]0|) ]?S O
|
÷ ]S C
|,]

where
O
|
oermenent ect|on
C
|,]
s|ng|e ver|e||e ect|on
c
0,]
com||net|on ¦ector ¦or e s|ng|e ver|e||e |oed (see ¹e||e ?]/)
EC1-1-1: 3.3.2

1ab|o 2.17
Va|uos of c factors
Action c
0
c
1
c
2
|mposod |oads in bui|dings
Category A: domestic, residential areas 0/ 0S 03
Category B: office areas 0/ 0S 03
Category C: congregation areas 0/ 0/ 06
Category D: shopping areas 0/ 0/ 06
Category E: storage areas ]0 09 0S
Category F: traffic area (vehicle weight < 30 kN) 0/ 0/ 06
Category G: traffic area (30 kN < vehicle weight < 160 kN) 0/ 0S 03
Category H: roofs
a
0/ 00 00
Snow loads where altitude < 1000 m a.m.s.l.
a
0S 0? 00
Wind loads
a
0S 0? 00
Temperature effects (non-fire)
a
06 0S 00
koy
a On roo¦s, |moosed |oeds, snow |oeds end w|nd |oeds shou|d not |e eoo||ed together
Notos
1 ¹he numer|ce| ve|ues g|ven e|ove ere |n eccordence w|th bS lN ]990 end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
2 Cetegor|es l end l ere essumed to |e es ¦or Cetegorv l
lxoress|on (6]0) |eeds to the use o¦ g
l
g
C
]3S ¦or oermenent ect|ons end g
l
g
O
]S0 ¦or
ver|e||e ect|ons (g
C
¦or oermenent ect|ons |s |ntended to |e constent ecross e|| soens)
lxoress|on (6]0) |s e|wevs eque| to or more conservet|ve then the |ess ¦evoure||e o¦ lxoress|ons
(6]0e) end (6]0|) lxoress|on (6]0|) w||| norme||v eoo|v when the oermenent ect|ons ere not
greeter then 4S t|mes the ver|e||e ect|ons (exceot ¦or storege |oeds, cetegorv l |n ¹e||e ?]/,
where lxoress|on (6]0e) e|wevs eoo||es)
¹here¦ore, exceot |n the cese o¦ concrete structures suooort|ng storege |oeds where c
0
]0,
or ¦or m|xed use, lxoress|on (6]0|) w||| usue||v eoo|v ¹hus, ¦or mem|ers suooort|ng vert|ce|
ect|ons et 0lS, ]?SO
|
÷ ]SC
|
w||| |e eooroor|ete ¦or most s|tuet|ons end eoo||ce||e to most
concrete structures (see l|gure ?S)
Comoered w|th the use o¦ lxoress|on (6]0), the use o¦ e|ther lxoress|on (6]0e) or (6]0|) |eeds
to e more cons|stent re||e||||tv |ndex ecross ||ghtwe|ght end heevvwe|ght meter|e|s
2.9.2

EC0: A1.2.2
& NA
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
23
50
40

g
k

k
N
/
m

(
o
r

k
N
/
m
2
)
q
k
kN/m (or kN/m
2
)
Use Exp. (6.10b)
Use Exp. (6.10a)
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Noto
Assum|ng c
0
0/
|e eoo||ce||e to e|| erees
exceot storege
|iguro 2.5
whon to uso £xp. {6.10a) or £xp. {6.10b)
Accompanying variable actions
Age|n the des|gner mev choose |etween us|ng lxoress|on (6]0) or the |ess ¦evoure||e o¦
lxoress|ons (6]0e) or (6]0|)
EC0:
6.4.3.2(3)
l|ther
lxo (6]0) ]3S O
|
÷ ]S C
|,]
÷ S(c
0,|
]S C
|,|
)
or the worst cese o¦
lxo (6]0e) ]3S O
|
÷ c
0,]
]S C
|,]
÷ S(c
0,|
]S C
|,|
)
end
lxo (6]0|) ]?S O
|
÷ ]S C
|,]
÷ S(c
0,|
]S C
|,|
)
where
O
|
oermenent ect|on
C
|,]
]st ver|e||e ect|on
C
|,|
|
th
ver|e||e ect|on
c
0,]
cherecter|st|c com||net|on ¦ector ¦or ]st ver|e||e |oed (see ¹e||e ?]/)
c
0,|
cherecter|st|c com||net|on ¦ector ¦or |
th
ver|e||e |oed (see ¹e||e ?]/)
ln the e|ove, C
|,]
(end c
0,|
) re¦ers to the |eed|ng ver|e||e ect|on end C
|,|
(end c
0,|
) re¦ers to
eccomoenv|ng |ndeoendent ver|e||e ect|ons ln genere|, the d|st|nct|on |etween the two tvoes o¦
ect|ons w||| |e o|v|ous (see l|gure ?6), where |t |s not, eech |oed shou|d |n turn |e treeted es the
|eed|ng ect|on A|so, the numer|ce| ve|ues ¦or oert|e| ¦ectors g|ven |n the 0l Net|one| Annex
|]0e|

ere used |n the equet|ons e|ove ¹he ve|ue o¦ c
0
deoends on the use o¦ the |u||d|ng end shou|d
|e o|te|ned ¦rom the 0l Net|one| Annex ¦or bS lN ]990 (see ¹e||e ?]/)
EC0:
A1.2.2, A1.3.1 & NA
q
k2
g
k2
q
k1
g
k1
q
k1
g
k1
q
k1
g
k1
q
k1
q
k3
= w
k
A B C
g
k1
Noto
Cenere||v the ver|e||e
ect|ons on e tvo|ce| o¦¦|ce
||oc| wou|d |e cons|dered
es |e|ng three sets o¦
|ndeoendent ver|e||e
ect|ons
lmoosed o¦¦|ce |oeds ]
on the o¦¦|ce ¦|oors
koo¦ |moosed |oed ?
v|nd |oed 3
|iguro 2.6
|ndopondont variab|o actions

24
¹he exoress|ons te|e |nto eccount the oro|e||||tv o¦ |o|nt occurrence o¦ |oeds |v eoo|v|ng the
c
0,|
¦ector to the eccomoenv|ng ver|e||e ect|on ¹he oro|e||||tv thet these com||ned ect|ons w|||
|e exceeded |s deemed to |e s|m||er to the oro|e||||tv o¦ e s|ng|e ect|on |e|ng exceeded
l¦ the two |ndeoendent ver|e||e ect|ons C
|,]
end C
|,?
ere essoc|eted w|th d|¦¦erent soens end the
use o¦ lxoress|on (6]0|) |s eooroor|ete, then |n one set o¦ ene|vses eoo|v
]?SO
|
÷ ]SC
|,]
to the C
|,]
soens
end ]?SO
|
÷ c
0|
]SC
|,]
to the C
|,?
soens
ln essoc|eted ene|vses eoo|v
]?SO
|
÷ c
0,|
]SC
|,]
to the C
|,]
soens
end ]?SO
|
÷ ]?SC
|,?
to the C
|,?
soens
See lxemo|e ?]]? (two ver|e||e ect|ons)
Design values at SLS
EC0: 6.5 & Table A1.4
¹here ere three com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons et SlS (or |oed com||net|on et SlS) ¹hese ere g|ven |n
¹e||e ?]S ¹he com||net|on end ve|ue to |e used deoends on the neture o¦ the ||m|t stete |e|ng
chec|ed Oues|-oermenent com||net|ons ere essoc|eted w|th de¦ormet|on, crec| w|dths end
crec| contro| lrequent com||net|ons mev |e used to determ|ne whether e sect|on |s crec|ed or
not ¹he numer|c ve|ues o¦ c
0
, c
]
end c
?
ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?]/
Co||oqu|e||v
c
0
hes |ecome |nown es the 'cherecter|st|c' ve|ue
c
]
hes |ecome |nown es the '¦requent' ve|ue
c
?
hes |ecome |nown es the 'ques|-oermenent' ve|ue
EC0: Table A1.4
1ab|o 2.18
Þartia| factors to bo app|iod in tho vorification of tho SLS
Combination Permanent actions G
k
Variable actions Q
k
Unfavourable
a
Favourable
a
Leading
b
Others
b
Characteristic O
|,suo
O
|,|n¦
C
|,]
c
0,|
C
|,|
Frequent O
|,suo
O
|,|n¦
c
],]
C
|,]
c
?,|
C
|,|
Quasi-permanent O
|,suo
O
|,|n¦
c
?,]
C
|,]
c
?,|
C
|,|
koy
a Cenere||v O
|,suo
end O
|,|n¦
mev |e te|en es O
|
See Sect|on ?9S
b c ¦ectors ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?]/
Design values for other limit states
loed com||net|ons ere g|ven |n ¹e||e ?]6 ¦or
e) lqu||||r|um (lO0),
|) Strength et 0lS not |nvo|v|ng geotechn|ce| ect|ons,
c) Strength et 0lS w|th geotechn|ce| ect|ons,
d) Serv|cee||||tv,
e) Acc|dente| end
¦) Se|sm|c des|gn s|tuet|ons
2.9.3
2.9.4
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
25
Variations in permanent actions
vhen the ver|et|on o¦ e oermenent ect|on |s not sme|| then the uooer (O
||,suo
) end the |ower
(O
||,|n¦
) cherecter|st|c ve|ues (the 9S% end S% ¦rect||e ve|ues resoect|ve|v) shou|d |e este|||shed
¹h|s orocedure |s necesserv on|v when the coe¦uc|ent o¦ ver|et|on ( ]00 t stenderd dev|et|on/
meen) |s greeter then ]0 ln terms o¦ oermenent ect|ons, ver|et|ons |n the se|¦-we|ght o¦ concrete
|n concrete ¦remes ere cons|dered sme||
EC0: 4.1.2, 4.1.2 (3)
PD 6687
[6]
: 2.8.4
At 0lS where the ver|et|on |s not sme||,
g
C|,suo
shou|d |e used w|th O
||,suo
end
g
C|,|n¦
w|th
O
||,|n¦
S|m||er|v, where the ver|et|on |s not sme||, et SlS O
||,suo
shou|d |e used where ect|ons ere
un¦evoure||e end O
||,|n¦
used where ¦evoure||e
vhere chec|s, note||v chec|s on stet|c equ||||r|um (lO0), ere verv sens|t|ve to ver|et|on o¦ the
megn|tude o¦ e oermenent ect|on ¦rom one o|ece to enother, the ¦evoure||e end un¦evoure||e
oerts o¦ th|s ect|on shou|d |e cons|dered es |nd|v|due| ect|ons ln such 'verv sens|t|ve' ver|ucet|ons
g
C,suo
end g
C,|n¦
shou|d |e used
EC0: 6.4.3 (4)
Load arrangements of actions: introduction
¹he orocess o¦ des|gn|ng concrete structures |nvo|ves |dent|¦v|ng re|event des|gn s|tuet|ons end
||m|t stetes ¹hese |nc|ude oers|stent, trens|ent or ecc|dente| s|tuet|ons ln eech des|gn s|tuet|on
the structure shou|d |e ver|ued et the re|event ||m|t stetes
EC0: 3.2
ln the ene|vs|s o¦ the structure et the ||m|t stete |e|ng cons|dered, the mex|mum e¦¦ect o¦
ect|ons shou|d |e o|te|ned us|ng e ree||st|c errengement o¦ |oeds Cenere||v ver|e||e ect|ons
shou|d |e errenged to oroduce the most un¦evoure||e e¦¦ect, ¦or exemo|e to oroduce mex|mum
overturn|ng moments |n soens or mex|mum |end|ng moments |n suooorts
lor |u||d|ng structures, des|gn concentretes me|n|v on the 0lS, the u|t|mete ||m|t stete o¦
strength (S¹k), end SlS, the serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stete lowever, |t |s essent|e| thet e|| ||m|t stetes
ere cons|dered ¹he ||m|t stetes o¦ equ||||r|um (lO0), strength et 0lS w|th geotechn|ce| ect|ons
(S¹k/ClO) end ecc|dente| s|tuet|ons must |e te|en |nto eccount es eooroor|ete
EC0: 3.3, 3.4, 6.4, 6.5
Load arrangements according to the UK National
Annex to Eurocode
ln |u||d|ng structures, env o¦ the ¦o||ow|ng sets o¦ s|mo||ued |oed errengements mev |e used et
0lS end SlS (See l|gure ?/)
Cl. 5.1.3 & NA
¹he more cr|t|ce| o¦ N
e) e|ternete soens cerrv|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
O
C
|
w|th other soens |oeded w|th g
C
O
|
, end
|) env two ed|ecent soens cerrv|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
O
C
|
w|th other soens |oeded w|th g
C
O
|

Or the more cr|t|ce| o¦ N
e) e|ternete soens cerrv|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
O
C
|
, w|th other soens |oeded w|th g
C
O
|
, end
|) e|| soens cerrv|ng g
C
O
|
÷ g
O
C
|

Or, ¦or s|e|s on|v, e|| soens cerrv|ng N g
C
O
|
÷ g
C
O
|
, orov|ded the ¦o||ow|ng cond|t|ons ere met
ln e one-wev soenn|ng s|e| the eree o¦ eech |ev exceeds 30 m L
?
(e |ev |s de¦|ned es e
str|o ecross the ¦u|| w|dth o¦ e structure |ounded on the other s|des |v ||nes o¦ suooort)
¹he ret|o o¦ the ver|e||e ect|on, L C
|
, to the oermenent ect|on, O
|
, does not exceed ]?S
¹he megn|tude o¦ the ver|e||e ect|on exc|ud|ng oert|t|ons does not exceed S |N/m L
?

vhere ene|vs|s |s cerr|ed out ¦or the s|ng|e |oed cese o¦ e|| soens |oeded, the resu|t|ng moments,
exceot those et cent||evers, shou|d |e reduced |v ?0%, w|th e consequent|e| |ncreese |n the
soen moments
2.9.5
2.10
2.11
26
g
O
C
| g
C
O
|
a) Alternate spans loaded b) Adjacent spans loaded c) All spans loaded
g
O
C
|
g
O
C
|
g
O
C
|
g
C
O
|
g
C
O
|
Noto
vh||st the use o¦ lxo (6]0) |s |nd|ceted, these errengements mev eque||v |e used w|th lxo (6]0e)
or (6]0|)
|iguro 2.7
Load arrangomonts for boams and s|abs according to Uk NA to £urocodo
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
27
2.12.1 Continuous beam in a domestic structure
Determine the appropriate load combination and ultimate load
for a continuous beam of four 6 m spans in a domestic structure
supporting a 175 mm slab at 6 m centres.
6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm
q
k

g
k

A B C D E
Figure 2.8 Continuous beam in a domestic structure
a) Actions kN/m
Permanent action, g
k
Self-weight, 175 mm thick slabs : 0.17 x 25 x 6.0 = 26.3
E/o self-weight downstand 800 × 225 : 0.80 x 0.225 x 25 = 4.5
50 mm screed @ 22 kN/m
3
: 0.05 x 22 x 6.0 = 6.6
Finishes and services : 0.50 x 6.0 = 3.0
Dividing wall 2.40 × 4.42 (200 mm dense blockwork with
plaster both sides)
= 10.6
Total g
k
= 51.0
Variable action, q
k
Imposed, dwelling @ 1.5 kN/m
2
: 1.5 x 6.0 = 9.0
Total q
k
= 9.0
Ultimate load, n
Assuming use of Exp. (6.10), n = 1.35 × 51 + 1.5 × 9.0 = = 82.4
Assuming use of worst case of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b)
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 9.0 = = 78.3
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 9.0 = = 77.3
In this case Exp. (6.10a) would be critical


=ultimate load

= 78.3

This could also be determined from Figure 2.5 or by determining that g
k
> 4.5q
k
lro|ect dete||s
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Continuous beam in a domestic
structure
2.12 Examples of loading
28
2.12.2 Continuous beam in mixed use structure
Determine the worst case arrangements of actions for ULS design of a
continuous beam supporting a 175 mm slab @ 6 m centres. Note that
the variable actions are from two sources as defined in Figure 2.9.:
6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm
Office use @ 2.5 kN/m
2
Shopping use @ 4.0 kN/m
2
c
0
= 0.7 c
0
= 0.7
q
k1
= 15 kN/m
A B C D E
q
k2
= 24 kN/m
g
k
= 51 kN/m
Figure 2.9 Continuous beam in mixed-use structure
a) Load combination
Load combination Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) will be used, as either
will produce a smaller total load than Exp. (6.10). It is necessary to
decide which expression governs.
i) Actions kN/m
Permanent action
As before, Example 2.12.1 g
k
= 51.0
Variable action
Office @ 2.5 kN/m
2
q
k1
= 15.0
Shopping @ 4.0 kN/m
2
q
k2
= 24.0
Ultimate load, n
For office use:
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 15.0 = 84.6
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 15.0 = 86.3
For shopping use:
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 1.5 × 0.7 × 24.0 = 94.1
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 24.0 = 99.8
By inspection Exp. (6.10b) governs in both cases

b) Arrangement of ultimate loads
As the variable actions arise from different sources, one is a leading
variable action and the other is an accompanying variable action. The
unit loads to be used in the various arrangements are:

This could also be determined from Figure 2.5 or by determining that g
k
> 4.5q
k
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.1 & NA,
EC0:
A.1.2.2. & NA
lro|ect dete||s
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Continuous beam in mixed use
structure
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
29
i) Actions kN/m
Permanent
1.25 × 51.0 = 63.8
Variable
Office use
as leading action, g
Q
Q
k
= 1.5 × 15 = 22.5
as accompanying action, c
0
g
Q
Q
k
= 0.7
× 1.5 × 15
= 15.75
Shopping use
as leading action, g
Q
Q
k
= 1.5 × 24 = 36.0
as accompanying action, c
0
g
Q
Q
k
= 0.7
× 1.5 × 24
= 25.2

ii) For maximum bending moment in span AB
The arrangement and magnitude of actions of loads are shown
in Figure 2.10. The variable load in span AB assumes the value as
leading action and that in span CD takes the value as an
accompanying action.
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
q
k1
= 22.5 kN/m
Accompanying
variable action
c
Q
g
Q
q
k2
= 25.2 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G
g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.10 For maximum bending moment in span AB p

iii) For maximum bending moment in span CD
The load arrangement is similar to that in Figure 2.10, but now
the variable load in span AB takes its value as an accompanying
action
(i.e. 15.75 kN/m) and that in span CD assumes the value as
leading action (36 kN/m).
A B C D E
Accompanying
variable action
c
Q
g
Q
q
k1
= 15.8 kN/m
Leading
variable action
g
Q
q
k2
= 36.0 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G,inf
g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.11 For maximum bending moment in span CD p

30
iv) For maximum bending moment at support B
The arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.12. As both spans AB
and BC receive load from the same source, no reduction is possible
(other than that for large area ( g (other than that for large area

). )).
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.1 (10)
& NA & NA
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
gg q
k1
= 22.5 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G
gg g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.12 For maximum bending moment at support B pp
v) For maximum bending moment at support D
The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.13. Comments
made in d) also apply here.
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
gg q
k2
= 36 kN/m
Permanent
action
g
G
gg g
k
= 63.8 kN/m
Figure 2.13 For maximum bending moment at support D pp
vi) For critical curtailment and hogging in span CD
The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.14.
A B C D E
Leading
variable action
g
Q
q
k2
= 36.0 kN/m
Accompanying
variable action
p
c
0gQ
q
k1
= 15.8 kN/m
Pe n rmanent actionn
g
G,in
gg
f
g
k
m = 51 kN/mm
Figure 2.14 For curtailment and hogging in span CD p
Eurocode 2 requires that all spans should be loaded with either g
G,sup
gg or g
G,inf
gg (as
f
per Table 2.16). As illustrated in Figure 2.14, using
g
G,inf
gg = 1.0 might be critical for
f
curtailment and hogging in spans. curtailment and hogging in spans curtailment and hogging in spans.
Cl. 2.4.3(2)

Variable actions may be subjected to reduction factors: a
A
, according to the
pp ( area supported (m area supported (m
2
), ), ), aa
AAA
= 1.0 – A/1000 1.0 A/1000 ≥≥ 0.75. 0.75.
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10)
& NA & NA
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
31
lro|ect dete||s
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Propped cantilever
2.12.3 Propped cantilever
Determine the Equilibrium, ULS and SLS (deformation) load
combinations for the propped cantilever shown in Figure 2.15. The
action P at the end of the cantilever arises from the permanent
action of a wall.
q
k
g
k
A B
P
C
Figure 2.15 Propped cantilever beam and loading pp
For the purposes of this example, the permanent action P is considered
to be from a separate source than the self-weight of the structure so
both g
G,sup
and g
G,inf
need to be considered.
a) Equilibrium limit state (EQU) for maximum uplift at A
0.0q
k
= 0 1.5q
k
g
Ginf
g
k
= 0.9g
k
g
Gk,sup
g
k
= 1.1g
k
g
Gk,sup
P= 1.1P
A B
C
p
EC0:
Table 1.2(B),
Note 3
EC0:
Table A1.2 (A)
& NA
EC0:
6.4.3.1 (4),
Table A1.2 (A)
& NA
b) Ultimate limit state (ULS)
i) For maximum moment at B and anchorage of top reinforcement BA
g
Gk,sup
g
k
= 1.35g
k
g
Gk,sup
P= 1.35P g
Q
q
k
= 1.5q
k
A B
C
Figure 2.17 ULS: maximum moment at B
Notes
g
Gk,inf
g
k
= 1.0 g
k
may be critical in terms of curtailment of top bars BA.
EC0: Tables A1.1,
A1.2 (B) & NA
32
ii) For maximum sagging moment AB
g
Q
gg q
k
= 1.5q
k
g
Gk,sup
gg g
k
= 1.35g
k
g
Gk,sup
gg P= PP 1.1P
A B
C
Figure 2.18 ULS: maximum span moment AB p
Notes Notes
1 Depending on the magnitude of g
k
, q
k
length AB and BC, g
Gk,inf
gg g
k
(= 1.0 g
k
) may be more
critical for span moment.
2 The magnitude of the load combination indicated are those for Exp. (6.10) of BS EN
1990. The worst case of Exp. (6.10a) and Exp. (6.10b) may also have been used.
3 Presuming supports A and B were columns then the critical load combination for Column
A would be as Figure 2.18. For column B the critical load combination might be either as
Figure 2.17 or 2.18.
EC0:
Table A1.1,
A1.2 (B) & NA
c) Serviceability limit state (SLS) of deformation:
(quasi-permanent loads)
i) For maximum deformation at C
1.0g
k
1.0P
1.0c
2
cc q
k
=0.3*q
k
*Assuming office area
A B
C
Figure 2.19 SLS: maximum deformation at C
EC0:
Tables A1.1,
A1.2.2, A1.4 &
NA
ii) For maximum deformation AB
1.0P
A B
C
* Assuming office area
1.0c
2
cc q
k
=0.3*q
k
1.0g
k
Figure 2.20 SLS: maximum deformation AB
Notes Notes
Quasi-permanent load combinations may also be used for calculations of crack widths or
controlling cracking, i.e. the same load combinations as shown in Figures 2.19 and 2.20 may
be used to determine SLS moment to determine stress in reinforcement. The characteristic
and/or frequent combinations may be appropriate for other SLS limit states: for example, it
is recommended that the frequent combination is used to determine whether a member has
cracked or not.
Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements
33
lro|ect dete||s
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Overall stability
2.12.4 Overall stability (EQU)
For the frame shown in Figure 2.21, identify the various load
arrangements to check overall stability (EQU) against overturning.
Assume that the structure is an office block and that the loads q
k2
and q
k3
may be treated as arising from one source.
w
k
g
k1
q
k1
g
k2
q
k2
g
k3
q
k3
A B
Figure 2.21 Frame configuration
a) EQU – Treating the floor imposed load as the leading variable r
action
Permanent action, PP
favourable
0.9g
k1
Permanent action, PP
favourable
0.9g
k2
Permanent action, PP
favourable
0.9g
k3
Accompanying
variable action
= g
Qk
gg c
o
cc w
k
ww
= 1.5 x 0.5 x w
k
ww
= 0.75 w
k
ww
Accompanying va n = riable actioon on g
Qk
gg c
o
cc q
k1
= 1.05q
k1
Permanent action, unfavour ble = aab a g
Gk,sup
gg g
k1
= 1.1g
k1
Lead variable action = g
Qk
gg q
2 kk2 k2
= 1.5q
k2
Permanent action, unfavour ble = aab a g
Gk,sup
gg g
k2
= 1.1g
k2
Lead variable action = g
Qk
gg q
3 kk3 k3
= 1.5q
k3
Permanent action, unfavour ble = aab a g
Gk,sup
gg g
k3
= 1.1g
k3
A B
Figure 2.22 Frame with floor variable action as leading variable action
Tables 2.16 Tables 2.16
& 2.17 & 2.17
See Table 2.17 for values of c
0
cc
34
b) EQU – Treating the roof imposed load as the leading variable f
action
0.9g
k1
0.9g
k2
0.9g
k3
0.75 w
k
ww
1.5q
k1
1.1g
k1
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k2
= 1.05 q
k2
1.1g
k2
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k3
= 1.05 q
k3
1.1g
k3
A B
tion Figure 2.23 Frame with roof variable action as leading variable actt
Tables 2.16 Tables 2.16
& 2.17 & 2.17
c) EQU – Treating wind as the leading variable action
0.9g
k1
0.9g
k2
0.9g
k3
1.5 w
k
ww
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k1
= 1.05 q
k1
1.1g
k1
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k2
= 1.05 q
k2
1.1g
k2
1.5 x 0.7 x q
k3
= 1.05 q
k3
1.1g
k3
A B
Figure 2.24 Frame with wind as lead variable action
Tables 2.16 Tables 2.16
& 2.17 & 2.17
35
3 S|e|s
Slabs
General
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s sect|on ere oresented |n the ¦o||ow|ng su|-sect|ons
3] A s|mo|v suooorted one-wev s|e|
3? A cont|nuous one-wev s|e|
33 A cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
34 A |ev o¦ e ¦et s|e|
3S A ste|r ¦|ght
¹hese ce|cu|et|ons ere |ntended to show whet m|ght |e deemed tvo|ce| hend ce|cu|et|ons ¹hev
ere |||ustret|ve o¦ the Code end ere not necesser||v |est orect|ce ¹he urst three su|-sect|ons
|nc|ude dete|||ng chec|s eg curte||ment |engths determ|ned str|ct|v |n eccordence w|th the
orov|s|ons o¦ bS lN ]99?÷]÷] ¹he ¦et s|e| ce|cu|et|on |s suoo|emented |v e commenterv
A genere| method o¦ des|gn|ng s|e|s |s shown |e|ow
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA Table NA.2.1
Assess ect|ons on the s|e| N EC1 & NA
Assess dure||||tv requ|rements end determ|ne N
concrete strength
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1: Tables A4 & A5
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eooroor|ete ¦|re N
res|stence oer|od
EC2-1-2: Tables 5.8,
5.9, 5.10 & 5.11
Ce|cu|ete m|n|mum cover ¦or dure||||tv, ¦|re end N
|ond requ|rements
Cl. 4.4.1
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons eoo|v N EC0 & NA Tables
NA.A1.1 & NA.A1.2 (B)
Leterm|ne |oed|ng errengements N Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Ane|vse structure to o|te|n cr|t|ce| moments end sheer N
¦orces
Cl. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
Les|gn ¦|exure| re|n¦orcement N Cl. 6.1
Chec| de¦|ect|on N Cl. 7.4
Chec| sheer ceoec|tv N Cl. 6.2
Other des|gn chec|s N
Chec| m|n|mum re|n¦orcement
Chec| crec||ng (s|.e or soec|ng o¦ |ers)
Chec| e¦¦ects o¦ oert|e| ux|tv
Chec| seconderv re|n¦orcement
Cl. 9.3.1.1(1), 9.2.1.1(1)
Cl. 7.3, Tables 7.2N & 7.3N
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1(2), 9.3.1.4(1)
Chec| curte||ment N Cl. 9.3.1.1(4), 9.2.1.3, Fig. 9.2
Chec| enchorege N Cl. 9.3.1.2, 8.4.4, 9.3.1.1(4)
Cl. 9.2.1.5(1), 9.2.1.5(2)
Chec| |eos N Cl. 8.7.3
3
3.0
36
Simply supported one-way slab
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show e tvo|ce| |es|c hend ce|cu|et|on
3.1
lro|ect dete||s
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C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Simply supported one-way slab
A 175 mm thick slab is required to support screed, finishes, an
office variable action of 2.5 kN/m
2
and demountable partitions
(@ 2 kN/m). The slab is supported on load-bearing block walls.
f
ck
= 30 MPa, f
yk
= 500 MPa. Assume a 50-year design life and a
requirement for 1 hour resistance to fire.
q
k
= 3.3 kN/m
2
g
k
= 5.9 kN/m
2
4800
Figure 3.1 Simply supported one-way slab p pp
3.1.1 Actions
kN/m
2
Permanent:
Self-weight 0.175 × 25 = 4.4 EC1-1-1: Table A1
50 mm screed = 1.0
Finishes, services = 0.5
Total g
k
= 5.9
Variable:
Offices, general use B1 = 2.5 EC1-1-1: Tables
6.1, 6.2 & NA
Movable partitions @ 2.0 kN/m = 0.8
Total a
k
= 3.3 EC1-1-1: 6.3.12(8)
3.1.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar
Assume 12 mm main bars.
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions
Assuming XCI and using C30/37 concrete,
c
min,dur
= 15 mm
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation.
Assuming no measurement of cover,
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
= c
nom
= 15 + 10 = 25 mm
Exp. (4.1)
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4.
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
37 37
3] S|mo|v suooorted one-wev s|e|
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for 1 hour fire resistance (i.e. REI 60).
Thickness, h
s,min
= 80 mm cf. 175 mm proposed = OK
Axis distance, a
min
= 20 mm cf. 25 + f/2 = 31 i.e. not critical = OK
= choose c
nom
= 25 mm
EC2-1-2:
4.1(1), 5.1(1)
& Table 5.8

3.1.3 Load combination (and arrangement)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs
= n = 1.25 × 5.9 + 1.5 × 3.3 = 12.3 kN/m
2
3.1.4 Analysis
Design moment:
M
Ed
= 12.3 × 4.8
2
/8 = 35.4 kNm
Shear force:
V = 12.3 × 4.8/2 = 29.5 kN/m
Fig. 2.5
ECO:
Exp. (6.10b)
3.1.5 Flexural design
Effective depth:
d = 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm
Flexure in span:
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 35.4 × 10
6
/(1000 × 144
2
× 30) = 0.057
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 144 = 137 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 35.4 × 10
6
/(137 × 500/1.15) = 594 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.41%)
Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm
2
/m)
Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Table C5
3.1.6 Deflection
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Basic span-to-effective-depth ratio for r = 0.41% = 20
A
s,prov
/A
s,req
= 645/599 = 1.08
Max. span = 20 × 1.08 × 144 = 3110 mm i.e. < 4800 mm = no good
Consider in more detail:
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
N = 25.6 (r = 0.41%, f
ck
= 30 MPa)
K = 1.0 (simply supported)
F1 = 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
= 1.0)
F2 = 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
F3 = 310/ s
s
< 1.5
Appendix B
Table 7.4N & NA
Exp. (7.17)
Cl. 7.4.2,
Appendix C7,
Tables C10-C13
38 38
where

s
s
s = s
su
s (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) 1/d
where
s
su
s { 242 MPa (From Figure C3 and
g
k
/q
k
= 1.79, c
2
cc = 0.3, g
G
gg = 1.25)
d = redistribution ratio = 1.0 d
= s
s
s { 242 × 594/645 = 222
= F3 = 310/222 = 1.40 < 1.5
= Allowable l/ ll d = 25.6 × 1.40 = 35.8 d
Actual l/ ll d = 4800/144 = 33.3 d = OK
Use H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, & NA
Table NA.5:
Note 5
Figure C3 Figure C3
Figure C3 Figure C3
3.1.7 Shear
By inspection, OK
However, if considered critical:
V = 29.5 kN/m as before V
V
Ed
VV = 29.5 – 0.14 × 12.3 = 27.8 kN/m
v
Ed
vv = 27.8 × 10
3
/144 × 10
3
= 0.19 MPa
v
Rd,c
vv = 0.53 MPa
= No shear reinforcement required q
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Cl. 6.2.2(1);
Table C6 Table C6
3.1.8 Summary of design
H12 @ 175
Figure 3.2 Simply supported slab: summary p pp
3.1.9 Detailing checks
It is presumed that the detailer would take the design summarised
above and detail the slab to normal best practice, e.g. to SMDSC
[9]
or to How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2, 2
[8]
Chapter
10, Detailing. This would usually include dimensioning and detailing
curtailment, laps, U-bars and also undertaking the other checks detailed
below. See also 3.2.10 detailing checks for a continuous one-way slab.
a) Minimum areas
Minimum area of reinforcement:
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
f /f
yk
ff ) b
t
bb J ~ 0.0013 b
t
bb d
where
b
t
bb = width of tension zone
f
ctm
f = 0.30 × f
ck
f
0.666
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Table 3.1

See Appendix B1.5
S|e|s
39 39
3] S|mo|v suooorted one-wev s|e|
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%) r
= H12 @ 175 B1 OK
Crack control:
OK by inspection.
Maximum spacing of bars:
< 3h < 400 mm OK
Secondary reinforcement:
20% A
s,req
= 0.2 × 645 = 129 mm
q
2
/m
Use H10 @ 350 (224) B2
Edges: effects of assuming partial fixity along edge
Top steel required = 0.25 × 594 = 149 mm
2
/m
Use H10 @ 350 (224) T2 B2 as U-bars
extending 960 mm into slab
§
Table 7.2N & NA
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.2.(2)
b) Curtailment
Curtailment main bars:
Curtail main bars 50 mm from or at face of support.
At supports:
50% of A
s
to be anchored from face of support.
Use H12 @ 350 B1 T1 U-bars
In accordance with SMDSC
[9]
detail MS3 lap U-bars 500 mm with
main steel, curtail T1 leg of U-bar 0.1l (= say 500 mm) from face l
of support.
SMDSC
[9]
:
Fig. 6.4;
How to
[8]
:
Detailing
Cl. 9.3.1.2.(1)
§
A free unsupported edge is required to use ‘longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement’ generally using U-bars with legs at least 2h long. For slabs
150 mm deep or greater, SMDSC
[9]
standard detail recommends U-bars lapping
500 mm with bottom steel and extending 0.1l top into span. l
Cl. 9.3.1.4.(1)
40 40
3.2 Continuous one-way solid slab
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show |n dete|| the orov|s|ons o¦ des|gn|ng e s|e| to lurocode ?
us|ng essent|e||v the seme s|e| es used |n lxemo|e 3]
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous one-way solid slab
A 175 mm thick continuous slab is required to support screed, finishes,
an office variable action of 2.5 kN/m
2
and demountable partitions
(@ 2 kN/m). The slab is supported on 200 mm wide load-bearing block
walls at 6000 mm centres. f
ck
= 30, f
yk
= 500 and the design life is
50 years. A fire resistance of 1 hour is required.
q
k
= 3.3 kN/m
2
g
k
= 5.9 kN/m
2
5800 5800
200 200
Figure 3.3 Continuous solid slab
3.2.1 Actions
kN/m
2
Permanent:
As Section 3.1.1 g
k
= 5.9
Variable:
As Section 3.1.1 a
k
= 3.3 EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2(8)
3.2.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
As Section 3.1.2 c
nom
= 25 mm
3.2.3 Load combination (and arrangement)
Fig. 2.5
EC0:
Exp. (6.10b)
Ultimate action (load):
As Section 3.1.3, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs
= n = 1.25 × 5.9 + 1.5 × 3.3 = 12.3 kN/m
2
3.2.4 Analysis
Clear span, l
n
= 5800 mm
a
1
= min[h/2; t/2] = min[175/2; 200/2] = 87.5 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
a
2
= min[h/2; t/2] = min[175/2; 200/2] = 87.5 mm
l
eff
= 5975 mm
S|e|s
41 41
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e|
Bending moment:
End span M
Ed
= 0.086 × 12.3 × 5.975
2
= 37.8 kNm/m Cl. 5.1.1(7)
Table C2
1st internal support M
Ed
= 0.086 × 12.3 × 5.975
2
= 37.8 kNm/m
Internal spans M
Ed
= 0.063 × 12.3 × 5.975
2
= 27.7 kNm/m
and supports
Shear:
End support V
Ed
= 0.40 × 12.3 × 5.975 = 29.4 kN/m
1st interior support V
Ed
= 0.60 × 12.3 × 5.975 = 44.1 kN/m
3.2.5 Flexural design: span
a) End span (and 1st internal support)
Effective depth, d:
d = h − c
nom
− f/2
= 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm
Relative flexural stress, K:
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 37.8 × 10
6
/1000 × 144
2
× 30 = 0.061
K' = 0.207
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
= by inspection, section is under-reinforced
(i.e. no compression reinforcement required).
Appendix A1
Lever arm, z:
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d


= (144/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.061)
0.5
] = 0.945d = 136 mm
Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Area of steel, A
s
:
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 37.8 × 10
6
/(500/1.15 × 136) = 639 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.44%)
Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm
2
/m)
b) Internal spans and supports
Lever arm, z:
By inspection, z = 0.95d = 0.95 × 144 = 137 mm
Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Area of steel, A
s
:
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 27.7 × 10
6
/(500/1.15 × 137) = 465 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.32%)
Try H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm
2
/m)

Designers may choose to use another form of this equation:
z/d = 0.5 + (0.25 − 0.882K)
0.5
≤ 0.95
42 42
3.2.6 Deflection: end span
Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Allowable l/d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
Appendix B Appendix B
where
N = basic effective depth to span ratio: N
r = 0.44% r
r
0
= f
ck
f
0.5
× 10
−3
= 0.55% = use Exp. (7.16a)
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5 N f
ck
f
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2 r f
ck
f
0.5
(r
0
/r − 1) r
1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 30
0.5
× 0.55/0.44 + 3.2 × 30
0.5
(0.55/0.44 – 1)
1.5
= 11.0 + 10.3 + 2.2 = 23.5
Exp. (7.16a)
K = structural system factor
= 1.3 (end span of continuous slab)
Cl. 7.4.2
F1 = flanged section factor
= 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
= 1.0)
w
Cl. 7.4.2
F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions
= 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
Cl. 7.4.2
F3 = 310/ s
s
s ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N & NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
where

s
s
s = (f
yk
f / g
S
gg ) (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads (1/d)
= f
yd
ff × (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) × (g
k
+ c
2
cc q
k
)/(g
G
gg g
k
+ g
Q
gg q
k
) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (639/645) × [(5.9 + 0.3 × 3.3)/12.3] × 1.08
§
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.56 × 1.08 = 260 MPa
Exp. (7.17)
EC0: A1.2.2
Table C14 Table C14
F3 = 310/260 = 1.19
Note: A
s,prov
/A
s,req
≤ 1.50 Table 7.4N & NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
Allowable l/d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
= 23.5 × 1.3 × 1.0 × 1.19
= 36.4
Max. span = 36.4 × 144 = 5675 mm, i.e. < 5795 mm = No good
Try increasing reinforcement to H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm
2
/m)
s
s
s = 434.8 × 639/754 × 0.56 × 1.08 = 223
F3 = 310/223 = 1.39
Allowable l/d = 23.5 × 1.3 × 1.0 × 1.39 d
= 42.5

See Appendix B1.5
§
The use of Table C3 implies certain amounts of redistribution, which are defined in
Table C14.
S|e|s
43 43
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e|
Max. span = 42.5 × 144 = 6120 mm, i.e. > 5795 mm OK
= H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm
2
/m) OK
3.2.7 Deflection: internal span
Check internal span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
N = basic effective depth to span ratio: N
r = 0.32% r
r
0
= f
ck
f
0.5
× 10
−3
= 0.55% = use Exp. (7.16a)
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5 N f
ck
f
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2 r f
ck
f
0.5
(r
0
/r − 1) r
1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 30
0.5
× 0.55/0.32 + 3.2 × 30
0.5
(0.55/0.32 – 1)
1.5
= 11.0 + 14.1 + 10.7 = 35.8
Exp. (7.16a)
K = structural system factor
= 1.5 (interior span of continuous slab)
Cl. 7.4.2
F1 = flanged section factor
= 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
bb = 1.0)
w
Cl. 7.4.2
F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions
= 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
Cl. 7.4.2
F3 = 310/ s
s
s ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5.
where
s
s
s = f
yd
ff × (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) × (g
k
+ c
2
cc q
k
)/(g
G
gg g
k
+ g
Q
gg q
k
) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (465/502) × [(5.9 + 0.3 × 3.3)/12.3] × 1.03
= 434.8 × 0.93 × 0.56 × 1.03 = 233 MPa
Exp. (7.17)
EC0: A1.2.2
Table C14 Table C14
F3 = 310/233 = 1.33
Allowable l/d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
= 35.8 × 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.33
= 71.4
Max. span = 71.4 × 144 = 10280 mm i.e. > 5795 mm OK
Use H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm
2
/m) in internal spans p
3.2.8 Shear
Design shear force, V
Ed
VV :
At d from face of end support, d
V
Ed
VV = 29.4 – (0.144 + 0.0875) × 12.3 = 26.6 kN/m Cl. 6.2.1(8)
At d from face of 1st interior support, d
V
Ed
VV = 44.1 − (0.144 + 0.0875) × 12.3 = 41.3 kN/m
Shear resistance, V
Rd,c
VV :
V
Rd,c
VV = (0.18/ g
C
gg )k(100 r
l
f
ck
f )
0.333
b
w
bb d ≥ 0.0035k
1.5
k f
ck
f
0.5
b
w
bb d Cl. 6.2.2(1)
44 44
where
k = 1 + (200/ k d)
0.5
≤ 2.0 as d < 200 mm d
k = 2.0 k
r
l
= A
sl
/bd
Assuming 50% curtailment (at end support)
= 50% × 754/(144 × 1000) = 0.26%
V
Rd,c
VV = (0.18/1.5) × 2.0 × (100 × 0.26/100 × 30)
0.33
× 1000 × 144
= 0.12 × 2 × 1.97 × 1000 × 144
= 0.47 × 1000 × 144 = 68.1 kN/m
But V
Rd,cmin
VV = 0.035k
1.5
f
ck
f
0.5
b
w
bb d
where
k = 1 + (200/ k d)
0.5
≤ 2.0; as before k = 2.0 k
V
Rd,cmin
VV = 0.035 × 2
1.5
× 30
0.5
× 1000 × 144
= 0.54 × 1000 × 144 = 77.6 kN/m
= V
Rd,c
VV = 77.6 kN/m
= OK, no shear reinforcement required at end or 1st internal
supports
= H12 @ 150 B1 & H12 @ 175 T1 OK
By inspection, shear at other internal supports OK.
3.2.9 Summary of design
f
ck
f = 30 MPa PP
c
nom
= 25 mm
H12 @ 150 H12 @ 225
H12 @ 175
Figure 3.4 Continuous solid slab: design summary
Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design
summarised above together with the general arrangement illustrated
in Figure 3.3 and detail the slab to normal best practice. The
detailer’s responsibilities, standards and timescales should be clearly
defined but it would be usual for the detailer to draw and schedule
not only the designed reinforcement but all the reinforcement
required to provide a compliant and buildable solution. The work
would usually include checking the following aspects and providing
appropriate detailing :
Minimum areas t
Curtailment lengths t
Anchorages t
S|e|s
45 45
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e|
Laps t
U-bars t
Rationalisation t
Critical dimensions t
Details and sections t
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas, curtailment
lengths, anchorages and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is
shown in detail in the following calculations. In practice these would
be determined from published tables of data or by using reference
texts
[8, 9]
. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing
for design intent and compliance with standards. It is therefore
necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles
of the detailing used.
3.2.10 Detailing checks
a) Minimum areas
Minimum area of longitudinal tension (flexural) reinforcement
A
s,min
= 0.26(f
ctm
f /f
yk
f ) b
t
bb d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
bb d
where
b
t
bb = width of tension zone
f
ctm
f = 0.30 × f
ck
f
0.667
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.667
× 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm
7 2
/m
(r = 0.15%) r
= H12 @ 225 B1 OK
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Table 3.1
Secondary (transverse reinforcement)
Minimum 20% A
s,req
20% A
s,req
= 0.2 × 502 = 100 mm
q
2
/m
Consider A
s,min
to apply as before.
A
s,min
= 216 mm
2
/m
Try H10 @ 350 B2 (224 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1(2)
SMDSC
[9]
Check edge.
Assuming partial fixity exists at edges, 25% of A
s
is required
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
A
s,req
= 25% × 639 = 160 mm
q
2
/m
A
s,min
as before = 216 mm
2
/m
= Use H10 @ 350 (224 mm
2
/m) U-bars at edges
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
46
Curtail 0.2 × 5975 = 1195 mm, say 1200 mm measured from face
of support

.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum spacing of bars < 3h < 400 mm OK
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
Crack control
As slab < 200 mm, measures to control cracking are unnecessary.
Cl. 7.3.3(1)
However, as a check on end span:
Loading is the main cause of cracking,
= use Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N for w
max
ww = 0.4 mm and s
s
s = 241 MPa
(see deflection check).
Max. bar size = 20 mm
or max. spacing = 250 mm
= H12 @ 150 B1 OK.
Cl. 7.3.3(2),
7.3.1.5
Table 7.2N &
interpolation,
Table 7.3N &
interpolation
End supports: effects of partial fixity
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of A
s
is required
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
A
s,req
= 15% × 639 = 96 mm
q
2
/m
But, A
s,min
as before = 216 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%) r
One option would be to use bob bars, but choose to use U-bars
Try H12 @ 450 (251 mm
2
/m) U-bars at supports pp
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Curtail 0.2 × 5975 = say, 1200 mm measured from face of support.

Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
b) Curtailment
i) End span, bottom reinforcement
Assuming end support to be simply supported, 50% of A
s
should
extend into the support.
50% × 639 = 320 mm
2
/m
Try H12 @ 300 (376 mm
2
/m) at supports pp
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
In theory, 50% curtailment of reinforcement may take place a
l
from
where the moment of resistance of the section with the remaining
50% would be adequate to resist the applied bending moment. In
practice, it is usual to determine the curtailment distance as being
a
l
from where M
Ed
= M
Ed,max
/2.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
Note, 9.2.1.3 (2)

Detail MS2 of SMDSC
[9]
, suggests 50% of T1 legs of U-bars should extend 0.3l
(= say 1800 mm) from face of support by placing U-bars alternately reversed.
47
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e|
a) Load arrangement rr
Tensile for TT ce
in reinforcement, F
s
F
633
50%
50%
633 (say 500)
Tensile r TT esistance of reinforcement
X
M
Ed,max
M
Edx
= R
A
X – X nX
2
XX /2
M
Edx
/z
l
bd
l
bd
n
A B
A B
A B
A
B
b) Bending moment M
Edx
c) Tensile TT force in bottom reinforcement
d) Curtailment of bottom reinforcement
987
987
(say 850)
Figure 3.5 Curtailment of bottom reinforcement: actions, bending
moments, forces in reinforcement and curtailment
Thus, for a single simply supported span supporting a UDL of n,
M
Ed,max
= 0.086nl
2
; R
A
= 0.4nl
At distance, X, from end support, moment, XX
M
Ed
@X = X R
A
X – X nX
2
/2
= when M@X = X M
Ed,max
/2:
0.086nl
2
/2 = 0.4nlX – X nX
2
/2
48
Assuming X = X xl
0.043nl
2
= 0.4nlxl – l nx
2
xx l
2
/2
0.043 = 0.4x – x x
2
xx /2
0 = 0.043 – 0.4x + x x
2
xx /2
x = 0.128 or 0.672, say 0.13 and 0.66 x
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.13 x span
0.13 × 5975 = 777 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, a
l
may be taken as d (= 144 mm), d
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 777 – 144
= 633 mm from centreline of support.
Say 500 mm from face of support A pp
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
6.2.2(5)
= in end span at 1st internal support 50% moment occurs at 0.66
× span
0.66 × 5975 = 3944 mm
Shift rule: for slabs a
l
may be taken as d (= 144 mm), d
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 3944 + 144
= 4088 mm from support A
or 5975 – 4088 = 987 mm from centreline of support B.
Say 850 mm from face of support B pp
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
6.2.2(5)
ii) 1st interior support, top reinforcement
Presuming 50% curtailment of reinforcement is required this may
take place a
l
from where the moment of resistance of the section
with the remaining 50% would be adequate. However, it is usual to
determine the curtailment distance as being a
l
from where M
Ed
=
M
Ed,max
/2.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
Note, 9.2.1.3(2)
Thus, for the 1st interior support supporting a UDL of n,
M
Ed,maxT
= 0.086
T
nl
2
; R
B
= 0.6nl
At distance Y from end support, moment, Y
M
Ed
@Y = Y M
Ed,maxT

T
R
A
Y + Y nY
2
/2
= when M@Y = Y M
Ed,maxT
/2
0.086nl
2
/2 = 0.086nl
2
– 0.6nlY + Y nY
2
/2
Assuming Y = Y yl
0.043nl
2
= 0.086nl
2
– 0.6nlyl + l ny
2
l
2
/2
0 = 0.043 − 0.6y + y y
2
/2
y = 0.077 y (or 1.122), say 0.08
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.08 × span
0.08 × 5975 = 478 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, a
l
may be taken as d 144 mm d
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 478 + 144
= 622 mm from centreline of support.
50% of reinforcement may be curtailed at, say,
600 mm from either face of support B pp
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
6.2.2(5)
49
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e|
100% curtailment may take place a
l
from where there is no hogging
moment. Thus,
when M@Y = M
Ed,maxT
/2
0 = 0.086nl
2
– 0.6nlY + nY
2
/2
Assuming Y = yl
0 = 0.086 – 0.6y + y
2
/2
y = 0.166

(or 1.034), say 0.17
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.17 × span
0.17 × 5975 = 1016 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, a
l
may be taken as d
= curtail to 100% of required reinforcement at 1016 + 144
= 1160 mm from centreline of support.
100% of reinforcement may be curtailed at, say,
1100 mm from either face of support B.
iii) Support B bottom steel at support
At the support 25% of span steel required Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1),
9.2.1.4(1)
0.25 × 639 = 160 mm
2
A
s,min
as before = 216 mm
2
/m
For convenience use H12 @ 300 B1 (376 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
c) Anchorage at end support
As simply supported, 50% of A
s
should extend into the support.
This 50% of A
s
should be anchored to resist a force of
Cl. 9.2.1.2(1) &
Note, 9.2.1.4(2)
F
E
= V
Ed
× a
l
/z
where
Exp. (9.3)
V
Ed
= the absolute value of the shear force
a
l
= d, where the slab is not reinforced for shear
z = lever arm of internal forces
F
E
= 29.4 × d/0.95

d = 30.9 kN/m
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2)
Anchorage length, l
bd
: Cl. 8.4.4
l
bd
= al
b,rqd
≥ l
b,min
Exp. (8.4)
where
a = conservatively 1.0
l
b,rqd
= basic anchorage length required
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = diameter of the bar = 12 mm
s
sd
= design stress in the bar at the ultimate limit state
= F
E
/A
s,prov
= 30.9 × 1000/376 = 81.5 MPa

Maximum z = 0.947 at mid-span and greater towards support.
50
f
bd
= ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n
1
n
2
f
ct,d
Cl. 8.4.2(2)
where
n
1
= 1.0 for ‘good’ bond conditions and 0.7 for all other
conditions = 1.0
n
2
= 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
f
ct,d
= design tensile strength
= a
ct
f
ct,k
/ g
C
. For f
ck
= 30 MPa
= 1.0 × 2.0/1.5 = 1.33 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6(2) &
NA, Tables 3.1
& 2.1N
=f
|d
= 2.25 × 1.33 = 3.0 MPa
l
b,rqd
= (12/4) (81.5/1.33) = 183 mm
l
b,min
= max(10d, 100 mm) = 120 mm
l
bd
= 183 mm measured from face of support
By inspection, using U-bars, OK
Exp. (8.6)
Fig. 9.3
d) Laps
Lap H12 @ 300 U-bars with H12 @ 150 straights.
Tension lap, l
0
= a
1
a
2
a
3
a
5
a
6
l
b,rqd
a l
0min
Exp. (8.10)
where
a
1
= 1.0 (straight bars)
a
2
= 1 − 0.15 (c
d
− f)/f
Table 8.2
where
c
d
= min(pitch, side cover or cover)
= 25 mm
Fig. 8.4
f = bar diameter
= 12 mm
a
2
= 0.84
a
3
= 1.0 (no confinement by reinforcement)
a
5
= 1.0 (no confinement by pressure)
Table 8.2
a
6
= 1.5 Table 8.3
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) s
sd
/f
bd
Exp. (8.3)
where
s
sd
= the design stress at ULS at the position from
where the anchorage is measured.
Assuming lap starts 500 mm from face of
support (587.5 mm from centreline of support):
M
Ed
= 29.5 × 0.59 − 12.3 × 0.59
2
/2
= 15.2 kNm
s
sd
= M
Ed
/(A
s
z)
= 15.2 × 10
6
/(376 × 144/0.95) = 267 MPa
f
bd
= ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n
1
n
2
f
ct,d
Cl. 8.4.2(2)
51
3? Cont|nuous one-wev so||d s|e|
where
n
1
= 1.0 for ‘good’ conditions
n
2
= 1.0 for f < 32 mm
f
ct,d
= a
ct
f
ct,k
/g
C
where
a
ct
= 1.0
f
ct,k
= 2.0
g
C
= 1.5
=f
|d
= 2.25 × 2.0/1.5 = 3.0 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6 (2) & NA
Table 3.1
Table 2.1N & NA
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) s
sd
/f
bd
= (12/4) × (267/3) = 267 mm
l
0min
b = max[0.3 a
6
l
b,rqd
; 15f/ 200 mm]
= max[0.3 × 1.5 × 229; 15 × 12; 200]
= max[124; 180; 200] = 200 mm
= l
0
= a
1
a
2
a
3
a
5
a
6
l
b,rqd
≥ l
0min
= 1.0 × 0.84 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 × 329 ≥ 200 = 414 mm
Exp. 8.6
But good practice suggests minimum lap of max[tension lap; 500]
= lap with bottom reinforcement = 500 mm starting 500 from
face of support.
3.2.11 Summary of reinforcement details
SMDSC
[9]
: MS2
A
A
500 1200
H12 U-bars @ 300 H12 @ 175 T1
H12 @ 150
H12 @ 300 H12 @ 225
500 600 600
200
200
200 500 500 500 500 350 350
Figure 3.6 Continuous solid slab: reinforcement details
500
1200
H10 @ 350 B2
Figure 3.7 Section A–A showing reinforcement details at edge
52
3.3 Continuous ribbed slab
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous ribbed slab
This continuous 300 mm deep ribbed slab has spans of 7.5 m,
9.0 m and 7.5 m and is required for an office to support a variable
action of 5 kN/m
2
. It is supported on wide beams that are the same
depth as the slab designed in Section 4.3. One hour fire resistance
is required: internal environment. The ribs are 150 mm wide @ 900
mm centres. Links are required in span to facilitate prefabrication of
reinforcement. Assume that partitions are liable to be damaged by
excessive deflections. In order to reduce deformations yet maintain a
shallow profile use f
ck
= 35 MPa and f
yk
= 500 MPa.
g
k
= 4.17 kN/m
2
g
k
= 4.3 kN/m
2
q
k
= 5.0 kN/m
2
A B
7500
550 1000 1000 1000
9000 7500
C D
550 1000
Figure 3.8 Continuous ribbed slab example p
Notes on ribbed slab design
There are various established methods for analysing ribbed slabs and dealing
with the solid areas:
t Using UDLs simplifies the analysis and remains popular. One method is
to ignore the weight of the solid part of the slab in the analysis of the
ribbed slab. (The weight of the solid area is then added to the loads on the
supporting beam). This ignores the minor effect the solid areas have on
bending in the ribbed slab.
t Alternatively the weight of the solid part of the slab is spread as a UDL
over the whole span. This is conservative both in terms of moment and
shears at solid/shear interfaces but underestimates hogging in internal
spans.
The advent of computer analysis has made analysis using patch loads t
more viable and the resulting analysis more accurate.
t The ribbed part of the slab may be designed to span between solid areas.
(The ribs span d/2 into the solid areas, which are assumed to act as
beams in the orthogonal direction.) However, having to accommodate
torsions induced in supporting beams and columns usually makes it simpler
to design from centreline of support to centreline of support.
Analysis programs can cope with the change of section and therefore t
change of stiffness along the length of the slab. Moments would be
attracted to the stiffer, solid parts at supports. However, the difference in
stiffness between the ribbed and the solid parts is generally ignored.
53
In line with good practice analysis, this example is carried out using
centreline of support to centreline of support and patch loads

.
Constant stiffness along the length of the slab has been assumed.
300
200 200
C
L
1000 550
100
A
A
C
L
Figure 3.9 Long section through slab
150 150 750
Figure 3.10 Section A–A: section through ribbed slab
3.3.1 Actions
Permanent: UDL kN/m
2
Self-weight: kN/m
2
Rib 0.15 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.833
Slope 2 × (1/2) × 0.2/10 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.112
Slab 0.1 × 2.5 = 2.500
Cross rib 0.19 × 0.71 × 0.2 × 25/(0.9 × 7.5) = 0.100
Total self-weight = 3.545 ≈ 3.55
Ceiling = 0.15
Services = 0.30
Raised floor = 0.30
Total permanent actions g
k
= 4.30

In this case, assuming the patch load analysis is accurate, taking the weight
of solid area to be spread over the whole span would overestimate span and
support moments by 6–8% and shears at the solid/rib interface by 8–9%.
Ignoring the weight of the solid area in the analysis of this ribbed slab would
lead to underestimates of span moments by 1%, support moments by 3% and
no difference in the estimation of shear at the solid shear interface. The latter
may be the preferred option.
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
54
Permanent: patch load
Extra over solid in beam area as patch load
(0.2 × 25 – 0.833) = 4.167 g
k
≈ 4.17
Variable
Imposed = 4.00*
Allowance for partitions = 1.00*
Total variable action g
k
= 5.00
3.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max(c
min,b
; c
min,dur
)
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond
= diameter of bar.
Assume 20 mm main bars and 8 mm links
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, c
min,dur
= 15 mm
r
Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 20 + 10 to main bars or
= 15 + 10 to links = critical
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for REI 60.
EC2-1-2: 5.7.5(1)
Minimum slab thickness, h
s
= 80 mm OK EC2-1-2: Table 5.8
Axis distance required
Minimum rib width b
min
= 120 mm with a = 25 mm
or b
min
= 200 mm with a = 12 mm
EC2-1-2: Table 5.6
= at 150 mm wide (min.) a = 20 mm
By inspection, not critical.
Use 25 mm nominal cover to links
3.3.3 Load combination and arrangement
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical
n
slab
= 1.25 × 4.30 + 1.5 × 5.0 = 13.38 kN/m
2
n
solid areas
= 1.25 × (4.30 + 4.17) + 1.5 × 5.0 = 18.59 kN/m
2
Fig. 2.5 Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
*Client requirements. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA.
55
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
option b
3.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, includes 15% redistribution at support and
none in the span.
§
EC0: A1.2.2
& NA, 5.3.1 (6)
100
90.7 kNm/m 90.7 kNm/m
– 61.1 kNm/m – 65.3 kNm/m – 65.3 kNm/m
80
60
40
20
0
–20
–40
–60
–80
A B C D
a) Elastic moments
77.1 kNm/m 77.1 kNm/m
–61.7 kNm/m –61.7 kNm/m –55.9 kNm/m
100
80
60
40
20
0
–20
–40
–60
–80
A B C D
b) Redistributed envelope
Figure 3.11 Bending moment diagrams
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
§
Note 1: A ribbed slab need not be treated as discrete elements provided
rib spacing ≤ 1500 mm, depth of the rib ≤ 4 × its width, the flange is > 0.1 ×
distance between ribs and transverse ribs are provided at a clear spacing not
exceeding 10 × overall depth of the slab.
Note 2: As 7.5 m < 85% of 9.0 m, coefficients presented in Concise Eurocode 2
[5]

are not applicable.
56
A B C D
0
80
40
42.5 kN/m
– 42.5 kN/m
63.2 kN/m
– 63.2 kN/m
63.5 kN/m
– 63.5 kN/m
– 80
– 40
At solid/rib interface:
AB @ 550 mm from A
M
Ed
(sagging)
V
Ed
= 20.4 kNm/m z 18.3 kNm/rib
= 32.5 kN/m z 29.3 kN/rib
BA @1000 mm from B
M
Ed
(hogging)
V
Ed

= 47.1 kNm/m z 42.4 kNm/rib
= 45.4 kN/m z 40.9 kN/rib
BC @ 1000 mm from B
M
Ed
(hogging)
V
Ed

= 43.0 kNm/m z 38.7 kNm/rib
= 45.1 kN/m z 40.6 kN/rib
Symmetrical about centreline of BC.
3.3.5 Flexural design, span A–B
a) Span A–B: Flexure
M
Ed
= 61.7 kNm/m
= 55.5 kNm/rib
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = 900 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 20/2 = 257
assuming 8 mm link at H20 in span
f
ck
= 35 MPa
=K = 55.5 × 10
6
/(900 × 257
2
× 35) = 0.027
K' = 0.207
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
Appendix A1
57
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (257/2) (1 + 0.951) ≤ 0.95 × 257
= 251 ≤ 244 = z = 244 mm
Appendix A1
But z = d – 0.4x
= x = 2.5(d − z) = 2.5(257 − 244) = 33 mm
= By inspection, neutral axis is in flange
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
where
|
vd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 55.5 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 244) = 523 mm
2
/rib
Try 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
Appendix A1
b) Span A–B: Deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r
0
and whether to use Cl. 7.4.2(2)
Exp. (7.16a) or Exp. (7.16b)
r
0
= f
ck
0.5
/1000 = 35
0.5
/1000 = 0.59%
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
] PD 6687
[6]
where
b
w
= min. width between tension and compression
chords. At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib:
= 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10
= 159 mm
r = 523/(159 ( 257 + (900 − 159) × 100)
= 523/114963
= 0.45%
r < r
0
= use Exp. (7.16a)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r /r
0
+ 3.2f
ck
0.5
(r /r
0
– 1)
1.5
]
= 11 + 1.5 × 35
0.5
× 0.055/0.045 + 3.2 × 35
0.5

(0.055/0.045 – 1)
1.5
= [11 + 10.8 + 2.0] = 22.8
Exp. (7.16a)
K = (end span) 1.3
Table 7.4N &
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 5.66) 0.8
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
= 7.0/7.5 = (span > 7.0 m) 0.93 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/ s
s
≤ 1.5
Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
& NA; Table NA.5

Section 2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T-beams should be based on
the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
58
where

s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8(523/628) [ (4.30 + 0.3 × 5.0)/13.38]
(65.3/61.7
§
)
= 434.8 × 0.83 × 0.43 × 1.06
= 164 MPa
F3 = 310/s
s
= 310/164 = 1.89
#
but ≤ 1.5, therefore say 1.50
= Permissible l/d = 22.8 × 1.3 × 0.8 × 0.93 × 1.50 = 33.0
Actual l/d = 7500/257 = 29.2 = OK
Use 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
c) Support A (and D): flexure (sagging) at solid/rib interface
Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both
moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule) Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
M
Ed,max
= 18.3 kNm/rib
V
Ed,max
= 29.3 kNm/rib
At solid/rib interface
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z + DF
td
/f
yd
Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2),
Fig. 9.2
where
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
where
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = 900 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 25 − 20/2 = 232
assuming 8 mm links and H25B in edge beam
f
ck
= 30
= 18.3 × 10
6
/(900 × 232
2
× 35) = 0.011

See Appendix B1.5
§
In analysis, 15% redistribution of support moments led to redistribution of span
moments:
d = 61.7/65.3 = 0.94.
#
Both A
s,prov
/A
s,req
and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or Exp.
(7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA. Therefore, 310/
s
s
is restricted to 1.5.
59
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
25 cover
8 link
8 link
20 bar
25 cover
12 fabric
16 bar
25 cover
8 link
25 bar
16 bar
= z = (232/2) (1 + 0.980) ≤ 0.95 × 232
= 230 ≤ 220 = z = 220 mm
f
yd
= 434.8 MPa
DF
td
= 0.5V
Ed
(cot y – cot a)
Appendix A1
Cl. 6.2.3(7),
Exp. (6.18)
where
y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the
beam axis. Assume cot y = 2.5 (as a maximum)
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis.
For vertical links, cot a = 0
DF
td
= 1.25V
Ed
= 1.25 × 29.3 = 36.6 kN
A
s
= 18.3 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 220) + 36.6 × 10
3
/434.8
= 191 + 84 mm
2
= 275 mm
2
=Try 1 no. H20 B in end supports*
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
Appendix A2
Appendix C,
Table C6
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
d) Support B (and C) (at centreline of support)
M
Ed
= 77.1 kNm/m
= 69.4 kNm/rib
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link − 20/2
= 245
K = 69.4 × 10
6
/(900 × 245
2
× 35) = 0.037
By inspection, K ≤ K'
z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K)
0.5
] ≤ 0·95d
= (245/2) (1 + 0.932) < 0.95d
= 237 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 69.4 × 10
6
/434.8 × 237 = 673 mm
2
/rib
*

An alternative method would have been to calculate the reinforcement required
to resist M
Ed
at the shift distance, a
l
, from the interface.
60
e) Support B (and C): flexure (hogging) at solid/rib interface
Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both
moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule).
M
Ed,max
= 42.4 kNm/rib max.
V
Ed,max
= 40.9 kNm/rib max.
Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z + DF
td
/f
yd
where
z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K)
0.5
] ≤ 0·95d
where
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 42.4 × 106/(150 × 245
2
× 35)
= 0.135
Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
Check K ≤ K'
K' = 0.168 for d = 0.85 (i.e. 15% redistribution)
= Section under-reinforced: no compression reinforcement required
Appendix C,
Table C4
Appendix A
= z = (245/2) (1 + 0.723) ≤ 232 = 211 mm
f
yd
= 434.8 MPa
DF
td
= 0.5V
Ed
(cot y – cot a)
Cl. 6.2.3(7),
Exp. (6.18)
where
y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the
beam axis. Assume cot y = 2.5 (as a maximum)
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis. For
vertical links, cot a = 0
DF
td
= 1.25V
Ed
= 1.25 × 40.9 = 51.1 kN
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
Appendix A2;
Table C6
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
A
s
= 42.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 211) + 51.1 × 10
3
/434.8
= 462 + 117 mm
2
= 579 mm
2
/rib
To be spread over b
eff
where by inspection, b
eff
= 900. Cl. 9.2.1.2(2)
=Centre of support more critical (679 mm
2
/rib required). Cl. 5.3.2.1(3)
Top steel may be spread across b
eff
where
b
eff
= b
w
+ b
eff1
+ b
eff2
≤ b
= b
w
+ 2 × 0.1 × 0.15 × (l
1
+ l
2
)
= 150 + 0.03 × (7500 + 9000) ≤ 900
= 645 mm
= Use 2 no. H16 above rib and 3 no. H12 between (741 mm
2
/rib)
where 2 no. H16 and 2 no. H12 are within b
eff
Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
5.3.2
3.3.6 Flexural design, span BC
a) Span B–C: Flexure
M
Ed
= 55.9 kNm/m
= 50.3 kNm/rib
61
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 50.3 × 10
6
/900 × 257
2
× 35
= 0.02 i.e. ≤ K’ (as before K’ = 0.168)
By inspection,
z = 0.95d = 0.95 × 257 = 244 mm
By inspection, neutral axis is in flange.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 50.3 × 10
6
/434.8 × 244 = 474 mm
2
Try 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
b) Span B–C: Deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
Section C7
where
N = Basic l/d
r = 474/(159 (× 257 + (900 − 159) × 100)
= 474/114963
= 0.41%
r
0
= 0.59% (for f
ck
= 30)
= r < r
0
use Exp. (7.16a)
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5 f
ck
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2f
ck
0.5
(r
0
/r – 1)
1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 35
0.5
× 0.055/0.041 + 3.2 × 35
0.5
(0.055/0.041 − 1)
1.5
= 11 + 11.9 + 3.8 = 26.7
Exp. (7.16a)
K = (internal span) 1.5 Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 6.0) 0.8
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
= 7.0/9.0 = (span > 7.0 m) 0.77 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/s
S
≤ 1.5
where
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (474/628) [(4.30 + 0.3 × 5.0)/13.38](61.1/55.9)
= 434.8 × 0.75 × 0.43 × 1.09
= 153 MPa
Cl. 7.4.2,
Exp. (7.17)
& NA: Table NA.5
F3 = 310/ s
s
= 310/153 = 2.03 therefore, say = 1.50

= Permissible l/d = 26.8 × 1.5 × 0.8 × 0.77 × 1.50 = 37.1
Actual l/d = 9000/257 = 35 = OK
=Use 2 H20/rib (628 mm
2
/rib)
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5

Both A
s,prov
/A
s,req
and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or
Exp. (7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA.
62
3.3.7 Design for shear
10
C
L
C
L
b = 150
1
a) Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface
Shear at solid/rib interface = 29.3 kN/rib
Taking solid area as the support, at d from face of support
V
Ed
= 29.3 − 0.232 × 0.90 × 13.38 = 26.5 kN/rib
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Cl. 6.2.2(1) & NA
Resistance
V
Rd,c
= (0.18/g
C
)k (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
b
w
d
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2
= 1 + (200/257)
0.5
= 1.88
r
l
= A
sl
/b
w
d
where
A
sl
= assume only 1 H20 anchored = 314 mm
2
b
w
= min. width between tension and compression chords.
At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib:
= 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10
= 159 mm
d = 257 mm as before
r
l
= 314/(159 × 257) = 0.0077
f
ck
= 35
=V
Rd,c
= (0.18/1.5) 1.88 (100 × 0.0077 × 35)
0.333
× 159 × 257
= 0.68 × 159 × 257 = 27.8 kN/rib
= No shear links required.
But use nominal links to allow prefabrication.
Cl. 6.2.1(5)
b) Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface
Shear at solid/rib interface = 40.9 kN/rib [max(B
A
; B
C
)]
At d from face of support
V
Ed
= 40.9 − 0.245 × 13.38 × 0.9 = 37.9 kN/rib
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
63
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
Resistance:
V
Rd,c
= (0.18/ g
C
)k (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
b
w
d
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2
= 1 + (200/245)0.5
= 1.90
r
l
= A
sl
/b
w
d
where
A
sl
= 2 H16 = 402 mm
2
b
w
= 159 mm as before
d = 245 mm as before
r
l
= 0.0103
f
ck
= 35 MPa
= V
Rd,c
= (0.18/1.5) 1.9 (100 × 0.0103 × 35)
0.333
× 159 × 245
= 0.75 × 159 × 245 = 29.2 kN/rib
= Shear links required.
Cl. 6.2.2(1) & NA
Shear links required for a distance:
(37.9 − 29.2)/(13.38 × 0.9) + 245 = 722 + 245 = 967 mm
from interface.
Check shear capacity:
V
Rd,max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/(cot y + tan y)
Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
a
cw
= 1.0
b
w
= 159 mm as before
z = 0.9d
v = 0.6 (1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.528
f
cd
= 35/1.5 = 23.3 MPa
y = angle of inclination of strut.
Rearranging formula above:
(cot y + tan y) = a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/V
Ed
= (1.0 × 159 × 0.9 × 245 × 0.528 × 23.3)
41.6 × 103
= 10.4
By inspection, cot
−1
y << 21.8. But cot y restricted to 2.5 and
= tan y = 0.4.
V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 159 × 0.9 × 245 × 0.528 × 20/(2.5 + 0.4) = 127.6 kN
= OK
Cl. 6.2.3(2) & NA
64
Shear links: shear resistance with links
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y ≤ V
Rd,max
where
A
sw
/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
f
ywd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
cot y = 2.5 as before
= for V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,s
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/z f
ywd
cot y
≥ 37.9 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 245 × 434.8 × 2.5) ≥ 0.158
Exp. (6.8)
Maximum spacing of links = 0.75d = 183 mm
= Use H8 @ 175 cc in 2 legs (A
sw
/s = 0.57) for min. 967 mm into rib
Cl. 9.2.2(6)
3.3.8 Indirect supports
As the ribs of the slab are not supported at the top of the
supporting beam sections (A, B, C, D), additional vertical
reinforcement should be provided in these supporting beams and
designed to resist the reactions. This additional reinforcement
should consist of links within the supporting beams (see Beams
design, Section 4.3.9).
Cl. 9.2.5, Fig. 9.7
Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface:
V
Ed
= 26.5 kN/rib
A
s,req
= 26.3 × 1000/(500/1.15) = 60 mm
2
This area is required in links within h/6 = 300/6 = 50 mm of the
ribbed/solid interface and within h/2 = 300/2 = 150 mm of the
centreline of the rib.
Fig. 9.7
Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface:
V
Ed
= 37.9 kN/rib
A
s,req
= 37.9 × 1000/(500/1.15) = 87 mm
2
placed similarly
3.3.9 Other checks
Check shear between web and flange
By inspection, V
Ed
≤ 0.4 f
ct,d
= OK
Cl. 6.4.2 (6) & NA
65
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
3.3.10 Summary of design
2H16 + 3H12/rib
H8 links in 2 legs
@ 175cc
A
550 550 1050
7500
f
ck
= 35 MPa
c
nom
= 25 mm
7500 9000
1000 1000 1050 1050 1000 1000 1050
B C D
2H20/rib 2H20/rib 2H20/rib
2H16 + 3H12/rib
Figure 3.15 Summary of design
Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the above
design and detail the slab to normal best practice. As stated
in

Section 3.2.9, the detailer’s responsibilities, standards and
timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the
detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement
but all the reinforcement required to provide a buildable solution.
The work would usually include checking the following aspects and
providing appropriate detailing:
Minimum areas t
Curtailment lengths t
Anchorages t
Laps t
U-bars t
Rationalisation t
Details and sections t
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas, curtailment
lengths and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown in
detail in the following calculations. In practice these would be
determined from published tables of data or by using reference
texts
[12, 21]
. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing
for design intent and compliance with standards. It is therefore
necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles
of the details used.
3.3.11 Detailing checks
a) Minimum areas
i) Minimum area of reinforcement in flange
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) b
t
d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
d Cl. 9.3.1.1
66
where
b
t
= width of tension zone
Cl. 9.2.1.1,
Exp. (9.1N)
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
Table 3.1
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 35
0.666
× 1000 × 100/500 = 166 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.17%)
= Use A142 in flange (say OK) BS 8666
[19]
ii) Secondary reinforcement
Not applicable.
iii) Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum spacing of bars < 3 h < 400 mm
By inspection. OK Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
iv) Crack control
Loading is the main cause of cracking = use Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N for Cl. 7.3.3(2)
w
max
= 0.3 mm and max. s
s
= 200 MPa (see deflection check) Cl. 7.3.1.5
Max. bar size = 25 mm Table 7.2N
or max. spacing = 250 mm Table 7.3N
OK by inspection
v) Effects of partial fixity
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of A
s
is required
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
A
s,req
= 15% × 525 = 79 mm
2
/rib
For the rib in tension:
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 159 × 257/500 = 55 mm
2
/rib
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
b) Curtailment
Wherever possible simplified methods of curtailing reinforcement
would be used. The following is intended to show how a rigorous
assessment of curtailment of reinforcement might be undertaken.
i) End support A: bottom steel at support
Check anchorage.
As simply supported, 25% of A
s
should be anchored in support.
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.3.1.2(1) &
Note,
25% × 595 = 148 mm
2
Use 1 no. H20/rib (314 mm
2
/rib)
Cl. 9.2.1.4(1)
& NA
ii) Check anchorage length
Envelope of tensile force:
To resist envelope of tensile force, provide reinforcement to a
l
or l
bd
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.3(1),
beyond centreline of support.
For members without shear reinforcement, a
l
= d = 232
By inspection, s
sd
= 0, l
bd
= l
bd,min
= max(10f, 100 mm)
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
9.2.1.3(3), Fig. 9.2
Cl. 9.2.1.3
iii) Indirect support
As anchorage may be measured from face of indirect support, check
force to be resisted at solid/rib interface:
F
s
= M
Ed
/z + F
E
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.4(2),
9.2.1.4(3),
Fig. 9.3b
67
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
where
M
Ed
= 18.3 kNm/rib
z = 220 as before
F
E
= V
Ed
× a
l
/z
Exp. (9.3)
where
V
Ed
= 29.3 kN/rib
a
l
= z cot y/2
= F
E
= V
Ed
cot y/2
= 29.3 × 1.25 = 36.6 kN/rib
F
s
= 18.6 × 10
6
/(220 × 10
3
) + 36.6 = 121.1 kN
Cl. 9.2.1.3,
Exp. (9.2)
iv) Anchorage length:
l
bd
= al
b,rqd
≥ l
b,min
where
Cl. 8.4.4,
Exp. (8.4)
a = conservatively 1.0
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
)
where
f = 20
s
sd
= design stress in the bar at the ULS
= 121.1 × 1000/314 = 385 MPa
f
bd
= ultimate bond stress
Exp. (8.3)
= 2.25 n
1
n
1
f
ct,d
where
n
1
= 1.0 for good bond conditions
n
2
= 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
Cl. 8.4.2(2)
f
ct,d
= a
ct
f
ct,k
/g
C
= 1.0 × 2.2/1.5
= 1.47 MPa
f
bd
= 2.25 × 1.47 = 3.31 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6(2),
Tables 3.1,
2.1 & NA
= l
b,rqd
= (20/4) (385/3.31) = 581 mm
l
b,min
= max[10f; 100 mm] = 200 mm
= l
bd
= 581 mm measured from solid/rib intersection.
i.e. 31 mm beyond centreline of support

.
Fig. 9.3
v) End support A: top steel
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of A
s
is required
to extend at least 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span
§
.
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
A
s,req
= 15% × 525 = 79 mm
2
/rib
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 35
0.666
× 159 × 257/500 = 68 mm
2
/rib
Cl. 9.3.1.1
Cl. 9.2.1.1(1),
Use 2 no. H12 T1/rib in rib and 2 no. H10 T1/rib between ribs
(383 mm
2
/rib)
Exp. (9.1N)

Whilst this would comply with the requirements of Eurocode 2, it is common practice
to take bottom bars 0.5 × a tension lap beyond the centreline of support
(= 250 mm beyond the centreline of support; see model detail MS1 in SMDSC
[9]
).
§
It is usual to curtail 50% of the required reinforcement at 0.2l and to curtail the
remaining 50% at 0.3l or line of zero moment (see model detail MS2 in SMDSC
[9]
).
68
vi) Support B (and C): top steel
At the centreline of support (2 no. H16 T + 3 no. H12 T)/rib are
required. The intention is to curtail in two stages, firstly to 2 no.
H16 T/rib then to 2 no. H12 T/rib.
Curtailment of 2 no. H16 T/rib at support
(capacity of 2 no. H12 T/rib + shift rule):
Assume use of 2 no. H12 T throughout in midspan:
Assuming z = 211 mm as before,
M
R2H12T
= 2 × 113 × 434.8 × 211
= 20.7 kNm/rib (23.0 kNm/m)
(Note: section remains under-reinforced)
From analysis M
Ed
= 23.0 kNm/m occurs at 2250 mm (towards A)
and 2575 mm (towards B).
Shift rule: a
l
= z cot y/2
Assuming z = 211 mm as before
a
l
= 1.25 × 211 = 264 mm
= 2 no. H12 T are adequate from 2250 + 264 = 2513 mm from B
towards A and 2575 + 263 = 2838 mm from B towards C.
= Curtail 2 no. H16 T @ say 2600 from B
A
and 2850 from B
C
Curtailment of 3 no. H12 T/rib at support (capacity of 2 no. H16
T/rib + shift rule):
M
R2H16T
= 2 × 201 × 434.8 × 211
= 36.9 kNm/rib (41.0 kNm/m)
(Note: section remains under-reinforced)
From analysis M
Ed
= 41.0 kNm/m occurs at 1310 mm (towards A)
and 1180 mm
(towards C).
Shift rule: a
l
= 263 mm as before
= 2 no. H16 T are adequate from 1310 + 263 = 1573 mm from B
towards A and 1180 + 263 = 1443 mm from B towards C.
= Curtail 3 no. H12 at say 1600 from B (or C).
(See Figure 3.16)
vii) Support B (and C): bottom steel at support
At the support 25% of span steel required
0.25 × 628 = 157 mm
2
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1),
9.2.1.4(1)
Try 1 no. H16 B/rib (201)
This reinforcement may be anchored into indirect support or carried
through.
Fig. 9.4
69
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
2H12/rib
2H16/rib
2H16 + 3H12
per rib
‘Shift’ moment
a) Design moments and moment resistance
b) Curtailment of reinforcement
264
264
264
2H12 3H12 2H12
2H16
1600 1600
2600 2850
264
2250 2575
1310 1180
B
A C
l
bd
a
1
= 264 M
Ed
= 77.1 x 0.9 = 60.4 kNm/rib
M
Ed
= 20.7 kNm/rib
M
Ed
= 36.79 kNm/rib
M
Ed
M
R
= A
s
(f
yk
/g
S
)z
p p
viii) Support B (and C): bottom steel curtailment BA and BC
To suit prefabrication 2 no. H20/rib will be curtailed at solid/rib
interface, 1000 mm from B
A
(B towards A) and B
C
.
From analysis, at solid/rib interface sagging moment = 0.
From analysis, at a
1
from solid/rib interface, i.e. at 1000 + 1.25 × 244
= 1303 mm
at 1305 mm from B
A
sagging moment = say 5 kNm/rib
at 1305 mm from B
C
sagging moment = 0
Use 1 no. H16 B/rib (201)
c) Laps
At A
B
, check lap 1 no. H20 B to 2 no. H20 B in rib full tension lap:
l
0
= a
1
a
6
l
b,rqd
> l
0,min
Exp. (8.10)
where
a
1
= 1.0 (c
d
= 45 mm, i.e. < 3f)
a
6
= 1.5 (as > 50% being lapped)
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
)
where
f = 20
s
sd
= 434.8
f
bd
= 3.0 MPa as before
Table 8.2
70
l
0,min
= max. 10f or 100 = 200
l
0
= 1.0 × 1.5 × (20/4) × 434.8/3.0
Exp. (8.6)
= 1087 mm, say = 1200 mm SMDSC
[9]
At B
A
and B
C
, check lap 2 no. H12 T to 2 no. H16 T in rib – full tension lap:
l
0
= a
1
a
6
l
b,rqd
> l
0,min
where
a
1
= 0.7 (c
d
= 45 mm, i.e. > 3f)
a
6
= 1.5 (as > 50% being lapped)
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
)
where
f = 20
s
sd
= 434.8
f
bd
= 2.1 (3.0 MPa as before but n
1
= 0.7 for “not good bond
conditions”)
l
0,min
= max. 10f or 100 = 120
Exp. (8.10)
Table 8.2
Cl. 8.4.2
l
0
= 0.7 × 1.5 × (12/4) × 434.8/2.1
= 651 mm, say = 700 mm
But to aid prefabrication take to solid/rib intersection 1000 mm
from centre of support.
SMDSC
[9]
At B
A
and B
C
, check lap 1 no. H16 B to 2 no. H20 B in rib:
By inspection, nominal say, 500 mm SMDSC
[9]
d) RC detail of ribbed slab
Links not shown for clarity. Cover 25 mm to links.
200 200 1500
2H12T in rib
and 2H1OT
between
2H16 + 3H12/rib
2H16 + 3H12/rib
A143
fabric
2H12 3H12 2H16 2H12 3H12 2H16 2H12
150 550 500
7500 9000
500 1000 1000 500 1000 1000 1200
2H12 + 2H1O 2H16 3H12 2H12
2H12T/rib 2H12T
1H20B 2H20B/rib 2H20B/rib 1H16B/rib 1H16B/rib
1000 1000 1000
600 600 600
1000 1250 1250
Figure 3.17 Curtailment of flexural reinforcement in ribbed slab
71
33 Cont|nuous r|||ed s|e|
The slab is for an office where the specified load is 1.0 kN/m
2
for
finishes and 4.0 kN/m
2
imposed (no partitions). Perimeter load is
assumed to be 10 kN/m. Concrete is C30/37. The slab is 300 mm
thick and columns are 400 mm square. The floor slabs are at 4.50 m
vertical centres. A 2 hour fire rating is required.
E
D
C
A
4.0
8.0
9.6
200 x 200
hole
200 x 200
hole
300 mm flat slabs
All columns 400 mm sq.
8.6
8.0
4.0 4.0
6
.0
1
2
3
B Bb
Figure 3.18 Part plan of flat slab p
3.4.1 Actions
kN/m
2
Permanent:
EC1-1-1:
Table A1
Self-weight 0.30 × 25 = 7.5
Finishes = 1.0
Total g
k
= 8.5
Variable:
Offices a
k
= 4.0


Client requirement. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA.
3.4 Flat slab
¹h|s exemo|e |s ¦or the des|gn o¦ e re|n¦orced concrete ¦|et s|e| w|thout co|umn heeds ¹he s|e|
|s oert o¦ e |erger ¦|oor o|ete end |s te|en ¦rom Oa/Je |o |/e Je·/¡n onJ con·|·ac|/on o| ·e/n|o·ceJ
conc·e|e |/o| ·/o/·
|?/|
, where ¦|n|te e|ement ene|vs|s end des|gn to lurocode ? |s |||ustreted As
w|th the Oa/Je, gr|d ||ne C w||| |e des|gned |ut, ¦or the se|e o¦ |||ustret|on, coe¦¦|c|ents w||| |e
used to este|||sh des|gn moments end sheers |n th|s cr|t|ce| eree o¦ the s|e|
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Flat slab
72
3.4.2 Cover
c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
; 10 mm]
where
c
min,b
= 20 mm, assuming 20 mm diameter reinforcement
c
min,dur
= 15 mm for XC1 and using C30/37
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
Exp. (4.1)
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4.
Fire:
For 2 hours resistance, a
min
= 35 mm = not critical
= c
nom
= 20 + 10 = 30 mm
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.9
3.4.3 Load combination and arrangement
q
k
= 4.0 kN/m
2
g
k
= 8.5 kN/m
2
9600 8600
2 3 1
Figure 3.19 Panel centred on grid C
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical.
n = 1.25 × 8.50 + 1.5 × 4.0 = 16.6 kN/m
2
Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases and
coefficients

.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA:
Table NA.1
(option b)
3.4.4 Analysis grid line C
Consider grid line C as a bay 6.0 m wide. (This may be conservative
for grid line C but is correct for grid line D etc.)
M
Ed
Effective spans:
9600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 9500 mm
8600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 8500 mm
Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
Check applicability of moment coefficients:
8500/9500 = 0.89 = as spans differ by less than 15% of larger
span, coefficients are applicable.
Tables C2 & C3

The all-spans-loaded case with 20% redistribution of support moments would
also have been acceptable but would have involved some analysis. The use of Table
5.9 in BS EN 1992–1–2 (Fire resistance of solid flat slabs) is restricted to where
redistribution does not exceed 15%; the coefficients presume 15% redistribution
at supports.
Cl. 5.3.1 & NA
Table C3
73
34 l|et s|e|
As two span, use table applicable to beams and slabs noting
increased coefficients for central support moment and shear.
Table C3
Design moments in bay.
Spans:
M
Ed
= (1.25 × 8.5 × 0.090 + 1.5 × 4.0 × 0.100)× 6.0 × 9.5
2
= 842.7 kNm
Support:
M
Ed
= 16.6 × 0.106 × 6.0 × 9.5
2
= 952.8 kNm
C D
Column
strip
Column
strip
Column strip Column strip
Middle
strip
Middle strip
6000
1500
1500
1500
15001500 1500 3000 1500
1
2
Figure 3.20 Column and middle strips p
Apportionment of moments between column strips and middle strips:
Apportionment (as %)
Column strip Middle strip
–ve (hogging) Long span = 70%
§

Short span = 75%
Long span = 30%
Short span = 25%
+ve (sagging) 50% 50%
Table I.1;
CS Flat slab
guide
[27]
Table I.1
NA.3
[1a]
; Fig. I.1
Parallel to grid C, column strip is l
y
/2 = 3 m wide. The middle strip is
also 3 m wide.
Long span moments:
M
Ed
Column strip, 3 m wide Middle strip, 3 m wide
–ve (hogging) 0.70 × 952.8/3.0 = 222.3 kNm/m 0.30 × 952.8/3.0 = 95.3 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) 0.50 × 842.7/3.0 = 140.5 kNm/m 0. 50 × 842.7/3.0 = 140.5 kNm/m
§
The Concrete Society’s TR 64
[27]
recommends a percentage, k
1
, based on l
y
/l
z

Assuming l
y
/l
z
= 1.5 the distribution of moments in the long span between column
strips and middle strips is given as 70% and 30%.
74
Punching shear force, V
Ed
VV :
At C2,
V
Ed
VV = 16.6 × 6.0 × 9.6

× 0.63 × 2 = 1204.8 kN Table C3 Table C3
At C1 (and C3)
V
Ed
VV = 16.6 × 6.0 × 9.6 × 0.45 + (10 + 0.2 × 0.3 × 25)
§
× 1.25 × 6.0
= 516.5 kN
Table C3 Table C3
3.4.5 Design grid line C
Effective depth, d:
d = 300 − 30 − 20/2 = 260 mm d
a) Flexure: column strip and middle strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 140.5 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
f = 140.5 × 10
6
/(1000 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.069
z/ zz d = 0.94 d Table C5 Table C5
z = 0.94 × 260 = 244 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
ff z = 140.5 × 10 z
6
/(244 × 500/1.15) = 1324 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.51%) r
Try H20 @ 200 B1 (1570 mm
2
/m)
b) Deflection: column strip and middle strip
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B Appendix B
Allowable l/ ll d = d N × N K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
Appendix C Appendix C
N = 20.3 ( N r = 0.51%, r f
ck
f = 30)
Tables C10–C13 Tables C10–C13
K = 1.2 (flat slab)
F1 = 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
bb = 1.0)
w
F2 = 1.0 (no brittle partitions)
#
F3 = 310/s
s
s ≤ 1.5
Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
Fig. C3 Fig. C3
where*
s
s
s = s
su
s (A
s,req
/
q
A
s,prov
) 1/d
where
s
su
s = (500/1.15) × (8.5 + 0.3 × 4.0)/16.6 = 254 MPa
(or ≈ 253 MPa; from Figure C3
G
k
/Q
k
= 2.1, c
2
cc = 0.3 and g
G
gg = 1.25)
d = redistribution ratio = 1.03 d
= s
s
s ≈ 253 × (1324/1570)/1.03 = 207
= F3 = 310/207 = 1.50

= Allowable l/ ll d = 20.3 × 1.2 × 1.50 = 36.5 d
Fig. C14 Fig. C14

As punching shear force (rather than a beam shear force) ‘effective’ span is not
appropriate.
§
Cladding and strip of slab beyond centre of support.
#
Otherwise for flat slabs 8.5/9.5 = 0.89 as span > 8.5 m.
* See Appendix B1.5

In line with Note 5 to Table NA.5, 1.50 is considered to be a maximum for 310/s
s
s .
Cl. 7.4.2(2)
75
34 l|et s|e|
Actual l/d = 9500/260 = 36.5 = OK

Use H20 @ 200 B1 (1570)
§
c) Flexure: column strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 222.3 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 222.3 × 10
6
/(1000 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.109
z/d = 0.89
z = 0.89 × 260 = 231 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 222.3 × 10
6
/(231 × 500/1.15) = 2213 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.85%)
Try H20 @ 125 T1 (2512 mm
2
/m)
#
Table C5
d) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 95.3 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 95.3 × 10
6
/(1000 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.069
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 260 = 247 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 95.3 × 10
6
/(247 × 500/1.15) = 887 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.34%)
Try H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm
2
/m)
Table C5
e) Requirements
i) In column strip, inside middle 1500 mm
There is a requirement to place 50% of A
t
within a width equal to
0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column.
Cl. 9.4.1(2)
Area required = (3 × 2213 + 3 × 887)/2 mm
2
= 4650 mm
2
Over width = 2 × 0.125 × 6.0 m = 1500 mm
i.e. require 4650/1.5 = 3100 mm
2
/m for 750 mm either side of the
column centreline.
Use H20 @ 100 T1 (3140 mm
2
/m)
750 mm either side of centre of support (16 no. bars)
(r = 0.60%)
ii) In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm
Area required = 3.0 × 2213 – 16 × 314 mm
2
= 1615 mm
2
Over width = 3000 – 2 × 750 mm = 1500 mm
i.e. 1077 mm
2
/m
Use H20 @ 250 T1 (1256 mm
2
/m)
in remainder of column strip

Note: Continuity into columns will reduce sagging moments and criticality of
deflection check (see Figures 3.26 and 3.27).
§
Note requirement for at least 2 bars in bottom layer to carry through column.
#
The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce the
amount of reinforcement required.
Cl. 9.4.1(3)
76
iii) In middle strip Use H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm
2
/m)
iv) Perpendicular to edge of slab at edge column
Design transfer moment to column M
t
= 0.17 b
e
d
2
f
ck
where
Cl. 9.4.2(1),
I.1.2(5)
b
e
= c
z
+ y = 400 + 400 = 800 mm
M
t
= 0.17 × 800 × 260
2
× 30 × 10
−6
= 275.8 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 275.8 × 10
6
/(800 × 260
2
× 30) = 0.170
z/d = 0.82
z = 0.82 × 260 = 213 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 275.8 × 10
6
/(213 × 500/1.15) = 2978 mm
2
/m
This reinforcement to be placed within c
x
+ 2c
y
= 1100 mm
Fig. 9.9
SMDSC
[9]
Try 10 no. H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200 (3140 mm
2
) local to column
(max. 200 mm from column)
Note:
Where a 200 × 200 hole occurs on face of column, b
e
becomes 600 mm
and pro rata, A
s,req
becomes 2233 mm
2
i.e. use 4 no. H20 each side
of hole (2512 mm
2
).
v) Perpendicular to edge of slab generally
Assuming that there is partial fixity along the edge of the slab, top
reinforcement capable of resisting 25% of the moment in the
adjacent span should be provided
0.25 × 2213 = 553 mm
2
/m OK
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2),
9.2.1.4(1) & NA
vi) Check minimum area of reinforcement
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) b
t
d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
d
where
b
t
= width of tension zone
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 260/500 = 390 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Use H12 @ 200 (565 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
Table 3.1
The reinforcement should extend 0.2h from edge = 600 mm Cl. 9.3.1.4(2)
3.4.6 Analysis grid line 1 (grid 3 similar)
Consider grid line 1 as being 9.6/2 + 0.4/2 = 5.0 m wide with
continuous spans of 6.0 m. Column strip is 6.0/4 + 0.4/2 = 1.7 m
wide. Consider perimeter load is carried by column strip only. Cl. 5.1.1(4)
77
34 l|et s|e|
q
k
slab = 20.0 kN/m
g
k
cladding = 10.0 kN/m
g
k
slab = 42.5 kN/m
6000 6000 6000
F E D C
p
Actions:
Permanent from slab g
k
= 5 × 8.5 kN/m
2
= 42.5 kN/m
Variable from slab q
k
= 5 × 4.0 kN/m
2
= 20.0 kN/m
Permanent perimeter load g
k
= 10.0 kN/m
Load combination and arrangement:
As before, choose to use all-spans-loaded case and coefficients
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option c)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical. Fig. 2.5
n = 1.25 × (42.5 +10) + 1.5 × 20 = 95.6 kN/m EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Perimeter load, 10 × 1.25 = 12.5 kN/m
Effective span, l
eff
Effective span = 6000 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 5900 Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
Design moments in bay, M
Ed
:
In spans (worst case, end span assuming pinned support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 83.0 × 5.9
2
= 248.5 kNm Table C2
At supports (worst case 1st support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 83.0 × 5.9
2
= 248.5 kNm
Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load,
spans (and supports, worst case)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 12.5 × 5.9
2
= 37.4 kNm
Table C2
Apportionment to column strips and middle strips: NA.3
[1a]
: Fig. I.1
Apportionment (as %)
Column strip, 1.7 m wide Middle strip
–ve (hogging) Short span = 75% Short span = 25%
+ve (sagging) 50% 50%
Table I.1
CS Flat slab
guide
[27]
Short span moments:
M
Ed
Column strip, 1.7 m wide Middle strip, 3.3 m wide
–ve (hogging) (0.75 × 248.5 + 37.4)/1.70
= 131.6 kNm/m
0.25 × 248.5/3.3
= 18.8 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) (0.50 × 248.5 + 37.4)/1.70
= 95.1 kNm/m
0.50 × 248.5/3.3
= 37.6 kNm/m
78
Punching shear force, V
Ed
For internal supports, as before = 516.5 kN
For penultimate support, 516.5 × 1.18 = 609.5 kN Table C3
3.4.7 Design grid line 1 (grid 3 similar)
Cover:
c
nom
= 30 mm as before
d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm
a) Flexure: column strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 95.1 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 95.1 × 10
6
/(1000 × 240
2
× 30) = 0.055 Table C5
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 240 = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 95.1 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 959 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.40%)
Try H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm
2
/m)
b) Deflection: column strip
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
Appendix C7
Tables C10–C13
N = 26.2 (r = 0.40%, f
ck
= 30) Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
K = 1.2 (flat slab)
F1 = 1.0 (b
eff
/b
w
= 1.0)
F2 = 1.0 (no brittle partitions)
F3 = 310/ s
s
≤ 1.5
where
s
s
= s
su
(A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) 1/d
where
s
su
≈ 283 MPa (from Figure C3 and G
k
/Q
k
= 3.6, c
2
= 0.3, g
G
= 1.25)
d = redistribution ratio = 1.08
Fig. C3
= s
s
≈ 283 × (959/1005)/1.08 = 250 Table C14
= F3 = 310/250 = 1.24 Fig. C3
=Allowable l/d = 26.2 × 1.2 × 1.24 = 39.0
Actual l/d = 5900/240 = 24.5 = OK
Use H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm
2
/m)
c) Flexure: middle strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 37.6 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 37.6 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 379 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.56%)
79
34 l|et s|e|
By inspection, deflection OK.
Check minimum area of reinforcement.
A
s,min
= 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) b
t
d ≥ 0.0013 b
t
d Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
where
b
t
= width of tension zone
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
Table 3.1
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
d) Flexure: column strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 131.6 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 131.6 × 10
6
/(1000 × 240
2
× 30) = 0.076
z/d = 0.928
z = 0.928 × 240 = 223 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 131.6 × 10
6
/(223 × 500/1.15) = 1357 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.56%)
Try H20 @ 200 T2 (1570 mm
2
/m)

Table C5
e) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 18.8 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm Table C5
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 18.8 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 190 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.08%)
A
s,min
as before = 361 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Try H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
f) Requirements
There is a requirement to place 50% of A
t
within a width equal to 0.125
of the panel width on either side of the column. As this column strip is
adjacent to the edge of the slab, consider one side only:
Area required = (1.5 × 1357 + 3.3 × 190)/2 mm
2
= 1334 mm
2
Within = 0.125 × 6.0 m = 750 mm of the column centreline,
i.e. require 1334/0.75 = 1779 mm
2
/m for 750 mm from the column
centreline.
Cl. 9.4.1(2)

The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce
the amount of reinforcement required. This should be balanced against the
effect of the presence of a 200 × 200 hole at some supports which would
have the effect of increasing K but not unduly increasing the total amount of
reinforcement required in the column strip (a 1.5% increase in total area would
been required).
80
Allowing for similar from centreline of column to edge of slab:
Use 6 no. H20 @ 175 T2(1794 mm
2
/m)
(r = 0.68%)
between edge and to 750 mm from centre of support
In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm, requirement is for
1.7 × 1357 – 6 × 314 = 422 mm
2
in 750 mm, i.e. 563 mm
2
/m
Use H12 @ 175 T2 (646 mm
2
/m) in remainder of column strip
In middle strip Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
3.4.8 Analysis grid line 2
Consider panel on grid line 2 as being 9.6/2 + 8.6/2 = 9.1 m wide
and continuous spans of 6.0 m. Column strip is 6.0/2 = 3.0 m wide.
(See Figure 3.20).
q
k
slab = 36.4 kN/m
g
k
slab = 77.4 kN/m
6000 6000 6000
F E D C
Figure 3.22 Internal panel on grid 2 p
Slab g
k
= 9.1 × 8.5 kN/m
2
= 77.4 kN/m
Slab q
k
= 9.1 × 4.0 kN/m
2
= 36.4 kN/m
Actions, load combination and arrangement:
Choose to use all-spans-loaded case.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option c)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical.
n = 1.25 × 77.4 + 1.5 × 36.4 = 151.4 kN/m
Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Effective span, l
eff
:
Effective span = 5900 mm as before.
Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
Design moments in bay, M
Ed
:
Spans (worst case, end span assuming pinned support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 151.4 × 5.9
2
= 453.2 kNm Table C2
Support (worst case 1st support)
M
Ed
= 0.086 × 151.4 × 5.9
2
= 453.2 kNm
Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load.
Table C2
81
34 l|et s|e|
Apportionment to column strips and middle strips:
M
Ed
Column strip, 3.0 m wide Middle strip, 6.1 m wide
–ve (hogging) 0.75 × 453.2/3.0
= 113.3 kNm/m
0.25 × 453.2/6.1
= 18.5 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) 0.50 × 453.2/3.0
= 75.5 kNm/m
0.50 × 453.2/6.1
= 37.1 kNm/m
Punching shear force, V
Ed
, as before.
3.4.9 Design grid line 2
Effective depth, d
d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm
a) Flexure: column strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 75.5 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 75.5 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 761 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.32%)
Try H16 @ 250 B2 (804 mm
2
/m)
Table C5
Deflection: column strip
By inspection, OK.
b) Flexure: column strip, sagging
M
Ed
= 37.1 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 37.1 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 374 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.55%)
By inspection, deflection OK. Try H10 @ 200 B2 (393 mm
2
/m)
c) Flexure: column strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 113.3 kNm/m
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 113.3 × 10
6
/(1000 × 240
2
× 30) = 0.065
z/d = 0.94
z = 0.928 × 240 = 225 mm
Table C5
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 113.3 × 10
6
/(225 × 500/1.15) = 1158 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.48%)
Try H20 @ 250 T2 (1256 mm
2
/m)

d) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
M
Ed
= 18.5 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm

The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce
the amount of reinforcement required.
82
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 18.5 × 10
6
/(228 × 500/1.15) = 187 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.08%) Table C5
As before minimum area of reinforcement governs
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm
2
/m
(r = 0.15%)
Try H12 @ 300 B2 (376 mm
2
/m)
Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
e) Requirements
Regarding the requirement to place 50% of A
t
within a width equal
to 0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column:
Area required = (3.0 × 1158 + 6.1 × 187)/2 mm
2
= 2307 mm
2
Within = 2 × 0.125 × 6.0 m = 1500 mm centred on the column
centreline,
i.e. require 2307/1.5 = 1538 mm
2
/m for 750 mm either side of the
column centreline.
Use H20 @ 200T2 (1570 mm
2
/m)
750 mm either side of centre of support
(r = 0.60%)
In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm, requirement is for
3.0 × 1158 – 1.5 × 1570 = 1119 mm
2
in 1500 mm, i.e. 764 mm
2
/m
Use H16 @ 250 T2 (804 mm
2
/m) in remainder of column strip
In middle strip: Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm
2
/m)
3.4.10 Punching shear, central column, C2
At C2, applied shear force, V
Ed
= 1204.8 kN

a) Check at perimeter of column
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
where
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.15
V
Ed
= applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear adjacent to interior columns Cl. 6.4.5(3)
u
0
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) = 1600 mm
d = mean effective depth = (260 + 240)/2 = 250 mm Exp. (6.32)
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1204.8 × 10
3
/1600 × 250 = 3.46 MPa
v
Rd,max
= 0.5vf
cd
Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note

Column C2 is taken to be an internal column. In the case of a penultimate
column, an additional elastic reaction factor should have been considered.
83
34 l|et s|e|
where
v = 0.6(1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.528
f
cd
= a
cc
lf
ck
/g
C
= 1.0 × 1.0 × 30/1.5 = 20
= 0.5 × 0.528 × 20 = 5.28 MPa = OK Table C7
§
b) Check shear stress at control perimeter u
1
(2d from face of column)
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
b, V
Ed
and d as before
Cl. 6.4.2
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear at 2d from interior columns
u
1
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) + 2Q × 2d = 4741 mm
Fig. 6.13
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1204.8 × 10
3
/4741 × 250 = 1.17 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/ g
C
k (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2 k = 1 + (200/250)
0.5
= 1.89
r
l
= (r
ly
r
lz
)0.5 = (0.0085 × 0.0048)
0.5
= 0.0064 Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
where
r
|v
, r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column
#
f
ck
= 30
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0064 × 30)
0.333
= 0.61 MPa
= Punching shear reinforcement required Table C5*
c) Perimeter at which punching shear links are no longer required
u
out
= V
Ed
× b/(d v
Rd,c
)
u
out
= 1204.8 × 1.15 × 10
3
/(250 × 0.61) = 9085 mm
Exp. (6.54)
Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm
Radius to u
out
= (9085 – 1600)/2Q = 1191 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1191 – 1.5 × 250 = 816 m
from face of column Cl. 6.4.5(4) & NA
Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links):
s
r,max
= 250 × 0.75 = 187, say = 175 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)
§
At the perimeter of the column, v
Rd,max
assumes the strut angle is 45°, i.e. that
cot y = 1.0. Where cot y = < 1.0, v
Rd,max
is available from Table C7.
#
The values used here for r
ly
, r
lz
ignore the fact that the reinforcement is
concentrated over the support. Considering the concentration would have given a
higher value of V
Rd,c
at the expense of further calculation to determine r
ly
, r
lz
at
3d from the side of the column.
* v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
84
Inside 2d control perimeter, s
t,max
= 250 × 1.5 = 375, say 350 mm Cl. 9.4.3(2)
Outside control perimeter s
t,max
= 250 × 2.0 = 500 mm
Assuming vertical reinforcement:
At the basic control perimeter, u
1
, 2d from the column

:
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
) Exp. (6.52)
where
f
ywd,ef
= effective design strength of reinforcement
= (250 + 0.25d) < f
yd
= 312 MPa Cl. 6.4.5(1)
For perimeter u
1
A
sw
= (1.17 – 0.75 × 0.61) × 175 × 4741/(1.5 × 312)
= 1263 mm
2
per perimeter
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08f
ck
0.5
(s
r
s
t
)/(1.5 f
yk
sin a + cos a) Exp. (9.11)
where
A
sw,min
= minimum area of a single leg of link
a = angle between main reinforcement and shear
reinforcement; for vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08 × 30
0.5
(175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm
2
= Try H8 legs of links (50 mm
2
)
A
sw
/u
1
≥ 1263/4741 = 0.266 mm
2
/mm
Using H8 max. spacing = min[50/0.266; 1.5d]
= min[188; 375] = 188 mm cc
= Use min. H8 legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeter u
1
Cl. 9.4.3
Perimeters at 0.75d = 0.75 × 250 = 187.5 mm
say = 175 mm centres
Cl. 9.4.3(1)
d) Check area of reinforcement > 1263 mm
2
in perimeters inside u
1
§
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d from face of column. Say
0.4d = 100 mm from face of column.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 10 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 10 no. H10 = 1570 mm
2
.
Fig. 9.10,
Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 18 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 18 no. H10 = 1413 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 20 locations are available
at 1.90d from column therefore try 20 no. H10 = 1570 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 beyond u
1
to u
out
grid of H10 at 175 x 175 OK.

Clause 6.4.5 provides Exp. (6.52), which by substituting v
Ed
for v
Rd,c
, allows
calculation of the area of required shear reinforcement, A
sw
, for the basic control
perimeter, u
1
.
§
The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter u
1
. See Commentary on design, Section 3.4.14. Punching shear
reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and
spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3).
Cl. 6.4.5
Exp. 6.5.2
Cl. 9.4.3
85
34 l|et s|e|
e) Summary of punching shear refreshment required at column C2
175 u
out
Punching shear reinforcement
no longer required
1.5d = 375
S = 112 H10 legs of links
u
1
at 2d
from column
u
out
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
2
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
375 716
7
1
6
7
1
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
4
0
0
716 100 400 100
175 175 175 175 175 175 175 200 200 200
C
2
Figure 3.23 Punching shear links at column C2 (112 no. links)
(column D2 similar)
3.4.11 Punching shear, edge column
Assuming penultimate support,
V
Ed
= 1.18 × 516.5 = 609.5 kN Table C3
a) Check at perimeter of column
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
where
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.4
V
Ed
= applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear adjacent to edge columns
u
0
= c
2
+ 3d < c
2
+ 2c
1
= 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm
= 1150 mm
Cl. 6.4.5(3)
d = as before 250 mm
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 609.5 × 10
3
/1150 × 250 = 2.97 MPa
Exp. (6.32)
v
Rd,max
, as before = 5.28 MPa = OK Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
86
b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u
1
(2.0d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
b, V
Ed
and d as before
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear at 2d from edge column columns
u
1
= c
2
+ 2c
1
+ Q × 2d = 2771 mm
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 609.5 × 10
3
/2771 × 250 = 1.23 MPa
Fig. 6.15
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/ g
C
× k × (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
where
Exp. (6.47) & NA
g
C
= 1.5
k = as before = 1 +(200/250)
0.5
= 1.89
r
l
= (r
ly
r
lz
)
0.5
where
r
|v
, r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction
in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column.
r
ly
: (perpendicular to edge) 10 no. H20 T2 + 6 no. H12
T2 in 2 × 750 + 400, i.e. 3818 mm
2
in 1900 mm
=r
ly
= 3818/(250 × 1900) = 0.0080
r
lz
: (parallel to edge) 6 no. H20 T1 + 1 no. T12 T1 in 400 +
750 i.e. 1997 mm
2
in 1150 mm.
=r
lz
= 1997/(250 × 1150) = 0.0069
r
l
= (0.0080 × 0.0069)
0.5
= 0.0074
f
ck
= 30
Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0074 × 30)
0.333
= 0.64 MPa
= Punching shear reinforcement required
Table C6

3d = 750
H12 @ 200 U-bars
H12 @ 175T1
6H20T1 @175 10H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc
3d = 750 400
4
0
0
3
d

=

7
5
0
C
1
Figure 3.24 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns
C1 (and C3)


v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
87
34 l|et s|e|
c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required
u
out
= 609.5 × 1.4 × 10
3
/(250 × 0.64) = 5333 mm
Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm
= radius to u
out
from face of column
= say (5333 − 1200)/Q = 1315 mm from face of column
Exp. (6.54)
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1370 – 1.5 × 250
= 940 mm from face of column.
Cl. 6.4.5(4)
& NA
d) Shear reinforcement
As before, s
r,max
= 175 mm; s
t,max
= 350 mm and
f
ywd,ef
= 312 MPa
For perimeter u
1
Cl. 9.4.3(1),
9.4.3(2)
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
= (1.23 – 0.75 × 0.64) × 175 × 2771/(1.5 × 312)
= 777 mm
2
per perimeter
Exp. (6.52)
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08 × 30
0.5
(175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm
2
A
sw
/u
1
≥ 777/2771 = 0.28 mm
2
/mm
Using H8 max. spacing = 50/0.28 = 178 mm cc
=Use min. H8 (50 mm
2
) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters:
perimeters at 175 mm centres
Exp. (9.11)
e) Check area of reinforcement > 777 mm
2
in perimeters inside u
1
§
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d from face of column. Say
0.4d = 100 mm from face of column
Fig. 9.10,
Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H10 = 942 mm
2
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 12 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 12 no. H10 = 942 mm
2
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 14 locations are
available at 1.90d from column therefore try 14 no. H10 = 1099 mm
2
By inspection of Figure 3.27 beyond u
1
to u
out
grid of
H10 at 175 x 175 OK.
3.4.12 Punching shear, edge column with hole
Check columns D1 and D3 for 200 × 200 mm hole adjacent to column.
As previously described use 4 no. H20 U-bars each side of column for
transfer moment.
Assuming internal support, V
Ed
= 516.5 kN
§
See Commentary on design Section 3.4.14. Punching shear reinforcement is
also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear
reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3).
Cl. 9.4.3
88
a) Check at perimeter of column
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
where
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.4
V
Ed
= applied shear force
Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
adjacent to edge columns u
0
= c
2
+ 3d < c
2
+ 2c
1
= 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm
= 1150 mm
Allowing for hole, u
0
= 1150 – 200 = 950 mm
Cl. 6.4.5(3)
d = 250 mm as before Exp. (6.32)
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 516.5 × 10
3
/950 × 250 = 3.06 MPa
v
Rd,max
as before = 5.28 MPa = OK Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u
1
(2.0d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
b, V
Ed
and d as before
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
at 2d from edge column columns
Fig. 6.15
u
1
= c
2
+ 2c
1
+ Q × 2d = 2771 mm
Allowing for hole
200/(c
1
/2): x/(c
1
/2 + 2d)
200/200: x/( 200 + 500)
= x = 700 mm
u
1
= 2771 – 700 = 2071 mm
Fig. 6.14
v
Ed
= 1.4 × 516.5 × 10
3
/2071 × 250 = 1.40 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/g
C
× k × (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = as before = 1 + (200/250)
0.5
= 1.89
r
l
= (r
l y
r
l z
)
0.5
where
r
|v
, r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
r
ly
: (perpendicular to edge) 8 no. H20 T2 + 6 no. H12
T2 in 2 × 720 + 400 − 200, i.e. 3190 mm
2
in 1640 mm.
=r
l y
= 3190/(240 × 1640) = 0.0081
r
lz
: (parallel to edge) 6 no. H20 T1 (5 no. are
effective) + 1 no. T12 T1 in 400 + 750 – 200, i.e.
1683 mm
2
in 950 mm.
=r
l z
= 1683/(260 × 950) = 0.0068
89
34 l|et s|e|
r
l
= (0.0081 × 0.0068)
0.5
= 0.0074
f
ck
= 30
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0074 × 30)
0.33
= 0.64 MPa
Table C6

= punching shear reinforcement required
3d = 750
H12 @ 200 U-bars
H12 @ 175T1
6H20T @ 175 8H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc
3d = 750 400
4
0
0
3
d

=

7
5
0
3
D
Figure 3.25 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns
D1 and D3
c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required Exp. (6.54)
u
out
= 516.5 × 1.4 × 10
3
/(250 × 0.64) = 4519 mm
Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm
Angle subtended by hole from centre of column D1 (See Figures 3.25
& 3.27) = 2
tan
−1
(100/200) = 2 × 26.5° = 0.927 rads.
= radius to u
out
from face of column
= say (4519 − 1200)/(Q − 0.927) = 1498 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1498 – 1.5 × 250
= 1123 mm from face of column
Cl. 6.4.5(4)
& NA
d) Shear reinforcement
As before, s
r,max
= 175 mm; s
t,max
= 350 mm and f
ywd,ef
= 312 MPa Cl. 9.4.3(1)
9.4.3(2)
For perimeter u
1
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
) per perimeter
= (1.40 – 0.75 × 0.64) × 175 × 2071/(1.5 × 312)
= 712 mm
2
per perimeter
Exp. (6.52)
A
sw,min
≥ 0.08 × 30
0.5
(175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm
2
A
sw
/u
1
≥ 712/2071 = 0.34 mm
2
/mm

v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
90
Using H8 (50 mm
2
) max. spacing = min[50/0.3; 1.5d]
= min[147; 375] = 147 mm cc No good
Try using H10, max. spacing = 78.5/0.34 = 231 mm cc, say 175 cc
= Use min. H10 (78.5 mm
2
) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters:
perimeters at 175 mm centres
Check min. 9 no. H10 legs of links (712 mm
2
) in perimeter u
1
, 2
d
from
column face.
e) Check area of reinforcement > 712 mm
2
in perimeters inside u
1


1st perimeter to be 100 mm from face of column as before. Fig. 9.10,
Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H10 = 942 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 10 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 10 H10 = 785 mm
2
.
By inspection of Figure 3.27 beyond 1.15d to u
out
grid:
H10 at 175 x 175 OK.
3.4.13 Summary of design
Grid C flexure
End supports:
Column strip: (max. 200 mm
from column) 10 no. H20 U-bars in pairs
(where 200 × 200 hole use 8 no. H20
T1 in U-bars in pairs)
Middle strip: H12 @ 200 T1
Spans 1–2 and 2–3:
Column strip and middle strip: H20 @ 200 B
Central support:
Column strip centre: for 750 mm
either side of support: H20 @ 100 T1
Column strip outer: H20 @ 250 T1
Middle strip: H16 @ 200 T1
Grid 1 (and 3) flexure
Spans:
Column strip: H16 @ 200 B2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 B2

See Commentary on design Section 3.4.14. Punching shear reinforcement is
also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear
reinforcement.
Cl. 9.4.3
91
34 l|et s|e|
Interior support:
Column strip centre: 6 no. H20 @ 175 T2
Column strip outer: H12 @ 175 T2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 T2
Grid 2 flexure
Spans:
Column strip: H16 @ 250 B2
Middle strip: H10 @ 200 B2
Interior support:
Column strip centre: H20 @ 200 T2
Column strip outer: H16 @ 250 T2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 T2
See Figure 3.26
Punching shear
Internal (e.g. at C2):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres, but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, s
t,max
= 270 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 767 mm
See Figure 3.26
Edge (e.g. at C1, C3 assuming no holes):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, s
t,max
= 175 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 940 mm
Edge (e.g. at D1, D3 assuming 200 × 200 hole on face of column):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, s
t,max
= 175 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 1123 mm
See Figure 3.27
92
Commentary on design
a) Method of analysis
The use of coefficients in the analysis would not usually be
advocated in the design of such a slab. Nonetheless, coefficients
may be used and, unsurprisingly, their use leads to higher design
moments and shears, as shown below.
Method Moment in
9.6 m span per
6 m bay (kNm)
Centre support
moment per
6 m bay (kNm)
Centre support
reaction V
Ed
(kN)
Coefficients 842.7 952.8 1205
Continuous beam 747.0 885.6 1103
Plane frame columns
below
664.8 834.0 1060
Plane frame columns
above and below
616.8 798.0 1031
3.4.14
10H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200
6H20 - 175 T2
H12 - 200 T1 U-bars
8H20 T1
U-bars in pairs
@ 200
H16 @ 175 B2*
5H12 @ 175 T2
H12 @ 300 B2
H10 @ 200 T2
H16 @ 175 B2*
9H20 @ 175 T2*
3H20 @
250 T1
H20 @ 200 B1
H12 @ 200 T1 U-bars
16H20 @ 100 T1
3H20 @ 250 T1
H16 @ 200 T1
3H20 @ 250 T1
16H20 @ 100 T1
4H16 @ 250 T2
C D
1
2
Note:* Spacing rationalised to suit punching shear links
Figure 3.26 Reinforcement details bay C–D, 1–2
93
34 l|et s|e|
u
out
u
out
u
1
1123
500
8H20 T1 U-bars in pairs
H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars
6H20 @ 175 T2
1.5d
6H16 @ 175 B2
H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars
375
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 200
100 100
C
L
200
S = 152 H10 legs of links
@ 175 mm centres
Ineffective area
1 1
D
Note: For internal column see Figure 3.23
Figure 3.27 Punching shear links at column D1 (and D3)
(penultimate support without hole similar)
These higher moments and shears result in rather more reinforcement
than when using other more refined methods. For instance, the finite
element analysis used in Guide to the design and construction of
reinforced concrete flat slabs
[27]
for this bay, leads to:
H16 @ 200 B1 in spans 1–2 (cf. H20 @ 200 B1 using coefficients) t
H20 @ 125 T1 at support 2 (cf. H20 @ 100 T1 using coefficients) t
3 perimeters of shear links at C2 for t V
Ed
= 1065 kN (cf. 5 perimeters
using coefficients)
2 perimeters of shear links at C3 (cf. 7 perimeters using coefficients) t
b) Effective spans and face of support
In the analysis using coefficients, advantage was taken of using
effective spans to calculate design moments. This had the effect of
reducing span moments.
Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
At supports, one may base the design on the moment at the face of
support. This is borne out by Guide to the design and construction of
reinforced concrete flat slabs
[27]
that states that hogging moments
greater than those at a distance h
c
/3 may be ignored (where h
c
is the
effective diameter of a column or column head). This is in line with BS
8110
[7]
and could have been used to reduce support moments.
Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
94
c) Punching shear reinforcement
Arrangement of punching shear links
According to the literal definition of /
sw
in Exp. (6.52), the same
area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter a
]
(rather than (/
sw
/a
]
)/s
r
being considered as the
required density of shear reinforcement on and within perimeter a
]
).
For perimeters inside a
]
, it might be argued that Exp. (6.50)
Exp. 6.52
Exp. 6.50
(enhancement close to supports) should apply. However, at the time
of writing, this expression is deemed applicable only to foundation
bases. Therefore, large concentrations of shear reinforcement
are required close to the columns – in this example, this included
doubling up shear links at the 1st perimeter.
Similar to BS 8110
[7]
figure 3.17, it is apparent that the requirement
for punching shear reinforcement is for a punching shear zone 1.5d
wide. However, in Eurocode 2, the requirement has been ‘simplified’ in
Exp. (6.52) to make the requirement for a perimeter (up to 0.75d
wide). It might appear reasonable to apply the same 40%:60% rule
(BS 8110 Cl. 3.7.7.6) to the first two perimeters to make doubling
of punching shear reinforcement at the first perimeter unnecessary:
in terms of Eurocode 2 this would mean 80% A
sw
on the first
perimeter and 120% A
sw
on the second. Using this arrangement it
would be possible to replace the designed H10 links in the first two
perimeters with single H12 links.
BS 8110:
Fig. 3.17
BS 8110:
Cl. 3.7.7.6
Outside u
1
, the numbers of links could have been reduced to
maintain provision of the designed amount of reinforcement A
sw
.
A rectangular arrangement of H12 links would have been possible
(within perimeter u
1
, 350 × 175; outside u
1
, 500 × 175). However, as
the grid would need to change orientation around each column (to
maintain the 0.75d radial spacing) and as the reinforcement in B2
and T2 is essentially at 175 centres, it is considered better to leave
the arrangement as a regular square grid.
Cl. 9.4.3(1)
Use of shear reinforcement in a radial arrangement, e.g. using stud
rails, would have simplified the shear reinforcement requirements.
V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
In late 2008, a proposal was made for the UK National Annex to
include a limit of 2.0 or 2.5 on V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
(or v
Ed
/v
Rd,c
) within punching
shear requirements. It is apparent that this limitation could have
major effects on flat slabs supported on relatively small columns. For
instance in Section 3.4.12, edge column with hole, V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
= 2.18.
Curtailment of reinforcement
In this design, the reinforcement would be curtailed and this would be
done either in line with previous examples or, more practically, in line
with other guidance
[20, 21]
.

95
3S Ste|r ¦||ght
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Stair flight
600 600 9 @250
3450
1750
Figure 3.28 Stair flight

3.5.1 Loads
kN/m
2
Permanent (worse case flight)
Assume 160 waist 0.160 × 305/250 × 25 = 4.88
Treads 4 × 0.25 × 0.175/2 × 25 = 2.19
50 mm screed 0.5 × 22 = 1.10
Finishing = 0.03
g
k
= 8.20
Variable action: crowd loading q
k
= 4.00 EC1-1-1: Table 6.1,
6.2 & NA.3
3.5.2 Moment
M
Ed
= (8.20 × 1.25 + 4.00 × 1.5) × 3.45
2
/8
= 24.2 kNm/m
3.5.3 Design
d = 160 – c
nom
– f/2
where
c
nom
= 25 mm (for XC1)
f = 12 mm (assumed)
Concise: Table 4.2;
BS 8500
= d = 129 mm
Stair flight
¹h|s exemo|e |s ¦or e tvo|ce| ste|r ¦||ght
3.5
96
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 24.2 × 10
6
/(1000 × 129
2
× 30)
= 0.048
z/d = 0.95 Table C5
z = 0.95 × 129
= 122 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 24.2 × 10
6
/[(500/1.15) × 122]
= 456 mm
2
/m (r = 0.35%)
Try H12 @ 250 (452 mm
2
/m) = OK)
3.5.4 Check deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7,
Table C10
where
N = 32.7
K = 1.0 Table C11
F1 = 1.0
F2 = 1.0
F3 = 1.0 (say)
= Allowable l/d = 32.7
Actual l/d = 3450/129
= 26.7 = OK
=Provide H12 @ 250 B.
4] Cont|nuous |eem on o|n suooorts
97
Beams
General
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s Sect|on ere oresented |n the ¦o||ow|ng oerts
4] Cont|nuous |eem on o|n suooorts ÷ e s|mo|v suooorted cont|nuous |eem show|ng whet
m|ght |e deemed tvo|ce| hend ce|cu|et|ons
4? A heev||v |oeded l-|eem
43 A cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem ¹h|s exemo|e |s ene|vsed end des|gned str|ct|v |n eccordence
w|th the orov|s|ons o¦ lurocode ?
¹hev ere |ntended to |e |||ustret|ve o¦ the Code end not necesser||v |est orect|ce
A genere| method o¦ des|gn|ng |eems |s shown |e|ow ln orect|ce, severe| o¦ these steos mev
|e com||ned
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA
Table NA.2.1
Assess ect|ons on the |eem N EC1 & NAs
Assess dure||||tv requ|rements end determ|ne concrete N
strength
Table 4.1
BS 8500–1:
Tables A4, A5
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eooroor|ete ¦|re N
res|stence oer|od
EC2–1–2:
Tables 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11
Ce|cu|ete m|n|mum cover ¦or dure||||tv, ¦|re end |ond N
requ|rements
Cl. 4.4.1
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons eoo|v N EC0 & NA
Tables NA.A1.1, NA.A1.2 (B)
Leterm|ne |oed|ng errengements N Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Ane|vse structure to o|te|n cr|t|ce| moments end sheer N
¦orces
Cl. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
Les|gn ¦|exure| re|n¦orcement N Cl. 6.1
Chec| de¦|ect|on N Cl. 7.4
Chec| sheer ceoec|tv N Cl. 6.2
Other des|gn chec|s N
Chec| m|n|mum re|n¦orcement
Chec| crec||ng (s|.e or soec|ng o¦ |ers)
Chec| e¦¦ects o¦ oert|e| ux|tv
Chec| seconderv re|n¦orcement
Cl. 9.3.1.1(1), 9.2.1.1(1)
Cl. 7.3, Tables 7.2N, 7.3N
Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
Cl. 9.3.1.1(2), 9.3.1.4(1)
Chec| curte||ment N Cl. 9.3.1.1(4), 9.2.1.3,
Fig. 9.2
Chec| enchorege N Cl. 9.3.1.2, 8.4.4, 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1), 9.2.1.5(2)
Chec| |eos N Cl. 8.7.3
4
4.0

98
4.1
A 450 mm deep × 300 mm wide rectangular beam is required
to support office loads of g
k
= 30.2 kN/m and q
k
= 11.5 kN/m
over 2 no. 6 m spans. f
ck
f = 30 MPa, f
yk
f = 500 MPa. Assume 300
mm wide supports, a 50-year design life and a requirement for a
2-hour resistance to fire in an external but sheltered environment.
q
k
= 11.5 kN/m
g
k
= 30.2 kN/m
6000 6000
Figure 4.1 Continuous rectangular beam
450
300
Figure 4.2 Section through beam
4.1.1 Actions
Permanent g
k
= 30.2 kN/m and variable q
k
= 11.5 kN/m
4.1.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond
= diameter of bar. Assume 25 mm main bars
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC3 (moderate humidity or cyclic wet
and dry) and secondarily XF1 (moderate water
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous beam on pin
supports
Continuous beam on pin supports
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show e tvo|ce| hend ce|cu|et|on ¦or e cont|nuous s|mo|v
suooorted |eem us|ng coe¦uc|ents to determ|ne moments end sheers
4] Cont|nuous |eem on o|n suooorts
99
saturation without de-icing salt) using C30/37
concrete,
c
min,dur
= 25 mm
Table C3
BS 8500-1
[14]
:
Table A4;
How to: Building
structures
[8]
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover, Dc
dev
= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance (i.e. REI = 120)
For b
min
= 300 mm, minimum axis distance, a = 35 mm = OK
c
nom
= 35 mm
EC2-1-2:
5.6.3(1),
Table 5.6
4.1.3 Load combination (and arrangement)
Load combination:
By inspection, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs
= n = 1.25 × 30.2 + 1.5 × 11.5 = 50.8 kN/m
Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases, i.e. use
coefficients.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Table NA.1
(option b)
Table C3
The coefficients used assume 15% redistribution at supports. As the
amount of redistribution is less than 20%, there are no restrictions
on reinforcement grade. The use of Table 5.6 in BS EN 1992–1–2 is
restricted to where redistribution does not exceed 15%.
Table C3
Cl. 5.5(4) & NA
EC2-1-2:
5.6.3(1),
Table 5.6
4.1.4 Analysis
Design moments:
Spans
M
Ed
= (1.25 × 30.2 × 0.090 + 1.5 × 11.5 × 0.100) × 6.0
2
= 122.3 + 62.1 = 184.4 kNm
Appendix C1,
Table C3
Support
M
Ed
= 50.8 × 0.106 × 6.0
2
= 193.8 kNm Table C3
Shear force:
V
AB
= 0.45 × 6.0 × 50.8 = 137.2 kN
V
AB
= 0.63 × 6.0 × 50.8 = 192.0 kN
4.1.5 Flexural design
Effective depth:
Assuming 10 mm links:
d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm
100
Flexure in span:
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
= 184.4 × 10
6
/(300 × 392
2
× 30) = 0.133 Fig. 3.5
z/d = 0.864
Appendix A1
z = 0.864 × 392 = 338 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z = 184.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 338) = 1255 mm
2
Try 3 no. H25 B (1473 mm
2
)
(r = 1.25%)
Table C5
Check spacing:
Spacing of outer bars = 300 – 2 × 35 − 2 × 10 – 25 = 185 mm
Assuming 10 mm diameter link,
= spacing = 98 mm
Steel stress under quasi-permanent loading:
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= f
yd
× (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) × (g
k
+ c
2
q
k
)/(g
G
g
k
+ g
Q
q
k
) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (1255/1473) × [(30.2 + 0.3 × 11.5)/50.8] (1/1.03)
= 434.8 × 0.91 × 0.66 × 0.97 = 237 MPa Cl. 7.3.3(2)
As exposure is XC3, max. crack width w
max
= 0.3 mm Cl. 7.3.1(5) & NA
= Maximum bar size = 16 mm or max. spacing = 200 mm = OK
= Use 3 H25 B (1473 mm
2
)
Table 7.2N & NA
Deflection:
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Basic span: effective depth ratio for r = 1.25%: Table 7.4N & NA
l/d = 18 + [(1.25 – 0.5)/(1.5/0.5)] × (26 – 18) = 24.0
Max. span = 24.0 × 392 = 9408 mm = OK
Flexure, support:
M
Ed
= 193.8 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm
K = 193.8 × 10
6
/(300 × 392
2
× 30) = 0.142
By inspection, K ≤ K' (0.142 × 0.168

)
= no compression reinforcement required.
z = 0.85d
= 0.85 × 392 = 333 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 193.8 × 10
6
/434.8 × 333 = 1338 mm
2
Try 3 no. H25 T (1473 mm
2
)
(r = 1.13%)
Appendix A1
Table C5

K' is limited to 0.208. However, if, as is usual practice in the UK, x/d is limited to
0.45, z/d is as a consequence limited to 0.82 and K' to 0.168.
4] Cont|nuous |eem on o|n suooorts
101
4.1.6 Shear
a) Support B (critical)
Shear at central support = 192.0 kN
At d from face of support
§
V
Ed
= 192.0 − (0.300/2 + 0.392) × 50.8 = 164.50 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
v
Ed
= V
Ed
/bd
= 164.5 × 10
3
/(392 × 300) = 1.40 MPa
Maximum shear capacity:
Assuming f
ck
= 30 MPa and cot y = 2.5
#
v
Rd,max
* = 3.64 MPa Table C7
v
Rd,max
> v
Ed
= OK
Shear reinforcement:
Assuming z = 0.9d Cl. 6.2.3(1)
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/(0.9d × f
ywd
× cot y)
≥ 164.5 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 392 × (500/1.15) × 2.5) = 0.429
Cl. 6.2.3(3),
Exp. (6.8)
More accurately,
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/(z × f
ywd
× cot y)
≥ 164.5 × 10
3
/(333 × 1087) = 0.454
Cl. 6.2.3(3),
Exp. (6.8)
Minimum shear links,
A
sw,min
/s = 0.08b
w
f
ck
0.5
/f
yk
= 0.08 × 300 × 30
0.5
/500 = 0.263. Not critical
Cl. 9.2.2(5)
Max. spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 × 392 = 294 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
Use H8 @ 200 (A
sw
/
s
= 0.50)
b) Support A (and C)
Shear at end support = 137.2 kN
At face of support,
V
Ed
= 137.2 − (0.150 + 0.392) × 50.8 = 109.7 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
By inspection, shear reinforcement required and cot y = 2.5 Fig. C1a)
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/(z × f
ywd
× cot y)
≥ 109.7 × 10
3
/[353 × (500/1.15) × 2.5] = 0.285
Use H8 @ 200 (A
sw
/
s
= 0.50) throughout

Appendix C5.3
§
Where applied actions are predominantly uniformly distributed, shear may be
checked at d from the face of support. See also Section 4.2.11.
#
The absolute maximum for v
Rd,max
(and therefore the maximum value of v
Ed
)
would be 5.28 MPa when cot y would equal 1.0 and the variable strut angle would
be at a maximum of 45°.
*

For determination of V
Rd,max
see Section 4.2.10.

As maximum spacing of links is 294 mm, changing spacing of links would appear
to be of limited benefit.
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
102
4.1.7 Summary of design
A B C
3H25B 3H25B
3H25
H8 @ 200 centres in 2 legs
Figure 4.3 Continuous rectangular beam: Summary of design
Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design
summarised above and detail the beam to normal best practice
[8,9]
.
The design would go no further where standard detailing is all that
is required. Where the element is non-standard (e.g. where there
are point loads), it should be incumbent on the designer to give
the detailer specific information about curtailment, laps, etc. as
illustrated below. The detailer’s responsibilities, standards and
timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the
detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement
but all the reinforcement required to provide a compliant and buildable
solution. The work would usually include the checking the following
aspects and providing appropriate detailing:
Minimum areas t
Curtailment lengths t
Anchorages t
Laps t
U-bars t
Rationalisation t
Critical dimensions t
Details and sections t
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas and curtailment
lengths, using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown below. In practice
these would be determined from published tables of data or by using
reference texts
[8,9]
. Nonetheless, the designer should check the
drawing for design intent and compliance with the standards. It is
therefore necessary for the designer to understand and agree the
principles of the detailing used.
4.1.8 Detailing checks
a) Minimum areas
A
s,min
= 0.26(f
ctm
/f
yk
)b
t
d ≥ 0.0013b
t
d
where
Cl. 9.2.1.1
4] Cont|nuous |eem on o|n suooorts
103
b
t
= width of tension zone
f
ctm
= 0.30 × f
ck
0.666
A
s,min
= 0.26 × 0.30 × 30
0.666
× 300 × 392/500 = 177 mm
2
Table 3.1
b) Curtailment of main bars How to: Detailing
Bottom: curtail
75% main bars 0.08l from end support = 480 mm say 450 mm from A
70% main bars 0.30l – a
l
= 0.3 × 6000 − 1.125 × d
= 1800 − 1.125 × 392
= 1359 mm say 1350 from A
Top: curtail
40% main bars 0.15l + a
l
= 900 + 441
= 1341 mm say 1350 from B
65% main bars 0.30l + a
l
= 1800 + 441
= 2241 mm say 2250 from B
At supports:
25% of A
s
to be anchored at supports
Cl. 9.2.1.2.(1),
9.2.1.4(1) & NA
25% of 1225 mm
2
= 314 mm
2
Use min. 2 no. H16 (402 mm
2
) at supports A, B and C
Cl. 9.2.1.5(1)
In accordance with SMDSC
[9]
detail MB1 lap U-bars tension lap with
main steel
= 780 mm (in C30/37 concrete, H12, ‘poor’ bond condition) How to: Detailing
= say 800 mm
c) Summary of reinforcement details
750 450
2H16B
2H16 U-bars
2H12T
Links omitted for clarity
2H12T
2H12 2H12
2H12 2H12 2H25 2H25 1H25 1H25
3H25 2H16 2H12 2H12 2H16 2H25 2H25 2H25 1H25 1H25
2H16 U-bars
3H25B
3H25B
B A C
600 600
800 800 1350 1250 1350
100 100
800 800 800
800
750
450
3H25
Figure 4.4 Continuous rectangular beam: reinforcement details

Note Subsequent detailing checks may find issues with spacing rules especially if
the 'cage and splice bar' method of detailing were to be used. 2H32s T&B would be a
suitable alternative to 3H25s T&B.
104
4.2 Heavily loaded L-beam
g
k1
= 46.0
q
k1
= 63.3
C B A
9000 8000
2000
G
k2
= 88.7
Q
k2
= 138.7
Figure 4.5 Heavily loaded L-beam

This edge beam supports heavy loads from storage loads. The
variable point load is independent of the variable uniformly
distributed load. The beam is supported on 350 mm square
columns 4000 mm long. f
ck
= 30 MPa; f
yk
= 500 MPa. The
underside surface is subject to an external environment and a
2-hour fire resistance requirement. The top surface is internal
and subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement. Assume that
any partitions are liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.
750
350
b
eff
Figure 4.6 Section through L-beam
4.2.1 Actions
Permanent:
UDL from slab and cladding g
k
= 46.0 kN/m
Point load from storage area above = 88.7 kN
Variable:
From slab q
k
= 63.3 kN/m
Point load from storage area above = 138.7 kN
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Heavily loaded L-beam
105
4.2.2 Cover
a) Nominal cover, c
nom
, underside and side of beam
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC3/XC4 exposure (moderate
humidity or cyclic wet and dry); secondarily XF1
exposure (moderate water saturation without
de-icing salt, vertical surfaces exposed to rain and
freezing) and C30/37 concrete,
c
min,dur
= 25 mm
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm
= c
nom
= 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links
Use c
nom
= 35 mm to links (giving c
nom
= 45 mm to main bars)
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
b) Fire
Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance REI 120. EC2-1-2: 5.6.3
By inspection, web thickness OK. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
Axis distance, a, required = 35 mm OK by inspection. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
= Try 35 mm nominal cover bottom and sides to 10 mm link.
Nominal cover, c
nom
, top:
By inspection,
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
Exp. (4.1)
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC1 and C30/37 concrete,
c
min,dur
= 15 mm
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
106
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links
Use c
nom
= 35 mm to links (giving c
nom
= 45 mm to main bars)
4.2.3 Idealisation, load combination and arrangement
Load combination:
As loads are from storage, Exp. (6.10a) is critical.
Table 2.5;
ECO: A1.2.2, NA
& Exp. (6.10a)
Idealisation:
This element is treated as a continuous beam framing into
columns 350 × 350

× 4000 mm long columns below.
Cl. 5.3.1(3)
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option b)
4.2.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer (spreadsheet TCC 41 Continuous Beam (A+D).xls
in RC spreadsheets V.3
[28]
assuming frame action with 350 mm square
columns 4 m long fixed at base. Beam inertia based on T-section, b
eff

wide) with 15% redistribution at central support, limited redistribution
of span moment and consistent redistribution of shear.
ECO:
A1.2.2 & NA;
Cl. 5.3.1 (6)
Table 4.2 Elastic and redistributed moments, kNm
Span number 1 2
Elastic M 1168 745
Redistributed M 1148 684
d 0.98 0.92
2000
1394 kNm
195 kNm 108 kNm
– 684 kNm
–1148 kNm
1500
1000
500
–500
–1000
–1500
0
A B C
Figure 4.7 Redistributed envelope, kNm

Note: 350 × 350 is a minimum for columns requiring a fire resistance of 120
minutes.
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.2a
107
1000
646 kN 794 kN
– 499 kN
– 1098 kN
500
– 500
– 1000
– 1500
0
A B C
4.2.5 Flexural design, support A
M
Ed
= 195 kNm in hogging
M
Ed,min
= 1148 × 0.25 in hogging and in sagging
Cl. 9.2.1.2(1),
9.2.1.4(1) & NA
= 287 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2
l
0
= nominal: assume 0
§
= b
eff1
= 0 mm = b
eff2
Fig. 5.2
=b = b
w
= 350 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support.
f
ck
= 30 MPa
K = 287 × 10
6
/(350 × 689
2
× 30)
= 0.058
Restricting x/d to 0.45 Appendix A1
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement
required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.89) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 652 ≤ 654 = z = 652 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
Appendix A1
§
The distance l
0
is described as the distance between points of zero moment,
‘which may be obtained from Figure 5.2’. In this case l
0
= 0. (see Figure 4.11).
Cl. 5.3.2.1(2)
Fig. 5.2
Fig. 4.11
108
where
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 287 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 652) = 1012 mm
2
Try 2 no. H32 U-bars (1608 mm
2
)
Check anchorage of H32 U-bars.
Bars need to be anchored distance ‘A’ into column SMDSC: 6.4.2
U-bar
A
Figure 4.9 Distance A
Assuming column uses 35 mm cover, 10 mm links and 32 mm bars:
Distance A = 2 [350 − 2 (35 + 10) ] − 32/2 − 32/2 + 750 – [2 (35
+ 10)] − 2 × 32/2 – (4 − π) (3.5 + 0.5) × 32
SMDSC
[9]
,
BS 8666
[19]
:
= 488 + 628 – 110 = 1006 mm Table 2
Anchorage length,
l
bd
= al
b,rqd
≥ l
b,min
Cl. 8.4.4,
Exp. (8.4)
where
a = conservatively 1.0
l
b,rqd
= (f/4) (s
sd
/f
bd
) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = 32
s
sd
= design stress in the bar at the ULS
= 434.8 × 1012/1608 = 274 MPa
f
|d
= ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n
1
n
2
f
ct,d
Cl. 8.4.2 (2)
109
where
n
1
= 1.0 for good bond conditions
n
2
= 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
f
ct,d
= a
ct
f
ctk
/ g
C
= 1.0 × 2.0/1.5
= 1.33 MPa
f
bd
= 2.25 × 1.33 = 3.0 MPa
Cl. 3.1.6 (2),
Tables 3.1 & 2.1,
& NA
l
b,rqd
= (32/4) (274/3.0) = 731 mm

l
b,min
= max[10f; 100 mm] = 250 mm
= l
bd
= 731 mm i.e. < 1006 mm = OK
Use 2 no. H32 U-bars
4.2.6 Flexural design, span AB
a) Span AB – Flexure
M
Ed
= 1148 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm
l
0
= 0.85 × l
1
= 0.85 × 9000 = 7650 mm
§
Fig. 5.2
b
eff
b
w
b
w
b
1
b
1
b
2
b
2
b
b
eff,1
b
eff,2
Figure 4.10 Effective flange width b
eff
b
Fig. 5.3

Anchorage lengths may be obtained from published tables. In this instance, a
figure of 900 mm may be obtained from Table 13 of Section 10 of How to design
concrete structures using Eurocode 2.
§
The distance l
0
is described as the distance between points of zero shear, which
may be obtained from Figure 5.2’. From the analysis, l
0
could have been taken as
7200 mm.
How to:
Detailing
[8]
Cl. 5.3.2.1(2)
Figure 5.2
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
110
I
0
= 0.85 I
1
I
0
= 0.15 (I
1
+I
2
) I
0
= 0.15 (I
2
+I
3
)
I
3
I
2
I
1
I
0
= 0.7 I
2
l
0
for calculation of
flange width
Fig. 5.2
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 7650 ≤ 0.2 × 7650 ≤ 3325
= 1430 ≤ 1530 ≤ 3325
= 1430 mm
b
w
= 350 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= 0 mm
b
eff2
= 0 mm
b = 1430 + 350 + 0 = 1780 mm
d = effective depth
= 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span
f
ck
= 30 MPa
K = 1148 × 10
6
/(1780 × 689
2
× 30)
= 0.045
Restricting x/d to 0.45, Appendix A1
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
z = lever arm
= (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.917) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 661 ≤ 654 = z = 654 mm
Appendix A1
But z = d – 0.4x
= by inspection, neutral axis is in flange and as x < 1.25 h
f
, design as
rectangular section.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
where
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 1148 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 654) = 4037 mm
2
Try 5 no. H32 B (4020 mm
2
) (say OK)
Appendix A1
Check spacing of bars.
Spacing of bars = [350 – 2 × (35 + 10) – 32]/(5 – 1)
= 57
Clear spacing = 57 – 32 mm = 25 mm between bars
111
Minimum clear distance between bars
= max[bar diameter; aggregate size + 5 mm]
= max[32; 20 + 5]
= 32 mm i.e. > 25 mm
= 5 no. H32 B no good
For 4 bars in one layer, distance between bars = 44 mm so
Try 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3
Cl. 8.2(2) & NA
d
300
350
35 cover
32 bar
32 spacers
32 bar
10 link
35 cover
400
Figure 4.12 Span AB bottom
reinforcement
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 – 0.333 × 2 × 32 = 668 mm
K = 1148 × 10
6
/(1780 × 668
2
× 30) = 0.048
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement
required. Appendix A1
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (668/2) (1 + 0.911) ≤ 0.95 × 668
= 639 ≤ 635 = z = 635 mm
Appendix A1
= by inspection, neutral axis in flange so design as rectangular
section.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 1148 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 635) = 4158 mm
2
= 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3 (4824 mm
2
) OK
Appendix A1
b) Span AB – Deflection
Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
Appendix C7
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r
0
and whether to use Exp.
(7.16a) or (7.16b)
Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Exp. (7.16a),
Exp. (7.16b)
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
112
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
] PD 6687
[6]
= 4158/[350 × 668 + (1780 – 350) × 300]
= 4158/662800
= 0.63%
r
0
= f
ck
0.5
/1000 = 30
0.5
/1000 = 0.55%
r > r
0
= use Exp. (7.16b)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r
0
/(r – r' ) + f
ck
0.5
(r' /r
0
)
0.5
/12
= 11 + 1.5 (30
0.5
× 0.055/(0.063 – 0) + 30
0.5
(0/0.55)
1.5
= 11 + 7.2 + 0 = 18.2
Exp. (7.16b)
K = (end span) = 1.3 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 1780/350 = 5.1) = 0.80 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
(span > 7.0 m) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
where
l
eff
= 9000 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
F2 = 7.0/9.0 = 0.77
F3 = 310/s
s
≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
s
s
in simple situations = (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/
ULS loads) (1/d). However in this case separate analysis
at SLS would be required to determine s
s
. Therefore as a
simplification use the conservative assumption:
Appendix B
310/s
s
= (500/f
yk
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
)
= (500/500) × (4824/4158) = 1.16
Exp. (7.17)
= Permissible l/d = 18.2 × 1.3 × 0.80 × 0.77 × 1.16 = 16.9
Actual l/d = 9000/668 = 13.5
Permissible more than actual
= OK
= 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3 (4824 mm
2
) OK
4.2.7 Flexural design, support B
At centreline of support B,
M = 1394 kNm
From analysis, at face of support
M
EdBA
= 1209 kNm
M
EdBC
= 1315 kNm
K = M
Ed
/b
w
d
2
f
ck
Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)

2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area
of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
113
where
b
w
= 350 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 12 – 32/2 = 687 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support but allowing for
H12 T in slab
f
ck
= 30 MPa
= K = 1315 × 10
6
/(350 × 687
2
× 30) = 0.265
for d = 0.85, K' = 0.168: to restrict x/d to 0.45, K' = 0.167
= Compression steel required
Appendix A1
Table C4
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K' )
0.5
]
= (687/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.167)
0.5
]
= (687/2) (1 + 0.64) < 0.95d
= 563 mm
A
s2
= (K – K' )f
ck
bd
2
/f
sc
(d − d
2
)
where
d
2
= 35 + 10 + 32/2 = 61 mm
f
sc
= 700(x − d
2
)/x < f
yd
where
x = 2.5 (d – z) = 2.5 (687 – 563) = 310 mm
f
sc
= 700 × (310 − 61)/310 < 500/1.15
= 562 MPa but limited to ≤ 434.8 MPa
=A
s2
= (0.265 – 0.167) × 30 × 350 × 687
2
/[434.8(687 − 61) ] = 1784 mm
2
Try 4 no. H25 B (1964 mm
2
)
Fig. 3.5,
Appendix A1,
How to: Beams
A
s
= M'/f
yd
z + A
s2
f
sc
/f
yd
= K' f
ck
bd
2
/(f
yd
z) + A
s2
f
sc
/f
yd
= 0.167 × 30 × 350 × 687
2
/(434.8 × 563) + 1570 ×
434.8/434.8
= 3380 + 1784 = 5164 mm
2
Try 4 no. H32 T + 4 no. H25 T (5180 mm
2
)
Appendix A1
This reinforcement should be spread over b
eff
.
b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
Fig. 9.1
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2.
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm
l
0
= 0.15 × (l
1
+ l
2
) Fig. 5.2
= 0.15 × (9000 + 8000) = 2550 mm
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
114
=b
eff1
= 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 2550 ≤ 0.2 × 2550 ≤ 3325
= 920 ≤ 510 ≤ 3325
= 510 mm
b
w
= 350 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= 0 mm
b
eff2
= 0 mm
= b
eff
= 510 + 350 + 0 = 860 mm
Use 4 no. H32 T + 4 no. H25 T (5180 mm
2
) @ approx 100 mm cc
b
w
= 350 mm
4H25
4H25 4H32
b
eff
= 860 mm
Figure
4.13 Support B reinforcement pp
4.2.8 Flexural design, span BC
a) Span BC – Flexure
M
Ed
= 684 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1, Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2.
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm Fig. 5.2
l
0
= 0.85 × l
1
= 0.85 × 8000 = 6800 mm
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 6800 ≤ 0.2 × 6800 ≤ 3325
= 1345 ≤ 1360 ≤ 3325
= 1360 mm
115
b
w
= 350 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= 0 mm
b
eff2
= 0 mm
= b = 1360 + 350 + 0 = 1710 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span.
f
ck
= 30 MPa
= K = 684 × 10
6
/ (1710 × 689
2
× 30)
= 0.028
By inspection, K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
Appendix A1
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.95) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 672 > 655 = z = 655 mm
Appendix A1
By inspection, x < 1.25 h
f
; design as rectangular section
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 684 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 655) = 2402 mm
2
Try 2 no. H32 B + 2 no. H25 B (2590 mm
2
)
Appendix A1
b) Span BC – Deflection
By inspection, compared with span AB OK
4.2.9 Flexural design, support C
By inspection, use 2 no. H25 U-bars as support A.
Use 2 no. H25 U-bars
4.2.10 Design for beam shear, support A
At d from face of support
V
Ed
= 646 − (350/2 + 0.689) × (1.35 × 46.0 + 1.5 × 63.3) Cl. 6.2.1(8)
ECO: A1.2.2, NA
& Exp. (6.10a)
= 646 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 510.3 kN
Check maximum shear resistance.
V
Rd, max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/(cot y + tan y) Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
a
cw
= 1.0 Cl. 6.2.3 & NA
b
w
= 350 mm as before
z = 0.9d Cl. 6.2.3(1)
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
116
v = 0.6 (1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.6 (1 − 30/250) = 0.528 Cl. 6.2.3(3)
Note 1, Exp.
(6.6N) & NA
f
cd
= 30/1.5 = 20.0 MPa Cl. 2.4.2.4(1) & NA
y = angle of inclination of strut.
= 0.5 sin
−1
{v
Ed,z
/[0.20 f
ck
(1 – f
ck
/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5
Exp. (6.9),
Appendix A2
where
v
Ed,z
= V
Ed
/b
z
= V
Ed
/(b × 0.9d)
= 510.3 × 10
3
/(350 × 0.9 × 689) = 2.35 MPa
y = 0.5 sin
−1
{2.35/[0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 sin
−1
(0.445) ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 × 26.4° ≥ 21.8°
= 21.8°
= V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 350 × 0.90 × 689 × 0.528 × 20.0/(2.5 + 0.4) = 790 kN
= OK
Shear reinforcement:
Shear links: shear resistance with links
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y
= A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/z f
ywd
cot y
Exp. (6.8)
where
A
sw
/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
f
ywd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
Cl. 2.4.2.4(1)
& NA
cot y = 2.5 as before
A
sw
/s ≥ 510.3 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 689 × 434.8 × 2.5) = 0.76
Minimum A
sw
/s = r
w,min
b
w
sin a Cl. 9.2.2(5),
Exp. (9.4)
where
r
w,min
= 0.08 × f
ck
0.5
/f
yk
= 0.08 × 30
0.5
/500
Exp. (9.5N) & NA
= 0.00088
b
w
= 350 mm as before
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal
axis. For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
= Minimum A
sw
/s = 0.00088 × 350 × 1 = 0.03
But,
maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.75d = 516 mm
= Try H10 @ 200 cc in 2 legs (A
sw
/s = 0.78)
Cl. 9.2.2(6)
4.2.11 Design for high beam shear, support B
As uniformly distributed load predominates consider at d from
face of support. Cl. 6.2.1(8)
117
V
Ed
= 1098 − (350/2 + 0.689) × (1.35 × 46.0 + 1.5 × 63.3)
= 1098 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 962.3 kN
By inspection, shear reinforcement required and cot y < 2.5.
Check V
Rd, max
(to determine y)
Check maximum shear resistance.
As before,
V
Rd, max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/(cot y + tan y). Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
a
cw
, b
w
, z, v and f
cd
as before
y = 0.5 sin
−1
{v
Ed,z
/[0.20 f
ck
(1 – f
ck
/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5 Exp. (6.9)
where
v
Ed,z
= V
Ed
/bz = V
Ed
/(b0.9d)
= 962.3 × 10
3
/(350 × 0.9 × 687) = 4.45 MPa
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
y = 0.5 sin
−1
{4.45/[0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 sin
−1
(0.843) ≥ cot
−1
2.5
= 0.5 × 57.5° ≥ 21.8°
= 28.7°
Exp. (6.9)
cot y = 1.824 i.e. > 1.0 =OK Cl. 6.2.3(2) & NA
tan y = 0.548
= V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 350 × 0.90 × 687 × 0.528 × 20.0/(1.824 + 0.548)
= 963.4 kN OK
(i.e. V
Rd,max
≈ V
Ed
)
Shear reinforcement:
Shear links: shear resistance with links
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s)zf
ywd
cot y
= A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/zf
ywd
cot y
Exp. (6.8)
A
sw
/s ≥ 962.3 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 687 × 434.8 × 1.824) = 1.96
= Use H10 @ 150 cc in 4 legs (A
sw
/s = 2.09)
4.2.12 Design for beam shear (using design chart),
support B
C
At d from face of support,
V
Ed
= 794 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 658.3 kN
v
Ed,z
= V
Ed
/bz = V
Ed
/(b0.9d)
= 658.3 × 10
3
/ (350 × 0.9 × 687) = 3.04 MPa
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
From chart A
sw
/s
reqd
/m width = 2.75
A
sw
/s
reqd
= 2.75 × 0.35 = 0.96
= Use H10 in 2 legs @ 150 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 1.05)
Fig. C1b)
4? leev||v |oeded l-|eem
118
4.2.13 Check shear capacity for general case
In mid span use H10 in 2 legs @ 300 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 0.52)
z A
sw
/s
reqd
/m width = 1.48 and an allowable v
Ed,z
= 1.60 MPa
z 1.60 × 350 × 0.90 × 687 = V
Ed
= 346 kN
From analysis, V
Ed
= 346.2 kN occurs at:
(646 − 346)/157.1 = 1900 mm from A,
(1098 – 346 − 1.25 × 88.7 – 1.5 × 138.7)/157.1 = 2755 mm from B
A
,
(794 − 346)/157.1 = 2850 mm from B
C

and
(499 − 346)/157.1 = 970 mm from C
Fig. C1b)
4.2.14 Summary of design
2H32 U-bars
A
4H32 + 4H25T 2H25 U-bars
H10 links in 2 legs
4H32 B1 + 2H32 B3
@ 300 @ 300 @ 150 @ 150 @ 150 @ 150
H10 links in 2 legs @ 150cc
1
1
4H25B 2H32 + 2H25B
1050 2850 2850 1950
B C
Figure 4.14 Summary of L-beam design
350 510
4H25 4H32
H10 in 4 legs
@ 150
Figure 4.15 L-beam section 1–1
119

q
k
= 45.8 kN/m
g
k
= 47.8 kN/m
A B C D E
7500 7500 7500 7500
Figure 4.16 Continuous wide T-beam
This central spine beam supports the ribbed slab in Example 3.3.
The 300 mm deep ribbed slab is required for an office to support
a variable action of 5 kN/m
2
. The beam is the same depth as the
slab and is supported on 400 mm square columns, see Figure
4.17. f
ck
= 35 MPa; f
yk
= 500 MPa. A 1-hour fire resistance is
required in an internal environment. Assume that partitions are
liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.
C
L
100
200
200 800 1000
Figure 4.17 Section through T-beam
4.3 Continuous wide T-beam
4.3.1 Actions
Permanent, UDL

:
From analysis of slab, g
k
= 47.8 kN/m
Variable:
From analysis of slab, q
k
= 45.8 kN/m

The actions may also have been estimated assuming an elastic reaction factor
of 1.1 for the slab viz:
kN/m
Permanent: UDL
Loads from ribbed slab (7.50 + 9.0)/2 × 4.30 × 1.1 = 39.0
Self-weight/patch load extra over solid 2.0 × 4.17 = 8.3
47.3
Variable:
Imposed (7.50 + 9.0)/2 × 5.00 × 1.1 = 45.4
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Continuous wide T-beam
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
120
4.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
:
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 25 mm main bars and
8 mm links
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, c
min,dur
= 15 mm
Table 4.1
BS 8500-1;
Table A4
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dc
dev
= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= c
nom
= 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to main bars
Use 10 mm diameter links to give c
nom
= 35 mm to main bars
and 25 mm to links (as per ribbed slab design).
Fire:
Check adequacy of section for REI 60.
EC2-1-2: 5.6.3
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
Axis distance required:
Minimum width b
min
= 120 mm with a = 25 mm
or b
min
= 200 mm with a = 12 mm
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
= at 2000 mm wide (min.) a < 12 mm
By inspection, not critical.
Use 25 mm nominal cover to links
4.3.3 Idealisation, load combination and arrangement
Load combination:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical.
47.8 × 1.25 + 45.8 × 1.5 = 128.5 kN/m

Fig. 2.5
EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Idealisation:
This element is treated as a beam on pinned supports.
The beam will be provided with links to carry shear and to
accommodate the requirements of Cl. 9.2.5 – indirect support of
the ribbed slab described in Section 3.3.8.
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded.
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
NA: Table NA.1
(option b)

cf. 126.7 kN/m from analysis of slab (63.2 kN/m + 63.5 kN/m). See Figure 3.12.
121
4.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, assuming simple supports and including
15% redistribution at supports (with in this instance consequent
redistribution in span moments).
EC0: A1.2.2 &
NA;
Cl. 5.3.1 (6)
5.3.1(6)
Table 4.3 Elastic and redistributed moments, kNm
Span number 1 2 3 4
Elastic M 641.7 433.0 433.0 641.7
Redistributed M 606.4 393.2 393.2 606.4
d 0.945 0.908 0.908 0.945
800
657.4 kNm 657.4 kNm
516.0 kNm
– 606.4 kNm – 606.4 kNm
– 393.2 kNm – 393.2 kNm
600
400
200
– 200
– 400
– 800
– 600
0
A B C D E
Figure 4.18 Redistributed envelope, kNm
800
394.6 kN
569.1 kN
462.6 kN
517.9 kN
– 517.9 kN
– 569.1 kN
– 395.6 kN
– 462.6 kN
600
400
200
– 200
– 400
– 800
– 600
0
A B C D E
Figure 4.19 Redistributed shears, kN
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
122
4.3.5 Flexural design, span AB
a) Span AB (and DE) – Flexure
M
Ed
= 606.4 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
= distance between webs/2
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l
0
= 0.85 × l
1
= 0.85 × 7500 = 6375 mm Fig. 5.2
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.2 × 6375 ≤ 2975
= 1232 ≤ 1275 ≤ 2975
= 1232 mm
b
w
= 2000 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2 l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= distance between webs/2.
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (9000 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 3725 mm
l
0
= 6375 mm as before
b
eff2
= 0.2 × 3725 + 0.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.2 × 6375 ≤ 3725
= 1382 ≤ 1275 ≤ 3725
= 1275 mm
b = 1232 + 2000 + 1275 = 4507 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 10 – 25/2 = 252 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span.
f
ck
= 35 MPa
K = 606.4 × 10
6
/(4507 × 252
2
× 35)
= 0.061
K' = 0.207 Appendix A1
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1
= (252/2) (1 + 0.886) ≤ 0.95 × 252
= 238 ≤ 239 = z =238 mm
123
But z = d – 0.4 x Appendix A1
= x = 2.5(d – z) = 2.5( 252 − 236) = 32 mm
= neutral axis in flange.
A
s
x < 1.25h
f
design as rectangular section.
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
where
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 606.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 239) = 5835 mm
2
Try 12 no. H25 B (5892 mm
2
)
b) Span AB – Deflection
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r
0
and whether to use Exp.
(7.16a) or (7.16b)
Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Exp. (7.16a),
Exp. (7.16b)
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
] PD 6687
[6]
= 5835/[2000 × 252 + (4507 – 2000) × 100]
= 5835/754700
= 0.77%
r
0
= f
ck
0.5
/1000 = 30
0.5
/1000 = 0.59%
r > r
0
= use Exp. (7.16b)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r
0
/(r – r') + f
ck
0.5
(r'/r
0
)
0.5
/12
= 11 + 1.5 (35
0.5
× 0.059/(0.077 – 0) + 35
0.5
(0/0.59)
1.5
= 11 + 6.8 + 0 = 17.8
Exp. (7.16b)
K = (end span) = 1.3 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 4057/2000 = 2.03) = 0.90 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
(span > 7.0 m)
where
l
eff
= 7100 + 2 × 300/2 = 7400 mm
F2 = 7.0/7.4 = 0.95
Cl. 7.4.2(2),
5.3.2.2(1)
F3 = 310/s
s
≤1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
§
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (5835/5892) [(47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/(1.25 ×
47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8)] × (1/0.945)
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.48 × 1.06
= 219 MPa

2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area
of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
§
See Appendix B1.5
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
124
F3 = 310/s
s
= 310/219 = 1.41
= Permissible l/d = 17.8 × 1.3 × 0.90 × 0.95 × 1.41 = 27.9
Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.8 = no good
Try 13 no. H25 B (6383 mm
2
)
F3 = 310/s
s
= 310/219 × 13/12 = 1.53

= say 1.50
= Permissible l/d = 17.8 × 1.3 × 0.90 × 0.95 × 1.50 = 29.7
Actual l
eff
/d = 7400/252 = 29.4 Say OK
Use 13 no. H25 B (6383 mm
2
)
4.3.6 Flexural design, support B (and D)
At centreline of support:
M = 657.4 kNm
At face of support:
M
Ed
= 657.4 – 0.2 × 517.9 + 0.202 × 128.5/2
= 657.4 – 101.0
= 556.4 kNm
K = M
Ed
/b
w
d
2
f
ck
where
b
w
= 2000 mm
d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link – 16 bar − 25/2 bar
= 226 mm
Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
25 cover
8 link
8 link
20 bar
25 cover
12 fabric
16 bar
25 cover
8 link
25 bar
16 bar
Figure 4.20 Section at rib-beam interface
K = 556.4 × 10
6
/(2000 × 226
2
× 35) = 0.156
By inspection, K < K'
K' = 0.167 maximum (or for d = 0.85, K' = 0.168)
= No compression steel required.
Appendix A1
Table C.4

Both A
s,prov
/A
s,req
and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or Exp.
(7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA.
NA, Table NA.5
125
z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 K' )
0.5
]
= (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.156)
0.5
]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.67) < 0.95d
= 189 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 556.4 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 189) = 6770 mm
2
Try 14 no. H25 T (6874 mm
2
)
To be spread over b
eff
Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
Fig. 9.1
b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1
where
b
1
referring to Figure 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l
0
= 0.15 × (l
1
+ l
2
) = 0.15 × (7500 + 7500) = 2250 mm
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 2250 ≤ 0.2 × 2250 ≤ 2975
= 820 ≤ 450 ≤ 2975 Fig. 5.2
= 450 mm
b
w
= 2000 mm
b
eff2
= 450 mm as before
= b
eff
= 450 + 2000 + 450 = 2900 mm
Check cracking:
Spacing = 2900 – 2 × (25 – 10 – 25/2)/(14 − 1) = 216 mm
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (6770/6874) [ (47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/
(1.25 × 47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8) × (1/0.85)
= 434.8 × 0.98 × 0.48 × 1.18 = 241 MPa
Cl. 7.3.3
As loading is the cause of cracking satisfy either Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N Cl. 7.3.3(2) &
Note
For w
k
= 0.4 and s
s
= 240 MPa max. spacing = 250 mm = OK Table 7.3N
4.3.7 Flexural design, span BC (and CD similar)
a) Flexure
M
Ed
= 393.2 kNm
K = M
Ed
/bd
2
f
ck
where
b = b
eff
= b
eff1
+ b
w
+ b
eff2
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
b
eff1
= (0.2b
1
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
1

43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
126
where
b
1
referring to Figure 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l
0
= 0.70 × l
2
= 0.7 × 7500 = 5250 mm
b
eff1
= 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 2975 Fig. 5.2
= 1120 ≤ 1050 ≤ 2975
= 1050 mm
b
w
= 2000 mm
b
eff2
= (0.2b
2
+ 0.1l
0
) ≤ 0.2l
0
≤ b
2
where
b
2
= distance between webs/2
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (9000 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 3725 mm
l
0
= 5250 mm as before
b
eff2
= 0.2 × 3725 + 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 3725
= 1270 ≤ 1050 ≤ 3725
= 1270 mm
b = 1050 + 2000 + 1270 = 4320 mm
d = 252 mm as before
assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span
f
ck
= 30
K = 393.2 × 10
6
/(4320 × 252
2
× 35)
= 0.041
By inspection, K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
Appendix A1
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 – 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d
= (252/2) (1 + 0.924) ≤ 0.95 × 252
= 242 > 239 = z = 239 mm
Appendix A1
By inspection, x < 1.25 h
f
= design as rectangular section Appendix A1
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 393.2 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 239) = 3783 mm
2
Try 8 no. H25 B (3928 mm
2
)
b) Deflection
By inspection, compared to span AB OK
But for the purposes of illustration:
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether to use Exp. (7.16a) or (7.16b) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
127
r
0
= 0.59% (for f
ck
= 35)
r = A
s
/A
c

= A
s,req
/[b
w
d + (b
eff
– b
w
)h
f
]
where
b
w
= 2000 mm
r = 3783/(2000 × 252 + (4320 – 2000) × 100)
= 3783/736000
= 0.51%
r < r
0
= use Exp. (7.16a)
N = 11 + 1.5f
ck
0.5
r
0
/r + 3.2f
ck
0.5
(r
0
/r – 1)1.5
= 11 + 1.5 × 35
0.5
× 0.059/0.051 + 3.2 × 35
0.5
(0.059/0.051 – 1)
1.5
= 11 + 10.2 + 23.5 = 17.8
= 44.7
Exp. (7.16a)
K = (internal span) = 1.5 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (b
eff
/b
w
= 4320/2000 = 2.16) = 0.88 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/l
eff
= 7.0/7.4 = (span > 7.0 m) = 0.95 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/s
s
≤1.5 Cl. 7.4.2,
Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
§
s
s
= (f
yk
/g
S
) (A
s,req
/A
s,prov
) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (3783/3828) [(47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/(1.25 ×
47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8)] × (1/0.908)
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.48 × 1.10
= 227 MPa
F3 = 310/ s
s
= 310/227 = 1.37
= Permissible l/d = 44.7 × 1.37 × 0.88 × 0.95 × 1.37 = 70.1
Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.8 = OK
Use 8 no. H25 B (3928 mm
2
)
#
c) Hogging
Assuming curtailment of top reinforcement at 0.30l + a
l
, How to: Detailing
From analysis M
Ed
at 0.3l from BC (& DC) = 216.9 kNm
at 0.3l from CB (& CD) = 185.6 kNm
K = 216.9 × 10
6
/(2000 × 226
2
× 35) = 0.061
By inspection, K < K'

2.18 of PD 6687
[6]
suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area
of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.
§
See Appendix B1.5
#
12 no. H20 B (3768 mm
2
) used to suit final arrangement of links.
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
128
z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 K')
0.5
]
= (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.061)
0.5
]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.89) < 0.95d
= 214 mm < 215 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 216.9 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 214) = 2948 mm
2
Use 12 no. H20 T (3748 mm
2
)
(to suit links and bottom steel)
Top steel at supports may be curtailed down to 12 no. H20 T at
0.3l + a
l
= 0.3 × 7500 + 1.25 × 214 = 2518 say 2600 mm from
centreline of support.
Cl. 9.2.1.3(2)
4.3.8 Flexural design, support C
At centreline of support,
M = 516.0 kNm
At face of support, Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
M
Ed
= 516.0 – 0.2 × 462.6 + 0.20
2
× 128.5/2
= 516.0 – 90.0
= 426.0 kNm
K = M
Ed
/b
w
d
2
f
ck
where
b
w
= 2000 mm
d = 226 mm as before
K = 426.0 × 10
6
/(2000 × 226
2
× 35) = 0.119
By inspection, K < K'
z = (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)
0.5
]
= (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.119)
0.5
]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.76) < 0.95d
= 199 mm
A
s
= M
Ed
/f
yd
z
= 426.0 × 10
6
/(434.8 × 199) = 4923 mm
2
Try 10 no. H25 T (4910 mm
2
)

4.3.9 Design for beam shear
a) Support A (and E)
At d from face of support,
V
Ed
= 394.6 − (0.400/2 + 0·252) × 128.5 = 336.5 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Maximum shear resistance:
By inspection, V
Rd,max
OK and cot y = 2.5

12 no. H25 used to suit final arrangement of links.
129
However, for the purpose of illustration: check shear capacity,
V
Rd,max
= a
cw
b
w
zvf
cd
/ (cot y + tan y)
where Exp. (6.9) & NA
a
cw
= 1.0
b
w
= 2000 mm as before
z = 0.9d
v = 0.6 [1 − f
ck
/250] = 0.516 Cl. 6.2.3(1)
f
cd
= 35/1.5 = 23.3 MPa
y = angle of inclination of strut.
By inspection, cot
−1
y << 21.8. But cot y restricted to
2.5 and = tan y = 0.4.
Cl. 6.2.3(2)
& NA
V
Rd,max
= 1.0 × 2000 × 0.90 × 252 × 0.516 × 23.3/(2.5 + 0·4)
= 2089.5 kN
= OK
Shear links: shear resistance with links
\
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y ≥ V
Ed
Exp. (6.8)
= for V
Ed
≤ V
Rd,s
A
sw
/s ≥ V
Ed
/z f
ywd
cot y
where
A
sw
/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
f
ywd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
cot y = 2.5 as before
A
sw
/s ≥ 336.5 × 10
3
/(0.9 × 252 × 434.8 × 2.5) = 1.36
Minimum A
sw
/s = r
w,min
b
w
sin a
Cl. 9.2.2(5),
Exp. (9.4)
where
r
w,min
= 0.08 × f
ck
0.5
/f
yk
= 0.08 × 35
0.5
/500 = 0.00095
Exp. (9.5N) & NA
b
w
= 2000 mm as before
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis.
For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
Minimum A
sw
/s = 0.00095 × 2000 × 1 = 1.90
But,
maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.75d = 183 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
Maximum spacing of links laterally = 0.75d ≤ 600 mm = 183 mm
H10s required to maintain 35 mm cover to H25
= Use H10 @ 175 cc both ways
i.e. H10 in 12
§
legs @ 175 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 5.38)
Cl. 9.2.2(8)
§
(2000 mm – 2 × 25 mm cover − 10 mm diameter)/175 = 11 spaces, = 12 legs.
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
130
b) Support B (and C and D)
By inspection, the requirement for minimum reinforcement and, in
this instance, for H10 legs of links will outweigh design requirements.
Nonetheless check capacity of A
sw
/s = 5.38
V
Rd,s
= (A
sw
/s) z f
ywd
cot y Exp. (6.8)
= 5.38 × 0.9 × 252 × 434.8 × 2.5 = 1326.3 kN
Maximum shear at support = 517.9 kN
i.e. capacity of minimum links not exceeded.
By inspection, the requirement for indirect support of the ribs of the
slab using 87 mm
2
/rib within 150 mm of centreline of ribs (at 900 mm
centres) and within 50 mm of rib/solid interface is adequately catered
for and will not unduly effect the shear capacity of the beam.
Use 150 mm centres to tie in with 900 mm centres of ribs
= Use H10 in 12 legs @ 150 mm cc (A
sw
/s = 6.28) throughout beam
Cl. 9.2.5,
Section 3.4.8
4.3.10 Check for punching shear, column B
As the beam is wide and shallow it should be checked for punching shear.
At B, applied shear force, V
Ed
= 569.1 + 517.9 = 1087.0 kN.
Check at perimeter of 400 × 400 mm column:
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
i
d < v
Rd,max
Cl. 6.4.3(2),
6.4.5(3)
where
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.15
V
Ed
= applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
u
i
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
adjacent to interior columns u
0
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) = 1600 mm
Cl. 6.4.5(3)
d = mean d = (245 + 226)/2 = 235 mm Exp. (6.32)
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1087.0 × 10
3
/1600 × 235 = 3.32 MPa
v
Rd,max
= 0.5vf
cd
Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
where
v = 0.6(1 − f
ck
/250) = 0.516 Exp. (6.6) & NA
f
cd
= a
cc
lf
ck
/g
C
= 1.0 × 1.0 × 35/1.5 = 23.3
v
Rd,max
= 0.5 × 0.516 × 23.3 = 6.02 MPa = OK Table C7

Check shear stress at basic perimeter u
1
(2.0d from face of column):
v
Ed
= bV
Ed
/u
1
d < v
Rd,c
where
Cl. 6.4.2
b, V
Ed
and d as before Fig. 6.13
‡ In this case, at the perimeter of the column, it is assumed that the strut angle
is 45°, i.e. that cot y = 1.0. In other cases, where cot y < 1.0, v
Rd,max
is available
from Table C7.
131
u
1
= control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
at 2d from interior columns
= 2(c
x
+ c
y
) + 2π × 2d
= 1600 + 2π × 2 × 235 = 4553 mm
v
Ed
= 1.15 × 1087.0 × 10
3
/4553 × 235 = 1.17 MPa
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/ g
C
× k × (100 r
l
f
ck
)
0.333
Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
g
C
= 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)
0.5
≤ 2
= 1 +(200/235)
0.5
= 1.92
r
l
= (r
ly,
r
lz
)
0.5
Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
where
r
ly,
r
lz
= Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column.
= 6874/(2000 × 226) = 0.0152
r
lz
= 741/(900 × 245) = 0.0036
r
l
= (0.0152 × 0.0036)
0.5
= 0.0074
f
ck
= 35
v
Rd,c
= 0.18/1.5 × 1.92 × (100 × 0.0074 × 35)
0.333
= 0.68 MPa
§
Table C6
#
= punching shear reinforcement required
Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links):
At the basic control perimeter, u
1
, 2d from the column:
A
sw
≥ (v
Ed
– 0.75v
Rd,c
) s
r
u
1
/1.5f
ywd,ef
) Exp. (6.52)
where
s
r
= 175 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)
f
ywd,ef
= effective design strength of reinforcement
= (250 + 0.25d) < f
yd
= 309 MPa Cl. 6.4.5(1)
For perimeter u
1
A
sw
= (1.17 – 0.75 × 0.68) × 175 × 4553/(1.5 × 309) = 1135 mm
2
per
perimeter
Try 15 no. H10 (1177 mm
2
)
§
See Section 3.4.14 with respect to possible limit of 2.0 or 2.5 on V
Ed
/V
Rd,c

within punching shear requirements.
#
v
Rd,c
for various values of d and r
l
is available from Table C6.
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
132
Check availability of reinforcement

:
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d, i.e between 70 mm and 117
mm from face of column. Say 0.4d = 100 mm from face of column.
Fig. 9.10,
9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 4.21. the equivalent of 14 locations are
available between 70 mm and 117 mm from face of column therefore
say OK.
150
470 200 200 470
C
L
C
L
u
1
s = 150 mm
24 H10 legs
in u
1
perimeter
H10 legs
of links
150 150 150 150 150
900
600
70
58
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
1
7
5
Figure 4.21 Shear links and punching shear perimeter u
1
Perimeter at which no punching shear links are required:
u
out
= V
Ed
× b/(d × v
Rd,c
)
u
out
= 1087 × 1.15 × 10
3
/(235 × 0.68) = 7826 mm
Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm
Radius to u
out
= (7823 – 1600)/2π = 990 mm
from face of column i.e. in ribs, therefore beam shear governs

The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter u
1
. See Section 3.4.13.
Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum
reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3). The centre of
links from the centreline of the column shown in Figure 4.21 have been adjusted to
accommodate a perimeter of links at between 0.3d and 0.5d from the column face.
133
4.3.11 Summary of design
A
14H25T
H10 links in
12 legs @ 150 cc
13H25B 13H25B 12H20B 12H20B
B C D E
X
X
14H25T 12H25T
12H20T 12H20T
Figure 4.23 Section X–X
43 Cont|nuous w|de ¹-|eem
134
Columns
General
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s sect|on |||ustrete
S] Les|gn o¦ e non-s|ender edge co|umn us|ng hend ce|cu|et|on
S? Les|gn o¦ e oer|meter co|umn us|ng |teret|on o¦ equet|ons to determ|ne re|n¦orcement
requ|rements
S3 Les|gn o¦ en |nterne| co|umn w|th h|gh ex|e| |oed
S4 Les|gn o¦ e s|ender co|umn requ|r|ng e two-hour ure res|stence
ln genere|, ex|e| |oeds end urst order moments ere essumed to |e eve||e||e ¹he des|gns cons|der
s|enderness |n order to determ|ne des|gn moments, /
ld
¹he co|umns ere des|gned end chec|ed
¦or ||ex|e| |end|ng ¹he e¦¦ects o¦ e||ow|ng ¦or |moer¦ect|ons ere |||ustreted
A genere| method o¦ des|gn|ng co|umns |s es ¦o||ows ln orect|ce, severe| o¦ these steos mev |e
com||ned
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA Table NA 2.1
Assess ect|ons on the co|umn N EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons eoo|v N EC0 & NA Tables NA A1.1
& NA A1.2(B)
Assess dure||||tv requ|rements end determ|ne concrete N
strength
BS 8500–1
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eooroor|ete ¦|re N
res|stence oer|od
Approved Document B,
EC2–1–2
Leterm|ne cover ¦or ¦|re, dure||||tv end |ond N Cl. 4.4.1
Ane|vse structure ¦or cr|t|ce| com||net|on moments N
end ex|e| ¦orces
Section 5
Chec| s|enderness end determ|ne des|gn moments N Section 5.8
Leterm|ne eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red N Section 6.1
Chec| soec|ng o¦ |ers end ||n|s N Sections 8 & 9
5
5.0
Co|umns
135
A 300 mm square column on the edge of a flat slab structure
supports an axial load of 1620 kN and first order moments of
38.5 kNm top and −38.5 kNm bottom in one direction only

. The
concrete is grade C30/37, f
ck
f = 30 MPa and cover, c
nom
, = 25 mm.
The 250 mm thick flat slabs are at 4000 mm vertical centres.
N
Ed
= 1620 kN
38.5 kNm
– 38.5 kNm
Figure 5.1 Forces in edge column
5.1.1 Check slenderness, l
Effective length
§
, l
0
= factor × l Cl. 5.8.3.2
where
factor = from Table C16, condition 2 each end Table C16, Table C16,
= 0.85 PD 6687: 2.10
l = clear height = 3750 mm l
= l
0
= 0.85 × 3750 = 3187 mm
Slenderness l = l
0
/i Exp. (5.14)

For examples of load take-downs and 1st order moment analysis see Section
5.3.2
§
Effective lengths are covered in Eurocode 2 Cl. 5.8.3.2 and Exp. (5.15). The
effective length of most columns will be l /2< l
0
l < l (see Eurocode 2 Figure 5.7f). l
PD 6687
[6]
Cl. 2.10 suggests that using the procedure outlined in Eurocode 2
(5.8.3.2(3) and 5.8.3.2(5)) leads to similar effective lengths to those tabulated
in BS 8110
[7]
and reproduced in Table 5.1 of Concise Eurocode 2
[5]
and in this
publication as Table C16. For simplicity, tabular values are used in this example.
However, experience suggests that these tabulated values are conservative.
Fig. 5.7
PD 6687
[6]
:
Cl. 2.10
Cl. 5.8.3.2(3)
5.8.3.2(5)
Table C16 Table C16
5.1 Edge column
¹he |ntent|on o¦ th|s ce|cu|et|on |s to show e tvo|ce| hend ce|cu|et|on thet me|es re¦erence
to des|gn cherts
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Edge column
136
where
i = radius of gyration
= h/12
0.5
for rectangular sections
l = 3187 × 3.46/300 = 36.8
5.1.2 Limiting slenderness, l
lim
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 0.7 (default) Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
B = 1.1 (default)
C = 1.7 − r
m
= 1.7 − M
01
/M
02
= 1.7 − 38.5/(−38.5) = 2.7
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1620 × 10
3
/(300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 1.06
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.7/1.06
0.5
In this example l
lim
= 40.4 i.e. > 36.8 = Column not slender
5.1.3 Design moments
M
Ed
= max[M
02
; M
0Ed
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
] Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)
where
M
02
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2, 6.1.4
where
M = 38.5 kNm
e
i
= l
0
/400
e
0
= max[h/30; 20] = max[300/30; 20] = 20 mm
Cl. 5.2.7, 5.2.9
Cl. 6.1.4
M
02
= 38.5 + 1620 × 3.187/400 ≥ 0.02 × 1620
= 38.5 + 12.9 ≥ 32.4 kNm
= 51.4 kNm
M
0Ed
= 0.6M
02
+ 0.4M
01
≥ 0.4M
02
= 0.6 × 51.4 + 0.4 × (−38.5 + 12.9) ≥ 0.4 × 51.4
= 20.6 ≥ 20.6
= 20.6
M
2
= 0 (column is not slender)
M
01
= M
02
= max[M
02
; M
0Ed
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
] = 51.4 kNm = M
Ed
= 51.4 kNm
5.1.4 Design using charts (see Appendix C)
d
2
= c
nom
+ link + f/2 = 25 + 8 + 16 = 49
d
2
/h = 49/300 = 0.163
= interpolating between d
2
/h = 0.15 and 0.20 Figs. C5c), C5d)
for
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 1620 × 10
3
/(300
2
× 30) = 0.60
137
S] ldge co|umn
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 51.4 × 10
6
/(300
3
× 30) = 0.063
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.24
A
s
= 0.24 × 300
2
× 30/500 = 1296 mm
2
Try 4 no. H25 (1964 mm
2
)
5.1.5 Check for biaxial bending
l
y
/l
z
≈ 1.0 Cl. 5.8.9
i.e. l
y
/l
z
≤ 2.0 = OK but check Exp. (5.38b) Exp. (5.38a)
As a worst case M
Edy
may coexist with e
0
N
Ed
about the orthogonal axis: Cl. 6.1(4)
e
y
/h
eq

=
(M
Edz
/N
Ed
)/h
=
M
Edz
e
z
/b
eq
(M
Edy
/N
Ed
)/b M
Edy
Exp. (5.38b)
Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only.
= As a worst case for biaxial bending
Cl. 5.8.9(2)
M
Edz
= M + 0 = 38.5 kNm
M
Edy
= e
0
N
Ed
= 32.4 kNm
M
Edz

=
38.5
= 1.19 i.e. > 0.2 and < 5.0
M
Edy
32.4
Exp. (5.38b)
= Biaxial check required Cl. 5.8.9(4)
Check whether
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0 Exp. (5.39)
where
M
Edz
= 38.5 kNm
M
Edy
= 32.4 kNm
M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
Figs. C5c), C5d)
To determine M
Rdz
, find M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
(and therefore
moment capacity) by interpolating between d
2
/h = 0.15
(Figure C5c) and 0.20 (Figure C5d) for the proposed
arrangement and co-existent axial load.
Assuming 4 no. H25,
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 1964 × 500/(300
2
× 30) = 0.36
Interpolating for N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.6,
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.094
= M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
= 0.094 × 300
3
× 30 = 76.1 kNm
a is dependent on N
Ed
/N
Rd
where
N
Ed
= 1620 kN as before
Cl. 5.8.9(4),
Notes to Exp.
(5.39)
138
N
Rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
= 300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 1964 × 500/1.15
= 1530.0 + 853.9
= 2383.9 kN
N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 1620/2383.9 = 0.68
=a = 1.48 by interpolating between values given for N
Ed
/N
Rd
=
0.1, (1.0) and N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 0.7, (1.5)
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
= (38.5/76.1)
1.48
+ (32.4/76.1)
1.48

= 0.36 + 0.28
= 0.64 = OK.
= 4 no. H25 OK
Exp. (5.39)
5.1.6 Links
Diameter min. f/4 = 25/4 = 8 mm Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Max. spacing = 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm Cl. 9.5.3(3),
Cl. 9.5.3(4)
Links at say 175 mm cc
5.1.7 Design summary
4 H25
H8 links @ 175 cc
25 mm cover
f
ck
= 30 MPa
Figure 5.2 Design summary: edge column
139
S? ler|meter co|umn
This 300 × 300 mm perimeter column is in an internal environment
and supports three suspended floors and the roof of an office block.
It is to be designed at ground floor level where the storey height
is 3.45 m and the clear height in the N–S direction (z direction) is
3.0 m and 3.325 m in the E–W direction (y direction). One-hour fire
resistance is required and f
ck
= 30 MPa.
250
325
300 × 300
Column under
consideration
3575
M
02yy
Figure 5.3 Perimeter column
(internal environment)
From first order analysis, load case 1:
N
Ed
= 1129.6 kN; M
02yy
= 89.6 kNm; M
02zz
= 0
Load case 2:
N
Ed
= 1072.1 kN; M
02yy
= 68.7 kNm; M
02zz
= 6.0 kNm
5.2.1 Cover
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= 32 mm to main bars, 32 − 8 = 24 mm to links
= say 25 mm
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assume XC1.
c
min,dur
= 15 mm
c
min
= 25 mm
Dc
dev
= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.3(3)
Therefore c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links c
nom
= 35 mm to links.
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Perimeter column
(internal environment)
5.2 Perimeter column (internal environment)
¹h|s exemo|e |s |ntended to show e hend ce|cu|et|on ¦or e non-s|ender oer|meter co|umn
us|ng |teret|on (o¦ \) to determ|ne the re|n¦orcement requ|red
140
5.2.2 Fire resistance
Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a of BS EN 1992–1–2: EC2-1-2: 5.3.2,
Table 5.2a
l
0,fi
≈ 0.7 × 3.325 i.e. < 3.0 m = OK. EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(3)
e = M
02yy
/N
Ed
= 89.6 × 10
6
/1129.6 × 10
3
= 79 mm EC2-1-2:
5.3.2 & NA
e
max
= 0.15h = 0.15 × 300 = 45 mm = no good.
Check validity of using Method B and Table 5.2b:
e
max
= 0.25b = 75 mm = no good.
EC2-1-2:
5.3.3
Use BS EN 1992–1–2 Annex C Tables C1–C9. EC2-1-2:
Annex C
Assume min. 4 no. H25 = 1964 mm
2
(z 2.2%)

w = A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
= 0.022 × (500/1.15)/(0.85 × 30/1.5)
EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= 0.56
e ≈ 0.25b and ≤ 100 mm
l = l
0
/i
where
l
0
= 0.7 × 3.325 = 2327 mm
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)
0.5
= h/12
0.5
EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(2),
5.3.3(3)
where
I = inertia = bh
3
/12
A = area = bh
h = height of section
b = breadth of section
= 300/12
0.5
= 87 mm
l = 2327/87 = 276
n = N
0Ed,fi
/0.7(A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
) EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= 0.7 × 1129.6/0.7(300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 1964 × 500/1.15)
= 1129.6/2383.9
= 0.47
= interpolate for l = 30 and n = 0.47 between
from Table C.5 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 0.5, e = 0.25b):
EC2-1-2:
Table C.5
minimum dimension, b
min
= 235, and axis distance, a = 35 mm
and
from Table C.8 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 1.0, e = 0.25b):
EC2-1-2:
Table C.8
‡ Using 4 no. H20 gives w = 0.34, n = 0.54 and b
min
= 310 mm = no good.
141
S? ler|meter co|umn
b
min
= 185, and
a = 30 mm
= for w = 0.56,
b
min
= 228, and
a = 35 mm
OK to use Method B but use min. 4 no. H25
5.2.3 Structural design: check slenderness
Effective length, l
0
:
l
0
= 0.5l [1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
) ]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
) ]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where
k
1
, k
2
= relative stiffnesses top and bottom
But conservatively, choose to use tabular method
§
. For critical
direction, the column is in condition 2 at top and condition 3 at
bottom (pinned support).
l
0
= 0.95 × 3325 = 3158 mm
Table C16
Slenderness ratio, l:
l = l
0
/i
where
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)
0.5
= h/12
0.5
l = 3158 × 12
0.5
/300 = 36.5 l = 36.5
Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
& NA
where
A = 1/(1 + 0.2 f
ef
). Assume 0.7 Cl. 5.8.4
B = (1 + 2 A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
)
0.5
= (1 + 2w)
0.5
Assuming min. 4 no. H25 (for fire)
w = 0.56 as before
B = (1 + 2 × 0.56)
0.5
= 1.46
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
C = 1.7 – r
m
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
where
r
m
= M
01
/M
2
Assuming conservatively that M
01
= 0
r
m
= 0
C = 1.7
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1129.6 × 10
3
/(300
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.74
§
See footnote to Section 5.1.1.
142
l
lim
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.46 × 1.7/0.74
0.5
= 40.4 l
lim
= 40.4
= as l < l
lim
column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not
required.
Column is not slender
5.2.4 Design moments, M
Ed
M
Ed
= M
OEd
+ M
2
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
5.8.8.2(3)
But as column is not slender, M
2
= 0, = Cl. 6.1.4
M
Ed
= M
Oed
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
e
i
N
Ed
= effect of imperfections

where
e
i
= l
0
/400 Cl. 5.2(7), 5.2.9,
5.8.8.2(1)
e
0
= h/30 > 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
Load case 1:
M
Edy
= 89.6 + (3158/400) × 1129.6 × 10
−3
> 0.02 × 1129.6
= 89.6 + 8.9 > 22.6 = 98.5 kNm
Load case 2:
M
Edy
= 68.7 kNm
M
Edz
= 6.0 + (l
0
/400) × 1072.1 × 10
−3
> 0.02 × 1072.1
where
l
0
= 0.9 × 3000
= 13.2 > 21.4 = 21.4 kNm
Table C16
5.2.5 Design using iteration of x
For axial load:
A
sN
/2 = (N
Ed
– a
cc
nf
ck
bd
c
/g
C
)/(s
sc
– s
st
)
Concise:
Section 6.2.2,
Appendix A3
For moment:
A
sM
/2 =
[M
Ed
– a
cc
nf
ck
bd
c
(h/2 – d
c
/2)/ g
C
]
(h/2 – d
2
) (s
sc
– s
st
)
Appendices A3,
C9.2,
where
M
Ed
= 98.5 × 10
6
N
Ed
= 1129.6 × 10
3
a
cc
= 0.85 Cl. 3.1.6(1) & NA
n = 1.0 for f
ck
≤ 50 MPa Exp. (3.21)

The effects of imperfections need only be taken into account in the most
unfavourable direction. Cl. 5.8.9(2)
143
S? ler|meter co|umn
f
ck
= 30
b = 300
h = 300
d
c
= depth of compression zone
= lx Exp. (3.19)
= 0.8x < h
where
x = depth to neutral axis
d
2
= 35 + 8 + 25/2 = 55 mm assuming H25
g
C
= 1.5
s
sc
, (s
st
) = stress in reinforcement in compression (tension) Table 2.1N
a) Strain diagram b) Stress diagram
s
st
f
cd
= a
cc
nf
ck
/g
C
d
2
h
x
d
c
d
2
A
s2
A
s1
o
o o
o
n. axis
s
sc
e
sc
e
cu2
e
y
Figure 5.4 Section in axial compression and bending Fig. 6.1
Try x = 200 mm
e
cu
= e
cu2
= 0.0035
e
sc
=
0.0035 × (x – d
2
)
=
0.0035 × (200 – 55)
x 200
= 0.0025
s
sc
= 0.0025 × 200000 ≤ f
yk
/g
S
= 500 ≤ 500/1.15
= 434.8 MPa
e
st
= 0.0035(h – x – d
2
)/x = 0.0035(300 – 200 – 55)/200
= 0.0008
s
st
= 0.0008 × 200000 ≤ 500/1.15
= 160 MPa
A
sN
/2 =
1129.6 × 10
3
– 0.85 × 1.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.8/(1.5 × 10
3
)
434.8 – 160
= (1129.6 – 816.0) × 10
3
= 1141 mm
2
274.8
144
A
sM
/2 =
98.5 × 10
6
– 0.85 × 1.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.8 (300/2 – 200 × 0.8/2)/(1.5 × 10
3
)
(300/2 – 55) (434.8 + 160)
=
(98.5 – 57.1) × 10
6

= 733 mm
2
95 × 594.8
Similarly for x = 210 mm
e
cu
= 0.0035
e
sc
= 0.0026 = s
sc
= 434.8
e
st
= 0.0006 = s
st
= 120 MPa
A
sN
/2 =
(1129.6 – 856.8) × 10
3
= 866 mm
2
434.8 – 120
A
sM
/2 =
(98.5 – 56.5) × 10
6

= 796 mm
2
95 × 554.8
Similarly for x = 212 mm
s
sc
= 434.8
e
st
= 0.00054 =e
st
= 109 MPa
A
sN
/2 =
(1129.6 – 865.0) × 10
3

= 812 mm
2
434.8 – 109
A
sM
/2 =
(98.5 – 56.3) × 10
6

= 816 mm
2
95 × 543.8
= as A
sN
/2 ≈ A
sM
/2, x = 212 mm is approximately correct and
A
sN
≈ A
sM
, ≈ 1628 mm
2
= Try 4 no. H25 (1964 mm
2
)
5.2.6 Check for biaxial bending
By inspection, not critical. Cl. 5.8.9(3)
[Proof:
Section is symmetrical and M
Rdz
> 98.5 kNm.
Assuming e
y
/e
z
> 0.2 and biaxial bending is critical, and assuming
exponent a = 1 as a worst case for load case 2: Exp. (5.39)
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
= (21.4/98.5)
1
+ (68.7/98.5)
1
= 0.91 i.e. < 1.0 = OK.]
5.2.7 Links
Minimum size links = 25/4 = 6.25, say 8 mm
Spacing: minimum of
a) 0.6 × 20 × 25 = 300 mm,
b) 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm or
c) 0.6 × 400 = 240 mm
Use H8 @ 175 mm cc
Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
145
S? ler|meter co|umn
5.2.8 Design summary
4 H25
H8 links @ 175 cc
c
nom
= 35 mm to links
Figure 5.5 Design summary: perimeter column
146
The design forces need to be determined. This will include the
judgement of whether to use Exp. (6.10) or the worse case of
Exp. (6.10a) and (6.10b) for the design of this column.
The suspended slabs (including the ground floor slab) are 300
mm thick flat slabs at 4500 mm vertical centres. Between ground
and 5th floors the columns at C2 are 500 mm square; above 5th
floor they are 465 mm circular. Assume an internal environment,
1-hour fire resistance and f
ck
= 50 MPa.
E
D
C
A
4.0
8.0
9.6
200 x 200
hole
200 x 200
hole
300 mm flat slabs
All columns 400 mm sq.
8.6
8.0
4.0 4.0
6
.0
1
2
3
B Bb
5.3.1 Design forces
In order to determine design forces for this column it is first
necessary to determine vertical loads and 1st order moments.
5.3.2 Load take-down
Actions:
Roof:
g
k
= 8.5, q
k
= 0.6
EC1-1-1:
6.3.4, NA &
Table NA.7
5.3 Internal column
¹he ¦et s|e| shown |n lxemo|e 34 (reoroduced es l|gure S6) |s oert o¦ en S-storev structure
e|ove ground w|th e |esement |e|ow ground ¹he oro||em |s to des|gn co|umn C? |etween
ground ¦oor end ]st ¦oor
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Internal column
Figure 5.6 Part plan of flat slab
147
S3 lnterne| co|umn
Floors:
g
k
= 8.5, q
k
= 4.0 Section 3.4
In keeping with Section 3.4 use coefficients to determine loads in
take-down.
Section 3.4
Consider spans adjacent to column C2:
Along grid C, consider spans to be 9.6 m and 8.6 m and C2 to be
the internal of 2 - span element.
Therefore elastic reaction factor = 0.63 + 0.63 = 1.26
Along grid 2 consider spans to be 6.0 m and 6.2 m and internal of
multiple span.
Elastic reaction factor = 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.00
Table C3
Load take-down for column C2.
Item Calculation
G
k
Q
k
From
item
Cumulative
total
From
item
Cumulative
total
Roof = [erf
y
× (l
z1
+ l
z2
)/2 ] × [erf
z
× (l
y1
+ l
y2
)/2 ] ×
(g
k
+ q
k
)
= [1.0 × (6.0 + 6.2)/2 ] × [1.26 × (9.6
+ 8.6)/2 ] × (8.5 + 0.6)
= 69.9 × (8.5 + 0.6) = 594.5 42.0
Col 8 – R = π (0.465/2)
2
× (4.5 − 0.3) × 25 = 17.9 612.4 42.0
8th = 1.0 × (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 1.26 × (9.6 +
8.6)/2 × (8.5 + 4.0) =
594.5 279.7
Col 7 – 8 as before 17.9 1224.8 321.7
7th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 6 – 7 a.b. 17.9 1837.2 601.4
6th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 5 – 6 a.b. 17.9 2449.6 881.1
5th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 4 – 5 = 0.5 × 0.5 × (4.5 − 0.3) × 25 = 26.3 3070.4 1160.8
4th as before 594.5 279.7
Col 3 – 4 a.b. 26.3 3691.2 1440.5
3rd a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 2 – 3 a.b. 26.3 4312.0 1720.2
2nd a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 1 – 2 a.b. 26.3 4932.8 1999.7
1st a.b. 594.5 279.8
Col G – 1 a.b. 26.3 5553.6 2279.5
At above ground floor
÷
5553.6
÷
2279.5
148
5.3.3 Design axial load, ground– 1st floor, N
Ed
a) Axial load to Exp. (6.10)
N
Ed
= g
G
G
k
+ g
Q
Q
k1
+ c
0
g
Q
Q
ki
EC0:
Exp. (6.10) & NA
where
g
G
= 1.35
g
Q
= 1.50
c
0,1
= 0.7 (offices)
Q
k1
= leading variable action (subject to reduction factor a
A
or a
n
)
EC0:
A1.2.2 & NA
Q
ki
= accompanying action (subject to a
A
or a
n
) EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10),
6.3.1.2 (11), & NA
where
a
A
= 1 – A/1000 ≥ 0.75
= 1 – 9 × 69.9/1000 = 0.37 ≥ 0.75
= 0.75
a
n
= 1.1 – n/10 for 1 ≤ n ≤ 5
= 0.6 for 5 ≤ n ≤ 10 and
= 0.5 for n > 10
where
n = number of storeys supported
a
n
= 0.6 for 8

storeys supported
= as a
n
< a
A
, use a
n
= 0.6
Assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable
action:
N
Ed
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × (2279.5 − 42.0) × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × 2237.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 7497.4 + 2013.8 + 44.1
= 9555.3 kN
To Exp. (6.10), N
Ed
= 9555.3 kN
b) Axial load to Exp. (6.10a)
N
Ed
= g
G
G
k
+ c
0,1
g
Q
Q
k1
+ c
0,1
g
Q
Q
ki
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 0.6 ( 279.8 + 1999.7)
= 7497.4 + 1436.1
= 8933.4 kN
To Exp. (6.10a), N
Ed
= 8933.4 kN
EC0:
Exp. (6.10a)
& NA
c) Axial load to Exp. (6.10b)
N
Ed
= jg
G
G
k
+ g
Q
Q
k1
+ c
0,1
g
Q
Q
ki
EC0:
Exp. (6.10)
& NA

According to BS EN 1991–1–1 6.3.1.2
[11]
the imposed load on the roof is category
H and therefore does not qualify for reduction factor a
n
.
149
S3 lnterne| co|umn
assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable
action:
= 0.925 × 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × (2279.5 − 42.0) × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 1.25 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × 2237.5 × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 6942.1 + 2013.8+ 44.1
= 9000.0 kN
To Exp. (6.10b), N
Ed
= 9000.0 kN
5.3.4 First order design moments, M
a) Grid C
Consider grid C to determine M
yy
in column (about grid 2)
300 thick ave 6100 wide 500 sq
q
k
= 6.1 x 4.0 = 24.4 kN/m g
k
= 6.1 x 8.5 = 51.9 kN/m
4500
4500
1 2 3
8600 9600
Actions:
g
k
= (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 8.5 = 51.9 kN/m
q
k
= (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 4.0 = 24.4 kN/m
Relative stiffness of lower column:
Assuming remote ends of slabs are pinned, relative stiffness

=
b
lc
d
lc
3
/L
lc
b
lc
d
lc
3
/L
lc
+ b
uc
d
uc
3
/L
uc
+ 0.75b
23
d
23
3
/L
23
+ 0.75b
21
d
21
3
/L
21
where
b = breadth
d = depth
L = length

lc
= lower column,
uc
= upper column

23
= beam 23, similarly
21
= beam 21

=
0.5
4
/4.5
2 × 0.5
4
/4.5 + 0.75 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/8.6 + 0.75 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/9.6
= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0144 + 0.0129) = 0.252
150
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10)
FEM 23

= 1.35 × 51.9 × 8.6
2
/12 = 431.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.35 × 51.9 + 1.5 × 24.4) × 9.6
2
/12
= 106.7 × 9.6
2
/12 = 819.5 kNm
M
lower,yy
= 0.252 × [819.5 – 431.8] = 97.7 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a)
FEM 23 = 1.25 × 51.9 × 8.6
2
/12 = 399.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.25 × 51.9 + 1.5 × 24.4) × 9.6
2
/12
= 101.5 × 9.6
2
/12 = 779.5 kNm
M
lower,yy
= 0.252 × (779.5 – 399.8) = 95.7 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b)
FEM 23 = 1.35 × 51.9 × 8.6
2
/12 = 431.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.35 × 51.9 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 24.4 ) × 9.6
2
/12
= 95.7 × 9.6
2
/12 = 735.0 kNm
M
lower,yy
= 0.252 × (735.0 – 431.8) = 76.4 kNm
= Exp. (6.10a) critical
b) Grid 2
Consider grid 2 to determine M
zz
in column (about grid C)
300 thick ave 11470 wide 500 sq
g
k
= 97.5 kN/m q
k
= 45.9 kN/m
4500
4500
D C B
6200 6000
Figure 5.8 Subframe on column C2 along grid 2
Actions:
g
k
= 0.63 × (8.6 + 9.6) × 8.5
= 11.47 × 8.5 = 97.5 kN/m
q
k
= 11.47 × 4.0 = 45.9 kN/m
Relative stiffness of lower column:
Assuming remote ends of slabs are fixed, relative stiffness
Cl. 5.8.3.2(4)
PD 6687

FEM 23 = Fixed end moment in span 23 at grid 2.
151
S3 lnterne| co|umn

=
0.5
4
/4.5
2 × 0.5
4
/4.5 + 11.47 × 0.3
3
/6.2 +11.47 × 0.3
3
/6.0
= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0500 + 0.0516) = 0.107
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10)
FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.2
2
/12
= 200.5 × 6.2
2
/12 = 642.3 kNm
FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.0
2
/12 = 394.9 kNm
M
lower,zz
= 0.107 × (642.3 – 394.9) = 26.5 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a)
FEM CB = 1.25 × 97.5 × 6.0
2
/12 = 365.6 kNm
FEM CD = (1.25 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12
= 190.7 × 6.22/12 = 611.0 kNm
M
lower,zz
= 0.107 × (611.0 – 365.6) = 26.3 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b)
FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.2
2
/12
= 190.7 × 6.2
2
/12 = 576.0 kNm
FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.0
2
/12 = 394.9 kNm
M
lower,zz
= 0.107 × (576.0 – 394.9) = 19.4 kNm
= Exp. (6.10a) critical again
5.3.5 Summary of design forces in column C2 ground–1st
Design forces
Method N
Ed
M
yy
about grid 2
M
zz
about grid C
Using Exp. (6.10) 9555.3 kN 97.7 kNm 26.5 kNm
Using Exp. (6.10a) 8933.4 kN 95.7 kNm 26.3 kNm
Using Exp. (6.10b) 9000.0 kN 76.4 kNm 19.4 kNm
Notes:
1) To determine maximum 1st order moments in the column, maximum out-of-
balance moments have been determined using variable actions to one side of
the column only. The effect on axial load has, conservatively, been ignored.
2) It may be argued that using coefficients for the design of the slab and
reactions to the columns does not warrant the sophistication of using Exps
(6.10a) and (6.10b). Nevertheless, there would appear to be some economy
in designing the column to Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) rather than Exp.
(6.10). The use of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) is perfectly valid and will be
followed here.
To avoid duplicate designs for both Exps (6.10a) and (6.10b), a worse
case of their design forces will be used, thus:
N
Ed
= 9000 kN, M
yy
= 95.7 kNm, M
zz
= 26.3 kNm
152
5.3.6 Design: cover
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links.
= 32 – 8 = 24 mm to link
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assume XC1.
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
c
min,dur
= 15 mm BS 8500-1:
Table A4
c
min
= 24 mm, say 25 mm to link
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
= c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm Cl. 4.4.1.3 & NA
5.3.7 Design: fire resistance
Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a EC2-1-2:
5.3.2, Table 5.2a
a) Check l
0,fi
≤ 3.0 m
where
l
0
= effective length of column in fire
= 0.5 × clear height
= 0.5 × (4500 – 300)
= 2100 mm OK
b) Check e ≤ e
max
= 0.15h = 0.15 × 500 = 75 mm
e = M
0Ed,fi
/N
0Ed,fi
= M
0
/N
Ed
= 99.5 × 10
6
/8933 × 10
3
= 11 mm OK
EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2)
c) Check amount of reinforcement ≤ 4% OK
Assuming m

= 0.7
b
min
= 350 with
a
min
= 40 mm OK
For fire using Method A and Table 5.2a is valid
EC2-1-2:
Table 5.2a
5.3.8 Structural design: check slenderness
Effective length, l
0
:
l
0
= 0.5l [1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
)]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
)]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where
k
1
and k
2
are relative flexibilities at top and bottom of the
column.
k
i
= (EI
col
/l
col
)/S(2EI
beam
/l
beam
) ≥ 0.1 PD 6687
[6]‡

PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam
should be taken as 2EI/l
beam
153
S3 lnterne| co|umn
Critical direction is where k
1
and k
2
are greatest i.e. where slab spans
are greater

k
1
= k
2
=
b
lc
d
lc
3
/L
lc
2b
23
d
23
3
/L
23
+ 2b
21
d
21
3
/L
21
= (0.5
4
/4.5)/(2 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/8.6 + 2 × 6.1 × 0.3
3
/9.6)
= (0.0625)/(0.0383 + 0.0343)
= 0.86
How to
[8]
:
Columns
l
0
= 0.5 (4500 – 300) [1 + 0.86/(0.45 + 0.86)]
0.5
[1 + 0.86/(0.45
+ 0.86)]
0.5
l
0
= 0.5 × 4200 × 1.66
= 0.828 × 4200 = 3478 mm
Slenderness ratio, l: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
l = l
0
/i
where
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)
0.5
= h/12
0.5
= l = 3478 × 12
0.5
/500 = 24.1
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
: Cl. 5.8.3.1(1) & NA
l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
where
A = 1/(1 + 0.2 f
ef
). Assume 0.7 as per default
B = (1 + 200)
0.5
. Assume 1.1 as per default
C = 1.7 – ·
m
where
·
m
= M
01
/M
2
= –84.9/109.3 = –0.78
C = 1.7 + 0.78 = 2.48
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 8933 × 10
3
/(500
2
× 0.85 × 50/1.5)
= 1.26
= l
lim
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.48/1.26
0.5
= 34.0
= as l < l
lim
column is not slender
and 2nd order moments are not required
Exp. (5.13N)
5.3.9 Design moments, M
Ed
M
Ed
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
6.1(4)
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
e
i
N
Ed
= effect of imperfections Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)
154
where
e
i
= l
0
/400 Cl. 5.2.7
e
0
N
Ed
= minimum eccentricity Cl. 6.1(4)
where
e
0
= h/30 ≥ 20 mm
M
Edyy
= 95.7 + (3570/400) × 8933 × 10
−3
≥ 0.02 × 8933
= 95.7 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7
= 175.4 < 178.7 kNm
M
Edzz
= 18.8 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7
= 178.7 kNm = Both critical.
However, imperfections need only be taken in one direction – where
they have the most unfavourable effect
= Use M
Edzz
= 178.7 with M
Edyy
= 95.7 kNm Cl. 5.8.9(2)
5.3.10 Design using charts
M
Edyy
/bh
2
f
ck
= 178.9 × 10
6
/(500
3
× 50) = 0.03
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 9000 × 10
3
/(500
2
× 50) = 0.72
Choice of chart based on d
2
/h
where
d
2
= depth to centroid of reinforcement in half section assuming
12 bar arrangement with H32s
d
2
= 35 + 8 + (32/2) + (2/6) [500 + 2 × (35 + 8 + 32/2 )/3]
= 59 + (1/3) × 127
= 101
= d
2
/h = 101/500 = 0.2 Use Figure C5d)
Figs C5a) to C5e)
d
2
C
L
d
2
, to centroid of reinforcement in half section
From Figure C5d) Fig. C5d)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.30
A
s
= 0.29 × 500 × 500 × 50/500
= 7500 mm
2
Try 12 no. H32 (9648 mm
2
)


Using design actions to Exp. (6.10) would have resulted in a requirement for
8500 mm
2
.

155
S3 lnterne| co|umn
5.3.11 Check biaxial bending
Cl. 5.8.9
Slenderness: l
y
≈ l
z
= OK.
Eccentricities: as h = b check e
y
/e
z
M
Edz
critical. (Imperfections act in z direction.)
e
y
/e
z
=
95.7 × 10
6
/9000 × 10
3
178.7 × 10
6
/9000 × 10
3
Cl. 5.8.9(3)
= 0.54 i.e. > 0.2 and < 5
= Design for biaxial bending.
Cl. 5.9.3(3),
Exp. (5.38b)
e
y
e
z
M
Edy
Centre of
reaction
M
Edz
b
h
z
y
*
C
2
Figure 5.10 Eccentricities
5.3.12 Design for biaxial bending
Check (M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0 Cl. 5.9.3(4),
Exp. (5.39)
For load case 2
where
M
Edz
= 178.7 kNm
M
Edy
= 95.7 kNm
M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
= moment resistance. Using charts:
From Figure C4d), for d
2
/h = 0.20 and
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 9648 × 500/500 × 500 × 50
= 0.39
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 9000 x 10
3
/(500
2
x 50)
= 0.72
M
Rd
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.057 Fig. C5d)
= M
Rd
≈ 0.057 × 500
3
× 50
= 356.3 kNm
156
a = exponent dependent upon N
Ed
/N
Rd
Cl. 5.8.3(4)
where
N
Rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
= 500 × 500 × 0.85 × 50/1.5 + 9648 × 500/1.15
= 7083 + 3216
= 10299 kN
N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 9000/10299 = 0.87.
Interpolating between values given for N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 0.7
(1.5) and for N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 1.0 (2.0)
Notes to
Exp. (5.39)
= a = 1.67
Check (M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0
(178.7/356.3)
1.67
+ (95.7/356.3)
1.67
= 0.32 + 0.11
= 0.43 i.e. < 1.0 = OK
Use 12 no. H32
5.3.13 Links
Minimum diameter of links: = f/4 = 32/4
= 8 mm
Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Spacing, either:
a) 0.6 × 20 × f = 12 × 32 = 384 mm,
b) 0.6 × h = 0.6 × 500 = 300 mm or
c) 0.6 × 400 = 240 mm.
= Use H8 links at 225 mm cc
Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
Number of legs:
Bars at 127 mm cc i.e. < 150 mm = no need to restrain bars in face
but good practice suggests alternate bars should be restrained.
= Use single leg on face bars both ways @ 225 mm cc
Cl. 9.5.3(6)
SMDSC: 6.4.2
5.3.14 Design summary
12 H32
H8 links @ 225 cc
35 mm to link
500 mm sq
f
ck
= 50 MPa
Figure 5.11 Design summary: internal column
157
S4 Sme|| oer|meter co|umn
5.4
The middle column, B, in Figure 4.5, supports two levels of storage
loads and is subject to an ultimate axial load of 1824.1 kN

. From
analysis it has moments of 114.5 kNm in the plane of the beam and
146.1 kNm perpendicular to the beam (i.e. about the z axis).
The column is 350 mm square, 4000 mm long, measured from top
of foundation to centre of slab. It is supporting storage loads, in
an external environment (but not subject to de-icing salts) and is
subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement on three exposed
sides. Assume the base is pinned.
Slab
300
450
4000
350 x 350
column
Paving
Foundation
Figure 5.12 Perimeter column
5.4.1 Cover
Nominal cover, c
nom
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
]
Exp. (4.1)

G
k
= 562.1; Q
k
= 789.1; as column supports loads from 2 levels a
n
= 0.9; as
imposed loads are from storage c
0
= 1.0 =g
Q
= 1.50 and g
Q
= 1.35. = Ultimate
axial load, N
Ed
= 1.35 × 562.1 + 1.5 × 0.9 × 789.1 = 1824.1 kN.
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Small perimeter column
subject to two-hour fire resistance
Small perimeter column subject to two-hour fire
resistance
¹h|s ce|cu|et|on |s |ntended to show e sme|| s|ender co|umn su||ect to e requ|rement ¦or
?-hour ure res|stence lt |s |esed on the exemo|e shown |n Sect|on 4?
158
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
c
min,dur
= minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC3/XC4, secondarily XF1,
c
min,dur
= 25 mm
Dc
dev
= allowance in design for deviation
= 10 mm
= Try c
nom
= 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to 8 mm links
Try c
nom
= 35 mm to 8 mm links.
Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
BS 8500-1
[14]
:
Table A4
5.4.2 Fire resistance
a) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method A
Axis distance available = 43 mm + f/2
Required axis distance to main bars, a for 350 mm square column EC1-1-2: 5.3.1(1) &
For m

= 0.5, a = 45 mm; and NA 5.3.2,
Table 5.2a
for m

= 0.7, a = 57 mm, providing:
8 bars used – OK but check later t
l t
0,fi
≤ 3 m – OK but check
e t ≤ e
max
= 0.15h = 0.15 × 350 = 52 mm
but e = M
0Ed,fi
/N
0Ed,fi
= 0.7 × 146.1 × 10
6
/0.7 × 1824.1 × 10
3
= 80 mm = no good
Try Method B
b) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method B EC2-1-2: 5.3.3,
Determine parameters n, w, and e, and check l

.
Assume 4 no. H32 + 4 no. H25 = (5180 mm
2
: 4.2%)
Table 5.2b
(say 4.2% OK – integrity OK) Cl. 9.5.2(3)
n = N
0Ed,fi
/0.7(A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
) EC2-1-2: Exp.
(5.8a)
= 0.7 × 1824.1 × 10
3
/0.7 (350 × 350 × a
cc
× f
ck
/ g
C
+ 5180 × 500/g
S
)
= 1276.9 × 10
3
/0.7 (350 × 350 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 5180 × 500/1.15)
= 1276.9 × 10
3
/0.7 (2082.5 + 2252.0)
= 0.42 OK
w = mechanical ratio EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
≤ 1.0
= 2252/2082
= 1.08 ≥ 1
But say within acceptable engineering tolerance =use w = 1.0 OK
e = first order eccentricity EC2-1-2: Exp.
= M
0Ed,fi
/N
0Ed,fi
(5.8b)
159
S4 Sme|| oer|meter co|umn
= 0.7 × 146.1 × 10
6
/0.7 × 1824.1 × 10
3
EC2-1-2: 2.4.2(3)
= 80 mm as before z 0.23h. OK
l

= slenderness in fire
= l
0,fi
/i
where
l
0,fi
= effective length of column in fire
EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2)
= 0.7l = 0.7 × 4000 = 2800 mm
i = radius of gyration
= h/3.46 for a rectangular section
Note 2
= l

= 2800/(350/3.46)
= 27.7 < 30 = OK
Table 5.2b valid for use in this case.
Interpolating from BS EN 1992–1–2 Table 5.2b for n = 0.42 and
w = 1.0, column width = 350 mm and axis distance = say, 48 mm
= Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK
c) As additional check, check adequacy of section to Annex B3 and
Annex C
Using BS EN 1992–1–2 Table C.8
EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(1), Annex C
& NA
For w = 1.0, e = 0.25b, R120, l = 30 EC2-1-2:
and interpolating between n = 0.3 and n = 0.5,
b
min
= 350 mm, a
min
= 48 mm.
= Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. H25 with 35 mm cover to 8 mm links
(a = 55 mm min.) OK
Annex C(2)
5.4.3 Structural design: check slenderness about z axis
Effective length, l
0
, about z axis:
l
0z
= 0.5l [1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
) ]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
) ]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where PD 6687: 2.10
l = clear height between restraints
= 4000 – 300/2 = 3850 mm
k
1
, k
2
= relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1
and 2 respectively
k
1
= [EI
col
/l
col
]/[2EI
beam1
/l
beam1
+ 2EI
beam2
/l
beam2
] ≥ 0.1 Cl. 5.8.3.2(3)
where
Treating beams as rectangular and cancelling E throughout:
I
col
/l
col
= 3504/(12 × 3850) = 3.25 × 10
5
I
beam1
/l
beam1
= 8500 × 300
3
/12 × 6000
= 31.8 × 10
5
I
beam2
/l
beam2
= 0
PD 6687
k
1
= 3.25/(2 × 31.8) = 0.051 ≥ 0.1
k
1
= 0.1
k
2
= by inspection (pinned end assumed) = ∞
160
= l
0z
= 0.5 × 3850 × [1 + 0.1/(0.45 + 0.1) ]
0.5
[1 + ∞/(0.45 + ∞)]
0.5
= 0.5 × 3850 × 1.087 × 1.41
= 0.77 × 3850 = 2965 mm
Slenderness ratio, l
z
: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
l
z
= l
0z
/i
where
i = radius of gyration = h/3.46
l
z
= 3.46l
0z
/h = 3.46 × 2965/350 = 29.3
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
: Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
l
lim,z
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
where
A = 0.7
B = 1.1

C = 1.7 – r
m
where
r
m
= M
01
/M
02

say M
01
= 0 (pinned end) =r
m
= 0
C = 1.7 – 0 = 1.7
n = relative normal force = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1824.1 × 10
3
/(350
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.88
= l
lim,z
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 1.7/0.88
0.5
= 27.9
= As l
z
> l
lim,z
column is slender about z axis.
Exp. (5.13N)
5.4.4 Check slenderness on y axis
Effective length, l
0
, about z axis:
l
0y
= 0.5l
y
[1 + k
1
/(0.45 + k
1
) ]
0.5
[1 + k
2
/(0.45 + k
2
) ]
0.5
Exp. (5.15)
where
l
y
= clear height between restraints
= 4000 + 300/2 – 750 = 3400 mm
k
1
= relative column flexibility at end 1
= ( I
col
/I
col
)/[S2(I
beam
/I
beam
)]
where
I
col
/I
col
= 350
4
/12 × 3400 = 3.68 × 10
5

On first pass the default value for B is used. It should be noted that in the
final design w = A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
cd
= 6432 × (500/1.15) / (350
2
× 30 × 0.85/1.5) =
2796/2082 = 1.34. So B = (1 + 2 w)
0.5
= (1 + 1.34)
0.5
= 1.92 and the column
would not have been deemed ‘slender’. B = 1.1 relates approximately to a column
with f
ck
= 30 MPa and r = 0.4%.
* PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam
should be taken as 2EI/l
beam
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1),
& NA,
EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
PD 6687*
161
S4 Sme|| oer|meter co|umn
Treating beams as rectangular
I
beamAB
/l
beamAB
= 350 × 750
3
/[12 × (9000 – 350)]
= 14.2 × 10
5
I
beamBC
/l
beamBC
= 350 × 750
3
/[12 × (8000 – 350)]
= 16.1 × 10
5
k
1
= 3.68/(2 × (16.1 + 14.2) = 0.060 ≥ 0.1
k
1
= 0.1
k
2
= ∞ (pinned end assumed)
=l
0y
= 0.5 × 3400 [1 + 0.1/(0.45 + 0.1) ]
0.5
[1 +Ƹ/(0.45 + ∞) ]
0.5
= 0.5 × 3400 × 1.087 × 1.41
= 0.77 × 3400 = 2620 mm
Exp. (5.15)
Slenderness ratio, l
y
:
l
y
= 3.46l
0y
/h = 3.46 × 2620/350 = 25.9
Limiting slenderness ratio, l
lim
:
l
lim,y
= l
lim,z
= 27.9
As l
y
< l
lim,y
, column not slender in y axis.
5.4.5 Design moments: M
Edz
about z axis
M
Edz
= max[M
02
; M
0Ed
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
] Cl. 5.8.8.2
where
M
02
= M
z
+ e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
where
M
z
= 146.1 kNm from analysis
e
i
N
Ed
= effect of imperfections
where
e
i
= l
0
/400
6.1.4
Cl. 5.2.7
e
0
= 20 mm
= M
02
= 146.1 + (2965/400) × 1824.1 ≥ 0.02 × 1824.1
= 146.1 + 13.4 > 36.5
= 159.5 kNm
M
0Ed
= equivalent 1st order moment at about z axis at about
mid-height may be taken as M
0ez
where
M
0ez
= (0.6M
02
+ 0.4M
01
) ≥ 0.4M
02
= 0.6 × 159.5 + 0.4 × 0 ≥ 0.4 × 159.5 = 95.7 kNm
Cl. 5.8.8.2(2)
M
2
= nominal 2nd order moment = N
ld
e
2
Cl. 5.8.8.2(3)
where
e
2
= (1/r) l
0
2
/10
Cl. 5.8.8. 3
where
1/r = curvature = K
v
K
h
[f
yd
/(E
s
× 0.45d)] Exp. (5.34)
where
K
v
= a correction factor for axial load
= (n
u
– n)/(n
u
– n
bal
)
162
where
n
u
= 1 + w
where
w = mechanical ratio
= A
s
f
yd
/A
c
f
d
= 1.08 as before
n
u
= 2.08
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
cd
= 1824.1/2082 = 0.88
n
bal
= the value of n at maximum moment
resistance
= 0.40 (default)
K
v
= (2.08 – 0.88)/(2.08 – 0.40)
= 1.20/1.68 = 0.71
K
h
= a correction factor for creep
= 1 + bh
ef
where
b = 0.35 + (f
ck
/200) – (l/150)
= 0.35 + 30/200 – 29.3/150
= 0.35 + 0.15 – 0.195
= 0.305
h
ef
= effective creep coefficient

Cl. 5.8.4(2)
= h
(∞,t0)
M
0,Eqp
/M
0Ed
where
h
(∞,t0)
= final creep coefficient Cl. 3.1.4(2)
= from Figure 3.1 for inside conditions
h = 350 mm, C30/37, t
0
= 15
Fig. 3.1a
ƺ 2.4
M
0,Eqp
= 1st order moment due to quasi-
permanent loads


G
k
+ h
2
Q
k

× M
z
+ e
i
N
Ed
jg
G
G
k
+ h
0
g
Q
Q
k

=
63.3 + 0.8 × 46.0
× M
z
+ e
i
N
Ed
1.35 × 63.3 + 1.5 × 46.0

=
100.1
× 146.1 + 13.4
154.5
= 108.1 kNm
M
0Ed
= M
02
= 159.5 kNm

With reference to Exp. (5.13N), h
ef
may be taken as equal to 2.0. However, for the
purpose of illustration the full derivation is shown here. Exp. (5.1.3N)
163
S4 Sme|| oer|meter co|umn
K
h
= 1 + 0.305 × 2.4 × 108.1/159.5
= 1.50
f
yd
= 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
E
s
= 200000 MPa Cl. 3.2.7(3)
d = effective depth
= 350 – 35 – 8 – 16 = 291 mm
1/r = 0.71 × 1.50 × 434.8/(200000 × 0.45 × 291)
= 0.0000177
l
0
= 2965 mm as before
e
2
= (1/r) l
0
2
/10
= 0.0000177 × 2965
2
/10 = 15.6 mm
=M
2
= N
Ed
e
2
= 1824.1 × 10
3
× 15.6 = 28.4 kNm
M
01
= 0
= M
Edz
= max[M
02z
; M
0Edz
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
]
= max[159.5; 95.7 + 28.4; 0 + 28.4/2] = 159.5 kNm
a) 1st order moments
from analysis
M
z
= 146.1 kNm
M
2
= 28.4 kNm
M
2
/2 = 14.2 kNm
M
OEdz
= 95.8 kNm
M
z
= 0
M
Edz
= 159.5 kNm
M
z
= 0
e
i
N
Ed
= 13.4 kNm
b) Including 2nd order moments:
M
Edz
= max [M
02
, M
OEd
+ M
2
, M
01
= 0.5M
2
]
c) Design moments: M
Edz
about z axis
+ =
Figure 5.13 Design moments
M
Edz
5.4.6 Design moments: M
Edy
about y axis
M
Edy
= max[ M
02y
; M
0Edy
+ M
2
; M
01
+ 0.5M
2
]
where
M
02y
= M
y
+ e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
= 114.5 + 13.4
§
≥ 36.7 kNm
= 127.9 kNm
M
0Edy
= (0.6M
02y
+ 0.4 M
01y
) ≥ 0.4M
02y
= 0.6 × 114.5 + 0.4 × 0
§
Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only. Cl. 5.8.9(2)
164
= 68.7 kNm
M
2
= 0 (as column is not slender not slender about y axis).
= M
Edy
= 127.9 kNm
5.4.7 Design in each direction using charts
In z direction: N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 1824.1 × 10
3
/(350
2
× 30)
= 0.50
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 159.5 × 10
6
/(350
3
× 30)
= 0.124
Assuming 8 bar arrangement, centroid of bars in half section:
d
2
≥ 35 + 8 + 16 + (350/2 – 35 –8 – 16) × 1/4 Fig. C4e)
ƽ 59 + 29 = 88 mm
d
2
/h = 0.25
From Figure C4e)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
A
s
= 0.50 × 350
2
× 30/500 = 3675 mm
2
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm
2
) OK.
Fig. C4e)
In y direction: M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 127.9 × 10
6
/(350
3
× 30)
= 0.10
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
From Figure C4e)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0.34
A
s
= 0.34 × 3502 × 30/500 = 2499 mm
2
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm
2
) OK.
5.4.8 Check biaxial bending
l
y
≈ l
z
= OK. Exp. (5.38a)
e
z
= M
Edy
/N
Ed
e
y
= M
Edz
/N
Ed
e
y
/h
eq

=
M
Edz

=
159.5
= 1.25
e
z
/b
eq
M
Edy
127.9
Exp. (5.38b)
= need to check biaxial bending
(M
Edz
/M
Rdz
)
a
+ (M
Edy
/M
Rdy
)
a
≤ 1.0
where
Exp. (5.39)
M
Rdz
= M
Rdy
= moment resistance=
Using Figure C4e)
Fig. C4e)
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 5180 × 500/(350
2
× 30)
= 0.70
for N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.160
= M
Rd
= 0.160 × 350
3
× 30
165
S4 Sme|| oer|meter co|umn
= 205.8 kNm
a depends on N
Ed
/N
Rd

where
N
Rd
= A
c
f
cd
+ A
s
f
yd
= 350
2
× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 5180 × 500/1.15
= 2082.5 + 2252.2
= 4332.7 kN
N
Ed
/N
Rd
= 1824.1/4332.7 = 0.42
= a = 1.27
(159.5/205.8)
1.27
+ (114.5/205.8)
1.27
= 0.72 + 0.47
= 1.19
= No good
= Try 8 no. T32 (6432 mm
2
)
Cl. 5.8.9(4)
For A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 6432 × 500/(350
2
× 30)
= 0.88
for N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 0.50
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 0.187 Fig. C4e)
= M
Rd
= 240.5 kNm
Check biaxial bending
(159.5/245.7)
1.27
+ (114.5/245.7)
1.27
= 0.59 + 0.39 = 0.98 OK
5.4.9 Check maximum area of reinforcement
A
s
/bd = 6432/350
2
= 5.2% > 4% Cl. 9.5.2(3) & NA
However, if laps can be avoided in this single lift column then the
integrity of the concrete is unlikely to be affected and 5.2% is
considered OK. OK PD 6687: 2.19
5.4.10 Design of links
Diameter min. = 32/4 = 8 mm Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Spacing max. = 0.6 × 350 = 210 mm Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
= Use H8 @ 200 mm cc
5.4.11 Design summary
8 H32
H8 links @ 200 cc
35 mm cover to link
No laps in column section
Note
The beam should be checked for torsion.
Figure 5.14 Design summary: small perimeter column
166
Walls
General
ve||s ere deuned es |e|ng vert|ce| e|ements whose |engths ere ¦our t|mes greeter then the|r
th|c|nesses ¹he|r des|gn does not d|¦¦er s|gn|ucent|v ¦rom the des|gn o¦ co|umns |n thet ex|e|
|oeds end moments e|out eech ex|s ere essessed end des|gned ¦or
¹he ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s sect|on |||ustrete the des|gn o¦ e s|ng|e sheer we||
Cenere||v, the method o¦ des|gn|ng we||s |s es ¦o||ows ln orect|ce, severe| o¦ these steos mev |e
com||ned
Leterm|ne des|gn ||¦e N EC0 & NA Table NA 2.1
Assess ect|ons on the we|| N EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs
Leterm|ne wh|ch com||net|ons o¦ ect|ons eoo|v N EC0 & NA: Tables NA A1.1 &
NA: A1.2(B)
Assess dure||||tv requ|rements end determ|ne concrete N
strength
BS 8500–1
Chec| cover requ|rements ¦or eooroor|ete ¦|re N
res|stence oer|od
Approved Document B
EC2–1–2
Leterm|ne cover ¦or ¦|re, dure||||tv end |ond N Cl. 4.4.1
Ane|vse structure ¦or cr|t|ce| com||net|on moments N
end ex|e| ¦orces
Section 5
Chec| s|enderness end determ|ne des|gn moments N Section 5.8
Leterm|ne eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red N Section 6.1
Chec| soec|ng o¦ |ers N Sections 8 & 9
6
6.0
ve||s
167
6.1 Shear wall
lxemo|e 6] shows the des|gn o¦ e s|mo|e ||neer sheer we|| es tvo|ce||v used |n med|um-
r|se |u||d|ngs S|m||er or|nc|o|es mev |e eoo||ed to we||s thet ere sheoed es C, l, ¹, ? end
recteng|es |n-o|en, |ut |ssues o¦ ||m|t|ng ¦enge d|mens|ons end sheer et corners need to |e
eddressed ¹he exemo|e shows on|v 0lS des|gn es, eoert ¦rom m|n|mum erees o¦ stee| to
contro| crec||ng, SlS |ssues ere genere||v non-cr|t|ce| |n med|um-r|se structures lor sheer
we||s |n h|gh-r|se structures, re¦erence shou|d |e mede to soec|e||st ||tereture
|?9|

¹he exemo|e |s |ntended to show how e sheer we|| orov|d|ng oert o¦ the |etere| ste||||tv |n one
d|rect|on |n e med|um r|se structure m|ght |e des|gned |v hend
Ax|e| |oeds end urst order moments ere determ|ned ¹he des|gn cons|ders s|enderness |n order
to determ|ne des|gn moments, /
ld
, |n the o|ene oeroend|cu|er to the we|| ¹he e¦¦ects o¦
e||ow|ng ¦or |moer¦ect|ons ere e|so |||ustreted
lro|ect dete||s
Ce|cu|eted |v chg }o| no CCIP – 041
Chec|ed |v web Sheet no 1
C||ent TCC Lete Oct 09
Shear wall
Wall A is 200 mm thick and, in addition to providing vertical support
to 200 mm flat slabs at roof level and floors 1 to 3, it helps to
provide lateral stability to the four-storey office block. Assuming the
stair itself provides no lateral stability, the wall is to be designed for
the critical section at ground and first floor level using BS EN 1990
Exp. (6.10). The concrete is C30/37. The wall is supported on pad
foundations and the ground floor is ground bearing.
Wall A
1300
4400
1500
7200
300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300
300
4800
4800
4800
300
30700
N
X
X
Figure 6.1 Typical floor plan Figure 6 1 Typical floor plan
900
Roof
3rd
2nd
1st
Gnd
4@3300
600
900
Figure 6.2 Section X–X
168
6.1.1 Actions
Permanent
actions
Variable
actions
g
k
q
k
kN/m
2
Roof Paving 40 mm
Waterproofing
Insulation
Suspended ceiling
Services
Self-weight 200 mm slab
Imposed load
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.15
0.30
5.00
7.05
0.60
Section 2.8
Section 2.4.2
Floor
slabs
Carpet
Raised floor
Suspended ceiling
Services
Self-weight 200 mm slab
Imposed load
0.03
0.30
0.15
0.30
5.00
5.78
2.50
Section 2.8
Section 2.4.2
Ground
floor
slab
(ground
bearing)
Carpet
Raised floor
Services
Self-weight 200 mm slab
Imposed load
0.03
0.30
0.15
5.00
5.48
3.00
Section 2.4.2
Stairs 150 waist @ 30
Treads 0.15 × 0.25 × 25 × 4/2 =
Screed 0.05 × 22 =
Plaster
Tiles and bedding
Imposed load
4.40
1.88
1.10
0.21
1.00
8.59
2.50
Section 2.8
Section 2.4.2
Cavity
wall
102 mm brickwork
50 mm insulation
100 mm blockwork
Plaster
2.37
0.02
1.40
0.21
4.00
Section 2.8
RC wall 200 mm wall
Plaster both sides
5.00
0.42
5.42
Section 2.8
Wind w
k
= 1.10
EC1-1-4 & NA
169
6] Sheer ve||
6.1.2 Load take-down
Consider whole wall. G
k
Q
k
Item Calculation From item Cum. total From item Cum. total
Roof (6.0/2 + 2.5/2) × (4.4 + 1.5/2) × (7.05
+ 0.6) = 154.3 13.1
Roof (6.0/2) × (1.3/2) × (7.05 + 0.6) = 13.7 1.2
Wall 3.3 × 4.4 × 5.42 = 78.7
246.7 14.3
At above 3rd floor 246.7 14.3
3rd floor (6.0/2) × (1.3/2 + 4.4 + 1.5/2) ×
(5.78 + 2.5) = 100.6 43.5
Landing (2.5/2 × 1.5/2) × (5.78 + 2.5) 11.6 5.0
Wall a. b. 78.7
Stair say 1.1 × 4.4 (8.59 + 2.5) 41.6 12.1
232.5 60.6
At above 2nd floor 479.2 74.9
2nd floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. 232.5 60.6
At above 1st floor 711.7 135.5
1st floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. 232.5 60.6
At above ground floor 944.2 196.1
Ground floor assume 1 m all round =
2 × (1.3/2 + 4.40 + 1.5/2) × (5.48 + 3.0) = 63.6 34.8
250 mm wall to foundation 4.4 × 0.2 × 0.6 × 25 = 13.2
76.8
At above foundation 1021.0 230.9
6.1.3 Design actions due to vertical load at ground–1st
G
k
= 944.2 G
k
/m = 944.2/4.4 = 214.6 kN/m
Q
k
= a
n
× 196.1
where
a
n
= 1.1 – n/10
where
n = no. of storeys qualifying for reduction

= 3
= 1.1 – 3/10 = 0.8
= Q
k
= 0.8 × 196.1 = 156.9 kN Q
k
/m = 156.9/4.4 = 35.7 kN/m
EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2(11) & NA

Includes storeys supporting Categories A (residential and domestic), B (office),
C (areas of congregation) and D (shopping), but excludes E (storage and
industrial), F (traffic), G (traffic) and H (roofs).
170
6.1.4 Vertical loads from wind action: moments in plane
Consider wind loads, N–S
Wall A
Lift shaft
200 thick
walls
300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300
2400 o/a
2400
4400
30700
N
w
k
= 1.10 kN/m
2
Figure 6.3 Lateral stability against wind loads N–S
Check relative stiffness of lift shaft and wall A to determine share
of load on wall A.
Lift shaft: I
LS
= 2.4
4
/12 – 2.0
4
/12 – 0.2 × 1.6
3
/12
= 1.36 m
4
Wall A: I
WallA
= 0.2 × 4.4
3
/12
= 1.41 m
4
where I = inertia
= Wall A takes 1.41/(1.41 + 1.36) = 51% of wind load.
Check shear centre to resolve the effects of torsion.
Determine centre of gravity, CoG
L
of the lift shaft.
Area, A Lever arm, x Ax
2.4 × 2.4 = 5.76 1.2 6.912
–2.0 × 2.0 = –4.00 1.2 –4.800
–1.6 × 0.2 = –0.32 2.3 –0.732
1.44 1.38
2400
CoG
L
x
2
4
0
0
1
6
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
Figure 6.4 Lift shaft
171
6] Sheer we||
x = Ax/A = 1.38/1.44 = 0.956 m
i.e. from face of lift shaft to CoG of shaft
= 2.40 – 0.956 = 1.444 m
Shear centre, C
w
of walls, from centreline of wall A

=
I
LS
× (1.44 + 24.00 + 0.05

)
=
1.36 × 25.49
= 12.56 m from wall A
I
LS
+ I
WallA
1.36 + 1.41
or = 12.56 + 2.80 – 0.05 = 15.31 from east end of building.
1.45 24.00 2.80
C Wall A

15.31
15.35
W
k
CoG
L
* C
w
*
L
Wall A
Figure 6.5 Shear centre, C
w
CC and centre of action,
w
W
k
WW
Centre of action (30.7/2 = 15.35 m from end of building) and shear
centre (almost) coincide. = there is no torsion to resolve in the
stability system for wind in a N–S direction.
#

900
Roof
3rd
2nd
1st
Gnd
3300
3300
3300
3300
900
600
1
4
1
0
0
w
k
= 17.2 kN/m
300 4400 300
Figure 6.6 Wall A
– wind loads N–S
= Wall A takes 51% of wind load, so characteristic wind load on wall A,
w
k, wall A
= 51% × w
k
× L
x
= 51% × 1.1 × 30.7 = 17.2 kN/m

Assuming centreline of wall A is 50 mm to right hand side of grid.
#
Had there been significant torsion this would have been resolved into +/– forces
in a couple based on the shear walls.

172
= at just above ground floor, characteristic in-plane moment
in wall A, M
k
, due in this case to wind
= 17.2 × 14.1
2
/2 = 1709.8 kNm
Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall

, characteristic wind
load in each end, W
k
= 1709.8/3.4 = ±502.9 kN
6.1.5 Effects of global imperfections in plane of wall A
H
IG
H
I1
H
I2
H
I3
H
IR y
I
Roof
3rd
2nd
1st
Gnd
Figure 6.7 Global imperfections
Global imperfections can be represented by forces H
i
at floor level
where
H
i
= y
i
(N
b
– N
a
) Exp. (5.4)
where
y
i
= (1/200) a
h
a
m
Cl. 5.2(1), 5.2(5),
5.2(8) & NA
where
a
h
= 0.67 ≤ 2/l
0.5
≤ 1.0
= 0.67 ≤ 2/14.7
0.5
≤ 1.0
= 0.67 ≤ 0.52 ≤ 1.0
= 0.67
a
m
= [0.5(1 + 1/m)]
0.5
where
m = no. of members contributing to the total effect
= 25 vertical elements on 4 floors
= 100

For medium-rise shear walls there are a number of methods of design. Cl. 9.6.1
suggests strut-and-tie (see Volume 2 of these worked examples
[30]
). Another
method
[26]
is to determine elastic tensile and compression stresses from N
Ed
/bL
+/– 6M
Ed
/bL
2
and determine reinforcement requirements based on those maxima.
The method used here assumes a couple, consisting of 1.0 m of wall either end of
the wall. The reinforcement in tension is assumed to act at the centre of one end
and the concrete in compression (with a rectangular stress distribution) acts at
the centre of the other end. The forces generated by the couple add or subtract
from the axial load in the 1 m ends of the walls. The method is useful for typical
straight shear walls of say 2.5 to 5.0 m in length.
Vol. 2
173
6] Sheer we||
= a
m
= 0.71
= y
i
= 0.67 × 0.71/200
= 0.0024
N
b
, N
a
= axial forces in members below and above
(N
b
– N
a
) = axial load from each level
At roof level
Area = 30.4 × 14.5 – 1.3 × 2.5 – 3.6 × 4.8 = 420.3 m
3
Perimeter = 2 × (30.4 + 14.5) = 89.8 m
(N
a
– N
b
) = axial load from roof level
= 420.3 × (7.05 + 0.6) + 89.8 × 0.9 × 4.0 = 3286.4 + 252.2 kN
At 3rd floor
(N
a
– N
b
) = 420.3 × (5.78 + 2.5) + 89.8 × 3.3 × 4.0 = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
At 2nd floor
(N
a
– N
b
) = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
At 1st floor
(N
a
– N
b
) = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
H
iR
= 0.0024 × (3286.4 + 252.2) = 7.9 + 0.6 = 8.5 kN
H
i3
= H
i2
= H
i1
= 0.0024 × (3615.7 + 1050.8) = 8.7 + 2.5 = 11.2 kN
Characteristic design moment at ground floor,
M
k
= 8.5 × 13.2 + 11.2 × (9.90 + 6.60 + 3.30)
= 112.2 + 221.8 = 334.0 kNm
As before, wall A resists 51% of this moment. Resolving into couple
using 1 m either end of wall,
= G
kH
§
= 0.51 × 334.0/3.4 = ± 50.1 kN
i.e. G
kH
= ±50.1 kN/m
6.1.6 Check for global second order effects
To check whether the building might act as a sway frame check Cl. 5.8.3.3(1)
F
V,Ed
≤ k
l

n
s

=
SE
cd
I
c

n
s
+ 1.6 L
2
Exp. (5.18)
where
F
V,Ed
= Total vertical load (on braced and bracing members)
where
Floor area = (30.7 – 2 × 0.15) × 14.4 – (2 × 0.15) – 3.6
× 4.8 – 1.3 × 2.5
= 428.6 – 20.5 = 408.1
§
As H
i
derives mainly from permanent actions its resulting effects are
considered as being a permanent action too.
174
Loads G
k
Q
k
from roof: 408 (7.05 + 0.6) =
3–1 floors: 3 × 408 (5.78 + 2.5) =
Allow cavity wall at 1st floor and above
2876
7075
245
3060
(3 × 3.30 + 0.9) × 2 × (30.4 + 14.1) × 4.0 =
Imposed load reduction 20% (see 6.2.3)
3845
13705
13705
3305
661
2644
=F
V,Ed
≈ 13705 × 1.35 + 1.5 × 2644
= 22468 kN
k
l
= 0.31
n
s
= number of storeys
= 4 (including roof)
E
cd
= E
cm
/g
CE
= 33/1.2 = 27.5 GPa
Cl. 5.8.2(6) & NA
Table 3.1,
5.8.6(3) & NA
I
c
= Inertia of bracing members
in N–S direction
I
c
= 1.36 + 1.41 = 2.77 m
4
(See Section 6.1.4)
in E–W direction
I
LS
, with reference to Figure 6.4
h × d Area, A × Ax Ax
2
I
2.4 × 2.4 = 5.76 1.2 6.912 8.294 2.765
–2.0 × 2.0 = –4.00 1.2 –4.800 –5.760 –1.333
–1.6 × 0.2 = –0.32 2.3 –0.732 –1.683 –0.001
1.44 1.38 0.851 1.431
as before (6.1.4), x = 1.38/1.44
= 0.956 m
I
LS
= I
NU
= Ax
2
+ I – Ax
2
= 0.851 + 1.431 – 1.44 × 0.956
= 0.965 m
4
L = total height of building above level of moment restraint
= 14.7 (see Figure 6.6)
Check
k
l

n
s


×

SE
cd
I
c

on weak E–W axis:
n
s
+ 1.6 L
2
= 0.31 × [4/(4 + 1.6)] × 27500 × 10
3
× (0.965/14.7
2
)
= 27200 kN
i.e. > F
V,Ed
= no need to design for 2nd order effects.
175
6] Sheer we||

6.1.7 Design moments – perpendicular to plane of wall
1
3
5
0
6
5
0
4
4
0
0
7
5
0
C
L
C
L
C
L
150
B
A A
B
up
200
1st
Gnd
Figure 6.8 Plan of wall A and location
of sections A–A and B–B
Figure 6.9 Section A–A
Section A–A @ 1st floor
The slab frames into the wall. For the purposes of assessing fixed
end moments, the width of slab contributing to the moments in the
wall is assumed to be the length of the wall plus distances half way
to adjacent supports either end. Therefore, consider the fixed end
moment for 1.50/2 + 4.40 + 1.30/2 = 5.8 m width of adjoining slab
framing into the 4.4 m long shear wall (see Figure 6.8).
n
k
s
k
w
k
w
Figure 6.10 Subframe section A–A @ 1st floor
FEM

: assuming imposed load is a leading variable action:
= nl
2
/8
= 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 1.5 × 2.5) × 6.0
2
/8
= 5.8 × 11.6 × 6
2
/8 = 302.8 kNm
EC0: Exp. (6.10)
& NA

FEM: fixed end moment
176
k
w
= EI/l = E × 4400 × 200
3
/(12 × 3300)
= E × 8.88 × 10
5
k
s
= EI/2l = E × 5800 × 200
3
/(2 × 12 × 6000)
= E × 3.22 × 10
5
M = 302.8 × 8.88/(2 × 8.8 + 3.22)
= 302.8 × 0.42 = 121.2 kNm
i.e. 121.2/4.40 = 27.5 kNm/m @ ULS
Similarly, assuming imposed load is an accompanying action:
FEM = 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 2.5) × 6
2
/8
= 5.8 × 10.4 × 6
2
/8 = 271.4 kNm
=M = 271.4 × 0.42/4.40 = 25.9 kNm/m @ ULS
Section A–A @ ground floor
By inspection not critical – nominal moment.
Section B–B @ 1st
Consider the landing influences half of wall (2.2 m long) and that
this section of wall is subject to supporting half the slab considered
before at 1st floor level at Section A–A.
1
6
5
0
1st
Landing
Gnd
Figure 6.11 Section B–B
FEM = 302.8/2 = 151.4 kNm
k
w
= I/l
= 2200 × 200
3
/(12 × 1650) = 8.88 × 10
5
k
s
= 3.22 × 10
5
/2 = 1.61 × 10
5
M = 151.4 × 8.88/(2 × 8.88 + 1.61)
= 151.4 × 0.46
= 69.6 kNm
i.e. 63.8/2.2 = 31.6 kNm/m @ ULS
177
6] Sheer we||
Similarly, assuming imposed load is an accompanying action:
FEM = 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 2.5) × 6
2
/8
= 5.8 × 10.4 × 6
2
/8 = 271.4 kNm
=M = 271.4 × 0.46/(2 × 2.2) = 28.4 kNm/m @ ULS
Section B–B @ landing level and ground floor
By inspection not critical
6.1.8 Consider slenderness of wall at ground floor
To derive maximum slenderness (at south end of wall), ignore effect
of landing.
Effective length, l
0
= 0.75 × (3300 – 200) = 2325 Table C16
l = 3.46 × l
0
/h = 3.46 × 2325/200 = 40.2 Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
Limiting slenderness, l
lim
= 20 ABC/n
0.5
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1),
Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 0.7
B = 1.1
C = 1.7 – r
m
where
r
m
= M
01
/M
02
= say = –0.25
C = 1.95
n = N
Ed
/A
c
f
d
where
N
Ed
= 214.6 × 1.25 + 31.2 × 1.5 × 0.7 + 502.9 × 1.5 +
98.2 × 1.5 × 0.7

= 268.3 + 32.8 + 754.4 + 103.1
= 1158.6 kN
A
c
f
d
= 200 × 1000 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 = 3400 kN
= n = 0.34
= l
lim
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 1.95/0.34
0.5
= 51.5
= As l < l
lim
wall is not slender and = no secondary moments
6.1.9 Summary: design forces on wall, ground–1st floor
At ground to 1st consider maxima.
Vertical loads G
k
= 214.6 kN/m
Q
k
= 35.7 kN/m
Vertical load due to in-plane bending and wind W
k
= ±502.9 kN/m
Vertical load due to in-plane bending and imperfections
G
kH
= ±50.1 kN/m
Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as leading action
M = 31.6 kN/m @ ULS
Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as accompanying action
M = 28.4 kN/m @ ULS

Assuming wind load is lead variable action.
178
6.1.10 Combinations of actions at ground–1st floor
a) At ULS, for maximum axial load, W
k
is leading variable action
N
Ed
= 1.35G
k
+ 1.5Q
k1
+ 1.5c
0
Q
ki
= 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 × 502.9 + 1.5 × 0.7 × 35.7
= 357.3 + 754.4 + 37.5
= 1149.2 kN/m
M
Ed
= M + e
i
N
Ed
≥ e
0
N
Ed
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
6.1.4
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
= 28.4 kNm/m
e
i
= l
0
/400 = 2325/400 = 5.8 mm Cl. 5.2(7), 5.2(9)
e
0
= h/30 ≥ 20 mm = 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
M
Ed
= 28.4 + 0.0058 × 1149.2.1 ≥ 0.020 × 1149.2
= 28.4 + 6.7 ≥ 23.0 = 35.1 kNm/m
b) At ULS, for minimum axial load, W
k
is leading variable action
N
Ed
= 1.0 × 214.6 – 1.35 × 50.1 – 1.5 × 502.9 + 0 × 35.7
= –607.4 kN/m (tension)
M
Ed
= 28.4

+ 0.0058 × 607.4 ≥ 0.020 × 602.4
= 28.4 + 3.5 ≥ 23.0
= 31.9 kNm/m
c) At ULS, for maximum out of plane bending assuming Q
k
is leading
variable action
N
Ed
= 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 × 35.7 + 1.5 × 0.5 × 502.9
= 357.3 + 53.6 + 377.2
= 788.1 kN/m
M
Ed
= 31.6 + 0.0058 × 788.1 ≥ 0.020 × 788.1
= 31.6 + 4.6 ≥ 15.8
= 36.2 kNm/m
or
N
Ed
= 1.0 × 214.6 – 1.35 × 50.1 – 0 × 31.2 – 1.5 × 0.5 × 502.9
= 214.6 – 67.6 – 0 – 377.2
= –230.2 kN/m (tension)
M
Ed
= 31.6 + 0.0058 × 230.2
= 33.0 kNm/m
d) Design load cases
Consolidate c) into a) and b) to consider two load cases:
N
Ed
= 1149.4 kN/m,
M
Ed
= 36.2 kN/m (out of plane)
and N
Ed
= –607.4 kN/m,
M
Ed
= 36.2 kN/m (out of plane)

Strictly incompatible with Q
k
= 0. However, allow Q
k
= 0.
179
6] Sheer we||
6.1.11 Design: cover above ground
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
] Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar = 20 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers
c
min,dur
= for XC1 = 15 mm
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
=c
nom
= 15 + 10 = 25 mm to lacers
(35 mm to vertical bars)
6.1.12 Fire resistance
Assuming 1-hour fire resistance required for, as a worst case, μ

= 0.7
and fire on both sides.
Min. thickness = 140 mm, min. axis distance = 10 mm i.e. not critical EC2-1-2: Table 5.4
6.1.13 Design using charts
For compressive load:
d
2
/h = (25 + 10 + 16/2)/200 = 0.215
= interpolate between charts C5d) and C5e) for Figs C5d), C5e)
N
Ed
/bhf
ck
= 1149.4 × 10
3
/(200 × 1000 × 30) = 0.192
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
= 36.2 × 10
6
/(200
2
× 1000 × 30) = 0.030
Gives:
A
s
f
yk
/bhf
ck
= 0 = minimum area of reinforcement required
= 0.002 A
c
Cl. 9.6.2 & NA
= 0.002 × 200 × 1000
= 400 mm
2
/m
= 200 mm
2
/m each face
max. 400 mm cc, min. 12 mm diameter
Try T12 @ 400
Cl. 9.6.2(3);
SMDSC
A
s
/2
Moment
0 0 0 0
Tension Combined
+
e e e s
s
st2
s
st1


+
=
=
Combined
A
s
/2
Figure 6.12 Stresses and strains in wall subject to tension and
out of plane moment p
180
For tensile load and moment:
Working from first principles, referring to Figure 6.12 and ignoring
contribution from concrete in tension,
N
Ed
= (s
st1
+ s
st2
) × A
s
/2
and M
Ed
= (s
st1
– s
st2
) × A
s
/2 × (d – d
2
)
so s
st1
+ s
st2
= 2N
Ed
/A
s
and s
st1
– s
st2
= 2M
Ed
/[(d – d
2
)A
s
]
= 2s
st1
= 2N
Ed
/A
s
+ 2M
Ed
/[(d – d
2
)A
s
]
= A
s
= (N
Ed
/s
st1
) + M
Ed
/(d – d
2
)s
st1
s
st1
= f
yk
/g
S
= 500/1.15 = 434.8
= A
s
= 607.4 × 10
3
/434.8 + 36.2 × 10
6
/[(157 – 43) × 434.8]
= 1397 + 730
= 2127 mm
2
s
st2
= 2N
Ed
/A
s
– s
st1
= 571.7 – 434.8 = 136 MPa
By inspection all concrete is in tension zone and may be ignored.
Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc both sides for at least
1 m each end of wall (2412 mm
2
).
6.1.14 Horizontal reinforcement
A
s, hmin
= 0.001A
s
or 25% A
s vert
= 200 mm
2
or 0.25 × 2036 = 509 mm
2
/m
= requires 254 mm
2
/m each side
Cl. 9.6.3(1) & NA
Spacing ≤ 400 mm Cl. 9.6.3(2)
Links not required.
Use H10 @ 300 (262 mm
2
/m) both sides.
Cl. 9.6.4(1)
6.1.15 Check for tension at top of foundation
Permanent and variable:
G
k
= 1021.0/4.4 = 232.0 kN/m
Q
k
= 230.9/4.4 = 52.5 kN/m
Section 6.1.2
Wind:
M
k
= 17.2 × 14.1 × [14.1/2 + 0.6] = 1855.3 kN/m
Resolved into couple 1 m either end of wall
W
kw
= 1855.3/3.4 = ±545.7 kN/m
Section 6.1.4
Global imperfections:
M
k
= 8.5 × 13.8 + 11.2 × (10.5 + 7.2 + 3.9 + 0.6)
= 365.9 kNm
G
kH
= 365.9 × 0.51/3.4 = 54.9 kN/m
Section 6.1.5
181
6] Sheer we||
At ULS for maximum axial tension W
k
is lead imposed load:
N
Ed
= 1.0 × 232.0 – 1.35 × 54.9 – 1.5 × 545.7 + 0 × 52.5
= –660.7 kN/m
M
Ed
= nominal = e2N
Ed
= 0.02 × 660.7 Cl. 6.1.4
= 13.2 kNm/m
As before
A
s
=
N
Ed

+
M
Ed
f
yk
/g
M
(d – d
2
)f
yk
/g
M
= 660.7 × 10
3
/434.8 + 13.2 × 10
6
/[(157 – 43) × 434.8]
= 1520 + 266
= 1786 mm
2
i.e. not critical
= Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc b.s. for at least 1 m either end of wall
(2412 mm
2
).
6.1.16 Check for axial compression at top of foundation
At ULS for maximum axial compression W
k
is lead imposed load:
N
Ed
= 1.35 × 232.0 + 1.35 × 54.9 + 1.5 × 545.7 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 52.5
= 1261.0 kN/m
M
Ed
= nominal = e2N
Ed
= 0.02 × 1261.0 Cl. 6.1.4
= 25.2 kNm/m
By inspection not critical (minimum reinforcement required). Section 6.1.13
= tension critical as above.
6.1.17 Design: cover below ground
c
nom
= c
min
+ Dc
dev
where
c
min
= max[c
min,b
; c
min,dur
] Exp. (4.1)
where
c
min,b
= diameter of bar = 16 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers
c
min,dur
= for assumed Aggressive Chemical Environment for
Concrete (ACEC) class AC1 ground conditions
= 25 mm
BS 8500-1
Annex A
[14]
,
How to: Building
structures
[8]
Dc
dev
= 10 mm
c
nom
= 25 + 10 = 35 mm to lacers
(45 mm to vertical bars)
In order to align vertical bars from foundation into Gnd–1st floor lift
as starter bars, locally increase thickness of wall to say
250 mm thick with c
nom
= 50 mm
182
6.1.18 Check stability
Assume base extends 0.3 m beyond either end of wall A, i.e. is 5.0 m long
and is 1.2 m wide by 0.9 m deep.
Overturning moments
Wind (see Figure 6.6)
EC0: Table
A1.2(A) & NA
Fig. 6.6
M
k
= 17.2 × 14.1 × [14.1/2 + 1.5]
= 2073.5 kNm
Global imperfections (see Section 6.1.5) Fig. 6.7
M
k
= 0.51 x [8.5 × 14.7 + 11.2 × (11.4 + 8.1 + 4.8 + 1.5)]
= 0.51 x [125.0 + 11.2 × 25.8]
= 0.51 x 414.0
= 211 kNm
Restoring moment
M
k
= (1021.0 + 5.0 x 1.2 x 0.9 x 25 + 0 x 230.9 ) x (0.3 + 2.2)
= 2890 kNm
At ULS of EQU,
Overturning moment
= fn(g
Q,1
Q
k1
+ g
G,sup
G
k
)
= 1.5 x 2073.5 + 1.1 x 211.0 = 3342.4 kNm
EC0: Table
A1.2(A) & NA
Restoring moment
= fn(g
G,inf
G
k
)
= 0.9 x 2890 = 2601 kNm i.e. > 1818.4 kNm
= no good
EC0:
Table A1.2(A)
& NA
Try 1.05 m outstand
Restoring moment
M
k
= 2890 (1.05 + 2.2) / (0.3 + 2.2)
= 3757.0 kNm
At ULS, restoring moment = 0.9 x 357.0
= 3381.3 kNm
=OK. Use 1.05 m outstand to wall.
6.1.19 Design summary
H12 @ 400 b.s
12 12
1st
1050 1050
25 mm cover to 200 mm
wall above ground floor
24H16 @ 200
(12NF, 12FF)
Gnd
50 mm cover
to 250 wall
below ground floor
Lacers H10 @
300 m outside
183
/ ke¦erences end ¦urther reed|ng
7 References and further reading

References
1 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99?÷]÷], lurocode ? ÷ lert ]÷] /e·/¡n o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· onJ ·a/e· |o· /a//J/n¡· bSl, ?004
1a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert ]÷] bSl, ?00S
2 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99?÷]÷?, lurocode ? ÷ lert ]÷? /e·/¡n o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - Oene·o/ ·a/e· - ´|·ac|a·o/ |/·e Je·/¡n bSl, ?004
2a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert ]÷? bSl, ?00S
3 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99?÷?, lurocode ? ÷ lert ? /e·/¡n o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - S·/J¡e· bSl, ?00S
3a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert ? bSl, ?00/
4 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99?÷3, lurocode ? ÷ lert 3 /e·/¡n o|
conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - //aa/J-·e|o/n/n¡ onJ con|o/nmen| ·|·ac|a·e· bSl, ?006
4a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ? ÷ lert 3 bSl, ?00/
5 k S NAkA¥ANAN 8 C l COOLClllL ¹he Concrete Centre Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
CCll-00S ¹CC, ?006
6 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON lL 66S/ Soc/¡·oanJ oooe· |o |/e c/ /o|/ono/
/nne\e· S´ // '99?-' bSl, ?006
7 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS S]]0 ´|·ac|a·o/ a·e o| conc·e|e - /o·| ' CoJe o|
o·oc|/ce |o· Je·/¡n onJ con·|·ac|/on bSl,]99/
8 bkOOllk, O et e| /ou |o Je·/¡n conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/n¡ /a·ocoJe ? CCll-006
¹he Concrete Centre, ?006 0odeted ¦or down|oed on|v ?009
9 ¹ll lNS¹l¹0¹lON Ol S¹k0C¹0kAl lNClNllkS/¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥/L¹l ´|onJo·J
me|/oJ o| Je|o///n¡ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ¹h|rd ld|t|on lStructl, ?006
10 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]990, lurocode So·/· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/¡n
bSl, ?00?
10a Net|one| Annex to lurocode bSl, ?004
11 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99], lurocode ] /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
(]0 oerts) bSl, ?00?÷?006
11a Net|one| Annexes to lurocode ] bSl, ?00S÷?00S end |n oreoeret|on
12 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99/÷], lurocode / Oeo|ec/n/co/ Je·/¡n
Oene·o/ ·a/e· bSl, ?004
12a Net|one| Annex to lurocode / bS lN ]99/÷] bSl, ?00/
13 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99S÷], lurocode S /e·/¡n o| ·|·ac|a·e· |o·
eo·|/aao/e ·e·/·|once Oene·o/ ·a/e· ´e/·m/c oc|/on· |o· /a//J/n¡· bSl, ?004
13a Net|one| Annex to lurocode S bS lN ]99S÷] bSl, ?00S
14 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS SS00÷] Conc·e|e - Como/emen|o·, S·/|/·/
´|onJo·J |o S´ // ?06-' /e|/oJ o| ·oec/|,/n¡ onJ ¡a/Jonce |o |/e ·oec/|/e· bSl, ?00?
15 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS 4449 ´|ee/ |o· |/e ·e/n|o·cemen| o| conc·e|e -
we/Jo//e ·e/n|o·c/n¡ ·|ee/ - So· co// onJ Jeco//eJ o·oJac| - ´oec/|/co|/on bSl, ?00S
16 CONS¹k0C¹ /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/n¡ con·|·ac|/on ¹h|rd
ld|t|on, CS ]S? ¹he Concrete Soc|etv on |ehe|¦ o¦ Construct, ?004
17 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]36/0 /\eca|/on o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· - /o·| '
Common bSl, |n oreoeret|on, due ?0]0
18 CONS¹k0C¹ /o|/ono/ ·|·ac|a·o/ conc·e|e ·oec/|/co|/on |o· /a//J/n¡ con·|·ac|/on lourth
ed|t|on, |n oreoeret|on
184
19 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS S666 ?00S, ´c/eJa//n¡ J/men·/on/n¡ /enJ/n¡
onJ ca||/n¡ o| ·|ee/ |o· ·e/n|o·cemen| ´oec/|/co|/on bSl, ?00S
20 ¹ll O0llN'S lklN¹lk Ol AC¹S Ol lAkllAMlN¹, I/e Sa//J/n¡ /e¡a/o|/on· ?000 ¹he
Stet|onerv O¦¦|ce l|m|ted, ?000
21 ¹ll S¹A¹lONlk¥ OlllCl llMl¹lL (¹SO), Sa//J/n¡ //menJmen|j //o ?j /e¡a/o|/on· ?00?
onJ |/e Sa//J/n¡ //oo·o.eJ /n·oec|o·· e|cj //menJmen|j /e¡a/o|/on· ?00? ¹SO, ?00?
22 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON LL lNV ]36/0÷] ?000 /\eca|/on o| conc·e|e
·|·ac|a·e· Common bSl, ?000
23 COOl, N /e·/¡ne·· ¡a/Je |o // '99'-4 /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e· w/nJ oc|/on· ¹homes
¹e|¦ord, london, ?00/
24 LClC Oa/Je |o |/e a·e o| // '99'-'-4 - w/nJ oc|/on· LClC lu|||cet|ons, ?006
wwwcommun|t|esgovu|/o|enn|ngend|u||d|ng/o|enn|ng|u||d|ng/
|u||d|ngregu|et|onsreseerch/|u||d|ngd|v|s|onreseerch/
25 bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON bS lN ]99]÷]÷4 lurocode ] /c|/on· on ·|·ac|a·e·
Oene·o/ oc|/on· w/nJ oc|/on· bSl, ?00S
25a Net|one| Annex to lurocode ] ÷ lert ]÷4 bSl, ?00S
26 bkOOllk, O Conc·e|e /a//J/n¡· ·c/eme Je·/¡n monao/ (lC? ed|t|on) CCll-0S] ¹he
Concrete Centre, ?009
27 ¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥ ¹echn|ce| keoort 64, Oa/Je |o |/e Je·/¡n onJ con·|·ac|/on o| /C
|/o| ·/o/·, CCll-0?? ¹he Concrete Soc|etv, ?00/
28 COOLClllL, C l 8 vlbS¹lk, k M /C ·o·eoJ·/ee|· .3, CCll-00SCL c·e· ¡a/Je |o /C
·o·eoJ·/ee|· \3, CCll-00S ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
29 lkvlN, A v /e·/¡n o| ·/eo· uo// /a//J/n¡· keoort k]0? ClklA, ]9S4
30 ¹ll CONCkl¹l ClN¹kl wo·/eJ e\omo/e· |o /a·ocoJe ? \o/ame ? CCll-04? ln
oreoeret|on
31 MOSlll¥, b, b0NCl¥, } 8 l0lSl, k /e/n|o·ceJ conc·e|e Je·/¡n |o /a·ocoJe ?, S|xth
ld|t|on le|greve McM|||en, ?00/
32 ¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥ /e|/ec|/on· /n conc·e|e ·/o/· onJ /eom· ¹k SS ¹he Concrete
Soc|etv, ?00S
33 bllb¥, A /oJ/|/eJ o·ooo·o/· |o· con|·o///n¡ Je|/ec|/on· /, meon· o| ·o|/o· o| ·oon |o e||ec|/.e
Jeo|/ ¹echn|ce| keoort 4S6, Cement end Concrete Assoc|et|on, vexhem Sor|ngs, ]9/]
34 AlllN, A l /e/n|o·ceJ conc·e|e Je·/¡n |o S´ S''0 ·/mo/, e\o/o/neJ Soon, london, ]9SS
35 lNS¹l¹0¹lON Ol S¹k0C¹0kAl lNClNllkS /onao/ |o· |/e Je·/¡n o| conc·e|e /a//J/n¡
·|·ac|a·e· |o /a·ocoJe ? lStructl, ?006
Further reading
N bllb¥ A v 8 NAkA¥ANAN k S Les|gners gu|de to the lurocodes ÷ lN ]99?÷]÷]
end lN ]99?÷]÷? lurocode ? /e·/¡n o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· Oene·o/ ·a/e· onJ ·a/e· |o·
/a//J/n¡· onJ ·|·ac|a·o/ |/·e Je·/¡n ¹homes ¹e|¦ord, ?00S
N bkl¹lSl S¹ANLAkLS lNS¹l¹0¹lON ll ]990?00/ ´|·ac|a·o/ /a·ocoJe· /\|·oc|· |·om
|/e ·|·ac|a·o/ /a·ocoJe· |o· ·|aJen|· o| ·|·ac|a·o/ Je·/¡n second ed|t|on bSl, london,
?00/
N llNL¥ C k 8 SMl¹l L A, Les|gners gu|de to the lurocodes ÷ lN ]99?÷? lurocode ?
/e·/¡n o| conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· /o·| ? Conc·e|e /·/J¡e·, ¹homes ¹e|¦ord, ?00/
N ¹ll CONCkl¹l SOCll¹¥ ¹echn|ce| keoort 64, Oa/Je |o |/e Je·/¡n onJ con·|·ac|/on o| /C
|/o| ·/o/·, CCll-0?? ¹he Concrete Soc|etv, ?00/
185
Aooend|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
Appendix A: Derived formulae
Flexure: beams and slabs
Singly reinforced sections
¹he rectengu|er stress ||oc| shown |e|ow |n l|gure A] mev |e used
h
A
s2
A
s
d
a) Section b) Strain c) Forces
neutral axis
d
2
e
c
e
sc
lx
e
s
x
nf
cd
F
c
z
F
st
F
sc
Figure A1
Strains and forces in a section
Fig. 3.5
lor gredes o¦ concrete uo to CS0/60, e
cu
0003S, n ] end l 0S
|
cd
a
cc
|
c|
/g
C
0SS |
c|
/]S
3.1.6(1), 2.4.2.4(1)
& NA
|
vd
|
v|
/ g
S
|
v|
/]]S 0S/|
v|
2.4.2.4(1) & NA
lor s|ng|v re|n¦orced sect|ons, the des|gn equet|ons cen |e der|ved es ¦o||ows
Lever arm, z
z = d – 0.4x
F
st
F
c
0.8x
Figure A2
Beam lever arm
/
c
(0SS |
c|
/]S) / (0S\) 04S3|
c|
/\
/
st
0S//
s
|
v|
Cons|der moment

, /, e|out the centre o¦ the tens|on ¦orce
/ 04S3|
c|
/\·
Now · J ÷ 04\
= \ ?S(J ÷ ·)
/ 04S3|
c|
/?S(J ÷ ·)·
]]333 (|
c|
/·J ÷ |
c|
/ ·
?
)
let / ///J
?
|
c|
]]333 (|
c|
/·J ÷ |
c|

?
)//J
?
|
c|
]]333(·J ÷ ·
?
)/J
?
= 0 ]]333|(·/J)
?
÷ (·/J)| ÷ /
(·/J)
?
÷ (·/J) ÷ 0SS?3S/

ln orect|ce the des|gn moment, /
ld
wou|d |e used
A1
A1.1
186
So|v|ng the quedret|c equet|on
·/J |] ÷ (] ÷ 3S?9/)
0S
|/?
· J|] ÷ |] ÷ 3S?9/)
0S
|/?
Table C5
/| /· con·/Je·eJ ¡ooJ o·oc|/ce /n |/e c/ |o //m/| ·/J |o o mo\/mam o| 09'J /I//· ¡ao·J· o¡o/n·|
·e/,/n¡ on .e·, |//n ·ec|/on· o| conc·e|e u//c/ o| |/e e\|·eme |oo o| o ·ec|/on mo, /e o|
aae·|/ono//e ·|·en¡|/j Io//e· ¡/./n¡ .o/ae· o| ·/J onJ \/J |o· .o/ae· o| / mo, /e a·eJ
Area of reinforcement, A
s
¹e||ng moments e|out the centre o¦ the comoress|on ¦orce
/ 0S//
s
|
v|
·
/
s
//(0S/|
v|
·)
Limiting value of relative flexural compressive stress, K'
Assum|ng no red|str||ut|on te|es o|ece, e ||m|t|ng ve|ue (on the strength o¦ concrete |n
comoress|on) ¦or / cen |e ce|cu|eted (denoted /) es ¦o||ows
e
cu3
concrete stre|n 0003S
e
s
re|n¦orcement stre|n
S00/(]]S × ?00 × ]0
3
) 000??
lrom stre|n d|egrem, l|gure A]
\ 0003SJ/(0003S ÷ 000??)
06J
lrom equet|ons e|ove
/ 04S3|
c|
/\·
/ 04S3|
c|
/ 06J (J ÷ 04 × 06 J)
0?0/|
c|
/ J
?
= / 0?0/
lt |s o¦ten cons|dered good orect|ce to ||m|t the deoth o¦ the neutre| ex|s to evo|d 'over-
re|n¦orcement' (|e to ensure thet the re|n¦orcement |s v|e|d|ng et ¦e||ure, thus evo|d|ng |r|tt|e
¦e||ure o¦ the concrete) O¦ten \/J |s ||m|ted to 04S ¹h|s |s re¦erred to es the |e|enced sect|on
|eceuse et the u|t|mete ||m|t stete the concrete end stee| reech the|r u|t|mete stre|ns et the
seme t|me
|3]|
¹h|s |s not e lurocode ? requ|rement end |s not ecceoted |v e|| eng|neers
Nonethe|ess ¦or \ 04SJ
lrom equet|ons e|ove
/ 04S3|
c|
/\·
/ 04S3|
c|
/ 04SJ (J ÷ 04 × 04SJ)
0]6/|
c|
/J
?
= / 0]6/
Cl. 5.5(4)
\/J |s e|so restr|cted |v the emount o¦ red|str||ut|on cerr|ed out lor |
c|
< S0 Mle
d ~ 04 ÷ (06 ÷ 000]4e
cu
)\
u
/J
where
J red|str||uted moment/e|est|c |end|ng moment |e¦ore red|str||ut|on
\
u
deoth o¦ the neutre| ex|s et 0lS e¦ter red|str||ut|on
e
cu
comoress|ve stre|n |n the concrete et 0lS
¹h|s g|ves the ve|ues |n ¹e||e A]

Table 3.1
187
Aooend|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
A1.2
A2
A2.1
Table A1
Limits on D with respect to redistribution ratio, d
d 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7
% redistribution 0 S ]0 ]S ?0 ?S 30
K' 0?0S 0]9S 0]S? 0]6S 0]S3 0]3/ 0]?0
l¦ / > / the sect|on shou|d |e res|.ed or comoress|on re|n¦orcement |s requ|red ln ||ne w|th
cons|deret|on o¦ good orect|ce out||ned e|ove, this publication adopts a maximum value
of K' = 0.167
Compression reinforcement, A
s2
¹he me|or|tv o¦ |eems used |n orect|ce ere s|ng|v re|n¦orced, end these |eems cen |e des|gned us|ng
the ¦ormu|e der|ved e|ove ln some ceses, comoress|on re|n¦orcement |s edded |n order to
lncreese sect|on strength where sect|on d|mens|ons ere restr|cted, |e where N / > /
¹o reduce |ong term de¦|ect|on N
¹o decreese curveture/de¦ormet|on et u|t|mete ||m|t stete N
A
s2
A
s
Figure A3
Beam with compression reinforcement
v|th re¦erence to l|gure A], there |s now en extre ¦orce
/
sc
0S//
s?
|
v|
¹he eree o¦ tens|on re|n¦orcement cen now |e cons|dered |n two oerts, the ¦|rst oert to |e|ence
the comoress|ve ¦orce |n the concrete, the second oert to |e|ence the ¦orce |n the comoress|on
stee| ¹he eree o¦ tens|on re|n¦orcement requ|red |s there¦ore
/
s
/' |
cu
/J
?
/(0S/|
v|
·) ÷ /
s?
where
· |s ce|cu|eted us|ng /' |nsteed o¦ /
/
s?
cen |e ce|cu|eted |v te||ng moments e|out the centre o¦ the tens|on ¦orce
/ / ÷ 0S/|
v|
/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)
/ / |
cu
/J
?
÷ 0S/|
v|
/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)
keerreng|ng
/
s?
(/ ÷ /) |
c|
/J
?
/|0S/ |
v|
(J ÷ J
?
)|
Shear
Shear resistance (without shear reinforcement), V
Rd,c
\
kd,c
|C
kd,c
/(]00r] |
c|
)
]/3
÷ /
]
s
co
| /
w
J ~ (.
m|n
÷ /
]
s
co
) /
w
J Exp. (6.2)
where
C
kd,c
0]S/g
C
0]S/]S 0]?
NA
/ ]÷ (?00/J)
0S
< ?0
188
A2.2
A2.3
r
]
/
s
/(/
w
J) < 00?
/
]
0]S
s
co
0 ¦or non-orestressed concrete
.
m|n
003S/
]S
|
c|
0S
=\
kd,c
0]?/(]00 r
]
|
c|
)
]/3
/
w
J ~ 003S/
]S
|
c|
0S
/
w
J
Shear capacity
Exp. (6.9)
¹he ceoec|tv o¦ e concrete sect|on w|th vert|ce| sheer re|n¦orcement to ect
es e strut, \
kd,mex

\
kd,mex
a
cw
/
w
?v
]
|
cd
/(cot y ÷ ten y)
Cl. 6.2.3(3) Note 1,
Exp. (6.6N) & NA
where
a
cw
]0
v
]
v 06 |] ÷ |
c|
/?S0|
|
cd
a
cc
|
c|
/g
C
]00 × |
c|
/]S
=\
kd,mex
040 /
w
· |
c|
|] ÷ |
c|
/?S0|/(cot y ÷ ten y)
keerreng|ng th|s equet|on g|ves
y 0S s|n
÷]
|.
ld.
/(0?0|
c|
|] ÷ |
c|
/?S0|)| ~ cot
÷]
?S
where
.
ld.
\
ld
//· \
ld
/(/09J)
ln most ceses, where cot y ?S, y ?]S°
.
kd,mex,cot y ?S
0]3S/
w
· |
c|
|] ÷ |
c|
/?S0|
or
.
kd,mex,cot y ?S
0]3S|
c|
|] ÷ |
c|
/?S0|
where
.
kd,mex,cot y ?S
\
kd,mex,cot y ?S
/(/·)
\
kd,mex,cot y ?S
/(09/J)
vhere cot y > ?S, the eng|e o¦ the strut end .
kd,mex
shou|d |e ce|cu|eted, or .
kd,mex
mev |e
|oo|ed uo |n te||es or cherts (eg ¹e||e C/ or l|gure C])
Shear reinforcement
Exp. (6.13) \
kd,s
(/
sw
/·)·|
vwd
(cot y ÷ cot a)s|n a ~ \
ld
where
/
sw
cross-sect|one| eree o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
· soec|ng
· |ever erm (eoorox|mete ve|ue o¦ 09J mev norme||v |e used)
|
vwd
|
vw|
/g
S
des|gn v|e|d strength o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
a eng|e o¦ the ||n|s to the |ong|tud|ne| ex|s lor vert|ce| ||n|s,
cot a 0 end s|n a ]0
keerreng|ng ¦or vert|ce| ||n|s
/
sw
/· ~ \
ld
/·|
vwd
cot y
or
/
sw
/· ~ .
ld,.
/
w
/ |
vwd
cot y
M|n|mum eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
Exp. (9.5N) & NA
/
sw,m|n
/(·/
w
s|n a) ~ 00S|
c|
0S
/|
v|
where
· |ong|tud|ne| soec|ng o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement
/
w
|reedth o¦ the we|
189
Aooend|x A Ler|ved ¦ormu|ee
A3

a eng|e o¦ the sheer re|n¦orcement to the |ong|tud|ne| ex|s o¦ the mem|er lor vert|ce|
||n|s s|n a ]0
keerreng|ng ¦or vert|ce| ||n|s
A
sw,m|n
/· ~ 00S/
w
s|n a |
c|
0S
/|
v|
Columns
a) Strain diagram b) Stress diagram
n ex|s
|
cd
a
cc
n|
c|
/g
C
J
?
J
c
\
/
J
?
s
sc
s
st
e
cu?
e
sc
e
v
e
c
/
s]
/
s?
Figure A4
Section in axial
compression and
bending
Fig. 6.1
lor ex|e| |oed
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
÷ /
s?
s
sc
÷ /
s]
s
st
but es /
s?
/
s]
/
sN
/?
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
÷ /
sN
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)/?
/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
/
sN
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)/?
(/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
) /
sN
/?
/
sN
/? (/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)
=/
sN
/? (/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
/g
C
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)
lor moment e|out centre o¦ co|umn
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?) ÷ /
s?
s
sc
(//? ÷ J
?
) ÷ /
s]
s
st
(//? ÷ J
?
)
but es /
s?
/
s]
/
sM
/?
/
ld
|
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?) ÷ /
sM
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
)/?
/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?) /
sM
(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
)/?
|/
ld
÷ |
cd
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?)|/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
) /
sM
/?
= /
sM
/? |/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?)/g
C
|/|(s
sc
÷ s
st
)(//? ÷ J
?
)|
So|ut|on
lterete \ such thet /
sN
/
sM
Note
lor sect|ons who||v |n comoress|on, the stre|n |s ||m|ted such thet everege stre|n
≤ e
cs
000]/S (essum|ng ||||neer stress÷stre|n re|et|onsh|o)
Cl. 6.1(6), Fig. 6.1,
Table 3.1
190
B1
B1.1
B1.2
B1.3
Appendix B: Serviceability limit state
Deflection
ln menv ceses, oert|cu|er|v w|th s|e|s, de¦|ect|on |s cr|t|ce| to des|gn
lurocode ?, C| /4 e||ows ¦or de¦|ect|on to |e contro||ed |v us|ng soendeoth ret|o (//J) chec|s
|n eccordence w|th C| /4? or |v ce|cu|et|on |n eccordence w|th C| /43 lt |s |moortent to
d|¦¦erent|ete |etween the ver|ous methods used |n chec||ng de¦ormet|on es thev w||| eech g|ve
d|¦¦erent enswers ¹hree ooou|er methods ere d|scussed |e|ow On|v thet descr||ed |n Sect|on
b]] |e|ow |s su|te||e ¦or hend ce|cu|et|on
TCC method
[5,19]
¹he |n-serv|ce stress o¦ re|n¦orcement, s
s
, |s used to determ|ne e ¦ector, 3]0/s
s
, wh|ch |s used
to mod|¦v the |es|c soen e¦¦ect|ve deoth ret|o es e||owed |n C| /4?(?) o¦ lurocode ?
|?|
end
modereted |v the Net|one| Annex
|?e|
¹h|s method, h|gh||ghted es ¦ector l3 |n Conc/·e /a·ocoJe
?
|S|
, |s |ntended to |e used |n hend ce|cu|et|ons to der|ve (conservet|ve) ve|ues o¦ s
s
¦rom
eve||e||e 0lS moments ln eccordence w|th Note S o¦ ¹e||e NAS o¦ the 0l NA
|?e|
, the ret|o ¦or
/
s,orov
//
s,req
|s restr|cted to ]S |n e¦¦ect th|s ||m|ts the ¦ector 3]0/s
s
to ]S
where

s
s
(|
v|
/g
S
) (u
qo
/u
u|t
) (/
s,req
//
s,orov
) /d < 3]0/]S
where
|
v|
cherecter|st|c strength o¦ re|n¦orcement S00 Mle
g
S
oert|e| ¦ector ¦or re|n¦orcement ]]S
u
qo
ques|-oermenent |oed (0Ll essumed)
u
oerm
u|t|mete |oed (0Ll essumed)
/
s,req
eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red
/
s,orov
eree o¦ re|n¦orcement orov|ded
d red|str||ut|on ret|o
RC Spreadsheets method
[28]
¹he kC soreedsheets ¹CCxxx|s
|?S|
use the soen deoth method o¦ chec||ng de¦ormet|on |ut use
en eccurete method ¦or determ|n|ng s
s
(see b3? |e|ow), wh|ch ege|n |s used to determ|ne the
moderet|ng ¦ector 3]0/s
s
Age|n, |n eccordence w|th Note S o¦ ¹e||e NAS o¦ the 0l NA
|?e|
,
the ret|o ¦or /
s,orov
//
s,req
|s restr|cted to ]S |n e¦¦ect th|s ||m|ts the ¦ector 3]0/s
s
to ]S
Seoerete ene|vses us|ng ques|-oermenent |oeds need to |e cerr|ed out lor eech soen, en SlS
neutre| ex|s deoth |s determ|ned, then s
c
end s
s
ere der|ved ¦or the ques|-oermenent |oed
cond|t|ons ¹he ¦ector s
s
|s used |n eccordence w|th lurocode ?
|?|
end the current Net|one|
Annex
|?e|
, to mod|¦v the |es|c soen e¦¦ect|ve deoth ret|o
vh||st th|s method g|ves e more eccurete end |ess conservet|ve essessment o¦ s
s
, |t |s on|v
su|te||e ¦or comouter soreedsheet eoo||cet|ons See e|so Aooend|x bS
ln the ene|vs|s o¦ s|e|s end |eems, suooorts ere usue||v essumed to |e o|nned ln ree||tv suooorts
heve some cont|nu|tv, esoec|e||v et end suooorts 0sue||v, nom|ne| too stee| |s essumed end
orov|ded |n the too o¦ soens end |s used |n the determ|net|on o¦ sect|on orooert|es
Rigorous analysis
k|gorous ene|vs|s, such es thet used |n the ser|es o¦ kC Soreedsheets ¹CCxxkx|s mev |e used to
essess de¦ormet|on |n eccordence w|th lurocode ?, C| /43

See Aooend|x b]S
191
Aooend|x b Serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stete
ln the soreedsheets, sect|ons et ]/?0th oo|nts e|ong the |ength o¦ e soen ere chec|ed to
determ|ne whether the ¦|exure| tens||e stress |n the sect|on |s |||e|v to exceed the tens||e strength
o¦ the concrete dur|ng e|ther construct|on or serv|ce ||¦e seoerete ene|vses ere underte|en us|ng
¦requent |oeds, ques|-oermenent end temoorerv |oeds l¦ the ¦|exure| tens||e strength |s exceeded
under ¦requent |oeds, then the sect|on |s essumed to |e crec|ed end reme|n crec|ed crec|ed
sect|on orooert|es ere used to determ|ne the red|us o¦ curveture ¦or thet ]/?0th o¦ soen l¦
¦|exure| tens||e strength |s not exceeded, un-crec|ed sect|on orooert|es ere used
ked|| o¦ curveture ere ce|cu|eted ¦or eech ]/?0th soen |ncrement o¦ the e|ement us|ng the re|event
orooert|es end moments der|ved ¦rom ene|vs|s o¦ ques|-oermenent ect|ons Le¦ormet|on |s ce|cu|eted
¦rom the |ncrements' curvetures v|e numer|ce| |ntegret|on over the |ength o¦ eech soen
¹he method |s |n eccordence w|th ¹he Concrete Soc|etv's ou|||cet|on ¹kSS
|3?|
Age|n the method
|s su|te||e on|v ¦or comouter eoo||cet|ons end not ¦or hend ce|cu|et|on
Differing results
Lur|ng ?00S, |t |eceme |ncrees|ng|v eooerent thet there ere |ncons|stenc|es |etween the resu|ts
g|ven |v the r|gorous ce|cu|et|on method end soendeoth methods descr||ed |n lurocode ?
0s|ng the r|gorous method g|ves de¦|ect|ons thet ere greeter then wou|d |e exoected ¦rom
the essumot|ons steted ¦or //J methods |e de¦|ect|on ||m|ts o¦ //?S0 overe|| (see C| /4](4))
or //S00 e¦ter construct|on (see C| /4](S)) lt |s susoected thet th|s d|soer|tv |s the seme es
thet exoer|enced |etween soendeoth end ce|cu|et|on methods |n bS S]]0 e d|soer|tv thet
wes recogn|sed es |ong ego es ]9/]
|33|
¹he r|gorous method descr||ed e|ove re||es on menv
essumot|ons end |s |erge|v unce|||reted ege|nst ree| structures As noted |n ¹kSS, there |s en
urgent need ¦or dete ¦rom ectue| structures so thet methods mev |e ce|||reted lt shou|d |e
noted thet the r|gorous ene|vs|s method o|servet|ons were mede us|ng ¦requent |oeds where, |n
eccordence w|th lurocode ?, ques|-oermenent |oeds ere ce||ed ¦or
lnd soens ere usue||v cr|t|ce| v|th resoect to the r|gorous ene|vs|s method, |t hes |een suggested thet
¦or end-soens, the ¹CC end kC-soreedsheet methods resu|t |n de¦|ect|ons c|ose to the ||m|ts steted
|n lurocode ?, orov|ded thet e nom|ne| end-suooort restre|n|ng moment |s oresent where none |s
essumed |n ene|vs|s Ceut|on |s there¦ore necesserv |n true o|nned end-suooort s|tuet|ons |ut where
some cont|nu|tv ex|sts, th|s d|soer|tv mev |e eddressed |v ensur|ng thet eooroor|ete emounts o¦
re|n¦orcement, |n eccordence w|th the Code end Net|one| Annex, ere orov|ded et end suooorts
¹he NLl ¦or C| 9?]?(]) |n the 0l NA
|?e|
to bS lN ]99?÷]÷? st|ou|etes thet ?S% o¦ end soen
moment shou|d |e used to determ|ne end suooort re|n¦orcement ¹h|s |s usue||v eccommodeted
|v orov|d|ng ?S% o¦ end soen |ottom stee| es too stee| et end suooorts lt |s on th|s |es|s thet
the ce|cu|et|ons |n th|s ou|||cet|on ere cons|dered es |e|ng ¦urther su|stent|eted
Note regarding factor 310/s
s
(factor F3)
At the t|me o¦ ou|||cet|on (Lecem|er ?009) the euthors were ewere o¦ e oro|e||e chenge to
0l NA
|?e|
¹e||e NAS wh|ch, |n e¦¦ect, wou|d meen thet the ¦ector 3]0/s
s
(l3) /
s,orov
//
s,req

≤ ]S, thus d|se||ow|ng the eccurete method out||ned |n Sect|ons 3], 3?, 33, 34, 43 end
Aooend|ces b]], b]? end C/
Neutral axis at SLS
¹o ¦|nd \, neutre| ex|s, end serv|ces stresses s
c
end s
s
¦or e concrete sect|on, et SlS, cons|der the
crec|ed sect|on |n l|gure b]
B1.4
B1.5
B2
192

d
2
d
x
A
s2
A
s
a
e
– 1
a
e
E/E
c
Relative modulus
Where a
e
= modular ratio E
s
/E
c
1
Figure B1
Cracked concrete section at SLS
lrom ¦|rst or|nc|o|es, ¦or e ¦u||v crec|ed trens¦ormed sect|on,
¹ote| eree o¦ sect|on / /\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])
]st moment o¦ eree, /
v
/\
?
/? ÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])
lor e s|e|, / ]000, there¦ore
/ ]000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])
/
v
S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])
Neutre| ex|s deoth, \
\ /
v
//
|S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])|/|]000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])|
¹here¦ore
\|]000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])| |S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])|
0 |S00\
?
÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])| ÷ \|]000\ ÷ /
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])|
S00\
?
÷ \|]000\| ÷ /
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])| ÷ \|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])|
÷ S00\
?
÷ \|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])| ÷ |/
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])|
So|v|ng the quedret|c
\ ÷/ ± /
?
÷ 4ac)
0S
|/?o
\
÷|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ]) ± [|/
s
a
e
÷ /
s?
(a
e
÷ ])|
?
÷ 4 × S00 × |/
s
Ja
e
÷ /
s?
J
?
(a
e
÷ ])|ì
0S
|
(? x S00)
or trensoos|ng,
\
|÷(a
e
÷ ])/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
÷ [|(a
e
÷ ])/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
|
?
÷ ?000|(a
e
÷])/
s?
J
?
÷ a
e
/
s
J|ì
0S
|
]000
or
\
|÷(a
e
÷ ])/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
÷ [|(a
e
÷ ])/
s?
÷ a
e
/
s
|
?
÷ ?/|(a
e
÷ ])/
s?
J
?
÷ a
e
/
s
J|ì
0S
|
/
¹h|s exoress|on |s used |n the kC soreedsheets
|?S|

193
Aooend|x b Serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stete
SLS stresses in concrete, s
c
, and reinforcement, s
s
Singly reinforced section
Cons|der the s|ng|v re|n¦orced sect|on |n l|gure b?
a) Section b) Dimensions and forces
M
qp
A
s
F
c
F
s
x/ 3
x
z
b
Figure B2
SLS stresses: singly
reinforced section
Cons|der moments e|out /
c

/
qo
/
s
· /
s
(J ÷ \/3)
/
s
/
qo
/(J ÷ \/3)
s
s
/
qo
/|/
s
(J ÷ \/3)|
s
s
/
s
/
qo
/(J ÷ \/3) \/s
c
/?
s
c
?s
s
/
s
/\/
Doubly reinforced section
Cons|der the s|ng|v re|n¦orced sect|on |n l|gure b3
a) Section b) Dimensions, modular
ratios and stresses
M
qp
d
2
A
s
A
s2
E/E
c
= a
e
– 1
s = s
c
(a
e
– 1)(x – d
2
)/x
E/E
c
= a
e
s = s
c
E/E
c
= a
e
s = s
s
x
d
b
Figure B3
SLS stresses
Cons|der moment, /
qo
, e|out |ottom re|n¦orcement, /
s
|34|

/
qo
/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)(a
e
÷ ])[(\ ÷ J
?
)/\ì s
c
÷ s
c
/(\/?)(J ÷ \/3)
¹here¦ore
s
c
/
qo
/ |/
s?
(J ÷ J
?
)(a
e
÷ ]) )[(\ ÷ J
?
)/\ì ÷ /(\/?)(J ÷ \/3)|
And ¦rom stress d|egrem
s
s
s
c
a
e
(J ÷ \)/\
B3
B3.1
B3.2
194
Appendix C: Design aids
¹he ¦o||ow|ng te||es, text end ¦|gures heve |een der|ved ¦rom lurocode ? end ere orov|ded
es des|gn e|ds ¦or des|gners |n the 0l ¹hese des|gn e|ds heve |een re¦erenced |n the text end
genere||v heve |een te|en ¦rom Sect|on ]S o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
|S|

Design values of actions
lor the 0lS o¦ strength (S¹k) where there |s e s|ng|e ver|e||e ect|on use e|ther
]3S N O
|
÷ ]SC
|
lxo (6]0) ¦rom bS lN ]990
|]0|
or the worse cese o¦
]3S N O
|
÷ c
0
]SC
|
lxo (6]0e)
end
]?S N O
|
÷ ]SC
|
lxo (6]0|)
where c
0
]0 ¦or storege, 0S ¦or snow |ut otherw|se 0/, see ¹e||e ??
ln most ceses lxo (6]0|) w||| |e eooroor|ete, exceot ¦or storege where the use o¦ lxo (6]0e)
|s |||e|v to |e more onerous
lor the SlS o¦ de¦ormet|on, ques|-oermenent |oeds shou|d |e eoo||ed ¹hese ere ]0O
|
÷ c
?
C
|

where c
?
|s deoendent on use, eg 03 ¦or o¦¦|ces end res|dent|e| end 0/ ¦or storege
Values of actions
¹he ve|ues o¦ ect|ons (|e |oeds) ere de¦|ned |n lurocode ]
|]]|
¹he oerts o¦ lurocode ] ere g|ven
|n ¹e||e C] ¹hese ve|ues ere te|en es cherecter|st|c ve|ues At the t|me o¦ ou|||cet|on, the 0l
Net|one| Annexes to these oerts ere |n ver|ous stetes o¦ reed|ness
As lL 66S/
|6|
me|es c|eer, unt|| the eooroor|ete lurooeen stenderds |ecome eve||e||e, des|gners
mev cons|der us|ng current orect|ce or current br|t|sh Stenderds |n con|unct|on w|th lurocode ?,
orov|ded thev ere comoet|||e w|th lurocode ? end thet the resu|t|ng re||e||||tv |s ecceote||e
bS lN ]99]÷]÷] stetes thet the dens|tv o¦ concrete |s ?4 |N/m
3
, re|n¦orced concrete, ?S |N/m
3

end wet re|n¦orced concrete, ?6 |N/m
3

Table C1
The parts of Eurocode 1
[11]
Reference Title
BS EN 1991-1-1 Lens|t|es, se|¦-we|ght end |moosed |oeds
BS EN 1991-1-2 Act|ons on structures exoosed to ¦|re
BS EN 1991-1-3 Snow |oeds
BS EN 1991-1-4 v|nd ect|ons
BS EN 1991-1-5 ¹herme| ect|ons
BS EN 1991-1-6 Act|ons dur|ng execut|on
BS EN 1991-1-7 Acc|dente| ect|ons due to |moect end exo|os|ons
BS EN 1991-2 ¹re¦¦|c |oeds on |r|dges
BS EN 1991-3 Act|ons |nduced |v crenes end mech|nerv
BS EN 1991-4 Act|ons |n s||os end ten|s
C1
C2
195
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
Analysis
Ane|vs|s |s dee|t w|th |n Sect|on S o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ? vhere eooroor|ete the coe¦¦|c|ents
g|ven |n ¹e||es C? end C3 cen |e used to determ|ne des|gn moments end sheer ¦or s|e|s end
|eems et 0lS
Table C2
Coefficients for use with one-way spanning slabs to Eurocode 2
Coefficient Location
End support/slab connection Internal supports and spans
Pinned end support Continuous
Outer
support
Near
middle of
end span
Outer
support
Near
middle of
end span
At 1st
interior
support
At
middle of
interior
spans
At
interior
supports
Moment
00 00S6 ÷ 004 00/S ÷ 00S6 0063 ÷ 0063
Shear
040 ÷ 046 ÷ 060060 ÷ 0S00S0
Notes
1 Aoo||ce||e to one-wev soenn|ng s|e|s where the eree o¦ eech |ev exceeds 30 m
?
, C
|
< ]?SO
|
end a
|
< S
|N/m
?
, su|stent|e||v un|¦orm |oed|ng (et |eest 3 soens, m|n|mum soen ~ 0SS mex|mum (des|gn) soen
2 Les|gn moment coe¦¦ x n x soen
?
end des|gn sheer coe¦¦ x n x soen where n |s e 0Ll w|th e s|ng|e ver|e||e
ect|on g
C
¡
|
÷ cg
O
a
|
where ¡
|
end a
|
ere cherecter|st|c oermenent end ver|e||e ect|ons |n |N/m
3 bes|s ¥|e|d ||ne des|gn (essumed ?0% red|str||ut|on
|/|
)
Table C3
Coefficients for use with beams (and one-way spanning slabs) to Eurocode 2
Coefficient Location
Outer support Near middle
of end span
At 1st interior
support
At middle of
interior spans
At interior
supports
Moment `
k

and j
k
?S% soen
a
÷ 0094 ÷ 00/S
Moment `
k
÷ 0090 ÷ 0066 ÷
Moment j
k
÷ 0]00 ÷ 00S6 ÷
Shear
04S ÷ 0630SS ÷ 0S00S0
b
Notes
1 lor |eems end s|e|s, 3 or more soens (¹hev mev e|so |e used ¦or ?-soen |eems |ut suooort
moment coe¦¦|c|ent 0]06 end |nterne| sheer coe¦¦|c|ent 063 |oth s|des)
2 Cenere||v C
|
< O
|
, end the |oed|ng shou|d |e su|stent|e||v un|¦orm|v d|str||uted Otherw|se soec|e|
curte||ment o¦ re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
3 M|n|mum soen ~ 0SS x mex|mum (end des|gn) soen
4 Les|gn moment et suooorts coe¦¦ x n x soen
?

or |n soens (coe¦¦ ¡
|
x g
C
¡
|
÷ coe¦¦ a
|
x cg
O
a
|
) x soen
?

5 Les|gn sheer et centre||ne o¦ suooorts coe¦¦ x n x soen where n |s e 0Ll w|th e s|ng|e ver|e||e ect|on
g
C
¡
|
÷ cg
O
a
|
where ¡
|
end a
|
ere cherecter|st|c oermenent end ver|e||e ect|ons |n |N/m
g
C
end cg
O
ere deoendent on use o¦ bS lN ]990, lxoress|ons (6]0), (6]0e) or (6]0|) See Sect|on C]
6 bes|s A||- end e|ternete-soens-|oeded ceses es 0l Net|one| Annex end ]S% red|str||ut|on et
suooorts
Key
a At outer suooort '?S% soen' re|etes to the 0l Net|one||v Leterm|ned leremeter ¦or lurocode ?,
C| 9?]?(]) ¦or m|n|mum oercentege o¦ soen |end|ng moment to |e essumed et suooorts |n |eems
|n mono||th|c construct|on ]S% mev |e eooroor|ete ¦or s|e|s (see lurocode ?, C| 93]?)
b lor |eems o¦ ¦|ve soens, 0SS eoo||es to centre soen
Cl. 9.2.1.2
Cl. 9.3.1.2
C3
196
Design for bending
Leterm|ne whether N / < / or not (|e whether under-re|n¦orced or not)
where
/ /
ld
/(/J
?
|
c|
)
where
J e¦¦ect|ve deoth / ÷ cover ÷ f/?
/ w|dth o¦ sect|on |n comoress|on
/ mev |e determ|ned ¦rom ¹e||e C4 end |s deoendent on the red|str||ut|on ret|o used
Table C4
Values for D
Redistribution ratio, d s/] for D
a
D
a
1 – d
1.00 0/6 (0S?) 0?0S (0]6S) 0%
0.95 0/S (0S?) 0]9S (0]6S) S%
0.90 0S0 (0S?) 0]S? (0]6S) ]0%
0.85 0S? 0]6S ]S%
0.80 0S4 0]S3 ?0%
0.75 0S6 0]3/ ?S%
0.70 0SS 0]?0 30%
Note
C|ess A re|n¦orcement |s restr|cted to e red|str||ut|on ret|o, d < 0S
Key
a lt |s recommended thet \/J |s ||m|ted to 04S
|3S|
As e consequence ·/J |s ||m|ted to e m|n|mum o¦
0S?0 end / to e m|n|mum o¦ 0]6S
l¦ N / < /, sect|on |s under-reinforced
lor rectengu|er sect|ons
/
s]
/
ld
/|
vd
·
where
/
s]
eree o¦ tens||e re|n¦orcement
/
ld
des|gn moment
|
vd
|
v|
/g
S
S00/]]S 434S Mle
· J|0S ÷ 0S(] ÷ 3S3/)
0S
| < 09SJ
Ve|ues o¦ ·/J (end \/J) mev |e te|en ¦rom ¹e||e CS
lor ¦|enged |eems where x < ]?S/
¦
,
/
s]
/
ld
/|
vd
·
where \ deoth to neutre| ex|s Ve|ues o¦ \/J mev |e te|en ¦rom ¹e||e CS
/
¦
th|c|ness o¦ ¦|enge
How to: Beams
[8]
lor ¦|enged |eems where \ ~ ]?S/
¦
, re¦er to /ou |o Je·/¡n conc·e|e ·|·ac|a·e· a·/n¡ /a·ocoJe ?
|S|

l¦ N / > /, sect|on |s over-reinforced end requ|res comoress|on re|n¦orcement
/
s?
(/
ld
÷ /)/|
sc
(J ÷ J
?
)
where
/
s?
comoress|on re|n¦orcement
l¦ J
?
/x > 03/S then the term /
s?
shou|d |e reo|eced |v the term
]6(] ÷ J
?
/\) /
s?
/ //J
?
|
c|

|
sc
/00(\
u
÷ J
?
)/\
u
< |
vd
where
J
?
e¦¦ect|ve deoth to comoress|on re|n¦orcement
C4
197
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
\
u
(d ÷ 04)J
where
d red|str||ut|on ret|o
¹ote| eree o¦ stee| /
s]
//(|
vd
·) ÷ /
s?
|
sc
/|
vd
Table C5
Values of s/] and q/] for singly reinforced rectangular sections
D s/] q/] (1 – d)
max
a
0.04 09S0
b
0]?S 30%
0.05 09S0
b
0]?S 30%
0.06 0944 0]40 30%
0.07 0934 0]6S 30%
0.08 09?4 0]9] 30%
0.09 09]3 0?]/ 30%
0.10 090? 0?4S 30%
0.11 0S9] 0?/? 30%
0.12 0SS0 030] 30%
0.13 0S6S 033] ?/%
0.14 0SS6 036] ?4%
0.15 0S43 0393 ?]%
0.16 0S30 04?S ]S%
0.17 0S]6
c
0460
c
]4%
0.18 0S0?
c
049S
c
]]%
0.19 0/S/
c
0S33
c
/%
0.20 0//]
c
0S/?
c
3%
0.208 0/SS
c
0606
c
0%
Note
|
c|
< S0 Mle
Key
a Mex|mum e||owe||e red|str||ut|on
b lrect|ce| ||m|t
c lt |s recommended thet \/J |s ||m|ted to 04S0
|3S|
As e consequence ·/J |s ||m|ted to e m|n|mum o¦
0S?0 end / to 0]6S
Design for beam shear
Requirement for shear reinforcement
l¦ .
ld
> .
kd,c
then sheer re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
where
.
ld
\
ld
//
w
J, ¦or sect|ons w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement (|e s|e|s)
.
kd,c
sheer res|stence w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement, ¦rom ¹e||e C6
C5
C5.1
198
C5.2
Table C6
Shear resistance without shear reinforcement, o
Rd,c
(MPa)
r
l
= :
sl
/
[
w
]
Effective depth ] (mm)
G 200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750
< 0.25%
0S4 0S? 0S0 04S 04/ 04S 043 04] 040 03S 036
0.50%
0S9 0S/ 0S6 0SS 0S4 0S? 0S] 049 04S 04/ 04S
0.75%
06S 066 064 063 06? 0S9 0SS 0S6 0SS 0S3 0S]
1.00%
0/S 0/? 0/] 069 06S 06S 064 06? 06] 0S9 0S/
1.25%
0S0 0/S 0/6 0/4 0/3 0/] 069 06/ 066 063 06]
1.50%
0SS 0S3 0S] 0/9 0/S 0/S 0/3 0/] 0/0 06/ 06S
1.75%
090 0S/ 0SS 0S3 0S? 0/9 0// 0/S 0/3 0/] 06S
~ 2.00%
094 09] 0S9 0S/ 0SS 0S? 0S0 0/S 0// 0/4 0/]
Notes
1 ¹e||e der|ved ¦rom lurocode ? end 0l Net|one| Annex
2 ¹e||e creeted ¦or |
c|
30 Mle essum|ng vert|ce| ||n|s
3 lor r
|
~ 04% end
|
c|
?S Mle, eoo|v ¦ector o¦ 094 |
c|
40 Mle, eoo|v ¦ector o¦ ]]0 |
c|
S0 Mle, eoo|v ¦ector o¦ ]]9
|
c|
3S Mle, eoo|v ¦ector o¦ ]0S |
c|
4S Mle, eoo|v ¦ector o¦ ]]4 Not eoo||ce||e ¦or |
c|
> S0 Mle
Section capacity check
l¦ .
ld,.
> .
kd,mex
then sect|on s|.e |s |nedequete
where
.
ld,.
\
ld
//
w
· \
ld
//
w
09J, ¦or sect|ons u/|/ sheer re|n¦orcement
.
kd,mex
ceoec|tv o¦ concrete struts exoressed es e stress |n the vert|ce| o|ene
\
kd,mex
//
w
·
\
kd,mex
//
w
09J
.
kd,mex
cen |e determ|ned ¦rom ¹e||e C/, |n|t|e||v chec||ng et cot y ?S Shou|d |t |e requ|red,
e greeter res|stence mev |e essumed |v us|ng e |erger strut eng|e, y
Table C7
Capacity of concrete struts expressed as a stress, o
Rd,max
_
ck
o
Rd,max
(MPa) Strength
reduction
factor, v cot y 2.50 2.14 1.73 1.43 1.19 1.00
y 2.18° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45°
20
?S4 ?S? 3]9 346 36? 36S 0SS?
25
3]0 34S 390 4?3 443 4S0 0S40
30
364 404 4S/ 496 S?0 S?S 0S?S
35
4]S 46] S?] S66 S93 60? 0S]6
40
463 S]S SS? 63] 66? 6/? 0S04
45
S09 S6S 639 693 /?/ /3S 049?
50
SS? 6]3 693 /S? /SS S00 04S0
Notes
1 ¹e||e der|ved ¦rom lurocode ? end 0l Net|one| Annex essum|ng vert|ce| ||n|s, |e cot a 0
2 v 06|] ÷ (|
c|
/?S0)|
3 .
kd,mex
v|
cd
(cot y ÷ cot a)/(] ÷ cot
?
y)
199
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
C5.3 Shear reinforcement design
/
sw
/· ~ .
ld,.
/
w
/|
vwd
cot y
where
/
sw
eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement (vert|ce| ||n|s essumed)
· soec|ng o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
.
ld,.
\
ld
//
w
·, es |e¦ore
/
w
|reedth o¦ the we|
|
vwd
|
vw|
/g
S
des|gn v|e|d strength o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
Cenere||v /
sw
/· ~ .
ld,.
/
w
/]0S/
where |
vw|
S00 Mle, g
S
]]S end cot y ?S
A|ternet|ve|v, /
sw
/· oer metre w|dth o¦ /
w
mev |e determ|ned ¦rom l|gure C]e) or C]|) es
|nd|ceted |v the ||ue errows |n l|gure C]e) ¹hese ¦|gures mev e|so |e used to est|mete the
ve|ue o¦ cot y
beems ere su||ect to e m|n|mum sheer ||n| orov|s|on Assum|ng vert|ce| ||n|s,
/
sw,m|n
/·/
w
~ 00S |
c|
0S
/|
v|
(see ¹e||e CS)
Table C8
Values of :
sw,min
/l[
w
for beams for vertical links and _
yk
= 500 MPa and compatible resistance, o
Rd
Concrete class C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60
A
sw,min
/sb
w
for beams (x 10
3
) 0/? 0S0 0SS 09S ]0] ]0/ ]]3
v
Rd
for A
sw,min
/sb
w
(MPa) 0/S 0S/ 09S ]03 ]]0 ]]/ ]?3
4.0
3.0
2.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
0.0
1.0
2.14 1.73 1.43
1.19
1.00
See Fig. C1b)
A
sw
/s required per metre width of b
w
f
ywk
= 500 MPa
v
Rd,max
for cot y = 2.5
v
E
d
,
z

(
M
P
a
)
C30/37
C20/25
C25/30
C50/60
Figure C1a)
Diagram to determine :
sw
/l required (for beams with high shear stress)
200
C6 Design for punching shear
Leterm|ne |¦ ounch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |s requ|red, |n|t|e||v et a
]
, then |¦ necesserv et
su|sequent oer|meters, a
|
l¦ .
ld
> .
kd,c
then ounch|ng sheer re|n¦orcement |s requ|red
where
.
ld
b\
ld
/a
|
J
where
b ¦ector dee||ng w|th eccentr|c|tv
\
ld
eoo||ed sheer ¦orce
a
|
|ength o¦ the oer|meter under cons|deret|on
J meen e¦¦ect|ve deoth
.
kd,c
sheer res|stence w|thout sheer re|n¦orcement (see ¹e||e C6)
lor vert|ce| sheer re|n¦orcement
(/
sw

r
) a
]
(.
ld
÷ 0/S .
kd,c
)/(]S |
vwd,e¦
)
where
/
sw
eree o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement |n one oer|meter eround the co|umn
lor /
sw,m|n
see Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?, Sect|on ]04? end ¦or |evout see Sect|on ]?43
·
r
red|e| soec|ng o¦ oer|meters o¦ sheer re|n¦orcement
Concise: 10.4.2,
12.4.3
a
]
|es|c contro| oer|meter ?J ¦rom co|umn ¦ece
|
vwd,e¦
e¦¦ect|ve des|gn strength o¦ re|n¦orcement (?S0 ÷ 0?SJ) < |
vwd
lor Crede
S00 sheer re|n¦orcement see ¹e||e C9
Table C9
Values of _
ywd,ef
for grade 500 reinforcement
] 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
f
ywd,ef ?S/S 300 3]?S 3?S 33/S 3S0 36?S
At the co|umn oer|meter, chec| .
ld
≤ \
kdmex
¦or cot y ]0 g|ven |n ¹e||e C/
C20/25
C25/30
C30/37
C30/37
C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
C50/60
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0 1 2 3 4
f
ywk
= 500 MPa
A
sw,min
/s
for beams
Range of v
Rd,c
for range
d = 200 mm, r = 2.0%
to d = 750 mm, r = 0.5%
C
2
5
/3
0
A
sw
/s required per metre width of b
w
v
E
d
,
z

(
M
P
a
)
C20/25
Figure C1b)
Diagram to determine :
sw
/l required (for slabs and beams with low shear stress)
201
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
C7 Check deflection
ln genere|, the SlS stete o¦ de¦|ect|on mev |e chec|ed |v us|ng the soen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-deoth
eooroech More cr|t|ce| eoore|se| o¦ de¦ormet|on |s outs|de the scooe o¦ th|s ou|||cet|on ¹o use
the soen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-deoth eooroech, ver|¦v thet
A||owe||e //J / x / x l] x l? x l3 ~ ectue| //J
where
/ |es|c soen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-deoth ret|o der|ved ¦or / ]0 end r' 0 ¦rom Sect|on ]0S?
o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ? or ¹e||e C]0 or l|gure C?
Concise: 10.5.2
/ ¦ector to eccount ¦or structure| svstem See ¹e||e C]]
l] ¦ector to eccount ¦or ¦|enged sect|ons vhen /
e¦¦
//
w
]0, ¦ector l] ]0
vhen /
e¦¦
//
w
|s greeter then 30, ¦ector l] 0S0
lor ve|ues o¦ /
e¦¦
//
w
|etween ]0 end 30, |nteroo|et|on mev |e used (see ¹e||e C]?)
where
/
e¦¦
|s de¦|ned |n Sect|on S?? o¦ Conc/·e /a·ocoJe ?
/
w
w|dth o¦ we|
ln l |eems /
w
m|n|mum w|dth o¦ we| |n tens||e eree
ln teoered we|s /
w
w|dth o¦ we| et centro|d o¦ re|n¦orcement |n we|
Concise: 5.2.2
l? ¦ector to eccount ¦or |r|tt|e oert|t|ons |n essoc|et|on w|th |ong soens Cenere||v l?
]0 |ut |¦ |r|tt|e oert|t|ons ere ||e||e to |e demeged |v excess|ve de¦|ect|on, l?
shou|d |e determ|ned es ¦o||ows
e) |n ¦|et s|e|s |n wh|ch the |onger soen |s greeter then SS m, l? SS//
e¦¦
|) |n |eems end other s|e|s w|th soens |n excess o¦ /0 m, l? /0//
e¦¦
Ve|ues o¦ l? mev |e te|en ¦rom ¹e||e C]3
l3 ¦ector to eccount ¦or serv|ce stress |n tens||e re|n¦orcement 3]0/s
s
< ]S
Conservet|ve|v, |¦ e serv|ce stress, s
s
, o¦ 3]0 Mle |s essumed ¦or the des|gned eree
o¦ re|n¦orcement, /
s,req
then l3 /
s,orov
//
s,req
< ]S
More eccurete|v,

the serv|cee||||tv stress, s
s
, mev |e est|meted es ¦o||ows
s
s
|
v|
/g
S
|(O
|
÷ c
?
C
|
)/(]?SO
|
÷ ]SC
|
)| |/
s,req
//
s,orov
| (]/d)
or
s
s
s
su
|/
s,req
//
s,orov
| (]/d)
where
s
su
the unmod|¦|ed SlS stee| stress, te||ng eccount o¦ g
M
¦or
re|n¦orcement end o¦ go|ng ¦rom u|t|mete ect|ons to serv|cee||||tv
ect|ons
S00/g
S
(O
|
÷ c
?
C
|
)/(]?SO
|
÷ ]SC
|
)
s
su
mev |e est|meted ¦rom l|gure C3 es |nd|ceted |v the ||ue
errow
/
s,req
//
s,orov
eree o¦ stee| requ|red d|v|ded |v eree o¦ stee| orov|ded
(]/d) ¦ector to 'un-red|str||ute' 0lS moments so thev mev |e used |n
th|s SlS ver|¦|cet|on (see ¹e||e C]4)
Actue| //J ectue| soen d|v|ded |v e¦¦ect|ve deoth, J


See Aooend|x b]S
202
Table 7.4N
Table C10
Basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth, G, for members without axial compression
Required
reinforcement, r
_
ck
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.30% ?S9 3?? 39? 466 S46 630 /]S
0.40% ]9] ??4 ?6? 304 3S0 39S 4S0
0.50% ]/0 ]SS ?0S ?30 ?SS ?SS 3?0
0.60% ]60 ]/3 ]SS ]9S ?]3 ?3] ?S?
0.70% ]S3 ]64 ]/4 ]SS ]96 ?06 ?]/
0.80% ]4S ]S/ ]66 ]/6 ]SS ]94 ?04
0.90% ]43 ]S? ]60 ]6S ]// ]SS ]93
1.00% ]40 ]4S ]SS ]63 ]/0 ]/S ]SS
1.20% ]3S ]4] ]4S ]S4 ]60 ]66 ]/3
1.40% ]3] ]3/ ]4? ]4S ]S3 ]SS ]64
1.60% ]?9 ]33 ]3S ]43 ]4S ]S? ]S/
1.80% ]?/ ]3] ]3S ]39 ]43 ]4S ]S?
2.00% ]?S ]?9 ]33 ]36 ]40 ]44 ]4S
2.50% ]?? ]?S ]?S ]3] ]34 ]3/ ]40
3.00% ]?0 ]?3 ]?S ]?S ]30 ]33 ]3S
3.50% ]]9 ]?] ]?3 ]?S ]?/ ]?9 ]3]
4.00% ]]S ]]9 ]?] ]?3 ]?S ]?/ ]?9
4.50% ]]/ ]]S ]?0 ]?? ]?3 ]?S ]?/
5.00% ]]6 ]]S ]]9 ]?] ]?? ]?4 ]?S
Reference
reinforcement ratio, r
0
04S% 0S0% 0SS% 0S9% 063% 06/% 0/]%
Notes
1 vhere r /
s
//J
2 lor ¹-sect|ons r |s the eree o¦ re|n¦orcement d|v|ded |v the eree o¦ concrete e|ove the centro|d o¦
the tens|on re|n¦orcement
3 ¹he ve|ues ¦or soen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-deoth heve |een |esed on ¹e||e /4N |n lurocode ?, us|ng / ]
(s|mo|v suooorted) end r 0 (no comoress|on re|n¦orcement requ|red)
4 ¹he soen-to-e¦¦ect|ve-deoth ret|o shou|d |e |esed on the shorter soen |n two-wev soenn|ng s|e|s end
the |onger soen |n ¦|et s|e|s
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
32
12
0.40% 0.60% 0.80% 1.00% 1.20% 1.40% 1.60% 1.80% 2.00%
Design tension reinforcement (100A
s,req
/bd)
B
a
s
i
c

s
p
a
n
-
t
o
-
e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
-
d
e
p
t
h

r
a
t
i
o

N

(
l
/
d
)
f
ck
= 50
f
ck
= 45
f
ck
= 40
f
ck
= 35
f
ck
= 30
f
ck
= 25
f
ck
= 20
Figure C2
Basic span-to-effective depth ratios, G, for D = 1, r' = 0

203
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
Table C11
D factors to be applied to basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth
Structural system D
Beams Slabs
S|mo|v suooorted |eems One- or two-wev soenn|ng s|mo|v suooorted s|e|s ]0
lnd soen o¦ cont|nuous |eems lnd soen o¦ one-wev soenn|ng cont|nuous s|e|s, or
two-wev soenn|ng s|e|s cont|nuous over one |ong edge
]3
lnter|or soens o¦ cont|nuous |eems lnter|or soens o¦ cont|nuous s|e|s ]S
÷ l|et s|e|s (|esed on |onger soen) ]?
Cent||evers Cent||ever 04
Table C12
Factor F1, modifier for flanged beams
[
eff
/[
w
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 ~ 3.0
Factor
]00 09S 090 0SS 0S0

Table C13
Factor F2, modifier for long spans supporting brittle partitions
Span, m e
eff
< 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0
Flat slabs 8.5/e
eff
]00 ]00 ]00 ]00 094 0SS 0// 0/] 06S 06] 0S/ 0S3
Beams and other slabs 7.0/e
eff
]00 093 0SS 0S? 0/S 0/0 064 0SS 0S4 0S0 04/ 044
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
U
n
m
o
d
i
f
i
e
d

s
t
e
e
l

s
t
r
e
s
s

s
s
u
Ratio G
k
/Q
k
y
2
=
0
.6
, g
G
=
1
.2
5
y2

=

0
.3
,
g G

=

1
.2
5
y 2

=

0
.2
,
g G

=

1
.2
5
y
2
= 0.8, g
G
= 1.35
y
2
= 0.6, g
G
= 1.35
y
2
=
0
.3
, g
G
=
1
.3
5
y
2
= 0.2, g
G
= 1.35
Figure C3
Determination of unmodified SLS, stress in reinforcement, s
su
204
C8
Table C14
(1/d) factor to be applied to unmodified s
su
to allow for redistribution used
Average redistribution used
20% 15% 10% 5% 0% –5% –10% –15% –20% –25% –30%
Redistribution ratio used, d
1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70
(1/d) S3% S/% 9]% 9S% ]00% ]0S% ]]]% ]]S% ]?S% ]33% ]43%
Notes
1 vhere coe¦¦|c|ents ¦rom ¹e||e C? heve |een used |n des|gn end where C
|
&]?SO
|
, the coe¦¦|c|ents |n ¹e||e C? mev |e cons|dered to
reoresent moment d|str||ut|on o¦
÷S% neer m|dd|e o¦ end soen w|th o|nned end suooort
÷??% et ¦|rst |nter|or suooort, es e worst cese
÷3% neer m|dd|e o¦ |nterne| soens, es e worst cese
÷?S% et |nter|or suooorts, es e worst cese
2 vhere coe¦¦|c|ents ¦rom ¹e||e C3 heve |een used |n des|gn end where C
|
&O
|
, the coe¦¦|c|ents |n ¹e||e C3 mev |e cons|dered to reoresent
moment red|str||ut|on o¦
÷3% neer m|dd|e o¦ end soen w|th o|nned end suooort, es e worst cese
÷9% neer m|dd|e o¦ |nterne| soens, es e worst cese
÷]S% et e|| |nter|or suooorts
Control of cracking
Crec||ng mev |e contro||ed |v restr|ct|ng e|ther mex|mum |er d|emeter or mex|mum |er
soec|ng to the re|event d|emeters end soec|ngs g|ven |n ¹e||e C]S ¹he eooroor|ete SlS stress |n
re|n¦orcement, s
s
, mev |e determ|ned es out||ned ¦or l3 |n Sect|on C/
M|n|mum erees end esoects o¦ dete|||ng shou|d |e chec|ed
Table C15
Maximum bar diameters f or maximum bar spacing for crack control
Steel stress (MPa) s
s
Maximum bar size (mm)
OR
Maximum bar spacing (mm)
p
k
= 0.3 mm p
k
= 0.4 mm p
k
= 0.3 mm p
k
= 0.4 mm
160
3? 40 300 300
200
?S 3? ?S0 300
240
]6 ?0 ?00 ?S0
280
]? ]6 ]S0 ?00
320
]0 ]? ]00 ]S0
360
S ]0 S0 ]00
Notes
1 ¹he 'norme|' ||m|t o¦ 03 mm mev |e re|exed to 04 mm ¦or `O end `C] exoosure c|esses |¦ there |s
no soec|¦|c requ|rement ¦or eooeerence
2 ¹e||e essumot|ons |nc|ude c
nom
?S mm end |
ct,e¦¦
( |
ctm
) ?9 Mle

205
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
C9
C9.1
C9.2
Design for axial load and bending
General
ln co|umns, des|gn moments /
ld
end des|gn eoo||ed ex|e| ¦orce /
ld
shou|d |e der|ved ¦rom ene|vs|s,
cons|deret|on o¦ |moer¦ect|ons end, where necesserv, ?nd order e¦¦ects
lt |s necesserv to ce|cu|ete e¦¦ect|ve |engths |n order to determ|ne whether e co|umn |s s|ender
(see lurocode ?, C| SS3? end lxoress|on (S]S)) ¹he e¦¦ect|ve |ength o¦ most co|umns w||| |e
//?< /
0
< / (see lurocode ? l|gure S/¦) lL 66S/
|6|
C| ?]0 suggests thet us|ng the orocedure
out||ned |n lurocode ? (SS3?(3) end SS3?(S)) |eeds to s|m||er e¦¦ect|ve |engths to those
te|u|eted |n bS S]]0
|/|
es reoroduced |e|ow es ¹e||e C]6 lxoer|ence suggests thet these
te|u|eted ve|ues ere conservet|ve
Table C16
Effective length e
0
: conservative factors for braced columns
End condition
at top
End condition at bottom
1 2 3
1
0/S 0S0 090
2
0S0 0SS 09S
3
090 09S ]00
Key
Cond|t|on ] Co|umn connected mono||th|ce||v to |eems on eech s|de thet ere et |eest es deeo es the
overe|| deoth o¦ the co|umn |n the o|ene cons|dered
vhere the co|umn |s connected to e ¦oundet|on th|s shou|d |e des|gned to cerrv moment
|n order to set|s¦v th|s cond|t|on
Cond|t|on ? Co|umn connected mono||th|ce||v to |eems on eech s|de thet ere she||ower then the
overe|| deoth o¦ the co|umn |n the o|ene cons|dered |v genere||v not |ess then he|¦ the
co|umn deoth
Cond|t|on 3 Co|umn connected to mem|ers thet do not orov|de more then nom|ne| restre|nt to
rotet|on
Note
¹e||e te|en ¦rom /onao/ |o· |/e Je·/¡n o| conc·e|e /a//J/n¡ ·|·ac|a·e· |o /a·ocoJe ?
|3S|
¹he ve|ues ere
those used |n bS S]]0 lert ] ]99/
|/|
¦or |reced co|umns ¹hese ve|ues ere c|ose to those ve|ues thet
wou|d |e der|ved |¦ the contr||ut|on ¦rom ed|ecent co|umns were |gnored
Design by calculation
Assum|ng two |evers o¦ re|n¦orcement, /
s]
end /
s?
, the tote| eree o¦ stee| requ|red |n e co|umn,
/
s
, mev |e ce|cu|eted es shown |e|ow
lor ex|e| |oed N
/
sN
/? (/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
/g
C
)/(s
sc
÷ s
st
)
where
/
sN
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red to res|st ex|e| |oed us|ng th|s method
/
sN
/
s]
÷ /
s?
end /
s]
/
s?
where
/
s]
(/
s?
) eree o¦ re|n¦orcement |n |ever ] (|ever ?)
/
ld
des|gn eoo||ed ex|e| ¦orce
a
cc
0SS
n ] ¦or < CS0/60
/ |reedth o¦ sect|on
Concise:
Fig. 6.3
J
c
e¦¦ect|ve deoth o¦ concrete |n comoress|on l\ < /
Concise:
Fig. 6.4
206
C9.3

where
l 0S ¦or < CS0/60
\ deoth to neutre| ex|s
/ he|ght o¦ sect|on
s
sc
, (s
st
) stress |n comoress|on (end tens|on) re|n¦orcement
lor moment N
/
sM
/? |/
ld
÷ a
cc
n|
c|
/J
c
(//? ÷ J
c
/?)/g
C
|/|(//? ÷ J
?
)(s
sc
÷ s
st
)|
where
/
sM
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red to res|st moment us|ng th|s method
/
sM
/
s]
÷ /
s?
end /
s]
/
s?
vhere re|n¦orcement |s not concentreted |n the corners, e conservet|ve eooroech |s to ce|cu|ete
en e¦¦ect|ve ve|ue o¦ J
?
es |||ustreted |n l|gures C4e) to e)
So|ut|on |terete N \ such thet /
sN
/
sM
Rectangular column charts
A|ternet|ve|v /
s
mev |e est|meted ¦rom co|umn cherts
l|gures C4e) to C4e) g|ve non-d|mens|one| des|gn cherts ¦or svmmetr|ce||v re|n¦orced rectengu|er
co|umns where re|n¦orcement |s essumed to |e concentreted |n the corners
ln these cherts
a
cc
0SS
|
c|
< S0 Mle
|
v|
< S00 Mle
S|mo||¦|ed stress ||oc| essumed
/
s
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red
(/
s
|
v|
///|
c|
)//|
c|
/|
v|
where
(/
s
|
v|
///|
c|
) |s der|ved ¦rom the eooroor|ete des|gn chert |nteroo|et|ng es necesserv
|etween cherts ¦or the ve|ue o¦ J
?
// ¦or the sect|on
/ |reedth o¦ sect|on
/ he|ght o¦ sect|on
vhere re|n¦orcement |s not concentreted |n the corners, e conservet|ve eooroech |s to ce|cu|ete
en e¦¦ect|ve ve|ue o¦ J
?
es |||ustreted |n l|gures C4e) to e)
J
?
e¦¦ect|ve deoth to stee| |n |ever ?
207
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
Centroid of bars in
half section
d
2
/h = 0.05
Figure C4a)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.05
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
K
r
= 1
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.10
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4b)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.10
208
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
K
r
= 1
K
t
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.15
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4c)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.15
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
K
r
= 1
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.20
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4d)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.20
209
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
C9.4
C9.5
C9.6
Biaxial bending in rectangular columns
As e ¦|rst steo, seoerete des|gn |n eech or|nc|oe| d|rect|on, d|sregerd|ng ||ex|e| |end|ng, mev |e
underte|en No ¦urther chec| |s necesserv |¦ 0S < l
v
/l
.
< ?0 end, ¦or rectengu|er sect|ons, 0?
~ (e
v
//
eq
)/(e
.
//
eq
) or (e
v
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.
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lor squere co|umns (e
v
//
eq
)/(e
.
//
eq
) /
ldv
//
ld.

Concise: 5.6.3
Circular column charts
ln e s|m||er menner to C93, the eree o¦ re|n¦orcement ¦or c|rcu|er co|umns /
s
mev |e est|meted
¦rom the cherts |n l|gures CSe) to CSd)
ln these cherts
a
cc
0SS
|
c|
< S0 Mle
|
v|
S00 Mle
/
s
tote| eree o¦ re|n¦orcement requ|red
(/
s
|
v|
//
?
|
c|
)/
?
|
c|
/|
v|
where (/
s
|
v|
//
?
|
c|
) |s der|ved ¦rom the eooroor|ete des|gn chert |nteroo|et|ng es necesserv
J// e¦¦ect|ve deoth/overe|| d|emeter
Links
l|n|s |n co|umns shou|d |e et |eest S mm or mex|mum d|emeter o¦ |ong|tud|ne| |ers/4 |n
d|emeter end ed|ecent to |eems end s|e|s soeced et the |eest o¦
]? t|mes the m|n|mum d|emeter o¦ the |ong|tud|ne| |er, N
60% o¦ the |esser d|mens|on o¦ the co|umn, or N
?40 mm N
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
K
r
= 1
K
r
= 0.2
N
E
d
/
b
h
f
c
k
M
Ed
/bh
2
f
ck
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
A
s
f y
k
/
b
h
f c
k
h/2
h
d
2
d
2
/h = 0.25
Centroid of bars in
half section
Figure C4e)
Rectangular columns ]
2
/a = 0.25
210
K
r
=1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
0.9
d
h
Ratio d/h = 0.6
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2 f c
k
Figure C5a)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.6
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
0.10
0.12
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
d
h
Ratio d/h = 0.7
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
K
r
=1
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f c
k
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f c
k
Figure C5b)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.7
211
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds
d
h
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Ratio d/h = 0.8
K
r
=1
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f
c
k
Figure C5c)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.8
d
h
0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30

0.7
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
Ratio d/h = 0.9
K
r
=1
N
E
d
/
h
2
f
c
k
M
Ed
/h
3
f
ck
A
s
f y
k
/
h
2
f c
k
Figure C5d)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.9
212
Eurocode 2 resources
Publications
Concise Eurocode 2
CCll-00S, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
A hend|oo| ¦or the des|gn o¦ |n-s|tu concrete |u||d|ngs to lurocode ? end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2
CCll-004, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
Cu|dence ¦or the des|gn end dete|||ng o¦ e |roed renge o¦ concrete e|ements to lurocode ?
Economic concrete frame elements to Eurocode 2
CCll-0?S, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?009
A se|ect|on o¦ re|n¦orced concrete ¦reme e|ements |n mu|t|-storev |u||d|ngs
Precast Eurocode 2: Design manual
CCll-0]4, br|t|sh lrecest Concrete lederet|on, ?00S
A hend|oo| ¦or the des|gn o¦ orecest concrete |u||d|ng structures to lurocode ? end |ts Net|one| Annex
Precast Eurocode 2: Worked examples
CCll-034, br|t|sh lrecest Concrete lederet|on, ?00S
vor|ed exemo|es ¦or the des|gn o¦ orecest concrete |u||d|ngs to lurocode ? end |ts Net|one| Annex
Concrete buildings scheme design manual
CCll-0S], ¹he Concrete Centre ?009
A hend|oo| ¦or the lSructl chertered mem|ersh|o exem|net|on, |esed on lC?
Properties of concrete for use in Eurocode 2
CCll-0?9, ¹he Concrete Centre, ?00S
low to oot|m|.e the eng|neer|ng orooert|es o¦ concrete |n des|gn to lurocode ?
Standard method of detailing structural concrete
lnst|tut|on o¦ Structure| lng|neers/ ¹he Concrete Soc|etv, ?006
A menue| ¦or |est orect|ce
Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2
lnst|tut|on o¦ Structure| lng|neers, ?006
A menue| ¦or the des|gn o¦ concrete |u||d|ngs to lurocode ? end |ts Net|one| Annex
BS EN 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1: Design of concrete structures –
General rules and rules for buildings
br|t|sh Stenderds lnst|tut|on, ?004
National Annex to Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1
br|t|sh Stenderds lnst|tut|on, ?00S
Software
RC spreadsheets: V3. User guide and CD
CCll-00S ¹he Concrete Centre, ?006
lxce| soreedsheets ¦or des|gn to bS S]]0 end lurocode ? end |ts 0l Net|one| Annex
Websites
Eurocode 2 – www.eurocode2.info
Eurocodes Expert – www.eurocodes.co.uk
The Concrete Centre – www.concretecentre.com
Institution of Structural Engineers – www.istructe.org
3
Mombors of tho Stooring Croup
}ohn Meson A|en bexter 8 Assoc|etes (Che|rmen)
Stuert A|exender vSl Crouo o|c
le| Chene M|nere| lroducts Assoc|et|on ÷ Cement
Cher|es Coodch||d ¹he Concrete Centre
¹onv }ones Aruo
Andv lv|e NkM Consu|tents
k|cherd Moss lowe|| ¹o|ner Assoc|etes
Nerv Nerevenen C|er| Sm|th lertnersh|o
k|cherd Sh|omen LClC
ko|ert Vo||um lmoer|e| Co||ege, 0n|vers|tv o¦ london
kuss vo|stenho|me vS At||ns 8 L¹l lro|ect O¦ucer
kod ve|ster Concrete lnnovet|on end Les|gn
Mombors of tho Concroto |ndustry £urocodo 2 Croup {C|£C)
}ohn Moore Consu|tent (Che|rmen)
C||ve budge br|t|sh lrecest Concrete lederet|on
le| Chene M|nere| lroducts Assoc|et|on ÷ Cement
}ohn C|er|e ¹he Concrete Soc|etv
Co||n C|ever|v Construct
Cher|es Coodch||d ¹he Concrete Centre
le|g Cu|veness|en bkl
Ceo¦¦ lerd|ng LClC
¹om lerr|son M|nere| lroducts Assoc|et|on ÷ Concrete
¹onv }ones Aruo
}ohn Meson A|en bexter 8 Assoc|etes
k|cherd Moss lowe|| ¹o|ner Assoc|etes
Nerv Nerevenen C|er| Sm|th lertnersh|o
k|cherd Sh|omen LClC
Mert|n Southcott Consu|tent
kuss vo|stenho|me vS At||ns
kod ve|ster Concrete lnnovet|on end Les|gn
|nitia| soction drafts
] lntroduct|on Nerv Nerevenen
? Ane|vs|s, ect|ons end |oed errengements Nerv Nerevenen
3 S|e|s Cher|es Coodch||d
4 beems Cher|es Coodch||d, kod ve|ster
S Co|umns ¹onv }ones, }ens ¹end|er
6 ve||s ¹onv }ones, }ens ¹end|er
Aooend|x A Ler|vet|on o¦ ¦ormu|ee Cher|es Coodch||d, kod ve|ster, Owen broo|er
Aooend|x b Serv|cee||||tv ||m|t stete Cher|es Coodch||d, Nerv Nerevenen
Aooend|x C Les|gn e|ds Cher|es Coodch||d, kod ve|ster
4
workod £xamp|os to £urocodo 2: Vo|umo 1
1his pub|ication givos oxamp|os of tho dosign to
£urocodo 2 of common roinforcod concroto o|omonts
in roinforcod concroto framod bui|dings.
v|th extens|ve c|euse re¦erenc|ng, reeders ere gu|ded
through des|gn exemo|es to lurocode ? end other re|event
lurocodes end re¦erences ¹he ou|||cet|on, wh|ch |nc|udes
des|gn e|ds, e|ms to he|o des|gners w|th the trens|t|on to
des|gn to lurocodes
\o/ame ' wo·/eJ /\omo/e· |o /a·ocoJe ? |s oert o¦ e renge
o¦ resources eve||e||e ¦rom ¹he Concrete Centre to ess|st
eng|neers w|th des|gn to lurocodes lor more |n¦ormet|on
v|s|t www.ourocodo2.info
Char|os Coodchi|d |s or|nc|oe| structure| eng|neer
¦or ¹he Concrete Centre where he oromotes e¦uc|ent
concrete des|gn end construct|on bes|des oro|ect
meneg|ng end euthor|ng th|s ou|||cet|on he hes
underte|en menv oro|ects to he|o w|th the |ntroduct|on
o¦ lurocode ? to the 0l
CCll-04]
lu|||shed Lecem|er ?009
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© MlA ÷ ¹he Concrete Centre
k|vers|de louse, 4 Meedows bus|ness ler|,
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¹e| ÷44( (0)]?6 606S00 lex ÷44 (0)]?/6 606S0]
wwwconcretecentrecom

The introduction of European standards to UK construction is a significant event as, for the first time, all design and construction codes within the EU will be harmonised. The ten design standards, known as the Eurocodes, will affect all design and construction activities as all current British Standards for structural design are due to be withdrawn in 2010. The cement and concrete industry recognised the need to enable UK design professionals to use Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, quickly, effectively, efficiently and with confidence. Supported by government, consultants and relevant industry bodies, the Concrete Industry Eurocode 2 Group (CIEG) was formed in 1999 and this Group has provided the guidance for a coordinated and collaborative approach to the introduction of Eurocode 2. As a result, a range of resources are being delivered by the concrete sector (see www.eurocode2.info). The aim of this publication, Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1 is to distil from Eurocode 2, other Eurocodes and other sources the material that is commonly used in the design of concrete framed buildings. These worked examples are published in two parts. Volume 2 will include chapters on Foundations, Serviceability, Fire and Retaining walls.

The original ideas for this publication emanates from the research project `Eurocode 2: Transition from UK to European concrete design standards’, which was led by the BCA and part funded by the DTI under their PII scheme and was overseen by a Steering Group and the CIEG. The work has been brought to fruition by The Concrete Centre from early initial drafts by various authors listed on the inside back cover. The concrete industry acknowledges and appreciates the support given by many individuals, companies and organisations in the preparation of this document. These are listed on the inside back cover. We gratefully acknowledge the authors of the initial drafts and the help and advice given by Robin Whittle in checking the text. Thanks are also due to Gillian Bond, Kevin Smith, Sally Huish and the design team at Michael Burbridge Ltd for their work on the production.
The copyright of British Standards extracts reproduced in this document is held by the British Standards Institution (BSI). Permission to reproduce extracts from British Standards is granted by BSI under the terms of Licence No: 2009RM010. No other use of this material is permitted. This publication is not intended to be a replacement for the standard and may not reflect the most up-to-date status of the standard. British Standards can be obtained in PDF or hard copy formats from the BSI online shop: http://shop.bsigroup.com or by contacting BSI Customer Services for hard copies only: Tel:+44 (0)20 8996 9001, Email: cservices@bsigroup.com.

All advice or information from MPA - The Concrete Centre is intended only for use in the UK by those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by MPA - The Concrete Centre or its subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Readers should note that the publications from MPA - The Concrete Centre are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version. Printed by Michael Burbridge Ltd, Maidenhead, UK.

2

i

Symbols and abbreviations used in this publication
Symbol Definition

l

ii

Symbol Definition D I D iii .

Symbol Definition a g I I f iv .

Symbol Definition v .

Symbol Definition vi .

Symbol Definition a a a a a a a a a a a b b g g g g g g g g g d e e e e e e n n n y y l l l l m m m m v j r r r e g g a vii .

Symbol r r r r r s s s s s s s h h f c c c c w Definition viii .

Eurocode2 .info DESIGN GUIDES WORKED EXAMPLES TO EUROCODE 2 VOL 1 NA BS EN 1992–1–1 1–2 NA NA DESIGN OF –2 CONCRETE –3 STRUCTURES General Fire Bridges Liquid retaining PD6687 NA RC SPREAD SHEETS BS EN 13670 EXECUTION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES PRECAST DESIGN MANUAL PRECAST WORKED EXAMPLES 1 .Introduction Aim STANDARDS WORKED EXAMPLES NA CONCRETE INDUSTRY PUBLICATIONS PUBLICATIONS BY OTHERS BS EN 1990 BASIS OF DESIGN CONCISE EUROCODE 2 MANUALS VOL 2 NA BS EN 1991–2 NA BS EN 1991–1–1 –2 NA NA –3 NA ACTIONS –4 NA –6 Densities and imposed loads Fire Snow Wind Execution HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES DETAILERS HANDBOOK www.

4.2 EC1-1-1: 6.4 & NA Fig.4 Worked examples Cl. 6.4.4.3 PD 6687[6] Concise How to: Floors [8] Grey shaded tables 2 .3 PD 6687[6] Concise How to: Floors[8] NA Cl.Sections 1 and 2 Cl.1 Section 5. 6.2 EC1-1-1: 6.4.4 NA Cl.1 Section 5. 2. 2.4 & NA Fig. 6. 6.4.4.

serviceability and durability Actions on structures BS EN 1992. Eurocode 4: Composite BS EN 1995. Eurocode 8: Seismic design Geotechnical and seismic design EC0: 2. Eurocode 2: Concrete BS EN 1993. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Structural safety. Eurocode 9: Aluminium BS EN 1997.Eurocode: Basis of structural design BS EN 1990. Eurocode 5: Timber BS EN 1996. Eurocode: Basis of structural design BS EN 1991.1 3 . Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design Design and detailing BS EN 1998. Eurocode 3: Steel BS EN 1994. Eurocode 6: Masonry BS EN 1999.

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures BS EN 1990 EUROCODE Basis of Structural Design BS EN 1997 EUROCODE 7 Geotechnical Design BS EN 1991 EUROCODE 1 Basis of Structural Design BS EN 1998 EUROCODE 8 Seismic Design BS EN 206 Concrete BS 8500 Specifying Concrete BS EN 1992 EUROCODE 2 Design of concrete structures Part 1–1: General Rules for Structures Part 1–2: Structural Fire Design BS 4449 Reinforcing Steels BS EN 13670 Execution of Structures BS EN 10080 Reinforcing Steels BS EN 1995 EUROCODE 5 Design of Composite Structures BS EN 1992 EUROCODE 2 Part 2: Bridges BS EN 1992 EUROCODE 2 Part 3: Liquid Retaining Structures BS EN 13369 Precast Concrete 4 .

National Annexes Basis of the worked examples in this publication 5 .

3 PD 6687[6] The worked examples EC0: Table 2.21] Material properties g g Table 2.1 Building Regs[20. BS 8500: Table A.1.Assumptions Eurocode 2 Cl. 1.1 BS 4449 Table 4.1 & NA g ULS – persistent and transient Accidental – non-fire Accidental – fire SLS g Execution 6 .1 Table 3.

4(1) Actions EC1-1-1: 2.1. 5.Analysis.3.1 Cl. actions and load arrangements Methods of analysis ULS Cl.5.4 & NA d Cl.2 SLS Cl.1.6. 5.1(7) Cl.1(2) EC1-1-7 Characteristic values of actions EC0: 4.2 7 .2. 3. 5.1 EC1-1-1: 2.1. 5. 5.

7.3 B1 8 B2 . 6.9 & NA A B C D E F G H I K 1 2 Characteristic values of imposed loads EC1-1-1: Tables 6. 6.1.2 & NA.2 & NA.3 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 a b c EC1-1-1: Tables 6. 6.1.1.Variable actions: imposed loads General EC1-1-1: Tables 6. 6.

1.3 C11 C12 C13 C21 C22 C31 b a C32 b C33 C34 C35 C36 C37 C38 C39 C41 C42 C51 C52 d c c c d d.EC1-1-1: Tables 6.e d a b c d e 9 .2 & NA. 6.

4 & NA.5 E11 E12 E13 E14 E15 E16 E17 E18 E19 a 10 . NA.2 & NA.3 D1 D2 EC1-1-1: Tables 6.4.EC1-1-1: Tables 6. 6.3. 6.1.

3.3.7 a a a f 1 EC1-1-1: 6.1.11 & NA.1) 11 .1(2).1.2 (10) 6.9.3. 6.4 & NA 2 Movable partitions EC1-1-1: 6.3. (NA.1. 6.2 (10) & NA Exp.4.3.EC1-1-1: 6.1.10. Tables 6.3.2(11) & NA Area a a EC1-1-1: 6.2 (8) & NA Reduction factors General EC1-1-1: 6.

2 (11) & NA Exp.2(3) m m m m a m m m m a a m m EC1-1-3: 5.2(8) EC1-1-3: & NA 2.1. ( NA.2 (11) & NA Use a a Variable actions: snow loads EC1-1-3: 5.EC1-1-1: 6.3.1.8 12 .3.1.2) Number of storeys a a a a EC1-1-1: 6.1 EC1-1-3: 5.2(7) &Table 5. 5.3.3.2 & NA EC1-1-3: 5.

s.8 EC1-1-4: Fig.l. Zone 1 = 0. Zone 1 = 0. NA.s.l. Zone 1 = 0.70 kN/m2 at 100 m a.25 kN/m2 at 100 m a.50 kN/m2 at 100 m a.m.m.1 13 .l.s.l.l.1 1 2 1 2 4 2 3 4 2 1 2 1 3 Variable actions: wind loads EC1-1-4: Figs NA.s. 3 2 1 3 2 3 4 2 4 4 2 4 2 4 3 EC1-1-3: NA Fig.60 kN/m2 at 100 m a.s.m.m.m.7.40 kN/m2 at 100 m a. NA. Zone 1 = 0.5 4 5 55 1 2 3 4 5 Zone 1 = 0. NA.

18 r Calculate peak wind pressure.2 EC1-1-4: 4. NA.2(1) Note 2 & NA 2. qb r EC1-1-4: 4.17: Fig.17 EC1-1-4: 4.5(1) Note 1 & NA 2.5 EC1-1-4: 4.7 EC1-1-4: 4. NA 2. qp(z) EC1-1-4: 4.5(1) Note 1 & NA 2.8 EC1-1-4: 4.1 EC1-1-4: 4. NA.17 & Fig.5 Calculate basic wind pressure.4.2.2(2) Note 1 & NA 2. vb EC1-1-4: 4.5(1) Note 1.4: Fig. Note & NA 2. NA.2(1).2(1) Notes 4 & 5 & NA 2.8 EC1-1-4: 7.7: Fig. NA.Determine basic wind velocity.17: Fig.5(1) Note 1 & NA 2.1 EC1-1-4: 4.5(1) Note 2 & NA 2. A.NA.2(1) Note 2 & NA 2. 2.2(2) Note 3 & NA 2.26 14 .

2(2) Note 1 & NA. NA.2.8 2.1(1) Note 2 & NA.2.1 EC1-1-4: 4.0 25 23 22 0.1 1. Table NA.7 24 0.7 EC1-1-4: 4.5 1 10 ≥100 Distance upwind to shoreline (km) 2.8 Calculate characteristic wind load.17: Fig.0 1 10 ≥20 Distance inside town terrain (km) EC1-1-4: 4.5(1) Note 1 & NA 2. 2. wk EC1-1-4: 7.200 31 30 29 28 27 26 200 Use 1.4: Fig.9 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ≤0.17: Fig.2.5 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ≤0.27.2.5(1) Note 1 & NA 2.2(2) Note 1 & NA.2(2) Note 1 & NA.0 3.27 15 .4 Cladding loads EC1-1-4: 7.2(1) Note 2 & NA 2.0 in this area 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 z -hdis(m) 20 4.27 EC1-1-4: 7. 8 & NA EC1-1-4: 7. NA.1 0.5 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 z -hdis(m) 10 20 3.2.25 Overall loads EC1-1-4: 7.2.2. NA.

2.25 EC1-1-4: 7. Table NA.2.2.EC1-1-4: 7.2 & NA Zone F Zone G Zone H Zone I 16 . Note 1 & NA 2. NA.4a .2.2.9(6) Note 2 EC1-1-4: NA 2. Table 7.3.28 & NA advisory note BS 6399: Table 8 & Fig.4 Flat roofs 5 1 0.2.27. 18 EC1-1-4: NA. NA.28 & NA advisory note EC1-1-4: 7.1.4b Zone A Zone B Zone C Zone D Zone E Zones D and E EC1-1-4: 7.27: Tables NA.2(2) Table 7.

2.20.3.28 & NA advisory note. Exp.20: Fig. Exp. EC1-1-5. (5. Fw S EC1-1-4: 5.2.2(1) c) EC1-1-4: 6. 18 Zone A Zone B Zone C Zone D Calculate the overall wind force. 6. EC1-1-2.EC1-1-4: 7.2(1) e) & NA.20 EC1-1-4: 6.4) & NA Variable actions: others EC1-1-6. Exp.4) & NA EC1-1-4: 6.3(1).2. EC1-2.2) & NA. NA9 EC1-1-4: 5. BS 6399: Table 8 & Fig. NA.2.2.2(1) a). Exp.3.3) & NA.3. (6. Table NA3 d EC1-1-4: 6. (5. EC1-3 & EC1-4 17 .2.2. (6.3(1).

Permanent actions 18 .

: 19 .

20 .

4 & NA c Either c or the worst case of c and c Worst case of and c c c c c c c c c c 21 . A1. A1.2(B).Design values of actions General case gc g c c c c c g EC0: Tables A1.2(C).2(A). A1.

Design values at ULS EC0: 6.2(3) Single variable action c c c EC0: A1.2. residential areas Category B: office areas Category C: congregation areas Category D: shopping areas Category E: storage areas Category F: traffic area (vehicle weight Category H: roofs Snow loads where altitude Wind loads Temperature effects (non-fire) a 1 2 1000 m a.l.3.2 & NA Category A: domestic.3.2 c c c g g g g g c 22 .m. 30 kN) 160 kN) Category G: traffic area (30 kN < vehicle weight EC1-1-1: 3.4.s.

3.2(3) Sc c Sc Sc c c c c EC0: A1.2. A1. (6.1 & NA c qk2 gk2 qk1 gk1 qk1 gk1 qk1 gk1 qk1 gk1 A B C qk3 = wk 23 .4.10a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 q k kN/m (or kN/m2) Accompanying variable actions EC0: 6.10b) c Use Exp. (6.2.50 40 gk kN/m (or kN/m2) 30 20 10 0 Use Exp.3.

4 Combination Permanent actions Gk Unfavourablea Characteristic Frequent Quasi-permanent a b c c c Favourablea Variable actions Qk Leadingb Othersb c c c Design values for other limit states 24 .5 & Table A1.4 c c c c c c EC0: Table A1.c c c Design values at SLS EC0: 6.

6.3 (4) g g Load arrangements of actions: introduction EC0: 3.5 Load arrangements according to the UK National Annex to Eurocode Cl.4.4 g g EC0: 6.1.3 & NA g g g g g g g g g g g g g 25 . 5.Variations in permanent actions EC0: 4.4.1. 3.8.2. 6.2 (3) PD 6687[6]: 2.4.2 EC0: 3.1.3. 4.

g g g g g g g a) Alternate spans loaded b) Adjacent spans loaded c) All spans loaded 26 .

3 = 78.0 = In this case Exp.80 x 0.Examples of loading chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Continuous beam in a domestic structure 2.5 or by determining that gk > 4.10b): n = 1.10b) Exp.0 E/o self-weight downstand 800 × 225 : 0.0 = 10. n Assuming use of Exp.40 × 4.35 × 51 + 1.0 Dividing wall 2.50 x 6.0 Total kN/m = 26.1 Continuous beam in a domestic structure web TCC Determine the appropriate load combination and ultimate load for a continuous beam of four 6 m spans in a domestic structure supporting a 175 mm slab at 6 m centres.0 = Exp.10a): n = 1.7 × 1.10a) or Exp. (6.3 ‡ This could also be determined from Figure 2.35 × 51 + 0.5 × 9. qk Imposed.3 = 4. (6.05 x 22 x 6.42 (200 mm dense blockwork with plaster both sides) Total gk Variable action. (6.8 Continuous beam in a domestic structure a) Actions Permanent action. 175 mm thick slabs : 0. gk Self-weight. dwelling @ 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 kN/m2 : 1.4 = 78.5 × 9.5 = 6.17 x 25 x 6.5 x 6.6 = 3.0 = qk = Ultimate load. (6.225 x 25 50 mm screed @ 22 kN/m3 : 0. n = 1.6 = 51.0 9.10a) would be critical‡ ultimate load = 82.12.0 9.5qk 27 . (6.5 × 9. qk gk A 6000 mm B 6000 mm C 6000 mm D 6000 mm E Figure 2.10).3 = 77. (6.0 Finishes and services : 0.0 = Assuming use of worst case of Exp.

10a): n = 1. (6.5 or by determining that g > 4. (6.5 × 0.chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Continuous beam in mixed use structure 2.10).12. (6.10a) or Exp.7 × 24.0 Exp.1. EC0: A.35 × 51 + 1.7 × 1.1 Variable action Office @ 2. The unit loads to be used in the various arrangements are: ‡ This could also be determined from Figure 2. i) Actions Permanent action As before.3 = 94. (6.10b) will be used. n For office use: Exp.1 & NA.25 × 51 + 1.: qk1 = 15 kN/m qk2 = 24 kN/m gk = 51 kN/m A 6000 mm B 6000 mm C 6000 mm D 6000 mm E EC1-1-1: 6.0 = 15.2.10a): n = 1. & NA Office use @ 2.5 kN/m2 Shopping @ 4.0 By inspection Exp.5 × 24. (6.7 Figure 2.2.8 b) Arrangement of ultimate loads As the variable actions arise from different sources.5 kN/m2 c0 = 0. It is necessary to decide which expression governs. (6.0 = 24.10b): n = 1.9 Continuous beam in mixed-use structure a) Load combination Load combination Exp.0 kN/m2 Ultimate load.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 15.10b): n = 1.12.5q k k 28 .2 Continuous beam in mixed use structure web TCC Determine the worst case arrangements of actions for ULS design of a continuous beam supporting a 175 mm slab @ 6 m centres.7 Shopping use @ 4.5 × 15. as either will produce a smaller total load than Exp.1 = 99.3. Note that the variable actions are from two sources as defined in Figure 2.0 = 84. (6.35 × 51 + 0.0 Exp. (6.9. one is a leading variable action and the other is an accompanying variable action. Example 2.0 For shopping use: Exp.10b) governs in both cases‡ kN/m gk qk1 qk2 = 51.6 = 86.1.0 kN/m2 c0 = 0.

2 kN/m gG g k = 63.7 × 1.11 For maximum bending moment in span CD p 29 . but now the variable load in span AB takes its value as an accompanying action (i. Leading variable action gQ q k1 = 22.75 = 36. gQQk = 1.8 kN/m A B C D E Figure 2.7 × 1.0 = 25.2 The arrangement and magnitude of actions of loads are shown in Figure 2.0 kN/m Permanent action gG.5 = 15.8 kN/m A B C D E Figure 2.10.8 = 22.5 × 24 ii) For maximum bending moment in span AB kN/m = 63. The variable load in span AB assumes the value as leading action and that in span CD takes the value as an accompanying action.10 For maximum bending moment in span AB p iii) For maximum bending moment in span CD The load arrangement is similar to that in Figure 2. 15.75 kN/m) and that in span CD assumes the value as leading action (36 kN/m). Accompanying variable action c Qg Q q k1 = 15.5 × 15 Shopping use as leading action.8 kN/m Leading variable action g Qq k2 = 36.e.i) Actions Permanent 1.0 Variable Office use as leading action. c0gQQk = 0.25 × 51.10.5 kN/m Accompanying Permanent variable action action c Q g Q q k2 = 25. c0gQQk = 0.inf g k = 63. gQQk = 1.5 × 15 as accompanying action.5 × 24 as accompanying action.

Leading variable action gQ q k1 = 22.inf (as f per Table 2. pp (m EC1-1-1: 6.0 kN/m Permanent action n gG. As both spans AB and BC receive load from the same source. aA = 1. As illustrated in Figure 2. spans Cl. g ).0 – A/1000 ≥ 0.4.12 For maximum bending moment at support B pp v) For maximum bending moment at support D The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2. according to the A area supported ( 2).14. Leading variable action gQ q k2 = 36 kN/m Permanent action gG g k = 63.3.sup or gG. Comments made in d) also apply here. Accompanying p variable action c 0gQ q k1 = 15.16).3(2) ‡ Variable actions may be subjected to reduction factors: a . 2.75.0 might be critical for f curtailment and hogging in spans.13.1.14.3.1.8 kN/m EC1-1-1: 6.8 kN/m A B C D E Figure 2.inf = 1.iv) For maximum bending moment at support B The arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.12.8 kN/m Leading variable action g Q q k2 = 36.in f g k = 51 kN/m m D E A B C Figure 2.2 (10) & NA 30 .5 kN/m Permanent action gG g k = 63. no reduction is possible ( (other than that for large area‡).13 For maximum bending moment at support D pp vi) For critical curtailment and hogging in span CD The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.14 For curtailment and hogging in span CD p Eurocode 2 requires that all spans should be loaded with either gG. using gG.1 (10) & NA A B C D E Figure 2.

1 (4).1. A1.15.1gk B p b) Ultimate limit state (ULS) i) For maximum moment at B and anchorage of top reinforcement BA gGk.inf need to be considered.inf gk = 1. 31 . Table A1.3.3 Propped cantilever Determine the Equilibrium.5qk gGk.2 (A) & NA a) Equilibrium limit state (EQU) for maximum uplift at A 0.0 gk may be critical in terms of curtailment of top bars BA. The action P at the end of the cantilever arises from the permanent action of a wall.35P C A B EC0: Tables A1. ULS and SLS (deformation) load combinations for the propped cantilever shown in Figure 2.chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Propped cantilever web TCC 2.2(B).12.sup gk= 1.1P C gGk.2 (A) & NA EC0: 6.35gk gQ qk= 1.sup gk= 1.15 Propped cantilever beam and loading pp For the purposes of this example.4. gk qk P EC0: Table 1.2 (B) & NA Figure 2.sup P= 1.sup and gG.9gk A 1.sup P= 1. the permanent action P is considered to be from a separate source than the self-weight of the structure so both gG.17 ULS: maximum moment at B Notes gGk. EC0: Table A1. Note 3 C A B Figure 2.0qk = 0 gGinf gk= 0.5qk gGk.

2. For column B the critical load combination might be either as Figure 2.18 ULS: maximum span moment AB p Notes 1 Depending on the magnitude of gk.0c2qk= 0.0c2qk= 0.0P B Figure 2.0gk C A * Assuming office area 1.inf gk (= 1. c) Serviceability limit state (SLS) of deformation: (quasi-permanent loads) i) For maximum deformation at C 1. 2 The magnitude of the load combination indicated are those for Exp.35gk C A B gGk.2 (B) & NA Figure 2.1P P EC0: Table A1.20 may be used to determine SLS moment to determine stress in reinforcement. A1. 32 .sup gk= 1.20 SLS: maximum deformation AB Notes Quasi-permanent load combinations may also be used for calculations of crack widths or controlling cracking.ii) For maximum sagging moment AB gQqk= 1.e.0gk 1.1. (6.10a) and Exp.18. (6.5qk gGk.10b) may also have been used.3*qk c 1.19 SLS: maximum deformation at C ii) For maximum deformation AB 1. A1.10) of BS EN 1990.19 and 2. A1. The worst case of Exp. the same load combinations as shown in Figures 2. i.1.17 or 2. qk length AB and BC.2.3*qk c 1.sup P= 1. gGk.18.0P C A *Assuming office area B EC0: Tables A1. 3 Presuming supports A and B were columns then the critical load combination for Column A would be as Figure 2. it is recommended that the frequent combination is used to determine whether a member has cracked or not. (6. The characteristic and/or frequent combinations may be appropriate for other SLS limit states: for example.0 gk) may be more critical for span moment.4 & NA Figure 2.

16 & 2.17 for values of c0 33 .supgk1 = 1. unfavourable = gGk.5qk3 k3 Permanent action.9gk2 P Permanent action.1gk3 b A B Figure 2.12. favourable 0. unfavourable = gGk.75 wk Lead variable action = gQk qk2 = 1. Assume that the structure is an office block and that the loads qk2 and qk3 may be treated as arising from one source. favourable 0.4 Overall stability (EQU) For the frame shown in Figure 2.supgk2 = 1.21 Frame configuration a) EQU – Treating the floor imposed load as the leading variable r action P Permanent action. favourable 0.5 x 0.1gk2 b Lead variable action = gQk qk3 = 1.05qk1 on o Permanent action.chg CCIP-041 1 Oct 09 Overall stability web TCC 2. qk1 gk1 qk2 gk2 wk qk3 gk3 A B Figure 2.9gk3 Accompanying variable action = gQkco qk1 = 1.supgk3 = 1.21.1gk1 b Accompanying variable action = gQk co wk = 1.22 Frame with floor variable action as leading variable action Tables 2.5 x wk = 0.5qk2 k2 Permanent action. unfavourable = gGk. identify the various load arrangements to check overall stability (EQU) against overturning.17 See Table 2.9gk1 P Permanent action.

05 q k3 1.5 x 0.24 Frame with wind as lead variable action 34 .1gk3 A B Figure 2.7 x q k3 = 1.5 wk Tables 2.05 q k1 1.5 x 0.9gk2 0.5 x 0.1gk3 A B Figure 2.7 x q k2 = 1.23 Frame with roof variable action as leading variable act t tion c) EQU – Treating wind as the leading variable action 0.1gk1 1.b) EQU – Treating the roof imposed load as the leading variable f action 0.1gk2 0.9gk3 1.9gk1 1.17 0.16 & 2.9gk2 1.7 x q k1 = 1.5 x 0.9gk3 1.05 q k2 1.5q k1 1.1gk1 1.7 x q k2 = 1.7 x q k3 = 1.75 wk Tables 2.5 x 0.9gk1 1.1gk2 0.05 q k2 1.17 0.16 & 2.05 q k3 1.

5. 9. Fig.2.1.1.3.1(4) Cl. Tables 7. 5.3. 9.1 Cl.2.4.1 EC1 & NA Table 4.1(4).1 EC0 & NA Tables NA. 9. 8. 9. 9.0 General EC0 & NA Table NA. 9.1.2.1. 9.3.3. 8.7.1(1). 6. 9.3N Cl. 9. 7.8.1.1 BS 8500-1: Tables A4 & A5 EC2-1-2: Tables 5.2N & 7.3. 5.1.1.1.1.5(1).3 Slabs 3.1.1.2 Cl.5. 9. 5. 5.3 35 .6 Cl.10 & 5.3.A1.2.1(2). 7.2(2) Cl.4.A1.2 (B) Cl.4.3(1) & NA Cl.4 Cl.9.11 Cl. 9.4.1.3.2.2 Cl. 9.1(1) Cl. 4.3.4(1) Cl.1 & NA.2.3. 5. 6.5(2) Cl.

1.2(3) = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar Table 4.4. Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 15 + 10 = 25 mm 36 .b . cmin.1. 6.2 & NA EC1-1-1: 6.3.1 Actions Permanent: Self-weight 0. 4.3 EC1-1-1: Table A1 EC1-1-1: Tables 6. Assuming no measurement of cover.4. BS 8500-1: Table A4. finishes. 4.5 kN/m2 and demountable partitions (@ 2 kN/m).2(3) Assume 12 mm main bars.3 kN/m2 gk = 5.1) 3. services Total Variable: Offices. an office variable action of 2. fck = 30 MPa.3. Assume a 50-year design life and a requirement for 1 hour resistance to fire.8 k = 3. qk = 3. Cl.9 = 2. cnom: cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin. (4.1 Simply supported one-way slab p pp 3. cmin. The slab is supported on load-bearing block walls. cmin.12(8) Exp.1.0 kN/m Total kN/m2 = 4. fyk = 500 MPa.0 = 0.1.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions Assuming XCI and using C30/37 concrete.dur = 15 mm Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation.dur] where cmin.5 gk = 5.1.1 Simply supported one-way slab chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Simply supported one-way slab web TCC A 175 mm thick slab is required to support screed.5 = 0.1.9 kN/m2 4800 Figure 3. general use B1 Movable partitions @ 2.2 Cover Nominal cover.b Cl.175 × 25 50 mm screed Finishes.4 = 1.

5 Appendix B Table 7.4N & NA Exp.1. (6.0 (span < 7. < 4800 mm Consider in more detail: Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = 25.41%) Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm2/m) Fig.prov/As.min = 80 mm cf. hs.6 Deflection Check span-to-effective-depth ratio.8/2 = 29.1.5 kN/m 3.3 = 12. (6.4 kNm Shear force: V = 12.95 × 144 = 137 mm As = MEd/fydz = 35.17) no good Cl.5 Appendix A1 Table C5 3. amin = 20 mm cf. not critical choose cnom = 25 mm EC2-1-2: 4.1.8 3. 25 + f/2 = 31 i.1(1).10b) governs n = 1.5 ECO: Exp. n: By inspection.6 (r = 0.25 × 5.0 m) F3 = 310/ ss 1.5 × 3.41% = 20 As.9 + 1.2.057 z/d = 0.0 (simply supported) F1 = 1.3 × 4. 175 mm proposed OK OK Axis distance.08 Max. REI 60).82/8 = 35.e.3 × 4.4. 7.0 (beff/bw = 1. fck = 30 MPa) K = 1. Tables C10-C13 37 .3 kN/m2 Fig.0) F2 = 1.e.Fire: Check adequacy of section for 1 hour fire resistance (i. Appendix C7.4 Analysis Design moment: MEd = 12.41%.10b) 3.3 Load combination (and arrangement) Ultimate load. Thickness.1(1) & Table 5.95 z = 0. 3.5 Flexural design Effective depth: d = 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm Flexure in span: K = MEd/bd2fck = 35. BS EN 1990 Exp.15) = 594 mm2/m (r = 0.08 × 144 = 3110 mm i.4 × 106/(1000 × 1442 × 30) = 0. Basic span-to-effective-depth ratio for r = 0. 2. span = 20 × 1.e.4 × 106/(137 × 500/1. (7.req = 645/599 = 1. 5.1.

40 1. U-bars and also undertaking the other checks detailed below.0 ss 242 × 594/645 = 222 F3 = 310/222 = 1.3 = 27. a) Minimum areas Minimum area of reinforcement: As.2.17) Table 7.2.1.1.53 MPa No shear reinforcement required q Cl.7 Shear By inspection.1.where‡ ss = ssu (As.5 kN/m as before VEd = 29.4N.req/As.9 Detailing checks It is presumed that the detailer would take the design summarised above and detail the slab to normal best practice.5 – 0. Detailing.1.8 kN/m vEd = 27. c2 = 0. OK However.4.26 (fctm/fyk) bt 0.1 See Appendix B1.19 MPa vRd.5 Allowable l/d = 25.14 × 12.8 × 103/144 × 103 = 0.79. (7.prov) 1/d q where ssu 242 MPa (From Figure C3 and gk/qk = 1. 6.1(8) Cl. laps. 9.30 × fck0. This would usually include dimensioning and detailing curtailment.g.1. See also 3. 7.5: Note 5 Figure C3 Figure C3 OK mm2/m) 3.6 × 1. 10. if considered critical: V = 29. 9.3.25) d = redistribution ratio = 1. to SMDSC[9] or to How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 [8] Chapter 2.2. 6.5 38 .8 Summary of design H12 @ 175 Figure 3.40 = 35.min = 0.2(1).2.1 Table 3.3.1.10 detailing checks for a continuous one-way slab.3 l Use H12 @ 175 B1 (645 Cl.0013 btd f f where bt = width of tension zone fctm = 0.c = 0. & NA Table NA. Exp.2. Table C6 3.8 l Actual l/d = 4800/144 = 33.2 Simply supported slab: summary p pp 3.666 ‡ Cl. gG = 1. e.

Cl.2N & NA OK Cl.3. SMDSC[9] standard detail recommends U-bars lapping 500 mm with bottom steel and extending 0. 9.(2) Table 7.min = 0. §A free unsupported edge is required to use ‘longitudinal and transverse reinforcement’ generally using U-bars with legs at least 2h long.3.3.(2) Cl.(3) SMDSC[9]: Fig. Cl. 6. 9.666 × 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm2/m (r = 0. curtail T1 leg of U-bar 0.2. How to[8]: Detailing Cl. Use H12 @ 350 B1 T1 U-bars In accordance with SMDSC[9] detail MS3 lap U-bars 500 mm with main steel.1.4.(1) At supports: 50% of As to be anchored from face of support.3.1.15%) r H12 @ 175 B1 OK Crack control: OK by inspection.As.req = 0.2. 9.30 × 300.2 × 645 = 129 mm2/m q Use H10 @ 350 (224) B2 Edges: effects of assuming partial fixity along edge Top steel required = 0.26 × 0.1ll top into span. 9.(1) 39 .1.1l (= say 500 mm) from face l of support.25 × 594 = 149 mm2/m Use H10 @ 350 (224) T2 B2 as U-bars extending 960 mm into slab§ b) Curtailment Curtailment main bars: Curtail main bars 50 mm from or at face of support.1.1. For slabs 150 mm deep or greater.4.3.1. Maximum spacing of bars: < 3h < 400 mm Secondary reinforcement: 20% As. 9.1.

5.1.3 Continuous solid slab 3. finishes.3 EC1-1-1: 6. fyk = 500 and the design life is 50 years.1 Actions kN/m2 Permanent: As Section 3.1 Variable: As Section 3.9 kN/m2 200 5800 200 5800 Figure 3.2 Continuous one-way solid slab chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Continuous one-way solid slab web TCC A 175 mm thick continuous slab is required to support screed. (6.2.1.25 × 5. 200/2] a2 = min[h/2.3 kN/m2 Fig.1 gk = 5. t/2] = min[175/2. 200/2] leff = 5800 mm = 87.3 kN/m2 gk = 5.3.10b) 3. fck = 30.5 EC0: Exp.3.9 + 1. an office variable action of 2. qk = 3.2.3.3 = 12. The slab is supported on 200 mm wide load-bearing block walls at 6000 mm centres.2(8) 3.2 Cover Nominal cover. A fire resistance of 1 hour is required.5 × 3.2(1) 40 .10b) governs n = 1.2 cnom = 25 mm 3.1. t/2] = min[175/2.4 Analysis Clear span. ln a1 = min[h/2.5 mm = 87.5 mm = 5975 mm Cl. (6.9 k = 3.5 kN/m2 and demountable partitions (@ 2 kN/m).2.2.1.1.3.2.3 Load combination (and arrangement) Ultimate action (load): As Section 3. BS EN 1990 Exp. 2. cnom: As Section 3.

7 × 106/(500/1.2.3 × 5.32%) Try H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm2/m) ‡ Appendix A1 Fig.95d = 0.e.975 VEd = 0.3 × 5.5 Appendix A1 Designers may choose to use another form of this equation: z/d = 0.086 × 12. 5.1 kN/m 3.15 × 137) = 465 mm2/m (r = 0.5] ≤ 0.44%) Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm2/m) b) Internal spans and supports Lever arm.Bending moment: End span 1st internal support Internal spans and supports Shear: End support 1st interior support MEd = 0.9752 = 37.40 × 12. As: As = MEd/fydz = 27.061 K' = 0.3 × 5. d: d = h − cnom − f/2 = 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm Relative flexural stress. 3.4 kN/m = 44.9752 MEd = 0.15 × 136) = 639 mm2/m (r = 0.53 × 0. 3. section is under-reinforced (i. K: K = MEd/bd2fck = 37.5 Flexural design: span a) End span (and 1st internal support) Effective depth.7 kNm/m Cl.063 × 12.975 = 29.9752 MEd = 0. Lever arm. As: As = MEd/fydz = 37.3 × 5.8 kNm/m = 27. no compression reinforcement required).945d = 136 mm Area of steel.1. z: z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.207 or restricting x/d to 0.60 × 12.5] = 0. z: By inspection.882K)0.8 × 106/(500/1.95 × 144 = 137 mm Area of steel. z = 0.25 − 0.45 K' = 0.8 × 106/1000 × 1442 × 30 = 0.5 + (0.53K)0.5 Appendix A1 Fig.086 × 12.168 by inspection.3 × 5.061)0.95d‡ = (144/2) [1 + (1 − 3.95 41 .8 kNm/m = 37.1(7) Table C2 VEd = 0.5 ≤ 0.

5 × 0.9 + 0.0 × 1.3 + 2.4. 7.2 Table C14 where‡ ss = (fyk/ gS) (As.17) Table 7.3 × 1.prov/As.19 = 36. (7.99 × 0. (7.5 The use of Table C3 implies certain amounts of redistribution.0 × 1.5 × 1.39 Allowable l/d = 23.4.0) F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions = 1.5 ‡ § No good See Appendix B1.08 = 260 MPa F3 = 310/260 = 1.0 (beff/bw = 1.4 × 144 = 5675 mm. 7.2.16a) N = 11 + r0/r + r (r0/r − r = 11 + 1. Exp.44 – 1)1.19 Note: As.44% r0 = fck0.5: Note 5 Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 d = 23.2fck0.5: Note 5 Exp.56 × 1. Table NA. 7.5 1)1.55% use Exp.2.0 + 10.2.4N & NA.5 × 1.55/0. i.3] × 1.2(2) Exp.0 m) F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads (1/d) f q = fyd × (As.0 (span < 7.17) EC0: A1.2 Cl. (7.req/As.5 (0.2 Cl.8 × 639/754 × 0.39 d = 42.56 × 1.8 × 0.3)/12. Table NA.4 Max. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 d where N = basic effective depth to span ratio: r = 0. < 5795 mm Try increasing reinforcement to H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm2/m) ss = 434.3 × 3.prov) × (gk + c2 qk)/(gGgk + gQqk) (1/d) g q = (500/1.req ≤ 1.5fck0.e.55/0.50 Table 7. span = 36.16a) Cl.4N & NA. which are defined in Table C14.44 + 3.2 Cl.6 Deflection: end span Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio.4.5 K = structural system factor = 1.5 × 10−3 = 0.4.08§ = 434.3 × 1.2 = 23.4. 7.5 1.5 × 300. 42 . (7.08 = 223 F3 = 310/223 = 1. 7.5 3.15) × (639/645) × [(5.3 (end span of continuous slab) F1 = flanged section factor = 1.3.2 × 300.5 = 11.5 Appendix B Cl.req/As.

4N & NA. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = basic effective depth to span ratio: r = 0.5 3.17).7 Deflection: internal span Check internal span-to-effective-depth ratio.2fck0. 6.15) × (465/502) × [(5.1(8) 43 .333 bwd ≥ 0.5 (0.2. (7.5× 0.5 × 10−3 = 0. Table 7.32 + 3.0 (beff/bw = 1.prov) × (gk + c2 qk)/(gGgk + gQqk) (1/d) g q = (500/1.33 = 71. 7.3 × 3.5 = 11.0 (span < 7.8 K = structural system factor = 1. span = 42.2(1) Cl. 7.2 Cl.3 = 41.9 + 0. (7. VEd= 29. Table NA.16a) N = 11 + r0/r + r (r0/r − r = 11 + 1.5 × 1.2.4.2. i.56 × 1.0035k1.4 – (0.32 – 1)1.5 Cl.3] × 1. (7.2 × 300.0 × 1.2 Cl. Exp.4.5bwd k Cl.5 × 144 = 6120 mm.55% use Exp.18/ gC)k(100 rl fck)0.0) b F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions = 1.32% r0 = fck0.93 × 0. > 5795 mm OK 2/m) OK H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm 3.5 1)1.4.3 = 26.c: VRd.e.55/0. (7. VRd.1 + 10.03 = 233 MPa F3 = 310/233 = 1.4 × 144 = 10280 mm i. 7. VEd: At d from face of end support.144 + 0.0875) × 12.2.4.req/As.144 + 0.5fck0.8 × 0. VEd = 44.0875) × 12.16a) Cl.5 (interior span of continuous slab) F1 = flanged section factor = 1.7 = 35.03 = 434.5 × 300.8 × 1. 7.0 + 14.55/0.8 Shear Design shear force.4 Max.3 kN/m Shear resistance.33 Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 d = 35.4. 7.3)/12. Exp.5 Note 5.2(2) Exp.c = (0.2. 6.2 Cl.0 m) F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1. span = 71.2.e.5 1.5fck0.17) EC0: A1.Max.6 kN/m At d from face of 1st interior support.1 − (0. > 5795 mm OK Use H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm2/m) in internal spans p 3.2 Table C14 where ss = fyd × (As.

cmin = 0.c = 77.5 bwd where k = 1 + (200/d)0. shear at other internal supports OK.54 × 1000 × 144 = 77.0 × (100 × 0. The detailer’s responsibilities. as before k = 2. no shear reinforcement required at end or 1st internal supports H12 @ 150 B1 & H12 @ 175 T1 OK By inspection.9 Summary of design H12 @ 175 fck = 30 MPa P cnom = 25 mm H12 @ 150 H12 @ 225 Figure 3.26% VRd.12 × 2 × 1.5 ≤ 2.0 VRd.0 as d < 200 mm k = 2.3 and detail the slab to normal best practice.6 kN/m OK.cmin = 0.035 × 21. 3.33 × 1000 × 144 = 0.18/1.5 × 300.0 rl = Asl/bd Assuming 50% curtailment (at end support) = 50% × 754/(144 × 1000) = 0.5fck0.97 × 1000 × 144 = 0.where k = 1 + (200/d)0. The work would usually include checking the following aspects and providing appropriate detailing : Minimum areas Curtailment lengths Anchorages 44 .4 Continuous solid slab: design summary Commentary It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design summarised above together with the general arrangement illustrated in Figure 3.c = (0.0.2.1 kN/m But VRd.5 ≤ 2.035k1. standards and timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement but all the reinforcement required to provide a compliant and buildable solution.5) × 2.6 kN/m VRd.5 × 1000 × 144 = 0.47 × 1000 × 144 = 68.26/100 × 30)0.

min as before = 216 mm2/m Use H10 @ 350 (224 mm2/m) U-bars at edges Cl.2(2) Cl.3. As.1.1 45 .1.1(2) SMDSC[9] Cl. 9.1.min = 0.1. 25% of As is required to extend 0.30 × 300. In practice these would be determined from published tables of data or by using reference texts[8. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing for design intent and compliance with standards.req = 25% × 639 = 160 mm2/m q As.1 Cl.1. anchorages and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown in detail in the following calculations.26 × 0.1.2 × the length of the adjacent span.10 Detailing checks a) Minimum areas Minimum area of longitudinal tension (flexural) reinforcement As.26(fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0. 9.min to apply as before. 3. 9. 9.0013 btd f f where bt = width of tension zone fctm = 0. It is therefore necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles of the detailing used. 9]. 9. Assuming partial fixity exists at edges.req 20% As.667 7 As.2.30 × fck0.req = 0.1 Table 3.1.Laps U-bars Rationalisation Critical dimensions Details and sections The determination of minimum reinforcement areas.2 × 502 = 100 mm2/m q Consider As.2.15%) r H12 @ 225 B1 OK Secondary (transverse reinforcement) Minimum 20% As. curtailment lengths.3.min = 0.3.1.3.min = 216 mm2/m Try H10 @ 350 B2 (224 mm2/m) Check edge.667 × 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm2/m (r = 0. As. 9.2.

1200 mm measured from face of support.3.2.2 × the length of the adjacent span.1 Cl. but choose to use U-bars Try H12 @ 450 (251 mm2/m) U-bars at supports pp Curtail 0.3(1) Cl.max/2.(3) Cl.1.3N & interpolation Cl.1. use Table 7. 9. bar size = 20 mm or max.2(2) Cl. 7.3N for wmax = 0. End supports: effects of partial fixity Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports.3. say 1200 mm measured from face of support‡.3.req = 15% × 639 = 96 mm2/m q But. 9. 7. spacing = 250 mm H12 @ 150 B1 OK. In practice. However.2 × 5975 = say. Maximum spacing of bars Maximum spacing of bars < 3h < 400 mm OK Cl. As. 9.3 (2) ‡Detail MS2 of SMDSC[9].2(1) Cl.1. 9.‡ b) Curtailment i) End span.3. 50% curtailment of reinforcement may take place al from where the moment of resistance of the section with the remaining 50% would be adequate to resist the applied bending moment.2N or Table 7. 9.1. 9. 15% of As is required to extend 0.2.5 Crack control As slab < 200 mm.2 × 5975 = 1195 mm. 9.3l (= say 1800 mm) from face of support by placing U-bars alternately reversed.1.1. it is usual to determine the curtailment distance as being al from where MEd = MEd.4 mm and ss = 241 MPa (see deflection check).3. 9.3.1.3.1.1. 9. Table 7. 7.Curtail 0.3.15%) r One option would be to use bob bars. 50% of As should extend into the support.1. measures to control cracking are unnecessary.2(2) Cl.1.3(2).3.min as before = 216 mm2/m (r = 0. Max. 46 . 50% × 639 = 320 mm2/m Try H12 @ 300 (376 mm2/m) at supports pp In theory. Table 7.2(1) Note. as a check on end span: Loading is the main cause of cracking. suggests 50% of T1 legs of U-bars should extend 0.2N & interpolation.2(2) Cl.3.1. As. bottom reinforcement Assuming end support to be simply supported.

086nl 2/2 = 0. bending moments.n A a) Load arrangement r B A X MEd.max/2: X 0.max = 0.4nlX – nX 2/2 X 47 .5 Curtailment of bottom reinforcement: actions. for a single simply supported span supporting a UDL of n. moment. forces in reinforcement and curtailment Thus. X.max MEdx = RAX – nX 2/2 X B b) Bending moment MEdx A lbd 633 lbd 987 B MEdx /z T Tensile force in reinforcement. MEd. X MEd@X = RAX – nX 2/2 X when M@X = MEd. Fs T Tensile resistance of reinforcement c) Tensile force in bottom reinforcement T 50% 50% A B 633 (say 500) d) Curtailment of bottom reinforcement 987 (say 850) Figure 3. from end support. RA = 0.4nl At distance.086nl 2.

it is usual to determine the curtailment distance as being al from where MEd = MEd. top reinforcement Presuming 50% curtailment of reinforcement is required this may take place al from where the moment of resistance of the section with the remaining 50% would be adequate. Thus. 600 mm from either face of support B pp 48 Cl.maxT /2 Y 0.672.4x – x2/2 x 0 = 0. moment.3(2).3(2).13 x span 0. 9.2(5) Cl.3.043 – 0.maxT – RAY + nY 2/2 Y T when M@Y = MEd. say 0.2.1. curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 777 – 144 = 633 mm from centreline of support.086nl 2 – 0.043nl 2 = 0.043nl2 = 0.66 × span 0.66 × 5975 = 3944 mm Shift rule: for slabs al may be taken as d (= 144 mm).086nl 2/2 = 0.2(1) Note. 9.3(2) Cl.2.086nl 2 – 0.4nlxl – nx2l2/2 l x 0.2(5) . MEd@Y = MEd.122).1.077 (or 1. MEd.1. Say 500 mm from face of support A pp in end span at 1st internal support 50% moment occurs at 0. 6. curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 3944 + 144 = 4088 mm from support A or 5975 – 4088 = 987 mm from centreline of support B. Say 850 mm from face of support B pp ii) 1st interior support. al may be taken as d 144 mm curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 478 + 144 = 622 mm from centreline of support. al may be taken as d (= 144 mm). 9.2.2.6nlyll + ny 2l 2/2 0 = 0.13 × 5975 = 777 mm Shift rule: for slabs.086nl 2.6nlY + nY 2/2 Y Assuming Y = yl 0. 6. 50% of reinforcement may be curtailed at. However.Assuming X = xl 0.128 or 0.2.6y + y 2/2 y y = 0. say 0.08 × 5975 = 478 mm Shift rule: for slabs.043 = 0.2(5) Cl. 9.4x + x2/2 x x = 0.1.maxT = 0. say.6nl T At distance Y from end support. 9.3(2).2.max/2.2. for the 1st interior support supporting a UDL of n.66 at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.08 × span 0.043 − 0. RB = 0. 6.08 at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.1.13 and 0.

95‡ Anchorage length.3.prov = 30.6nlY + nY2/2 Assuming Y = yl 0 = 0.1 0.166 (or 1.2.1.25 × 639 = 160 mm2 As.1.9 kN/m FE = 29. 9.17 × 5975 = 1016 mm Shift rule: for slabs.3) Maximum z = 0.1.2. (8.rqd ≥ lb.034). 9.2.rqd = basic anchorage length required = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) where f = diameter of the bar = 12 mm ssd = design stress in the bar at the ultimate limit state = FE/As. lbd: lbd = alb. 9.2.min where a = conservatively 1. 8. (8.1.9 × 1000/376 = 81.5(1).4(2) Exp.1.0 lb.4(1) Cl. when M@Y = MEd. say.4) Exp.2(1) & Note. iii) Support B bottom steel at support At the support 25% of span steel required Cl.5 MPa ‡ Cl.1. This 50% of As should be anchored to resist a force of FE = VEd × al/z where VEd = the absolute value of the shear force al = d.1. 100% of reinforcement may be curtailed at. (9. where the slab is not reinforced for shear z = lever arm of internal forces d = 30.1.086nl2 – 0. 9. 9. 9.maxT/2 0 = 0.3(2) Cl. say 0.3) Cl.3. 50% of As should extend into the support. Thus.6y + y2/2 y = 0. 9.min as before = 216 mm2/m For convenience use H12 @ 300 B1 (376 mm2/m) c) Anchorage at end support As simply supported. 1100 mm from either face of support B.100% curtailment may take place al from where there is no hogging moment.17 × span 0.4 Exp.4 × d/0.947 at mid-span and greater towards support.1(4). 9.2. 49 .4.1.2.17 at end support 50% moment occurs at 0. al may be taken as d curtail to 100% of required reinforcement at 1016 + 144 = 1160 mm from centreline of support.086 – 0.

3 Exp.0 (straight bars) a2 = 1 − 0.15 (cd − f)/f where cd = min(pitch. 8.2(2) .6) Fig.33 = 3.25 n1 n2 fct. 3. using U-bars.0 for ‘good’ bond conditions and 0.10) Table 8.5/1.rqd = (f/4) ssd/fbd where ssd = the design stress at ULS at the position from where the anchorage is measured.min = max(10d.59 − 12.5 × 0.5 lb.1N f = 2. Tables 3.5 mm from centreline of support): MEd = 29.0 MPa lb.4.3 × 0.0 × 2.25 × 1.4.33 MPa Cl. 100 mm) = 120 mm lbd = 183 mm measured from face of support By inspection.592/2 = 15.2 Fig. l0 = a1 a2 a3 a5 a6 lb.95) = 267 MPa fbd = ultimate bond stress = 2. Tension lap. side cover or cover) = 25 mm f = bar diameter = 12 mm a2 = 0.1 & 2. OK d) Laps Lap H12 @ 300 U-bars with H12 @ 150 straights.4 Table 8.7 for all other conditions = 1.3) Cl.0 (no confinement by reinforcement) a5 = 1.d 50 Exp.2 × 106/(376 × 144/0. 8.33) = 183 mm lb.fbd where n1 n2 fct.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm = design tensile strength = act fct.0 (no confinement by pressure) a6 = 1.1.d = ultimate bond stress = 2. 9.0/1.rqd = (12/4) (81. Assuming lap starts 500 mm from face of support (587.0 = 1. For fck = 30 MPa = 1.2 Table 8. 8.rqd a l0min where a1 = 1.2(2) Cl. (8.d = 1.3 Exp.25 n1 n2 fct.2 kNm ssd = MEd /(Asz) = 15.84 a3 = 1. (8.k/ gC.6(2) & NA. (8.5 = 1.

SMDSC[9]: MS2 3.where n1 = 1.1.3 × 1. 8.rqd ≥ l0min = 1.1N & NA l0min b = max[0.5 × 329 ≥ 200 = 414 mm But good practice suggests minimum lap of max[tension lap.11 Summary of reinforcement details A 1200 H12 U-bars @ 300 500 600 200 600 500 H12 @ 175 T1 200 500 500 H12 @ 150 H12 @ 300 500 350 H12 @ 225 350 500 200 A Figure 3. 15 × 12.0 × 1.3 a6 lb.6 Cl.6 (2) & NA Table 3. 3.0 gC = 1. 200] = max[124.5 f = 2.k/gC where act = 1. 200] = 200 mm l0 = a1 a2 a3 a5 a6 lb.d = act fct.84 × 1.rqd = (f/4) ssd/fbd = (12/4) × (267/3) = 267 mm Exp.0 MPa lb.0 fct.5 × 229.0 for f < 32 mm fct.k = 2.25 × 2. 180.1 Table 2. 15f/ 200 mm] = max[0.rqd. 500] lap with bottom reinforcement = 500 mm starting 500 from face of support.5 = 3.0 for ‘good’ conditions n2 = 1.0 × 1.2.0/1.0 × 0.6 Continuous solid slab: reinforcement details 1200 500 H10 @ 350 B2 Figure 3.7 Section A–A showing reinforcement details at edge 51 .

9. having to accommodate torsions induced in supporting beams and columns usually makes it simpler to design from centreline of support to centreline of support.3. The advent of computer analysis has made analysis using patch loads more viable and the resulting analysis more accurate.5 m.3 kN/m2 qk = 5. (The weight of the solid area is then added to the loads on the supporting beam).8 Continuous ribbed slab example p Notes on ribbed slab design There are various established methods for analysing ribbed slabs and dealing with the solid areas: Using UDLs simplifies the analysis and remains popular.17 kN/m2 gk = 4.3 Continuous ribbed slab chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Continuous ribbed slab web TCC This continuous 300 mm deep ribbed slab has spans of 7. the difference in stiffness between the ribbed and the solid parts is generally ignored. 52 . One method is to ignore the weight of the solid part of the slab in the analysis of the ribbed slab. It is supported on wide beams that are the same depth as the slab designed in Section 4. solid parts at supports. The ribs are 150 mm wide @ 900 mm centres. One hour fire resistance is required: internal environment.0 m and 7.0 kN/m2 A 550 7500 1000 B 1000 9000 1000 C 7500 1000 550 D Figure 3.) However. This ignores the minor effect the solid areas have on bending in the ribbed slab. However. gk = 4. The ribbed part of the slab may be designed to span between solid areas. Alternatively the weight of the solid part of the slab is spread as a UDL over the whole span. (The ribs span d/2 into the solid areas. Links are required in span to facilitate prefabrication of reinforcement. Moments would be attracted to the stiffer.3.5 m and is required for an office to support a variable action of 5 kN/m2. This is conservative both in terms of moment and shears at solid/shear interfaces but underestimates hogging in internal spans. Assume that partitions are liable to be damaged by excessive deflections. In order to reduce deformations yet maintain a shallow profile use fck = 35 MPa and fyk = 500 MPa. which are assumed to act as beams in the orthogonal direction. Analysis programs can cope with the change of section and therefore change of stiffness along the length of the slab.

In line with good practice analysis, this example is carried out using centreline of support to centreline of support and patch loads‡. Constant stiffness along the length of the slab has been assumed.
C L A 100 300 A 200 550 1000 200 C L

Figure 3.9 Long section through slab

150

750

150

Figure 3.10 Section A–A: section through ribbed slab

3.3.1 Actions
Permanent: UDL kN/m2 Self-weight: kN/m2 Rib 0.15 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.833 Slope 2 × (1/2) × 0.2/10 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.112 Slab 0.1 × 2.5 = 2.500 Cross rib 0.19 × 0.71 × 0.2 × 25/(0.9 × 7.5) = 0.100 Total self-weight = 3.545 Ceiling Services Raised floor Total permanent actions gk

≈ = = =

3.55 0.15 0.30 0.30

= 4.30

In this case, assuming the patch load analysis is accurate, taking the weight of solid area to be spread over the whole span would overestimate span and support moments by 6–8% and shears at the solid/rib interface by 8–9%. Ignoring the weight of the solid area in the analysis of this ribbed slab would lead to underestimates of span moments by 1%, support moments by 3% and no difference in the estimation of shear at the solid shear interface. The latter may be the preferred option. 53

Permanent: patch load Extra over solid in beam area as patch load (0.2 × 25 – 0.833) = 4.167 Variable Imposed Allowance for partitions Total variable action

gk ≈ 4.17 = 4.00* = 1.00* gk = 5.00

3.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom: cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max(cmin,b ; cmin,dur) where cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar. Assume 20 mm main bars and 8 mm links cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions. Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, cmin,dur = 15 mm r Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 20 + 10 to main bars or = 15 + 10 to links critical EC2-1-2: 5.7.5(1) EC2-1-2: Table 5.8 EC2-1-2: Table 5.6 Exp. (4.1)

Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)

Table 4.1. BS 8500-1: Table A4 Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)

Fire: Check adequacy of section for REI 60. Minimum slab thickness, hs = 80 mm OK Axis distance required Minimum rib width or bmin = 120 mm with a = 25 mm bmin = 200 mm with a = 12 mm

at 150 mm wide (min.) a = 20 mm By inspection, not critical. Use 25 mm nominal cover to links

3.3.3 Load combination and arrangement
Ultimate load, n: By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical nslab = 1.25 × 4.30 + 1.5 × 5.0 = 13.38 kN/m2 nsolid areas = 1.25 × (4.30 + 4.17) + 1.5 × 5.0 = 18.59 kN/m2 Fig. 2.5 EC0: Exp. (6.10b)

*Client requirements. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA. 54

Arrangement: Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded.

Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA option b EC0: A1.2.2 & NA, 5.3.1 (6)

3.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, includes 15% redistribution at support and none in the span.§
100 80 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 –60 –80 – 65.3 kNm/m – 61.1 kNm/m – 65.3 kNm/m A B C D 90.7 kNm/m 90.7 kNm/m

a) Elastic moments 100 80 60 40 20 0 –20 –40 –60 –80 –61.7 kNm/m –55.9 kNm/m –61.7 kNm/m A B C D

77.1 kNm/m

77.1 kNm/m

b) Redistributed envelope

Figure 3.11 Bending moment diagrams

§ Note 1: A ribbed slab need not be treated as discrete elements provided rib spacing ≤ 1500 mm, depth of the rib ≤ 4 × its width, the flange is > 0.1 × distance between ribs and transverse ribs are provided at a clear spacing not exceeding 10 × overall depth of the slab.

Note 2: As 7.5 m < 85% of 9.0 m, coefficients presented in Concise Eurocode 2[5] are not applicable. 55

80 42.5 kN/m 40 0 A – 40 – 80 – 63.5 kN/m – 63.2 kN/m – 42.5 kN/m B C D 63.2 kN/m 63.5 kN/m

At solid/rib interface: AB @ 550 mm from A = 20.4 kNm/m MEd (sagging) VEd = 32.5 kN/m BA @1000 mm from B = 47.1 kNm/m MEd (hogging) = 45.4 kN/m VEd BC @ 1000 mm from B = 43.0 kNm/m MEd (hogging) = 45.1 kN/m VEd Symmetrical about centreline of BC.

18.3 kNm/rib 29.3 kN/rib

42.4 kNm/rib 40.9 kN/rib 38.7 kNm/rib 40.6 kN/rib

3.3.5 Flexural design, span A–B
a) Span A–B: Flexure MEd = 61.7 kNm/m = 55.5 kNm/rib K = MEd/bd 2fck where b = 900 mm d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 20/2 = 257 assuming 8 mm link at H20 in span fck = 35 MPa K = 55.5 × 106/(900 × 2572 × 35) = 0.027 K' = 0.207 or restricting x/d to 0.45 K' = 0.168 K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required. Appendix A1

56

4x x = 2.5 = (span > 7.4.045 + 3.5 × 106/(434. neutral axis is in flange As = MEd/fydz where = 500/1. Table NA.95d = (257/2) (1 + 0. (7.055/0.req/[bwd + (beff – bw)hf] where bw = min. (7.0/7.5] ≤ 0.z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.4.5 ‡ Section 2.3 350. 7.2 × (0.95 × 257 = 251 ≤ 244 z = 244 mm But z = d – 0. 7. 7.4N & NA. width between tension and compression chords.8 + 2.16a) or Exp.66) 0.5/1000 = 0.5(257 − 244) = 33 mm By inspection.5 F1 = (beff /bw = 5.17) & NA.0 m) 0. (7.5 Exp.5(r /r0 – 1)1.16b) r0 = fck0.045 – 1)1. Exp.18 of PD 6687 [6] suggests that r in T-beams should be based on the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.5: Note 5 Cl.93 F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.16a) Table 7.8 K = (end span) 1.0] = 22.5 = [11 + 10.5fck0.055/0.2.8 × 244) = 523 mm2/rib Try 2 no.45% r < r0 use Exp.8 MPa = 55.15 = 434.5] = 11 + 1.0/leff = 7.4.2(2) Cl.5(d − z) = 2.59% r = As/Ac‡ = As. 57 . (7.5/1000 = 350. Table NA. At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib: = 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10 = 159 mm r = 523/(159 ( 257 + (900 − 159) × 100) = 523/114963 = 0. (7.16a) Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix C7 Cl.5r /r0 + 3.951) ≤ 0.53K)0. H20/rib (628 mm2/rib) b) Span A–B: Deflection Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r0 and whether to use Exp.5 × × 0.2fck0.5 350.2(2) PD 6687[6] N = 11 + 1.8 F2 = 7.

where‡ ss = (fyk/gS) (As.3 kNm/rib At solid/rib interface As = MEd/fydz + DFtd /fyd where z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.011 Cl.2.3.95d where K = MEd/bd2fck where b = 900 mm d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 25 − 20/2 = 232 assuming 8 mm links and H25B in edge beam fck = 30 = 18.93 × 1.5 in the UK NA. 9. 9.5 In analysis.3 × 106/(900 × 2322 × 35) = 0.req and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp.7§) = 434.16a) or Exp.06 = 164 MPa F3 = 310/ss = 310/164 = 1.8(523/628) [ (4.5] ≤ 0.8 × 0.3 × 0.16b) is restricted to 1. (7.83 × 0. Fig.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.7/65.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) = 434.8 × 1.3 kNm/rib VEd.89# but ≤ 1.(2) Cl.30 + 0. 9.req/As.38] (65.2.94. H20/rib (628 mm c) Support A (and D): flexure (sagging) at solid/rib interface Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule) MEd.1.max = 18. 310/ ss is restricted to 1. 58 . 15% redistribution of support moments led to redistribution of span moments: d = 61.(2).5.2 2/rib) Use 2 no.50 = 33.2 ‡ See § Appendix B1.prov/As.50 Permissible l/d = 22.8 × 0.max = 29.3/61.0)/13.5.43 × 1.53K)0. Therefore. therefore say 1.3 = 0. (7.3.0 OK Actual l/d = 7500/257 = 29.1.3 × 5. # Both As.

037 By inspection.4 × 106/434.3(7).3 = 36. (6.6 × 103/434. 59 .95d = 237 mm As = MEd/fydz = 69. from the interface.932) < 0. Exp. 6. al. 6. H20 B in end supports* d) Support B (and C) (at centreline of support) MEd = 77. cot a = 0 DFtd = 1.25 × 29. Table C6 Cl.6 kN As = 18.1 kNm/m = 69.5] ≤ 0·95d = (245/2) (1 + 0.2.4 kNm/rib K = MEd/bd2fck where d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link − 20/2 = 245 K = 69.3(1) Appendix A2 Appendix C.2.3(1) where y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the beam axis.25VEd = 1.53 K)0. Assume cot y = 2.2.3 × 106/(434.4 × 106/(900 × 2452 × 35) = 0.8 = 191 + 84 mm2 = 275 mm2 Try 1 no. 6.5 (as a maximum) a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis.95 × 232 230 ≤ 220 z = 220 mm 434.5VEd (cot y – cot a) Appendix A1 Cl.18) Cl.980) ≤ 0.8 × 237 = 673 mm2/rib * An alternative method would have been to calculate the reinforcement required to resist MEd at the shift distance.25 cover 12 fabric 8 link 16 bar 20 bar 8 link 25 cover 16 bar 25 bar 8 link 25 cover z= = fyd = DFtd = (232/2) (1 + 0.8 MPa 0. For vertical links. K ≤ K' z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.8 × 220) + 36.

5.(2) Cl.53 K)0.e) Support B (and C): flexure (hogging) at solid/rib interface Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule).18) Cl.2. 6. 9. 15% redistribution) Section under-reinforced: no compression reinforcement required z = (245/2) (1 + 0.5] ≤ 0·95d where K = MEd/bd2fck = 42.3.1.3.9 kNm/rib max.3. 6.e.(2) Appendix C.2 3.max = 42. beff = 900.2.2.168 for d = 0. H16 above rib and 3 no.723) ≤ 232 = 211 mm fyd = 434.3.4 kNm/rib max.2.135 Check K ≤ K' K' = 0.8 = 462 + 117 mm2 = 579 mm2/rib To be spread over beff where by inspection.2. 9.2.1.max = 40.2. Top steel may be spread across beff where beff = bw + beff1 + beff2 ≤ b = bw + 2 × 0.3(1) Appendix A2.2(2).1.1 × 0.25VEd = 1. Table C4 Appendix A Cl.2(2) Cl.1.3(7).1 × 103/434.5 (as a maximum) a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis.8 MPa DFtd = 0.85 (i.15 × (l1 + l2) = 150 + 0. MEd. (6. Exp. Centre of support more critical (679 mm2/rib required).6 Flexural design.03 × (7500 + 9000) ≤ 900 = 645 mm Use 2 no. H12 are within beff Cl. For vertical links.3.25 × 40. VEd.1(3) Cl.8 × 211) + 51. As = MEd/fydz + DFtd/fyd where z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.4 × 106/(434. H16 and 2 no.1 kN As = 42. Assume cot y = 2.3 kNm/rib 60 .9 kNm/m = 50.4 × 106/(150 × 2452 × 35) = 0. Table C6 Cl. span BC a) Span B–C: Flexure MEd = 55.5VEd (cot y – cot a) where y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the beam axis.2. 9. 9.3(1) Cl. 5. 6. H12 between (741 mm2/rib) where 2 no. cot a = 0 DFtd = 1.9 = 51.

5: Note 5 Cl.prov/As.02 i.77 × 1.5 (r0/r – 1)1.95d = 0.0) 0.2(2) Cl.0/leff = 7.4N. say = 1.2(2) Exp.5 = 11 + 1.0 m) 0.041 − 1)1.8 = 26.2 × 350.1/55.50‡ Permissible l/d = 26.4.43 × 1.8 × 0. 7.041 + 3.8 × 1.09 = 153 MPa F3 = 310/ ss = 310/153 = 2.16a) N = 11 + 1.0 = (span > 7.168) By inspection.3 × 106/900 × 2572 × 35 = 0. (7.055/0. neutral axis is in flange.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) = 434.5 NA.5 F1 = (beff/bw = 6.30 + 0. 61 .5 × 350.8 × 0.8 × 244 = 474 mm2 Try 2 no.5 r0/r + 3.3 × 106/434. (7.9) = 434.req/As.4.38](61.41% r0 = 0.8 F2 = 7. (7.5 where ss = (fyk /gS) (As.59% (for fck = 30) r < r0 use Exp.77 F3 = 310/sS ≤ 1.0/9.95 × 257 = 244 mm By inspection. As = MEd/fydz = 50.16a) or Exp.5 by Note 5 to Table NA. z = 0.3 × 5.16b) is restricted to 1.055/0. 7.2fck0. & NA.8 × (474/628) [(4. Table NA.9 + 3.50 = 37. (7.1 Actual l/d = 9000/257 = 35 Use 2 H20/rib (628 OK mm2/rib) Section C7 Cl. 7. Exp. (7.5: Note 5 ‡ Both A s. H20/rib (628 mm2/rib) b) Span B–C: Deflection Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = Basic l/d r = 474/(159 (× 257 + (900 − 159) × 100) = 474/114963 = 0.2.e.5 = 11 + 11.5 × 0.5 fck0.5 in the UK NA.17) & NA: Table NA.req and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp.0)/13.5 (0.03 therefore. ≤ K’ (as before K’ = 0.16a) Table 7.5 × 0.7 K = (internal span) 1.4.K = MEd/bd2fck = 50. Table NA.75 × 0.

90 × 13.68 × 159 × 257 = 27. 6.3.88 (100 × 0.38 = 26.0077 fck = 35 VRd.9 kN/rib [max(BA.2.7 Design for shear C L C L 10 1 b = 150 a) Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface Shear at solid/rib interface = 29.9 kN/rib Cl.88 rl = Asl/bwd where Asl = assume only 1 H20 anchored = 314 mm2 bw = min. width between tension and compression chords.1(5) Cl.5 ≤ 2 = 1 + (200/257)0.5) 1. at d from face of support VEd = 29.0077 × 35)0.333 × 159 × 257 = 0. 6.38 × 0.2. 6.2. At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib: = 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10 = 159 mm d = 257 mm as before rl = 314/(159 × 257) = 0. 6.c = (0. BC)] At d from face of support VEd = 40.1(8) 62 . b) Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface Shear at solid/rib interface = 40.232 × 0.3 kN/rib Taking solid area as the support.8 kN/rib No shear links required.3.18/gC)k (100 rl fck)0.245 × 13.2(1) & NA Cl.c = (0.9 − 0. But use nominal links to allow prefabrication.2.1(8) Cl.5 kN/rib Resistance VRd.5 k = 1 + (200/d)0.3 − 0.5 = 1.9 = 37.18/1.333 bwd where gC = 1.

90 rl = Asl/bwd where Asl = 2 H16 = 402 mm2 bw = 159 mm as before d = 245 mm as before rl = 0.4.333 × 159 × 245 = 0.9 − 29.3) 41.9 (100 × 0.5 ≤ 2 = 1 + (200/245)0. Shear links required for a distance: (37.9 × 245 × 0.9) & NA Cl. (6.75 × 159 × 245 = 29.0 × 159 × 0.0 × 159 × 0. Check shear capacity: VRd.5 = 1.0 bw = 159 mm as before z = 0.6 (1 − fck/250) = 0.5) 1. cot−1y << 21. 6. Rearranging formula above: (cot y + tan y) = acwbwzvfcd/VEd = (1.5 k = 1 + (200/d)0.6 kN OK Cl. 6. VRd.6 × 103 = 10.9d v = 0.Resistance: VRd.max = 1.333 bwd where gC = 1.4 By inspection. But cot y restricted to 2.5 and tan y = 0.9) + 245 = 722 + 245 = 967 mm from interface.0103 fck = 35 MPa VRd.528 fcd = 35/1.5 = 23.18/ gC)k (100 rl fck)0.528 × 20/(2.3(2) & NA 63 .4) = 127.8.38 × 0.c = (0.max = acw bw zvfcd/(cot y + tan y) where acw = 1.5 + 0.c = (0.9 × 245 × 0.18/1.2(1) & NA Exp.2.0103 × 35)0.528 × 23.2)/(13.2 kN/rib Shear links required.2.3 MPa y = angle of inclination of strut.

2.7 3.3.5.4 fct.req = 37.57) for min.9). 9.req = 26.max where Asw/s = area of legs of links/link spacing z = 0.3.5 as before for VEd ≤ VRd. B.s = (Asw/s) z fywd cot y ≤ VRd. Section 4. D).7 Fig. 9. 9.9 × 245 × 434.s Asw/s ≥ VEd/z fywd cot y ≥ 37.158 Maximum spacing of links = 0.5) ≥ 0.2(6) 3.8 × 2. VEd ≤ 0.15) = 60 mm2 This area is required in links within h/6 = 300/6 = 50 mm of the ribbed/solid interface and within h/2 = 300/2 = 150 mm of the centreline of the rib.5 kN/rib As. 967 mm into rib Exp.9 kN/rib As. Fig.3 × 1000/(500/1.d OK Cl.2 (6) & NA 64 .8) Cl.3. additional vertical reinforcement should be provided in these supporting beams and designed to resist the reactions.9 Other checks Check shear between web and flange By inspection.9 × 1000/(500/1.8 cot y = 2. 9. 6.9d as before fywd = 500/1.Shear links: shear resistance with links VRd.15) = 87 mm2 placed similarly Cl.75d = 183 mm Use H8 @ 175 cc in 2 legs (Asw /s = 0.8 Indirect supports As the ribs of the slab are not supported at the top of the supporting beam sections (A.2. (6. Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface: VEd = 37.15 = 434. C. This additional reinforcement should consist of links within the supporting beams (see Beams design. Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface: VEd = 26.9 × 103/(0.4.

As stated in Section 3. the detailer’s responsibilities.3. 21].min = 0. The work would usually include checking the following aspects and providing appropriate detailing: Minimum areas Curtailment lengths Anchorages Laps U-bars Rationalisation Details and sections The determination of minimum reinforcement areas. It is therefore necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles of the details used.3. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing for design intent and compliance with standards.0013 btd Cl.3.26 (fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0.3. curtailment lengths and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown in detail in the following calculations. 9.15 Summary of design Commentary It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the above design and detail the slab to normal best practice.10 Summary of design 2H16 + 3H12/rib H8 links in 2 legs @ 175cc A 550 2H16 + 3H12/rib 2H20/rib B 2H20/rib C 2H20/rib D 550 1050 1000 1000 1050 7500 1050 1000 1000 1050 7500 9000 fck = 35 MPa cnom = 25 mm Figure 3. 3.1. In practice these would be determined from published tables of data or by using reference texts [12.2.11 Detailing checks a) Minimum areas i) Minimum area of reinforcement in flange As. standards and timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement but all the reinforcement required to provide a buildable solution.1 65 .9.

1.1.4(2).1 BS 8666[19] OK Cl.1(4).2N or Table 7. 9. As.1. 9. i) End support A: bottom steel at support Check anchorage. Fig. (9.2.req = 15% × 525 = 79 mm2/rib For the rib in tension: As. For members without shear reinforcement. 7.2.3b .3. al = d = 232 By inspection.2. 9.3(2) Cl.666 As. 100 mm) iii) Indirect support As anchorage may be measured from face of indirect support.666 × 159 × 257/500 = 55 mm2/rib b) Curtailment Wherever possible simplified methods of curtailing reinforcement would be used.5 Table 7.3 mm and max.30 × 350. 9.1(4).where bt = width of tension zone fctm = 0.2. 25% × 595 = 148 mm2 Use 1 no. Cl.1(4).3(2). Fig. spacing = 250 mm OK by inspection v) Effects of partial fixity Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports.min = 0. 9.2. 9. lbd = lbd. 9. 25% of As should be anchored in support.3(3).2N Table 7.1.3.1. 9.1. 9.1.1.3.2 Cl. ss = 200 MPa (see deflection check) Max.2(2) Cl.1N) Table 3. 9.3. H20/rib (314 mm2/rib) ii) Check anchorage length Envelope of tensile force: To resist envelope of tensile force.2 × the length of the adjacent span.3 Cl.666 × 1000 × 100/500 = 166 mm2/m (r = 0.30 × fck0.26 × 0. 9. 9. Cl.1.1.26 × 0. bar size = 25 mm or max.1.min = 0. 9.1.(3) Cl. Exp. Cl. 7. The following is intended to show how a rigorous assessment of curtailment of reinforcement might be undertaken. provide reinforcement to al or lbd beyond centreline of support. iii) Maximum spacing of bars Maximum spacing of bars < 3 h < 400 mm By inspection.min = max(10f.2.2.2.4(1) & NA Cl.3N iv) Crack control Loading is the main cause of cracking use Table 7.17%) Use A142 in flange (say OK) ii) Secondary reinforcement Not applicable. 15% of As is required to extend 0. ssd = 0.3. 9.1. check force to be resisted at solid/rib interface: Fs = MEd/z + FE 66 Cl.4(3).1.2(1) & Note.1.3(1). As simply supported. 9.3.3.1. 9.30 × 300.3.3N for wmax = 0.1.

4) Exp.min where a = conservatively 1.3 kN/rib al = z cot y/2 FE = VEd cot y/2 = 29. 15% of As is required to extend at least 0.1 & NA Fig. 8.0 for good bond conditions n2 = 1.31) = 581 mm lb.rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) where f = 20 ssd = design stress in the bar at the ULS = 121.rqd = (20/4) (385/3. (8.1. (9.1 kN iv) Anchorage length: lbd = alb. (8.1N) to take bottom bars 0.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm fct.2l and to curtail the remaining 50% at 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span§.1 Cl.25 n1 n1 fct. 8.2. i.2(2) Cl.6 kN/rib Fs = 18. (9. 9.d = act fct.k/gC = 1. see model detail MS1 in SMDSC[9]).3 × 1.1.3l or line of zero moment (see model detail MS2 in SMDSC[9]). (9. 67 .2/1.e.666 × 159 × 257/500 = 68 mm2/rib Use 2 no. 2.where MEd = 18.req = 15% × 525 = 79 mm2/rib As.3) Cl.47 MPa fbd = 2.26 × 0.3. Exp.min = max[10f.1.4. As.6(2). v) End support A: top steel Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports.d where n1 = 1. 9.6 × 106/(220 × 103) + 36.3.5 = 1.1 × 1000/314 = 385 MPa fbd = ultimate bond stress = 2. 31 mm beyond centreline of support‡.47 = 3.0 lb.4.3) Cl. 9.25 = 36.6 = 121.1.2(2) Cl. 100 mm] = 200 mm lbd = 581 mm measured from solid/rib intersection.0 × 2.5 × a tension lap beyond the centreline of support (= 250 mm beyond the centreline of support.2.4. 3. H12 T1/rib in rib and 2 no.1.3.2) Cl.25 × 1. § It is usual to curtail 50% of the required reinforcement at 0. it is common practice Exp.rqd ≥ lb.30 × 350. Tables 3. H10 T1/rib between ribs (383 mm2/rib) ‡ Whilst this would comply with the requirements of Eurocode 2.3 kNm/rib z = 220 as before FE = VEd × al/z where VEd = 29. 9.1(1).3 Cl.31 MPa lb.1.min = 0. Exp. 9. Exp.

H16 T + 3 no. H12 T throughout in midspan: Assuming z = 211 mm as before.4(1) Fig. H12 T)/rib are required. Cl. 9. Curtailment of 2 no. Curtail 3 no. H16 T @ say 2600 from BA and 2850 from BC Curtailment of 3 no.8 × 211 = 36.1. H12 T/rib + shift rule): Assume use of 2 no. Shift rule: al = 263 mm as before 2 no. H12 T/rib.0 kNm/m occurs at 1310 mm (towards A) and 1180 mm (towards C). 9.2. 9. H12 at say 1600 from B (or C).1.16) vii) Support B (and C): bottom steel at support At the support 25% of span steel required 0.1.1(4). H12 T/rib at support (capacity of 2 no. H16 T are adequate from 1310 + 263 = 1573 mm from B towards A and 1180 + 263 = 1443 mm from B towards C.0 kNm/m occurs at 2250 mm (towards A) and 2575 mm (towards B).8 × 211 = 20.9 kNm/rib (41. H16 B/rib (201) This reinforcement may be anchored into indirect support or carried through.2.3. H16 T/rib at support (capacity of 2 no.5(1). H12 T are adequate from 2250 + 264 = 2513 mm from B towards A and 2575 + 263 = 2838 mm from B towards C.0 kNm/m) (Note: section remains under-reinforced) From analysis MEd = 41. Shift rule: al = z cot y/2 Assuming z = 211 mm as before al = 1. Curtail 2 no.0 kNm/m) (Note: section remains under-reinforced) From analysis MEd = 23. 9. H16 T/rib then to 2 no.25 × 211 = 264 mm 2 no. (See Figure 3.25 × 628 = 157 mm2 Try 1 no. firstly to 2 no.7 kNm/rib (23.vi) Support B (and C): top steel At the centreline of support (2 no.4 68 . The intention is to curtail in two stages. H16 T/rib + shift rule): MR2H16T = 2 × 201 × 434. MR2H12T = 2 × 113 × 434.

< 3f) a6 = 1. H16 B/rib (201) c) Laps At AB.rqd > l0.rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) where f = 20 ssd = 434. H20 B to 2 no.2 69 .4 kNm/rib ‘Shift’ moment MR = As(fyk/gS)z lbd 2H16/rib MEd MEd = 36.e.min where a1 = 1.e.10) Table 8.0 (cd = 45 mm. check lap 1 no.8 fbd = 3. i. at a1 from solid/rib interface. i. 1000 mm from BA (B towards A) and BC.0 MPa as before Exp.9 = 60. at 1000 + 1. From analysis. at solid/rib interface sagging moment = 0. (8. H20 B in rib full tension lap: l0 = a1 a6 lb.5 (as > 50% being lapped) lb.7 kNm/rib A 264 1310 2250 B 1180 264 2575 C 264 a) Design moments and moment resistance 2H12 2H16 1600 2600 b) Curtailment of reinforcement 1600 2850 3H12 264 2H12 p p viii) Support B (and C): bottom steel curtailment BA and BC To suit prefabrication 2 no. H20/rib will be curtailed at solid/rib interface. From analysis.a1 = 264 2H16 + 3H12 per rib MEd = 77.1 x 0.79 kNm/rib 2H12/rib MEd = 20.25 × 244 = 1303 mm at 1305 mm from BA sagging moment = say 5 kNm/rib at 1305 mm from BC sagging moment = 0 Use 1 no.

5 × (12/4) × 434.17 Curtailment of flexural reinforcement in ribbed slab 70 .0 × 1. > 3f) a6 = 1.1 (3.2 Cl.8 fbd = 2.7 (cd = 45 mm.rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) where f = 20 ssd = 434.min where a1 = 0. (8.l0. H12 T to 2 no.8/3. (8. say = 1200 mm At BA and BC. i. Exp.7 × 1. At BA and BC. H16 B to 2 no.rqd > l0. 500 mm d) RC detail of ribbed slab Links not shown for clarity.e. Cover 25 mm to links.0 MPa as before but n1 = 0. nominal say.6) SMDSC[9] Exp.0 = 1087 mm. 10f or 100 = 120 l0 = 0. 10f or 100 = 200 l0 = 1. say = 700 mm But to aid prefabrication take to solid/rib intersection 1000 mm from centre of support.1 = 651 mm. H20 B in rib: By inspection.8/2.7 for “not good bond conditions”) l0.5 × (20/4) × 434. check lap 1 no.2 SMDSC[9] SMDSC[9] 200 200 1500 2H12T in rib and 2H1OT between 600 600 1000 1000 1000 1250 600 1250 1000 2H16 + 3H12/rib A143 fabric 2H12T/rib 2H16 3H12 2H12 2H16 + 3H12/rib 2H12T 2H12 3H12 2H16 2H12 2H12 + 2H1O 2H16 3H12 2H12 1H20B 150 550 1200 2H20B/rib 1H16B/rib 2H20B/rib 1H16B/rib 500 1000 1000 500 1000 1000 500 7500 9000 Figure 3.min = max.min = max.10) Table 8. check lap 2 no. H16 T in rib – full tension lap: l0 = a1 a6 lb.5 (as > 50% being lapped) lb.4. 8.

Cl.0‡ ‡ Client requirement.30 × 25 Finishes Total Variable: Offices kN/m2 = 7.0 Bb 4. See also BS EN 1991–1–1. A 1 200 x 200 hole 8.0 kN/m2 for finishes and 4. A 2 hour fire rating is required. Tables 6.4.3. The floor slabs are at 4.2.0 gk = 8.5 k= EC1-1-1: Table A1 4.1(8) & NA.1 Actions Permanent: Self-weight 0.0 kN/m2 imposed (no partitions).0 D E 2 300 mm flat slabs All columns 400 mm sq. 6.5 = 1.0 4.3. The slab is 300 mm thick and columns are 400 mm square. 9. 6. Perimeter load is assumed to be 10 kN/m. Concrete is C30/37.0 B 4. 71 .6 Figure 3.0 C 6.0 3 200 x 200 hole 8.18 Part plan of flat slab p 3.50 m vertical centres.1.4 Flat slab chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Flat slab web TCC The slab is for an office where the specified load is 1.2.6 8.

5.3 Load combination and arrangement qk = 4.3.25 × 8.1. the coefficients presume 15% redistribution at supports. n: By inspection.0 = 16.4 Analysis grid line C Consider grid line C as a bay 6.dur = 15 mm for XC1 and using C30/37 Dcdev = 10 mm Fire: For 2 hours resistance. (This may be conservative for grid line C but is correct for grid line D etc.1. assuming 20 mm diameter reinforcement cmin.4. 5.1 & NA Table C3 72 .dur. (6.4.) MEd Effective spans: 9600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 9500 mm 8600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 8500 mm Check applicability of moment coefficients: 8500/9500 = 0.2(3) Table 4.89 as spans differ by less than 15% of larger span. 10 mm] where cmin.6 kN/m2 Arrangement: Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases and coefficients‡.0 kN/m2 gk = 8.5 kN/m2 1 9600 2 8600 3 Figure 3. (4. 4. amin = 35 mm cnom = 20 + 10 = 30 mm not critical Exp. EC2-1-2: Table 5. (6. 5.2.1. Fig. coefficients are applicable.4.2(1) Tables C2 & C3 Cl. Cl.3.0 m wide.b = 20 mm.3(1) & NA: Table NA.2 Cover cnom: cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin.10b) Cl. ‡The all-spans-loaded case with 20% redistribution of support moments would also have been acceptable but would have involved some analysis.b . n = 1.1 (option b) 3. 2.9 in BS EN 1992–1–2 (Fire resistance of solid flat slabs) is restricted to where redistribution does not exceed 15%. Exp.50 + 1.19 Panel centred on grid C Ultimate load.5 EC0: Exp.5 × 4.1) Cl. BS 8500-1: Table A4.10b) is critical. cmin.4. The use of Table 5.9 3.3.

090 + 1.0 = 140.1 NA.5 kNm/m 0.1 Column strip.1.3[1a].3 kNm/m 0.8/3. The middle strip is also 3 m wide.25 × 8. based on ly /lz Assuming ly /lz = 1.8 kNm C D Table C3 6000 1 1500 Column strip Middle strip 1500 2 Column 1500 strip 1500 1500 3000 1500 1500 Column strip Middle strip Column strip Figure 3.100)× 6.0 = 222. Fig. Long span moments: MEd Table I. use table applicable to beams and slabs noting increased coefficients for central support moment and shear. 3 m wide –ve (hogging) 0. 50 × 842. 73 .0 × 0. column strip is ly/2 = 3 m wide.6 × 0.52 = 842.50 × 842.As two span.70 × 952.5 × 0.0 = 95.5 kNm/m § The Concrete Society’s TR 64[27] recommends a percentage.7/3. CS Flat slab guide[27] Table I.52 = 952.20 Column and middle strips p Apportionment of moments between column strips and middle strips: Apportionment (as %) Column strip –ve (hogging) Long span = 70%§ Short span = 75% +ve (sagging) 50% Middle strip Long span = 30% Short span = 25% 50% Parallel to grid C. Design moments in bay.5 the distribution of moments in the long span between column strips and middle strips is given as 70% and 30%.5 × 4.106 × 6.0 × 9. Spans: MEd = (1. I.7 kNm Support: MEd = 16. k1. 3 m wide Middle strip.7/3.30 × 952.8/3.3 kNm/m +ve (sagging) 0.0 = 140.0 × 9.

Exp.6 = 254 MPa (or ≈ 253 MPa.5/9.req/As.94 × 260 = 244 mm As = MEd/fyd z = 140.4.3 × 1.4. 7. VEd: At C2.6 × 6. VEd = 16.51%. c2 = 0. # Otherwise * See Appendix B1. Table NA.17) Table 7.5 l ‡ As punching shear force (rather than a beam shear force) ‘effective’ span is not Table C5 Appendix B Cl.0 = 516.2 (flat slab) F1 = 1.15) = 1324 mm2/m f (r = 0. C14 appropriate.5 × 106/(244 × 500/1.5 × 106/(1000 × 2602 × 30) = 0.0 (beff/bw = 1.5 m. (7.3 (r = 0.2(2) .15) × (8.5 + 0.prov) 1/d q where ssu = (500/1. 7.0)/16.5 Note 5 Fig.2. 7.3 × 25)§ × 1. C3 Fig.0 × 9.0 (no brittle partitions)# F3 = 310/ss ≤ 1. d: d = 300 − 30 − 20/2 = 260 mm a) Flexure: column strip and middle strip.5.5 kN Table C3 Table C3 3. ss 74 Cl.03 ss ≈ 253 × (1324/1570)/1.6 × 6. & NA.3 and gG = 1. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 l where N = 20.0) b F2 = 1.6 × 0.50† Allowable l/d = 20.25) d = redistribution ratio = 1.5 Design grid line C Effective depth. for flat slabs 8.2 × 0.2(2) Appendix C Tables C10–C13 Cl. fck = 30) K = 1.94 z = 0.03 = 207 F3 = 310/207 = 1.2 × 1.45 + (10 + 0.25 × 6.069 z z/d = 0.51%) r Try H20 @ 200 B1 (1570 mm2/m) b) Deflection: column strip and middle strip Check span-to-effective-depth ratio.4.3 × 4.50 = 36.1.5 = 0. sagging MEd = 140.0 × 9.89 as span > 8.63 × 2 = 1204.5 s where* ss = ssu (As.5 kNm/m K = MEd/bd2fck = 140.50 is considered to be a maximum for 310/s .4N.4.8 kN At C1 (and C3) VEd = 16. § Cladding and strip of slab beyond centre of support.6‡ × 0. from Figure C3 Gk/Qk = 2.Punching shear force.5 † In line with Note 5 to Table NA. 1.

3 × 106/(1000 × 2602 × 30) = 0. inside middle 1500 mm There is a requirement to place 50% of At within a width equal to 0.3 kNm/m K = MEd/bd2fck = 222. Use H20 @ 100 T1 (3140 mm2/m) 750 mm either side of centre of support (16 no. # The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce the amount of reinforcement required.4.5 OK‡ Use H20 @ 200 B1 (1570)§ c) Flexure: column strip. 9. Table C5 Table C5 Cl. 1077 mm2/m Use H20 @ 250 T1 (1256 mm2/m) in remainder of column strip ‡ Note: Continuity into columns will reduce sagging moments and criticality of deflection check (see Figures 3.125 × 6.109 z/d = 0.0 × 2213 – 16 × 314 mm2 = 1615 mm2 Over width = 3000 – 2 × 750 mm = 1500 mm i.e. Area required = (3 × 2213 + 3 × 887)/2 mm2 = 4650 mm2 Over width = 2 × 0.15) = 887 mm2/m (r = 0.89 z = 0. § Note requirement for at least 2 bars in bottom layer to carry through column.Actual l/d = 9500/260 = 36.125 of the panel width on either side of the column.85%) Try H20 @ 125 T1 (2512 mm2/m)# d) Flexure: middle strip.95 × 260 = 247 mm As = MEd/fydz = 95.3 kNm/m K = MEd/bd2fck = 95.15) = 2213 mm2/m (r = 0.3 × 106/(1000 × 2602 × 30) = 0. hogging MEd = 95. outside middle 1500 mm Area required = 3.1(3) 75 .3 × 106/(231 × 500/1. bars) (r = 0.60%) ii) In column strip.069 z/d = 0. hogging MEd = 222.0 m = 1500 mm i.26 and 3.3 × 106/(247 × 500/1.27).e.34%) Try H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm2/m) e) Requirements i) In column strip.89 × 260 = 231 mm As = MEd/fydz = 222.4.5 = 3100 mm2/m for 750 mm either side of the column centreline. 9.95 z = 0.1(2) Cl. require 4650/1.

H20 each side of hole (2512 mm2).30 × 300.82 × 260 = 213 mm As = MEd/fydz = 275.15) = 2978 mm2/m This reinforcement to be placed within cx + 2cy = 1100 mm Try 10 no.9 SMDSC[9] Cl.1. 9.26 (fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0.iii) In middle strip Use H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm2/m) iv) Perpendicular to edge of slab at edge column Design transfer moment to column Mt = 0.6/2 + 0.e.3.3.req becomes 2233 mm2 i. 9. Cl. 5. Column strip is 6.30 × fck0.0013 btd where bt = width of tension zone fctm = 0.0 m wide with continuous spans of 6.2h from edge = 600 mm Cl.82 z = 0.4(2) 3.1(4) 76 .666 × 1000 × 260/500 = 390 mm2/m (r = 0. 9. v) Perpendicular to edge of slab generally Assuming that there is partial fixity along the edge of the slab.8 × 106/(800 × 2602 × 30) = 0. 9.6 Analysis grid line 1 (grid 3 similar) Consider grid line 1 as being 9.0 m.1.1.4(1) & NA Cl.1 Table 3. 9. I.17 bed 2fck where be = cz + y = 400 + 400 = 800 mm Mt = 0.8 × 106/(213 × 500/1.4/2 = 1.4.4.26 × 0.2.2(1). 9. 9.2(5) Fig.15%) Use H12 @ 200 (565 mm2/m) The reinforcement should extend 0. Consider perimeter load is carried by column strip only.3. use 4 no.2(2).0/4 + 0. As.17 × 800 × 2602 × 30 × 10−6 = 275.7 m wide. 200 mm from column) Note: Where a 200 × 200 hole occurs on face of column.1 Cl.25 × 2213 = 553 mm2/m vi) Check minimum area of reinforcement As.4/2 = 5.1.666 As. H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200 (3140 mm2) local to column (max.min = 0. top reinforcement capable of resisting 25% of the moment in the adjacent span should be provided OK 0.1.1.170 z/d = 0.8 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck = 275.min = 0. be becomes 600 mm and pro rata.2.1.1.

4)/1.1 Table I. I.0 kN/m Cl. (6.1 kNm/m = 37.70 0.50 × 248. worst case) MEd = 0.5 kN/m2 = 42.5 kN/m C 6000 D 6000 E 6000 F p Actions: Permanent from slab Variable from slab Permanent perimeter load gk = 5 × 8. 5. 10 × 1. end span assuming pinned support) MEd = 0.3 = 95.5/3.3.1 CS Flat slab guide[27] 77 .0 kN/m gk cladding = 10.50 × 248. spans (and supports.4 kNm Apportionment to column strips and middle strips: Apportionment (as %) Column strip.6 kNm/m = 18.3[1a]: Fig.1 (option c) Fig.3 m wide –ve (hogging) (0.0 kN/m gk slab = 42.086 × 83. MEd: In spans (worst case.8 kNm/m +ve (sagging) (0. Exp.0 × 5.0 kN/m2 = 20.6 kN/m Perimeter load.92 = 248.5 kNm Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load. choose to use all-spans-loaded case and coefficients Ultimate load.5 kN/m Effective span. 5. 2. n: By inspection.0 × 5.2.1. (6.7 m wide Middle strip.qk slab = 20.10b) is critical.10b) Load combination and arrangement: As before.75 × 248.7 m wide Middle strip Short span = 25% –ve (hogging) Short span = 75% 50% +ve (sagging) 50% Short span moments: MEd Column strip.70 0. leff Effective span = 6000 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 5900 Design moments in bay.25 × (42. 3.5 + 37.5 × 5.25 = 12.5 +10) + 1.5 kN/m qk = 5 × 4. n = 1.92 = 37.3(1) & NA: Table NA.3 = 131. 1.25 × 248. 1.2(1) Table C2 Table C2 NA.086 × 83.92 = 248.086 × 12.5 EC0: Exp.0 kN/m gk = 10.5/3.4)/1.5 + 37.5 kNm At supports (worst case 1st support) MEd = 0.5 × 20 = 95.6 kNm/m Cl.

0) F2 = 1.15) = 959 mm2/m (r = 0. Table NA. as before = 516.2 × 1.Punching shear force.17).5 kN For penultimate support.3. 516.6 kNm/m By inspection. Table 7. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = 26.0 (no brittle partitions) F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.5 × 1.prov) 1/d where ssu ≈ 283 MPa (from Figure C3 and Gk/Qk = 3.2 (flat slab) F1 = 1. gG = 1.1 × 106/(1000 × 2402 × 30) = 0.15) = 379 mm2/m (r = 0. (7.08 = 250 F3 = 310/250 = 1.5 kN Table C3 3.1 kNm/m K = MEd/bd2fck = 95. fck = 30) K = 1.5 OK Use H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm2/m) c) Flexure: middle strip.5: Note 5 Fig.1 × 106/(228 × 500/1.6. C3 Table C14 Fig.req/As.2.6 × 106/(228 × 500/1. Exp.5 where ss = ssu (As.08 ss ≈ 283 × (959/1005)/1.7 Design grid line 1 (grid 3 similar) Cover: cnom = 30 mm as before d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm a) Flexure: column strip.0 (beff/bw = 1. 7. c2 = 0.95 z = 0.95 × 240 = 228 mm As = MEd/fyd z = 95.4.56%) Table C5 Appendix B Appendix C7 Tables C10–C13 Cl.4.0 Actual l/d = 5900/240 = 24.055 z/d = 0. VEd For internal supports.2 (r = 0. sagging MEd = 37. sagging MEd = 95.40%. C3 78 .40%) Try H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm2/m) b) Deflection: column strip Check span-to-effective-depth ratio.24 Allowable l/d = 26.24 = 39.4N & NA.2 × 1.25) d = redistribution ratio = 1. z = 228 mm As = MEd/fydz = 37.18 = 609.

i.56%) Try H20 @ 200 T2 (1570 mm2/m)‡ e) Flexure: middle strip. 9.1. 79 . As.15) = 1357 mm2/m (r = 0. This should be balanced against the effect of the presence of a 200 × 200 hole at some supports which would have the effect of increasing K but not unduly increasing the total amount of reinforcement required in the column strip (a 1.1.1. Cl.min = 0.3.1.2.928 z = 0.min = 0. 9.30 × 300.3 × 190)/2 mm2 = 1334 mm2 Within = 0.min as before = 361 mm2/m (r = 0.928 × 240 = 223 mm As = MEd/fydz = 131.1 Table 3.75 = 1779 mm2/m for 750 mm from the column centreline.08%) As. As this column strip is adjacent to the edge of the slab.0013 btd where bt = width of tension zone fctm = 0.8 kNm/m By inspection.0 m = 750 mm of the column centreline.1.6 × 106/(1000 × 2402 × 30) = 0.2.15) = 190 mm2/m (r = 0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column.6 kNm/m K = MEd/bd2fck = 131. 9.26 × 0.666 As.1 Table C5 Table C5 Cl. Check minimum area of reinforcement. hogging MEd = 131.5 × 1357 + 3.1 Cl. deflection OK.15%) Try H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m) f) Requirements There is a requirement to place 50% of At within a width equal to 0.15%) Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m) d) Flexure: column strip.1.30 × fck0.By inspection.3.6 × 106/(223 × 500/1.8 × 106/(228 × 500/1. z = 228 mm As = MEd/fydz = 18.4. hogging MEd = 18.5% increase in total area would been required). require 1334/0.076 z/d= 0.1(2) ‡ The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce the amount of reinforcement required.e.26 (fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0.125 × 6. 9. 9. consider one side only: Area required = (1.666 × 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm2/m (r = 0.

load combination and arrangement: Choose to use all-spans-loaded case.0/2 = 3.4 kN/m Slab qk = 9. Column strip is 6.4 kN/m gk slab = 77. leff: Effective span = 5900 mm as before. (6.1 × 4. requirement is for 1.4 × 5.7 × 1357 – 6 × 314 = 422 mm2 in 750 mm. (See Figure 3.92 = 453.2(1) Table C2 Table C2 80 . Cl.1. 5. end span assuming pinned support) MEd = 0.25 × 77.10b) Cl.3.10b) is critical. Ultimate load. H20 @ 175 T2(1794 mm2/m) (r = 0. MEd: Spans (worst case. (6.6/2 = 9.0 m wide.3(1) & NA: Table NA.4 kN/m Effective span.22 Internal panel on grid 2 p Slab gk = 9.5 kN/m2 = 77. 2.6/2 + 8.92 = 453.e.68%) between edge and to 750 mm from centre of support In column strip.2 kNm Support (worst case 1st support) MEd = 0.2 kNm Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load.4 kN/m C 6000 D 6000 E 6000 F Figure 3.8 Analysis grid line 2 Consider panel on grid line 2 as being 9.5 EC0: Exp.4 = 151. n: By inspection.0 kN/m2 = 36.4 kN/m Actions. i.086 × 151.4.5 × 36.0 m.1 m wide and continuous spans of 6.1 (option c) Fig. 5.2.4 × 5. Design moments in bay. outside middle 1500 mm.086 × 151.Allowing for similar from centreline of column to edge of slab: Use 6 no. qk slab = 36.20).1 × 8.4 + 1. 563 mm2/m Use H12 @ 175 T2 (646 mm2/m) in remainder of column strip In middle strip Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m) 3. Exp. n = 1.

065 z/d = 0.0 = 75.15) = 374 mm2/m (r = 0.25 × 453.5 × 106/(228 × 500/1.5 kNm/m By inspection. OK. z = 228 mm As = MEd/fydz = 37.0 m wide Middle strip. deflection OK.75 × 453.3 kNm/m K = MEd/bd2fck = 113.15) = 761 mm2/m (r = 0.2/3.50 × 453.15) = 1158 mm2/m (r = 0.0 = 113. sagging MEd = 75.32%) Try H16 @ 250 B2 (804 mm2/m) Deflection: column strip By inspection.2/6. 3.2/3.1 = 37.5 kNm/m By inspection.1 kNm/m 3.3 × 106/(225 × 500/1. 6. sagging MEd = 37.4. as before. d d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm a) Flexure: column strip. Try H10 @ 200 B2 (393 mm2/m) c) Flexure: column strip.Apportionment to column strips and middle strips: MEd Column strip.1 × 106/(228 × 500/1. hogging MEd = 18.5 kNm/m +ve (sagging) 0.1 kNm/m By inspection. 0.55%) By inspection. Table C5 Table C5 81 .5 kNm/m Punching shear force.94 z = 0. hogging MEd = 113.9 Design grid line 2 Effective depth.2/6.3 × 106/(1000 × 2402 × 30) = 0.1 m wide 0. z = 228 mm ‡ The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce the amount of reinforcement required.1 –ve (hogging) 0. b) Flexure: column strip.3 kNm/m = 18. z = 228 mm As = MEd/fydz = 75.50 × 453.928 × 240 = 225 mm As = MEd/fydz = 113.48%) Try H20 @ 250 T2 (1256 mm2/m)‡ d) Flexure: middle strip. VEd.

In the case of a penultimate column.15 VEd = applied shear force ui = control perimeter under consideration. an additional elastic reaction factor should have been considered.4.0 × 1158 + 6.4. 764 mm2/m Use H16 @ 250 T2 (804 mm2/m) in remainder of column strip In middle strip: Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m) Table C5 Cl. require 2307/1.08%) As before minimum area of reinforcement governs As.5(3) Fig.e.30 × 300.max where b = factor dealing with eccentricity.10 Punching shear.min = 0.26 × 0. 6. Use H20 @ 200T2 (1570 mm2/m) 750 mm either side of centre of support (r = 0.4. applied shear force.60%) In column strip. i.8 kN‡ a) Check at perimeter of column vEd = bVEd /uid < vRd.5vfcd Cl. 6.As = MEd/fydz = 18. 6. 9.125 of the panel width on either side of the column: Area required = (3.666 × 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm2/m (r = 0. C2 At C2.46 MPa vEd vRd.32) Cl. outside middle 1500 mm.3. 6. For punching shear adjacent to interior columns u0 = 2(cx + cy) = 1600 mm d = mean effective depth = (260 + 240)/2 = 250 mm = 1. 6.max = 0. i. 9. requirement is for 3.5(3) Exp.125 × 6. central column.2. VEd = 1204.1. 82 ‡ .5 × 1570 = 1119 mm2 in 1500 mm.15 × 1204.15%) Try H12 @ 300 B2 (376 mm2/m) e) Requirements Regarding the requirement to place 50% of At within a width equal to 0.1 3.5 × 106/(228 × 500/1. (6.1 × 187)/2 mm2 = 2307 mm2 Within = 2 × 0.1.4. recommended value 1.21N & NA Cl.5 = 1538 mm2/m for 750 mm either side of the column centreline.8 × 103/1600 × 250 = 3.0 × 1158 – 1.15) = 187 mm2/m (r = 0.3(2).5(3) Note Column C2 is taken to be an internal column.0 m = 1500 mm centred on the column centreline.1.e.4.

r lz at 3d from the side of the column. (6.3(1) § At the perimeter of the column.75 = 187.13 Exp. #The values used here for r ly .8 × 103/4741 × 250 = 1.5 = (0.4.47) & NA Cl.max is available from Table C7. v Rd. that cot y = 1. Considering the concentration would have given a higher value of VRd.5 k = 1 + (200/d)0. i.89 rl = (rly rlz)0.528 fcd = acclfck /gC = 1. r lz ignore the fact that the reinforcement is concentrated over the support. * vRd.61) = 9085 mm Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm Radius to uout = (9085 – 1600)/2 = 1191 mm from face of column Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1191 – 1.54) Cl.89 × (100 × 0.0.5 = 1.0085 × 0.18/1.5(4) & NA Cl.4.0 × 1. 9.333 where gC = 1. say = 175 mm Fig.0064 where r .c = 0.0. 6.17 MPa vRd. For punching shear at 2d from interior columns u1 = 2(cx + cy) + 2 × 2d = 4741 mm vEd = 1.0064 × 30)0.c where b.0 × 30/1.c at the expense of further calculation to determine r ly .5 = 20 = 0. Where cot y = < 1.5 = 0.c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6. 6.4.where v = 0.528 × 20 = 5.4.1(1) Table C5* Exp. VEd and d as before u1 = control perimeter under consideration.333 = 0.5 × 0.max = 250 × 0. (6. 83 . 6.28 MPa OK Table C7 § Cl.0048)0. rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column# fck = 30 vRd.c) uout = 1204.6(1 − fck/250) = 0.5 ≤ 2 k = 1 + (200/250)0.8 × 1. 6. vRd.15 × 103/(250 × 0.5 × 1.61 MPa Punching shear reinforcement required c) Perimeter at which punching shear links are no longer required uout = VEd × b/(d vRd.max assumes the strut angle is 45°.18/ gC k (100 rlfck)0.e.5 × 250 = 816 m from face of column Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links): sr.2 b) Check shear stress at control perimeter u1 (2d from face of column) vEd = bVEd/u1d < vRd.15 × 1204.4.c = 0.

5 (175 × 350)/(1.min ≥ 0.3(1) Fig. which by substituting v for v Ed Rd. § The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or outside perimeter u1. 2d from the column‡: Asw ≥ (vEd – 0. 9.3 Cl. u1.4. By inspection of Figure 3. Asw. Section 3.Inside 2d control perimeter.5 × 312) = 1263 mm2 per perimeter Asw. 6. 6. say 350 mm Outside control perimeter st. Say 0.75d = 0.5(sr st)/(1.4.5fywd.10.3). 9.52) Cl.61) × 175 × 4741/(1. spacing = min[50/0.4.5 provides Exp.23 the equivalent of 20 locations are available at 1. 9.max = 250 × 1.4. H8 legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeter u1 Perimeters at 0.3(2) Exp. st. By inspection of Figure 3. Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9. H10 = 1413 mm2.5d] = min[188.266.4. for the basic control perimeter.min = minimum area of a single leg of link a = angle between main reinforcement and shear reinforcement. By inspection of Figure 3. 9.4d = 100 mm from face of column.4d from column therefore try 2 × 10 no. for vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.25d) < fyd = 312 MPa For perimeter u1 Asw = (1.5.0 Asw.90d from column therefore try 20 no.23 the equivalent of 18 locations are available at 1. 9. By inspection of Figure 3.75 × 250 = 187. H10 = 1570 mm2. 375] = 188 mm cc Use min.0 = 500 mm Assuming vertical reinforcement: At the basic control perimeter. Cl.4.266 mm2/mm Using H8 max.23 the equivalent of 10 locations are available at 0.3(4) Cl.5 mm say = 175 mm centres d) Check area of reinforcement > 1263 mm2 in perimeters inside u1§ 1st perimeter to be > 0. (6.75vRd.4. H10 = 1570 mm2.c.23 beyond u1 to uout grid of H10 at 175 x 175 OK.ef = effective design strength of reinforcement = (250 + 0.5d from face of column. 1. u1.4.5(1) Exp.5 fyk sin a + cos a) where Asw.max = 250 × 2.52).c) sr u1/1.08 × 300.75 × 0.ef) where fywd.11) Cl. (6.08fck0.3d but < 0. 9. ‡ Clause 6. Cl.3 84 .min ≥ 0.4. 6. allows calculation of the area of required shear reinforcement.14.17 – 0.15d from column therefore try 18 no. See Commentary on design.5 × 500) = 36 mm2 Try H8 legs of links (50 mm2) Asw /u1 ≥ 1263/4741 = 0.2 Cl.5 = 375.5 Exp. (9.4.

as before = 5.4.5 = 609. 6.4.4.5 × 103/1150 × 250 = 2.e) Summary of punching shear refreshment required at column C2 uout Punching shear reinforcement no longer required 1.97 MPa vRd. For punching shear adjacent to edge columns u0 = c2 + 3d < c2 + 2c1 = 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm = 1150 mm d = as before 250 mm vEd = 1.21N & NA Cl.5(3) Note 85 . 6. 6.18 × 516.4 × 609.23 Punching shear links at column C2 (112 no. 6. VEd = 1.5(3) Fig. edge column Assuming penultimate support.4 VEd = applied shear force ui = control perimeter under consideration.5 kN a) Check at perimeter of column vEd = b VEd/uid < vRd.max.28 MPa OK Table C3 Cl.11 Punching shear. recommended value 1.4.4.5d = 375 175 175 175 175 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 C S = 112 H10 legs of links u1 at 2d from column 716 100 400 100 2 716 uout 375 175 175 175 175 200 200 200 175 175 175 175 716 100 400 100 716 Figure 3.max where b = factor dealing with eccentricity. 6.3(2).32) Cl. (6. links) (column D2 similar) 3.5(3) Exp.

1(1) Table C6‡ 3d = 750 H12 @ 200 U-bars 400 3d = 750 10H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc 400 1 6H20T1 @175 H12 @ 175T1 Figure 3.c where b. 1997 mm2 in 1150 mm.89 × (100 × 0.0074 fck = 30 vRd.e.c = 0.e.5 = 0. rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column.0d from face of column) vEd = bVEd/u1d < vRd. 6. H20 T1 + 1 no.4.c = 0. (6.333 = 0. For punching shear at 2d from edge column columns u1 = c2 + 2c1+ × 2d = 2771 mm vEd = 1.0080 × 0. i.0069 r l = (0.5 × 103/2771 × 250 = 1.15 Exp.0069)0.4 × 609.b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u1 (2. VEd and d as before u1 = control perimeter under consideration.c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6.2 Fig.5 where r . r lz = 1997/(250 × 1150) = 0. 6.5 × 1.4.89 rl = (r lyr lz )0. r ly: (perpendicular to edge) 10 no. 86 3d = 750 . 6.0080 r lz : (parallel to edge) 6 no.24 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns C1 (and C3) ‡ vRd.18/1.47) & NA Cl.18/ gC × k × (100 rlfck)0.64 MPa Punching shear reinforcement required C Cl. H12 T2 in 2 × 750 + 400.333 where gC = 1. 3818 mm2 in 1900 mm r ly = 3818/(250 × 1900) = 0.5 = 1.4.5 k = as before = 1 +(200/250)0.0074 × 30)0. T12 T1 in 400 + 750 i.23 MPa vRd. H20 T2 + 6 no.

75vRd.3 87 .ef = (1. H8 (50 mm2) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters: perimeters at 175 mm centres e) Check area of reinforcement > 777 mm2 in perimeters inside u1§ 1st perimeter to be > 0. Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl.75 × 0.3).27 the equivalent of 12 locations are available at 1. H10 = 1099 mm2 By inspection of Figure 3. 9. (6.4.5fywd.4 × 103/(250 × 0.5 × 250 = 940 mm from face of column.c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required uout = 609.5(4) & NA Cl. 9.4.4d = 100 mm from face of column By inspection of Figure 3. Exp. Assuming internal support. H10 = 942 mm2 By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 14 locations are available at 1. 9.12 Punching shear. VEd = 516.5 (175 × 350)/(1. Cl. 6.max = 175 mm. As previously described use 4 no.4. st.08 × 300.4. Say 0. d) Shear reinforcement As before.4. sr.10.5 × 500) = 36 mm2 Asw/u1 ≥ 777/2771 = 0.5 × 312) = 777 mm2 per perimeter Asw.15d from column therefore try 12 no.64) × 175 × 2771/(1. edge column with hole Check columns D1 and D3 for 200 × 200 mm hole adjacent to column. spacing = 50/0.3d but < 0.90d from column therefore try 14 no. 9.52) Exp.ef = 312 MPa For perimeter u1 Asw ≥ (vEd – 0.3(4) 3. 9. (6.64) = 5333 mm Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm radius to uout from face of column = say (5333 − 1200)/ = 1315 mm from face of column Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1370 – 1. 9.11) Fig.28 mm2/mm Using H8 max.5d from face of column.4.3(1).14.4.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H20 U-bars each side of column for transfer moment.28 = 178 mm cc Use min.4.c) sr u1/1.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available at 0.23 – 0.54) Cl.5 kN § See Commentary on design Section 3.max = 350 mm and fywd.27 beyond u1 to uout grid of H10 at 175 x 175 OK. (9. H10 = 942 mm2 By inspection of Figure 3.min ≥ 0.5 × 1.3(2) Exp. Cl.

e.5 × 103/2071 × 250 = 1.47) & NA Cl. 3190 mm2 in 1640 mm.4. 6. 6.4. are effective) + 1 no.2 Fig. For punching shear adjacent to edge columns u0 = c2 + 3d < c2 + 2c1 = 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm = 1150 mm Allowing for hole. i.max as before = 5.4. 6.5 × 103/950 × 250 = 3.40 MPa vRd. r ly = 3190/(240 × 1640) = 0.3(2).5 where r . 6. H12 T2 in 2 × 720 + 400 − 200.14 Exp.21N & NA Cl.4. r lz = 1683/(260 × 950) = 0.333 where gC = 1.5(3) Exp. 6. 1683 mm2 in 950 mm.06 MPa OK vRd.5 = 1. recommended value 1.4. T12 T1 in 400 + 750 – 200. i.4 VEd = applied shear force ui = control perimeter under consideration.28 MPa b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u1 (2. (6.5(3) Note Cl. (6. 6.4.89 rl = (r ly r lz )0. H20 T2 + 6 no.4.4 × 516.a) Check at perimeter of column vEd = bVEd/uid < vRd. rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column rly: (perpendicular to edge) 8 no.c where b. For punching shear at 2d from edge column columns u1 = c2 + 2c1+ × 2d = 2771 mm Allowing for hole 200/(c1/2): x/(c1/2 + 2d) 200/200: x/( 200 + 500) x = 700 mm u1 = 2771 – 700 = 2071 mm vEd = 1.0068 88 Cl.15 Fig. 6. H20 T1 (5 no.0081 rlz: (parallel to edge) 6 no. u0 = 1150 – 200 = 950 mm d = 250 mm as before vEd = 1.c = 0.32) Cl.max where b = factor dealing with eccentricity. 6.4 × 516.1(1) .18/gC × k × (100 rlfck)0.0d from face of column) vEd = bVEd/u1d < vRd.5 k = as before = 1 + (200/250)0.5(3) Fig.e. VEd and d as before u1 = control perimeter under consideration. 6.

Exp.75vRd.25 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns D1 and D3 c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required uout = 516.0074 = 30 fck vRd.5 × 250 = 1123 mm from face of column d) Shear reinforcement As before.rl = (0.max = 350 mm and fywd.75 × 0.08 × 300.c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6. 6.0074 × 30)0.0068)0.34 mm2/mm ‡v Rd.54) Cl.27) = 2 tan−1(100/200) = 2 × 26.min ≥ 0.5 × 312) = 712 mm2 per perimeter Asw.max = 175 mm. radius to uout from face of column = say (4519 − 1200)/( − 0.927) = 1498 mm from face of column Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1498 – 1.5° = 0. 9.5(4) & NA Cl. st.3(2) Exp.64) × 175 × 2071/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm2 Asw/u1 ≥ 712/2071 = 0. sr.33 = 0.5fywd.64) = 4519 mm Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm Angle subtended by hole from centre of column D1 (See Figures 3.64 MPa punching shear reinforcement required D H12 @ 175T1 Table C6‡ 400 3d = 750 3 H12 @ 200 U-bars 6H20T @ 175 3d = 750 400 8H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc 3d = 750 Figure 3.c) sr u1/1.4.5 × 1.ef) per perimeter = (1.5 (175 × 350)/(1.40 – 0.4.5 = 0.52) 89 .927 rads.18/1. (6.4.c = 0.3(1) 9. (6.4 × 103/(250 × 0.5 × 1.0081 × 0.ef = 312 MPa For perimeter u1 Asw ≥ (vEd – 0.25 & 3.89 × (100 × 0.

9.3 90 . Cl.4. e) Check area of reinforcement > 712 mm2 in perimeters inside u1‡ 1st perimeter to be 100 mm from face of column as before. say 175 cc Use min.4. By inspection of Figure 3.4.5 mm2) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters: perimeters at 175 mm centres Check min. spacing = 78.27 beyond 1. 1. By inspection of Figure 3. Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement.Using H8 (50 mm2) max. By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 10 locations are available at 1.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available at 0. 375] = 147 mm cc No good Try using H10. 9.3. H10 (78.13 Summary of design Grid C flexure End supports: Column strip: (max.15d from column therefore try 10 H10 = 785 mm2.5/0.34 = 231 mm cc. H10 = 942 mm2.10.4. spacing = min[50/0.3(4) 3.5d] = min[147. Fig. H10 legs of links (712 mm2) in perimeter u1. Cl. max. 9 no. H20 U-bars in pairs (where 200 × 200 hole use 8 no.14. H20 T1 in U-bars in pairs) Middle strip: H12 @ 200 T1 Spans 1–2 and 2–3: Column strip and middle strip: Central support: Column strip centre: for 750 mm either side of support: Column strip outer: Middle strip: Grid 1 (and 3) flexure Spans: Column strip: Middle strip: H20 @ 200 B H20 @ 100 T1 H20 @ 250 T1 H16 @ 200 T1 H16 @ 200 B2 H12 @ 300 B2 ‡ See Commentary on design Section 3. 200 mm from column) 10 no. 9.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no.15d to uout grid: H10 at 175 x 175 OK. 2d from column face.

27 91 .26 Edge (e. st. 175 mm centres.g. H20 @ 175 T2 H12 @ 175 T2 H12 @ 300 T2 H16 @ 250 B2 H10 @ 200 B2 H20 @ 200 T2 H16 @ 250 T2 H12 @ 300 T2 See Figure 3. tangential spacing of legs of links.26 Punching shear Internal (e. 1123 mm See Figure 3.max = 175 mm Last perimeter. min. from column face. C3 assuming no holes): Generally. at C2): Generally.g. from column face. but double up on 1st perimeter Max. tangential spacing of legs of links.g. D3 assuming 200 × 200 hole on face of column): Generally. 175 mm centres but double up on 1st perimeter Max.max = 175 mm Last perimeter. 940 mm Edge (e. at D1. use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm centres but double up on 1st perimeter Max. st. tangential spacing of legs of links. min. at C1.Interior support: Column strip centre: Column strip outer: Middle strip: Grid 2 flexure Spans: Column strip: Middle strip: Interior support: Column strip centre: Column strip outer: Middle strip: 6 no.max = 270 mm Last perimeter. use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. st. from column face. min. use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 767 mm See Figure 3.

1–2 3.0 798.175 T2 H12 .8 below Plane frame columns 616.8 885. Nonetheless.14 Commentary on design a) Method of analysis The use of coefficients in the analysis would not usually be advocated in the design of such a slab.0 1205 1103 1060 1031 Coefficients Continuous beam Plane frame columns 664. Method Moment in Centre support Centre support 9.C D 10H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200 H12 @ 200 T1 U-bars 6H20 .4.7 747.200 T1 U-bars 8H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200 1 H20 @ 200 B1 H16 @ 175 B2* 5H12 @ 175 T2 H12 @ 300 B2 H10 @ 200 T2 4H16 @ 250 T2 3H20 @ 250 T1 2 16H20 @ 100 T1 3H20 @ 250 T1 H16 @ 200 T1 Note:* Spacing rationalised to suit punching shear links H16 @ 175 B2* 9H20 @ 175 T2* 3H20 @ 250 T1 16H20 @ 100 T1 Figure 3. unsurprisingly.6 834.26 Reinforcement details bay C–D. their use leads to higher design moments and shears. as shown below.6 m span per moment per reaction VEd (kN) 6 m bay (kNm) 6 m bay (kNm) 842. coefficients may be used and.0 952.8 above and below 92 .

advantage was taken of using effective spans to calculate design moments. Cl.2(1) Cl. For instance.D 375 uout 1123 8H20 T1 U-bars in pairs H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 Ineffective area S = 152 H10 legs of links C L @ 175 mm centres 200 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 200 100 Note: For internal column see Figure 3. 7 perimeters using coefficients) b) Effective spans and face of support In the analysis using coefficients.2(3) 93 . leads to: H16 @ 200 B1 in spans 1–2 (cf. one may base the design on the moment at the face of support.27 Punching shear links at column D1 (and D3) (penultimate support without hole similar) These higher moments and shears result in rather more reinforcement than when using other more refined methods. This had the effect of reducing span moments. At supports. 5 perimeters using coefficients) 2 perimeters of shear links at C3 (cf. This is in line with BS 8110[7] and could have been used to reduce support moments. H20 @ 200 B1 using coefficients) H20 @ 125 T1 at support 2 (cf. H20 @ 100 T1 using coefficients) 3 perimeters of shear links at C2 for VEd = 1065 kN (cf.3. This is borne out by Guide to the design and construction of reinforced concrete flat slabs[27] that states that hogging moments greater than those at a distance hc/3 may be ignored (where hc is the effective diameter of a column or column head).2. the finite element analysis used in Guide to the design and construction of reinforced concrete flat slabs[27] for this bay.23 100 1.2.5d uout 500 6H20 @ 175 T2 6H16 @ 175 B2 H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars 1 1 u1 Figure 3. 5. 5.3.

the numbers of links could have been reduced to maintain provision of the designed amount of reinforcement Asw.75d radial spacing) and as the reinforcement in B2 and T2 is essentially at 175 centres.18. the reinforcement would be curtailed and this would be done either in line with previous examples or. Similar to BS 8110[7] figure 3. in line with other guidance[20. VEd/VRd.c) Punching shear reinforcement Arrangement of punching shear links According to the literal definition of in Exp.75d wide). it is apparent that the requirement for punching shear reinforcement is for a punching shear zone 1. (6.6) to the first two perimeters to make doubling of punching shear reinforcement at the first perimeter unnecessary: in terms of Eurocode 2 this would mean 80% Asw on the first perimeter and 120% Asw on the second.12.c In late 2008.3(1) 94 . 6.6 Cl.52).7. Therefore. A rectangular arrangement of H12 links would have been possible (within perimeter u1. a proposal was made for the UK National Annex to include a limit of 2. would have simplified the shear reinforcement requirements. Outside u1. 350 × 175.52 Exp.4. 3.52) to make the requirement for a perimeter (up to 0. it is considered better to leave the arrangement as a regular square grid. 500 × 175). e. However.0 or 2. large concentrations of shear reinforcement are required close to the columns – in this example. 21].c (or vEd/vRd. (6. It might appear reasonable to apply the same 40%:60% rule (BS 8110 Cl.c = 2.5 on VEd/VRd. as the grid would need to change orientation around each column (to maintain the 0.4. Curtailment of reinforcement In this design.g.50 BS 8110: Fig. Use of shear reinforcement in a radial arrangement. Using this arrangement it would be possible to replace the designed H10 links in the first two perimeters with single H12 links. it might be argued that Exp.7. For perimeters inside . Exp. in Eurocode 2. the requirement has been ‘simplified’ in Exp. this expression is deemed applicable only to foundation bases. using stud rails.50) (enhancement close to supports) should apply.7. this included doubling up shear links at the 1st perimeter. more practically. 9. at the time of writing. However. outside u1.5d wide. 3.17 BS 8110: Cl. (6. the same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or outside perimeter (rather than ( / )/sr being considered as the required density of shear reinforcement on and within perimeter ). VEd/VRd. edge column with hole.17. 3.7. 6. It is apparent that this limitation could have major effects on flat slabs supported on relatively small columns. For instance in Section 3.c) within punching shear requirements. However.

25 + 4.00 EC1-1-1: Table 6.5.3.88 = 2. 6.25 × 0.5 × 22 Finishing = 4.10 = 0.20 × 1.1. BS 8500 95 .5.19 = 1.2 Moment MEd = (8.452/8 = 24.5 Stair flight chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Stair flight web TCC 1750 600 9 @250 3450 600 Figure 3.3 Variable action: crowd loading 3.3 Design d = 160 – cnom – f/2 where cnom = 25 mm (for XC1) f = 12 mm (assumed) d = 129 mm Concise: Table 4.28 Stair flight 3.20 qk = 4.2 & NA.2 kNm/m 3.1 Loads kN/m2 Permanent (worse case flight) Assume 160 waist 0.2.160 × 305/250 × 25 Treads 4 × 0.5) × 3.00 × 1.5.175/2 × 25 50 mm screed 0.03 gk = 8.

95 × 129 122 mm MEd/fydz 24.7 OK Provide H12 @ 250 B.0 F3 = 1.7 K = 1.0 (say) Allowable l/d = 32.7 Actual l/d = 3450/129 = 26. Table C10 Table C11 96 .048 0.5.15) × 122] 456 mm2/m (r = 0.95 0.= = z/d = z = = As = = = K MEd/bd2fck = 24.0 F2 = 1. Appendix C7.4 Check deflection Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = 32.0 F1 = 1.35%) Try H12 @ 250 (452 mm2/m) Table C5 OK) 3.2 × 106/[(500/1.2 × 106/(1000 × 1292 × 30) 0.

2 (B) Cl.4(1) Cl.1.3.A1.2 Cl.1 EC1 & NAs Table 4.4 Cl. 9.3. 5.4.1.4. Tables 7. Fig. 4.2(2) Cl.2N. NA. 9.2.1. A5 EC2–1–2: Tables 5. 9. 6.1.3.1 Cl.3. 9. 7. 9.1.7.2 Cl.4.1.1.1(2).3.5.3. 5. 9.1(4).1. 9.2.3 97 . 9. 8.2.2.1. 7.3N Cl.1 EC0 & NA Tables NA. 5. 9.3.1(1) Cl.1 BS 8500–1: Tables A4.1.2.8.5(1). 5.9.4.3.1.6 Cl.A1.3. 5. 7. 6.1(1). 9.3(1) & NA Cl. 8.1(4).5(2) Cl.1. 9. 5.10.2.Beams General EC0 & NA Table NA. 5.11 Cl. 9.1.

fyk = 500 MPa. cnom: cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin.1 Continuous rectangular beam 450 300 Figure 4. a 50-year design life and a requirement for a 2-hour resistance to fire in an external but sheltered environment.5 kN/m gk = 30.1) Cl. 4. qk = 11. Assume 25 mm main bars cmin.2 Section through beam 4.b = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar.2 kN/m and variable qk = 11. (4. 6 m spans.1.2(3) 98 . Assuming XC3 (moderate humidity or cyclic wet and dry) and secondarily XF1 (moderate water Exp.5 kN/m 4. Assume 300 mm wide supports.2 kN/m 6000 6000 Figure 4.1.5 kN/m over 2 no.4.2 kN/m and qk = 11.dur] where cmin.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions. fck = 30 MPa.b.2 Cover Nominal cover.1.Continuous beam on pin supports chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Continuous beam on pin supports web TCC A 450 mm deep × 300 mm wide rectangular beam is required to support office loads of gk = 30. cmin.1 Actions Permanent gk = 30.

REI = 120) OK For bmin = 300 mm. 5.5 × 11.1. 2.0 kN Appendix C1.8 = 137.02 = 122.1.63 × 6.2 × 0.1.1 (option b) Table C3 Table C3 Cl.cmin.10b) governs n = 1.5 × 11. Assuming no measurement of cover. i.6 in BS EN 1992–1–2 is restricted to where redistribution does not exceed 15%.6 4.25 × 30. = 25 mm Table C3 BS 8500-1[14]: Table A4.2 kN VAB = 0.6 Arrangement: Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases. 5.8 × 0.8 = 192.2 + 1. How to: Building structures[8] Cl.106 × 6.(6. a = 35 mm cnom = 35 mm EC2-1-2: 5.25 × 30. minimum axis distance.1.e. Table C3 Table C3 4.45 × 6. As the amount of redistribution is less than 20%.2(3) Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation.4 kNm Support MEd = 50.3(1).3(1) & NA Table NA. Dcdev= 10 mm cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm Fire: Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance (i. 4.5 = 50.e.100) × 6.3(1).dur saturation without de-icing salt) using C30/37 concrete.4 Analysis Design moments: Spans MEd = (1.3 Load combination (and arrangement) Load combination: By inspection. BS EN 1990 Exp. there are no restrictions on reinforcement grade.1 = 184. use coefficients.02 = 193.8 kN/m Fig.8 kNm Shear force: VAB = 0.5 Flexural design Effective depth: Assuming 10 mm links: d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm 99 . (6.5 × 0.1. The use of Table 5.6.6.5 EC0: Exp. 4.0 × 50.3 + 62.4.10b) Cl. Table 5. Table 5.5(4) & NA EC2-1-2: 5.0 × 50. The coefficients used assume 15% redistribution at supports.090 + 1.

3.3.4 × 106/(300 × 3922 × 30) = 0.0 Max. K ≤ K' (0. spacing = 200 mm OK Use 3 H25 B (1473 mm2) Deflection: Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. as is usual practice in the UK.4N & NA Appendix A1 Table C5 100 .8 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck where d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm K = 193.25%) Check spacing: Spacing of outer bars = 300 – 2 × 35 − 2 × 10 – 25 = 185 mm Assuming 10 mm diameter link.prov) × (gk + c2 qk)/(gGgk + gQqk) (1/d) = (500/1.66 × 0.85d = 0.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) = fyd × (As. However.864 z = 0.8 × 338) = 1255 mm2 Try 3 no. z/d is as a consequence limited to 0.Flexure in span: K = MEd/bd2fck = 184.864 × 392 = 338 mm As = MEd/fydz = 184. 7. spacing = 98 mm Steel stress under quasi-permanent loading: ss = (fyk /gS) (As. H25 T (1473 mm2) (r = 1.8 × 333 = 1338 mm2 Try 3 no.82 and K' to 0.5)/50.168.2N & NA Appendix B Table 7.208. if.5 Appendix A1 Table C5 Cl. x/d is limited to 0. z = 0.142 × 0.5)/(1. max.85 × 392 = 333 mm As = MEd/fydz = 193.25 – 0. span = 24.45.0 × 392 = 9408 mm OK Flexure.15) × (1255/1473) × [(30. H25 B (1473 mm2) (r = 1. 3.3(2) Cl.3 mm Maximum bar size = 16 mm or max.03) = 434.97 = 237 MPa As exposure is XC3.8] (1/1.133 z/d = 0.8 × 106/434.8 × 106/(300 × 3922 × 30) = 0.3 × 11. Fig.168‡) no compression reinforcement required. Basic span: effective depth ratio for r = 1.142 By inspection. crack width wmax = 0.25%: l/d = 18 + [(1.req/As. support: MEd = 193.5/0.91 × 0.4 × 106/(434.8 × 0.13%) ‡ K' is limited to 0.2 + 0.5)] × (26 – 18) = 24. 7.1(5) & NA Table 7.req/As.

(6.10.2.75 × 392 = 294 mm Use H8 @ 200 (Asw /s = 0.0 − (0.5# vRd. shear may be checked at d from the face of support. See also Section 4.1(8) Fig.285 Use H8 @ 200 (Asw /s = 0.4.3(3). Asw.max (and therefore the maximum value of vEd) would be 5. Not critical Max. 6.1(8) * For determination of VRd. Exp.2.15) × 2.5 × 103/(333 × 1087) = 0. VEd = 137.3(1) Cl.28 MPa when cot y would equal 1.5] = 0.1.1(8) Table C7 Cl. 6.2.2. spacing = 0.9d × fywd × cot y) ≥ 164.150 + 0.6 Shear a) Support B (critical) Shear at central support = 192.5 × 103/(0. 6. 101 .40 MPa Maximum shear capacity: Assuming fck = 30 MPa and cot y = 2.454 Minimum shear links.64 MPa vRd.8 = 164.max > vEd OK Shear reinforcement: Assuming z = 0.429 More accurately.11.max see Section 4.9d Asw /s ≥ VEd /(0.3(3).8) Cl.8 = 109. Exp.2.2.50) throughout‡ Cl. changing spacing of links would appear to be of limited benefit. shear reinforcement required and cot y = 2.max* = 3.7 kN By inspection. Asw/s ≥ VEd/(z × fywd × cot y) ≥ 164.0 kN At d from face of support§ VEd = 192.300/2 + 0.7 × 103/[353 × (500/1. 9. 6.2.50) b) Support A (and C) Shear at end support = 137.2 kN At face of support.5 × 103/(392 × 300) = 1.min/s = 0.5 Asw /s ≥ VEd/(z × fywd × cot y) ≥ 109.5) = 0.2.2 − (0.3 Where applied actions are predominantly uniformly distributed. 6. ‡ As maximum spacing of links is 294 mm.08bwfck0.5/fyk = 0.392) × 50.2. # The absolute maximum for v Rd.263.9 × 392 × (500/1.75d = 0.5/500 = 0.2(6) Cl.8) Cl. 9.0 and the variable strut angle would be at a maximum of 45°. (6.392) × 50.50 kN vEd = VEd /bd = 164. 6.2. C1a) Appendix C5.08 × 300 × 300.15) × 2. § Cl.2(5) Cl.

g.2.1 .3 Continuous rectangular beam: Summary of design Commentary It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design summarised above and detail the beam to normal best practice[8. The design would go no further where standard detailing is all that is required. Where the element is non-standard (e. 4.7 Summary of design H8 @ 200 centres in 2 legs 3H25 A 3H25B B 3H25B C Figure 4. laps.9].26(fctm/fyk)btd ≥ 0. etc.0013btd where 102 Cl. Nonetheless. using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown below.9].8 Detailing checks a) Minimum areas As.min = 0.1. where there are point loads). The work would usually include the checking the following aspects and providing appropriate detailing: Minimum areas Curtailment lengths Anchorages Laps U-bars Rationalisation Critical dimensions Details and sections The determination of minimum reinforcement areas and curtailment lengths.1. In practice these would be determined from published tables of data or by using reference texts[8.4. it should be incumbent on the designer to give the detailer specific information about curtailment.1. as illustrated below. standards and timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement but all the reinforcement required to provide a compliant and buildable solution. the designer should check the drawing for design intent and compliance with the standards. The detailer’s responsibilities. 9. It is therefore necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles of the detailing used.

30l – al = 0.125 × 392 = 1359 mm say 1350 from A Top: curtail 40% main bars 0.15l + al = 900 + 441 = 1341 mm say 1350 from B 65% main bars 0. B and C In accordance with SMDSC[9] detail MB1 lap U-bars tension lap with main steel = 780 mm (in C30/37 concrete.2.666 × 300 × 392/500 = 177 mm2 b) Curtailment of main bars Bottom: curtail 75% main bars 0.4 Continuous rectangular beam: reinforcement details Note Subsequent detailing checks may find issues with spacing rules especially if the 'cage and splice bar' method of detailing were to be used. 2 no. H12.min = 0. 2H32s T&B would be a suitable alternative to 3H25s T&B. ‘poor’ bond condition) = say 800 mm c) Summary of reinforcement details 2H12T 100 800 1350 3H25 100 1350 800 2H12T Table 3.4(1) & NA Cl.2.08l from end support = 480 mm say 450 mm from A 70% main bars 0.1.30l + al = 1800 + 441 = 2241 mm say 2250 from B At supports: 25% of As to be anchored at supports 25% of 1225 mm2 = 314 mm2 Use min.30 × fck0.1 How to: Detailing Cl.5(1) How to: Detailing 1250 2H16 U-bars 2H12 3H25 2H16 A 450 800 2H25 2H12 1H25 2H12 2H25 1H25 1H25 2H12 2H25 1H25 2H25 2H12 2H12 2H16 2H25 C 800 450 3H25B 2H16 U-bars 3H25B B 800 600 750 750 600 800 2H16B Links omitted for clarity Figure 4. 9.1.30 × 300.bt = width of tension zone fctm = 0.2.666 As.26 × 0. 9. 9.2. H16 (402 mm2) at supports A.(1). 103 .1.3 × 6000 − 1.125 × d = 1800 − 1.

7 Qk2 = 138.3 kN/m Point load from storage area above = 138. The beam is supported on 350 mm square columns 4000 mm long. Assume that any partitions are liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.0 qk1 = 63.7 gk1 = 46.3 A 2000 9000 8000 B C Figure 4.2. fck = 30 MPa.5 Heavily loaded L-beam This edge beam supports heavy loads from storage loads.0 kN/m Point load from storage area above = 88. beff 750 350 Figure 4.Heavily loaded L-beam chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Heavily loaded L-beam web TCC Gk2 = 88.1 Actions Permanent: UDL from slab and cladding gk = 46.6 Section through L-beam 4. The variable point load is independent of the variable uniformly distributed load. fyk = 500 MPa. The underside surface is subject to an external environment and a 2-hour fire resistance requirement. The top surface is internal and subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement.7 kN 104 .7 kN Variable: From slab qk = 63.

2.dur] where cmin. top: By inspection. cmin. vertical surfaces exposed to rain and freezing) and C30/37 concrete. Assume 32 mm main bars and 10 mm links cmin.dur] where cmin. required = 35 mm OK by inspection. cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin.4.b. Nominal cover. Assume 32 mm main bars and 10 mm links cmin. secondarily XF1 exposure (moderate water saturation without de-icing salt.1.b .4. Try 35 mm nominal cover bottom and sides to 10 mm link.1) Table 4.1.2(3) Exp.1.6 Exp.b = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar.2 Cover a) Nominal cover.4. cnom.b = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar. Axis distance.dur = 15 mm Cl.dur = 25 mm Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions. (4. a.1 BS 8500-1: Table A4 105 .1 BS 8500-1: Table A4 Cl. cmin. By inspection.2(3) Table 4. 4. Assuming primarily XC3/XC4 exposure (moderate humidity or cyclic wet and dry).6. web thickness OK. (4. cnom. 4.4. Assuming primarily XC1 and C30/37 concrete.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.6 EC2-1-2: Table 5.3 EC2-1-2: Table 5. Assuming no measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links Use cnom = 35 mm to links (giving cnom = 45 mm to main bars) b) Fire Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance REI 120. cmin.1) Cl. underside and side of beam cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin. 4.2(3) EC2-1-2: 5. cmin.

3.10a) is critical. limited redistribution of span moment and consistent redistribution of shear.2. kNm ‡ Note: 350 × 350 is a minimum for columns requiring a fire resistance of 120 minutes.1 (6) 4. Idealisation: This element is treated as a continuous beam framing into columns 350 × 350‡ × 4000 mm long columns below.3 Idealisation.98 2 745 684 0.2.2a 106 .10a) Cl. load combination and arrangement Load combination: As loads are from storage.2. Table 2. NA & Exp.xls in RC spreadsheets V. Assuming no measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars or = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links Use cnom = 35 mm to links (giving cnom = 45 mm to main bars) Cl. ECO: A1.1 (option b) ECO: A1. EC2-1-2: Table 5.7 Redistributed envelope.1(3) Cl. Arrangement: Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. 4.3. Table 4.2.2(3) 4.2 & NA. (6. 5.1. Cl.1.92 Figure 4.5. Beam inertia based on T-section. 5.Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation.2 Elastic and redistributed moments.2.4 Analysis Analysis by computer (spreadsheet TCC 41 Continuous Beam (A+D).3[28] assuming frame action with 350 mm square columns 4 m long fixed at base. kNm Span number Elastic M Redistributed M d 2000 1500 1000 500 195 kNm 0 A –500 –1000 – 1500 –1148 kNm – 684 kNm B C 108 kNm 1394 kNm 1 1168 1148 0. Exp. 5.4.3(1) & NA: Table NA. beff wide) with 15% redistribution at central support. (6.

1.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b1 where b1 = distance between webs/2 l0 = nominal: assume 0§ beff1 = 0 mm = beff2 b = bw = 350 mm d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support. z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.25 in hogging and in sagging = 287 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck where b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 = (0.11). § Cl.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.45 K' = 0. ‘which may be obtained from Figure 5. 5.1000 646 kN 500 794 kN 0 A – 500 B C – 499 kN – 1000 – 1098 kN – 1500 4.2. 5.2. 5.3 Fig.2(1).168 K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required. 5.11 107 . (see Figure 4.95 × 689 = 652 ≤ 654 z = 652 mm As = MEd/fydz The distance l0 is described as the distance between points of zero moment.1. 4. 5.1.95d = (689/2) (1 + 0.1(2) Fig.5 Flexural design.2. 9.2.min = 1148 × 0.3.2 Fig.2’.058 Restricting x/d to 0. In this case l0 = 0. fck = 30 MPa K = 287 × 106/(350 × 6892 × 30) = 0.2 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Cl.4(1) & NA Cl. support A MEd = 195 kNm in hogging MEd.3.89) ≤ 0. Fig. 9.2.

25 n1 n2 fct. (8. H32 U-bars (1608 mm2) Check anchorage of H32 U-bars. lbd = alb.rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) where f = 32 ssd = design stress in the bar at the ULS = 434.4) Exp.2 U-bar A Figure 4. Exp.4.9 Distance A Assuming column uses 35 mm cover.15 = 434. Bars need to be anchored distance ‘A’ into column SMDSC: 6.min where a = conservatively 1.where fyd = 500/1. 10 mm links and 32 mm bars: Distance A = 2 [350 − 2 (35 + 10) ] − 32/2 − 32/2 + 750 – [2 (35 + 10)] − 2 × 32/2 – (4 − π) (3.8 MPa = 287 × 106/(434. 8.4. BS 8666[19]: Table 2 Cl.0 lb.4.8 × 1012/1608 = 274 MPa f = ultimate bond stress = 2. (8.rqd ≥ lb.5) × 32 = 488 + 628 – 110 = 1006 mm Anchorage length.d SMDSC[9]. 8.3) Cl.8 × 652) = 1012 mm2 Try 2 no.4.2 (2) 108 .5 + 0.

0) = 731 mm‡ lb. l0 could have been taken as 7200 mm.2 Cl. From the analysis.10 Effective flange width beff ‡ Anchorage lengths may be obtained from published tables.e. 100 mm] = 250 mm lbd = 731 mm i.3 Fig.5 = 1. which may be obtained from Figure 5. How to: Detailing[8] Cl.85 × 9000 = 7650 mm§ beff beff.2.d = act fctk/ gC = 1.2’.1(2) Figure 5.0 MPa lb. a figure of 900 mm may be obtained from Table 13 of Section 10 of How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2. § The Fig.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b1 where b1 = distance between webs/2 Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc = (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm l0 = 0. 5.3.1 bw beff.2 109 . 5.min = max[10f.rqd = (32/4) (274/3.33 = 3.6 (2).2b1 + 0.3.2 bw b1 b1 b b2 b2 Figure 4.1. 5. 5.33 MPa fbd = 2.0 × 2.1 & 2.25 × 1. < 1006 mm Cl.0/1.3 distance l0 is described as the distance between points of zero shear.6 Flexural design. H32 U-bars 4.2.1. Tables 3. & NA OK Use 2 no. span AB a) Span AB – Flexure MEd = 1148 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck where b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 = (0. Fig.where n1 = 1.85 × l1 = 0.0 for good bond conditions n2 = 1. 3.2. 5.1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm fct. In this instance.

z = lever arm = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.7 I2 I2 I0 = 0.045 Restricting x/d to 0. H32 B (4020 mm2) (say OK) Check spacing of bars. Spacing of bars = [350 – 2 × (35 + 10) – 32]/(5 – 1) = 57 Clear spacing = 57 – 32 mm = 25 mm between bars 110 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 .53K)0.85 I1 I1 I0 = 0.15 (I1+I2) I0 = 0.8 × 654) = 4037 mm2 Try 5 no.2 × 3325 + 0.4x by inspection.I0 = 0.5] ≤ 0.15 (I2+I3) I3 flange width beff1 = = = bw = beff2 = l0 for calculation of Fig.917) ≤ 0. neutral axis is in flange and as x < 1.2 × 7650 ≤ 3325 1430 ≤ 1530 ≤ 3325 1430 mm 350 mm (0.45.15 = 434.168 K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required. 5.95d = (689/2) (1 + 0. design as rectangular section. K' = 0.1 × 7650 ≤ 0.2 0.1l0) ≤ 0.95 × 689 = 661 ≤ 654 z = 654 mm But z = d – 0.2b2 + 0.2 l0 ≤ b2 where b2 = 0 mm beff2 = 0 mm b = 1430 + 350 + 0 = 1780 mm d = effective depth = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span fck = 30 MPa K = 1148 × 106/(1780 × 6892 × 30) = 0. As = MEd/fydz where fyd = 500/1.25 hf .8 MPa = 1148 × 106/(434.

H32 B no good For 4 bars in one layer. 20 + 5] = 32 mm i. Exp.333 × 2 × 32 = 668 mm K = 1148 × 106/(1780 × 6682 × 30) = 0. z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.95d = (668/2) (1 + 0.16b) Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix B Appendix C7 Cl. H32 B1 + 2 no. Exp. H32 B1 + 2 no.12 Span AB bottom reinforcement d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 – 0.16a). As = MEd/fydz = 1148 × 106/(434.16a) or (7. distance between bars = 44 mm so Try 4 no.2(2) & NA 300 d 35 cover 400 32 bar 32 spacers 32 bar 10 link 35 cover 350 Figure 4.Minimum clear distance between bars = max[bar diameter.e. aggregate size + 5 mm] = max[32. H32 B3 Cl. neutral axis in flange so design as rectangular section. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r0 and whether to use Exp. H32 B3 (4824 mm2) OK b) Span AB – Deflection Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio.2(2).048 K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required.53K)0.4.911) ≤ 0. > 25 mm 5 no. 7.95 × 668 = 639 ≤ 635 z = 635 mm by inspection. 8. (7.16b) 111 .8 × 635) = 4158 mm2 4 no. (7. (7.5] ≤ 0.

16 = 16. M = 1394 kNm From analysis.3.4N & NA Cl. Cl. (7.2.5/12 11 + 1. (7.2.4.77 F3 = 310/ss ≤ 1.0 = 0.req/As. 5.3 × 0.4. Appendix C7 Cl.80 PD 6687[6] Exp.req/As.77 × 1.2(2). However in this case separate analysis at SLS would be required to determine ss.55% r > r0 use Exp. H32 B1 + 2 no. 7.5(r' /r0)0.0/leff (span > 7.5 Note 5 Appendix B where ss in simple situations = (fyk/gS) (As. support B At centreline of support B.5/1000 = 0.80 × 0. Therefore as a simplification use the conservative assumption: 310/ss = (500/fyk) (As.4.2(3) 112 .063 – 0) + 300.16b) F2 = 7.16 Permissible l/d = 18.9 Actual l/d = 9000/668 = 13. H32 B3 (4824 mm Exp.2.63% r0 = fck0.prov) (SLS loads/ ULS loads) (1/d).16b) N = = = K = F1 = 11 + 1. 5.2(1) Cl. 7.r = As/Ac‡ = As.2 + 0 = 18. (7.7 Flexural design.5/1000 = 300.5fck0.2 × 1.3 (beff/bw = 1780/350 = 5.0 m) where leff = 9000 mm F2 = 7.2 (end span) = 1.5 r0/(r – r') + fck0.055/(0.5 Table 7.55)1.3.2(2) Cl.17).5 (300. 7.5 Permissible more than actual OK 2) OK 4 no. Exp.17) 4.5 11 + 7.4N & NA. at face of support MEdBA = 1209 kNm MEdBC = 1315 kNm K = MEd/bwd 2fck ‡ 2.prov) = (500/500) × (4824/4158) = 1. Table 7.1) = 0.5(0/0.5 × 0. (7.2.18 of PD 6687[6] suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.0/9. Table NA.req/[bwd + (beff – bw)hf] = 4158/[350 × 668 + (1780 – 350) × 300] = 4158/662800 = 0.

85.3 = (0.1 Cl.167) × 30 × 350 × 687 2/[434. H25 B (1964 mm2) As = M'/fydz + As2 fsc/fyd = K' fck bd 2 /(f yd z) + As2 fsc/fyd = 0.1.95d = 563 mm As2 = (K – K')fckbd2/fsc(d − d2) where d2 = 35 + 10 + 32/2 = 61 mm fsc = 700(x − d2)/x < fyd where x = 2.64) < 0.2(2).2 113 . K' = 0.5.2. beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 Appendix A1 Table C4 Fig. 5.5] = (687/2) [1 + (1 − 3.15 = 562 MPa but limited to ≤ 434.8 × 563) + 1570 × 434.2b1 + 0.15 × (l1 + l2) = 0. 9.8/434. H32 T + 4 no. K' = 0.45.8 MPa As2 = (0. Fig.1.15 × (9000 + 8000) = 2550 mm Fig.8 = 3380 + 1784 = 5164 mm2 Try 4 no.5 (687 – 563) = 310 mm fsc = 700 × (310 − 61)/310 < 500/1.167 Compression steel required z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3. 9.167)0.2 l0 ≤ b1 where b1 = distance between webs/2. Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc = (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm l0 = 0.where bw = 350 mm d = 750 − 35 – 12 – 32/2 = 687 mm assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support but allowing for H12 T in slab fck = 30 MPa K = 1315 × 106/(350 × 6872 × 30) = 0. 5. Fig.168: to restrict x/d to 0. 5.5 (d – z) = 2.53 × 0. 3. How to: Beams Appendix A1 Cl. Appendix A1. H25 T (5180 mm2) This reinforcement should be spread over beff.265 – 0.5] = (687/2) (1 + 0.2.53 K')0.8(687 − 61) ] = 1784 mm2 Try 4 no.1l0) ≤ 0.265 for d = 0.167 × 30 × 350 × 6872/(434.3.

1 × 2550 ≤ 0. H25 T (5180 mm2) @ approx 100 mm cc beff = 860 mm 4H32 4H25 4H25 bw = 350 mm Figure 4. Fig. 5.3.2 × 3325 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.beff1 = = = bw = beff2 = 0.13 Support B reinforcement pp 4.2 l0 ≤ b2 where b2 = 0 mm beff2 = 0 mm beff = 510 + 350 + 0 = 860 mm Use 4 no. 5.2b2 + 0.2b1 + 0. H32 T + 4 no. span BC a) Span BC – Flexure MEd = 684 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck where b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 = (0.1.2 .85 × 8000 = 6800 mm beff1 = 0.2 × 3325 + 0.8 Flexural design.85 × l1 = 0.1 × 6800 ≤ 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 × 2550 ≤ 3325 920 ≤ 510 ≤ 3325 510 mm 350 mm (0.3 Fig.2. 5.2 l0 ≤ b1 where b1 = distance between webs/2. Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc = (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm l0 = 0.2 × 6800 ≤ 3325 = 1345 ≤ 1360 ≤ 3325 = 1360 mm 114 Cl.2.

support C By inspection.2.689) × (1.3) Cl. Use 2 no. z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.9 Flexural design.9) & NA Cl. support A At d from face of support VEd = 646 − (350/2 + 0. 6.2. 6.3 & NA Cl. 6.0 + 1. H25 B (2590 mm2) b) Span BC – Deflection By inspection.35 × 46. x < 1.0 bw = 350 mm as before z = 0.2.2 l0 ≤ b2 where b2 = 0 mm beff2 = 0 mm b = 1360 + 350 + 0 = 1710 mm d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span.95 × 689 = 672 > 655 z = 655 mm By inspection. H32 B + 2 no.25 hf .10a) = 646 – 0. design as rectangular section As = MEd/fydz = 684 × 106/(434.5] ≤ 0.2.1 = 510.9d Exp.1(8) ECO: A1.028 By inspection. (6.2. H25 U-bars 4.2b2 + 0.bw = 350 mm beff2 = (0.5 × 63.10 Design for beam shear.3(1) 115 . H25 U-bars as support A. compared with span AB OK Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 4.2. VRd.864 × 157.95) ≤ 0.53K)0.2. max = acw bw zvfcd/(cot y + tan y) where acw = 1.95d = (689/2) (1 + 0. use 2 no. NA & Exp.8 × 655) = 2402 mm2 Try 2 no.3 kN Check maximum shear resistance.1l0) ≤ 0. fck = 30 MPa K = 684 × 106/ (1710 × 6892 × 30) = 0. K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required. (6.

0 Cl.2.3 × 103/(350 × 0.5) = 0.3(3) Note 1.9). For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.9 × 689 × 434.03 But.v = 0. support B As uniformly distributed load predominates consider at d from face of support.4° ≥ 21. 9.5 as before Asw/s ≥ 510.528 × 20.4.4) = 790 kN OK Shear reinforcement: Shear links: shear resistance with links VRd.76 Minimum Asw/s = rw.z = VEd/bz = VEd /(b × 0.5 = 0. 2.5 × 26.5 where vEd.445) ≥ cot−12.4(1) & NA Exp. (9.1(8) 116 .00088 = 350 mm as before = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis.8 × 2. 2.5 sin−1 {2. (6.00088 × 350 × 1 = 0.9d) = 510. Cl. 6.5 sin−1 (0. Exp.0 MPa y = angle of inclination of strut.4.08 × fck0.0 × 350 × 0.35/[0.8 cot y = 2.min = 0.2.5 sin−1 {vEd.20 fck (1 – fck /250) ] } ≥ cot−12. 6.528 fcd = 30/1.15 = 434.6N) & NA Cl. = 0.2.2(5).35 MPa y = 0.9d as before fywd = 500/1. maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0. (6. 9.5/fyk = 0.75d = 516 mm Try H10 @ 200 cc in 2 legs (Asw /s = 0.5 = 20.3 × 103/(0.6 (1 − fck/250) = 0.5/500 bw a = 0.minbwsin a where rw.8) Cl.z /[0.max = 1. (6.0/(2.5 = 0.8° VRd.9 × 689) = 2.78) Cl.2.5 + 0.2.2(6) 4. Exp.2.6 (1 − 30/250) = 0.5N) & NA Minimum Asw/s = 0.2. Appendix A2 Exp.4(1) & NA Cl.s = (Asw /s) z fywd cot y Asw /s ≥ VEd/z fywd cot y where Asw/s = area of legs of links/link spacing z = 0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot−12.90 × 689 × 0.08 × 300.8° = 21. (9.4) Exp.11 Design for high beam shear.

VEd = 1098 − (350/2 + 0.5 = 0.9) Cl.2.864 × 157.z = VEd/bz = VEd/(b0.3 kN vEd. Check VRd. shear reinforcement required and cot y < 2.5 × 63.824 i. 6.5 = 0.e.9) Cl.9d) = 658. support BC At d from face of support.5 sin−1 (0.9 × 687 × 434.548 VRd. (6. (6.96 Use H10 in 2 legs @ 150 mm cc (Asw/s = 1. VRd.45 MPa y = 0.689) × (1.max ≈ VEd) Shear reinforcement: Shear links: shear resistance with links VRd.843) ≥ cot−12.e.864 × 157.20 fck (1 – fck/250) ] } ≥ cot−12.75 × 0. where acw.3 × 103/(0.45/[0.05) Cl.z = VEd/bz = VEd/(b0.824) = 1.max = 1. As before.7° cot y = 1. (6.3 kN By inspection. 6. > 1.5.3) = 1098 – 0.548) = 963.0/(1.9) & NA Exp. max = a bw zvfcd/(cot y + tan y). (6.8° = 28.2.3(1) Exp.5 sin−1 {vEd. max (to determine y) Check maximum shear resistance. VEd = 794 – 0.1 = 962.3(2) & NA Exp. bw.2. z.9 × 687) = 4.1 = 658.75 Asw /sreqd = 2.9d) = 962.3 × 103/(350 × 0.0 × 350 × 0.5° ≥ 21.35 × 46.s = (Asw/s)zfywd cot y Asw/s ≥ VEd/zfywd cot y Asw/s ≥ 962.5 sin−1 {4. v and fcd as before y = 0.3 × 103/ (350 × 0.528 × 20. 6.z/[0. VRd.2.0 OK tan y = 0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot−12.96 Use H10 @ 150 cc in 4 legs (Asw /s = 2.5 where vEd.8) 4.4 kN OK (i.04 MPa From chart Asw /sreqd/m width = 2.90 × 687 × 0.0 + 1.35 = 0.1(8) Fig.824 + 0.5 × 57.8 × 1.12 Design for beam shear (using design chart).09) Exp.9 × 687) = 3. C1b) 117 .

(794 − 346)/157.60 MPa 1.z = 1.48 and an allowable vEd.7 – 1.1 = 2755 mm from BA.14 Summary of design 1 H10 links in 2 legs @ 150cc 2H32 U-bars H10 links in 2 legs 4H32 + 4H25T 2H25 U-bars @ 150 @ 300 @ 150 @ 150 @ 300 @ 150 4H32 B1 + 2H32 B3 A 1950 2850 1 B 4H25B 2850 2H32 + 2H25B C 1050 Figure 4.4.2 kN occurs at: (646 − 346)/157. (1098 – 346 − 1. C1b) 4.52) Asw/sreqd/m width = 1.15 L-beam section 1–1 118 .7)/157.2.60 × 350 × 0.1 = 2850 mm from BC and (499 − 346)/157.2. VEd = 346.25 × 88.14 Summary of L-beam design 4H32 4H25 H10 in 4 legs @ 150 350 510 Figure 4.13 Check shear capacity for general case In mid span use H10 in 2 legs @ 300 mm cc (Asw/s = 0.1 = 970 mm from C Fig.90 × 687 = VEd = 346 kN From analysis.1 = 1900 mm from A.5 × 138.

C L 100 200 1000 200 800 Figure 4.17 Section through T-beam 4.3 47.1 = 39.0)/2 × 4.50 + 9. see Figure 4. fyk = 500 MPa.Continuous wide T-beam chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Continuous wide T-beam web TCC qk = 45.30 × 1.8 kN/m ‡ The actions may also have been estimated assuming an elastic reaction factor of 1.4 119 .8 kN/m A 7500 B 7500 C 7500 D 7500 E Figure 4. A 1-hour fire resistance is required in an internal environment.8 kN/m gk = 47.3 Variable: Imposed (7. qk = 45. Assume that partitions are liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.8 kN/m Variable: From analysis of slab.17 = 8. fck = 35 MPa.3. gk = 47.0 × 4.17. The 300 mm deep ribbed slab is required for an office to support a variable action of 5 kN/m2.16 Continuous wide T-beam This central spine beam supports the ribbed slab in Example 3.1 Actions Permanent. UDL‡: From analysis of slab.3. The beam is the same depth as the slab and is supported on 400 mm square columns.00 × 1.0)/2 × 5.1 for the slab viz: kN/m Permanent: UDL Loads from ribbed slab (7.0 Self-weight/patch load extra over solid 2.50 + 9.1 = 45.

Assume 25 mm main bars and 8 mm links cmin.10b) ‡ cf. 4.12.5 EC0: Exp.1) EC2-1-2: 5.6.dur = 15 mm Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Arrangement: Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. load combination and arrangement Load combination: By inspection.1.1.1 BS 8500-1.25 + 45.b = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar.) a < 12 mm By inspection.5 kN/m‡ Idealisation: This element is treated as a beam on pinned supports.2.7 kN/m from analysis of slab (63.2 Cover Nominal cover. Use 25 mm nominal cover to links Cl. Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete. cmin.2 kN/m + 63.6 4. 4.b.4.8 × 1.3 EC2-1-2: Table 5.3 Idealisation.1.1 (option b) Fig. cnom: cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin. 47.5 = 128. 2. 126. Fire: Check adequacy of section for REI 60.5 kN/m).8 × 1. (6.4.dur] where cmin. 9. The beam will be provided with links to carry shear and to accommodate the requirements of Cl. 5. Table A4 Cl.6 EC2-1-2: Table 5.2(3) Table 4. Exp. Assuming no measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to main bars Use 10 mm diameter links to give cnom = 35 mm to main bars and 25 mm to links (as per ribbed slab design). (4. 120 . See Figure 3. not critical.2(3) Exp.3. cmin.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.3.3. Axis distance required: Minimum width bmin = 120 mm with a = 25 mm or bmin = 200 mm with a = 12 mm at 2000 mm wide (min. Cl.3(1) & NA: Table NA.5 – indirect support of the ribbed slab described in Section 3. (6.4.8.10b) is critical.

Table 4.9 kN 462.3.3.9 kN A B C D E 394.2 kNm – 606.945 516. kNm 800 600 400 200 0 – 200 – 400 – 462.4 kNm 2 433. kNm Span number Elastic M Redistributed M d 800 600 400 200 0 – 200 – 400 – 600 – 800 – 606.0 393.1 kN – 395.4 kNm 4 641.19 Redistributed shears.1(6) 1 641.4 kNm A B C D E EC0: A1.0 393.4.908 3 433.1 kN 517.1 (6) 5.4 Analysis Analysis by computer.6 kN Figure 4.6 kN – 600 – 800 – 569.7 606.945 657.908 657.3 Elastic and redistributed moments.4 0.6 kN 569.2. 5.0 kNm – 393. kN 121 .6 kN – 517.4 0.4 kNm Figure 4. Cl. assuming simple supports and including 15% redistribution at supports (with in this instance consequent redistribution in span moments).7 606.2 0.2 0.2 & NA.2 kNm – 393.18 Redistributed envelope.3.

1.2. 5.3 Fig.061 K' = 0. 5. span AB a) Span AB (and DE) – Flexure MEd = 606.2 × 6375 ≤ 3725 = 1382 ≤ 1275 ≤ 3725 = 1275 mm b = 1232 + 2000 + 1275 = 4507 mm d = 300 − 25 – 10 – 25/2 = 252 mm assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span.8 and 3.2 l0 ≤ b2 where b2 = distance between webs/2.2 × 6375 ≤ 2975 = 1232 ≤ 1275 ≤ 2975 = 1232 mm bw = 2000 mm beff2 = (0.85 × l1 = 0.2 × 3725 + 0.2b1 + 0.45 K' = 0.9 = (7500 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 2975 mm l0 = 0. fck = 35 MPa K = 606.1 × 6375 ≤ 0. z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.4 × 106/(4507 × 2522 × 35) = 0.85 × 7500 = 6375 mm beff1 = 0.4.9 = (9000 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 3725 mm l0 = 6375 mm as before beff2 = 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2b2 + 0.3.4 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck where b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 = (0.1l0) ≤ 0.207 or restricting x/d to 0.95d = (252/2) (1 + 0.886) ≤ 0. Fig.2 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 .5 Flexural design.3.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.53K)0.8 and 3.168 K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required.2 × 2975 + 0. Referring to Figures 3. 5.2l0 ≤ b1 where b1 = distance between webs/2 Referring to Figures 3.5] ≤ 0.95 × 252 = 238 ≤ 239 z =238 mm 122 Cl.

Appendix C7 Cl. 7.8)] × (1/0.2.5 Note 5 See Appendix B1.18 of PD 6687[6] suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.5(d – z) = 2.8 + 0. (7.5 × 45.77% fck0.5/1000 = 0.5 r0/(r – r') + fck0.16b) r = = = = r0 = N = = = K = F1 = As/Ac‡ = As. Table NA.8 MPa = 606.4.99 × 0.059/(0. 7. Table 7.8 × 239) = 5835 mm2 Try 12 no. Exp.8 × 0.But z = d – 0.5 × 0.16b) F2 = 7. 7.95 F3 = 310/ss ≤1. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r0 and whether to use Exp.8 + 1. (7. Asx < 1.03) = 0.16b) PD 6687[6] 11 + 1.5fck0. 5.5/1000 = 300.2(2).5( 252 − 236) = 32 mm neutral axis in flange. As = MEd/fydz where fyd = 500/1.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) = 434.4 x x = 2.25 × 47.4 = 0.8 (end span) = 1.48 × 1.2(2).2(2).59% r > r0 use Exp. Exp.06 = 219 MPa ‡ 2.25hf design as rectangular section.16a) or (7.59)1.4 × 106/(434. 7.5 (350.8 × (5835/5892) [(47.3 × 45.4N & NA.2(1) Cl.0/7.4.5 123 .0 m) where leff = 7100 + 2 × 300/2 = 7400 mm F2 = 7. (7.5(0/0.0/leff (span > 7.4N & NA Cl. (7.90 Exp. (7.5 11 + 6.req/[bw d + (beff – bw)hf] 5835/[2000 × 252 + (4507 – 2000) × 100] 5835/754700 0.15 = 434.5/12 11 + 1. H25 B (5892 mm2) b) Span AB – Deflection Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. (7.2.4.5(r'/r0)0.8)/(1.8 + 0 = 17.3 (beff/bw = 4057/2000 = 2.16a).4.16b) Appendix A1 Appendix B Appendix C7 Cl.3.5 where§ ss = (fyk/gS) (As.17).077 – 0) + 350.req/As. Exp.945) = 434. § Table 7.

7 Say OK Actual leff /d = 7400/252 = 29.4 kNm K = MEd/bwd2fck where bw = 2000 mm d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link – 16 bar − 25/2 bar = 226 mm 25 cover 12 fabric 8 link 16 bar Cl.2(3) 20 bar 8 link 25 cover 16 bar 25 bar 8 link 25 cover Figure 4. (7.90 × 0. K < K' K' = 0.9 Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.85.4 ‡ Both As.53‡ = say 1.3.20 Section at rib-beam interface K = 556.F3 = 310/ss = 310/219 = 1.167 maximum (or for d = 0.8 no good Try 13 no.16b) is restricted to 1.6 Flexural design.8 × 1.9 + 0.0 = 556.5 in the UK NA.3 × 0.4 – 101.16a) or Exp.50 Permissible l/d = 17.2. H25 B (6383 mm2) 4.95 × 1.req and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp.5/2 = 657.50 = 29.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.4 × 106/(2000 × 2262 × 35) = 0.prov/As.202 × 128.90 × 0.2 × 517.168) No compression steel required. K' = 0.4 kNm At face of support: MEd = 657. (7.4 – 0.41 = 27. Appendix A1 Table C.3 × 0. Table NA. support B (and D) At centreline of support: M = 657.3.5 124 . NA. H25 B (6383 mm2) F3 = 310/ss = 310/219 × 13/12 = 1.156 By inspection.8 × 1. 5.95 × 1.4 Use 13 no.41 Permissible l/d = 17.

4 and ss = 240 MPa max.5] = (226/2) (1 + 0.85) = 434.z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.8)/ (1.5] = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.1. 5.2(2). 5.3 Cl.2 × 2975 + 0.25 × 47.1. spacing = 250 mm OK Cl.53 K')0.95d = 189 mm As = MEd/fydz = 556.3N For wk = 0.2.2.1 × 2250 ≤ 0.2 × 2250 ≤ 2975 = 820 ≤ 450 ≤ 2975 = 450 mm bw = 2000 mm beff2 = 450 mm as before beff = 450 + 2000 + 450 = 2900 mm Check cracking: Spacing = 2900 – 2 × (25 – 10 – 25/2)/(14 − 1) = 216 mm ss = (fyk/gS) (As.3. 5.2b1 + 0.5 × 45.3.156)0.8 × 0. span BC (and CD similar) a) Flexure MEd = 393.7 Flexural design.98 × 0. Fig.8) × (1/0.3 × 45.2.8 × (6770/6874) [ (47. 5.req/As. 7.1. 9.8 + 0.2b1 + 0.3(2) & Note Table 7.1l0) ≤ 0.3N 4.53 × 0.15 × (7500 + 7500) = 2250 mm beff1 = 0.3 Fig.2 Cl.67) < 0.2 kNm K = MEd/bd2fck where b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 = (0.2l0 ≤ b1 where b1 referring to Figure 3.3. H25 T (6874 mm2) To be spread over beff beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 where beff1 = (0.18 = 241 MPa As loading is the cause of cracking satisfy either Table 7.1l0) ≤ 0.1 Cl.48 × 1.4 × 106/(434.3 125 . 7.3.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) = 434.15 × (l1 + l2) = 0.8 + 1. 5.2N or Table 7.2l0 ≤ b1 Cl.3. Fig. 9.8 × 189) = 6770 mm2 Try 14 no.9 = (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm l0 = 0. Fig.

compared to span AB OK But for the purposes of illustration: Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. K ≤ K' section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement required.2 × 106/(4320 × 2522 × 35) = 0.16a) or (7.where b1 referring to Figure 3.2(2) 126 .95d = (252/2) (1 + 0.70 × l2 = 0.9 = (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm l0 = 0.2b2 + 0.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 2975 = 1120 ≤ 1050 ≤ 2975 = 1050 mm bw = 2000 mm beff2 = (0.041 By inspection.2 × 106/(434.2 × 3725 + 0.9 = (9000 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 3725 mm l0 = 5250 mm as before beff2 = 0. H25 B (3928 mm2) b) Deflection By inspection.2 × 5250 ≤ 3725 = 1270 ≤ 1050 ≤ 3725 = 1270 mm b = 1050 + 2000 + 1270 = 4320 mm d = 252 mm as before assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span fck = 30 K = 393. 7.8 and 3.25 hf design as rectangular section As = MEd/fydz = 393.924) ≤ 0. (7.1l0) ≤ 0.4.8 × 239) = 3783 mm2 Try 8 no.95 × 252 = 242 > 239 z = 239 mm By inspection. Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 where N = Basic l/d: check whether to use Exp.2l0 ≤ b2 where b2 = distance between webs/2 Referring to Figures 3.16b) Fig.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0. x < 1. z = (d/2) [1 + (1 – 3. 5.2 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix A1 Appendix B Appendix C7 Cl.2 × 2975 + 0.7 × 7500 = 5250 mm beff1 = 0.

H20 B (3768 mm2) used to suit final arrangement of links.0 m) = 0.4N & NA Cl.5 r0 /r + 3.8 + 1.5 × 0.5 Note 5 where§ ss = (fyk/gS) (As.3l from BC (& DC) = 216. H25 B (3928 mm2)# c) Hogging Assuming curtailment of top reinforcement at 0.5 Table 7.9 kNm at 0.9 × 106/(2000 × 2262 × 35) = 0.7 (internal span) = 1. 7.051 + 3.4.4N.59% (for fck = 35) r = As/Ac‡ = As. Appendix C7 Cl. & NA.88 × 0.5 = 17.5 12 no.2(2) Cl.37 = 70. 7.4 = (span > 7.7 × 1.16a) F2 = 7.8 × (3783/3828) [(47.0/7.5(r0 /r – 1)1.3l from CB (& CD) = 185.2. (7.8 + 0.059/0.5 11 + 10.req /[bwd + (beff – bw)hf] where bw = 2000 mm r = 3783/(2000 × 252 + (4320 – 2000) × 100) = 3783/736000 = 0.5(0.1 Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.16a) N = = = = K = F1 = 11 + 1.25 × 47.10 = 227 MPa F3 = 310/ ss = 310/227 = 1.6 kNm K = 216. §See # How to: Detailing Appendix B1.16) = 0.5 × 45.88 Exp.4.2fck0.8)/(1.prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) = 434.8 × 0.4.37 Permissible l/d = 44.8 44.051 – 1)1. 127 .5 11 + 1.3 × 45. From analysis MEd at 0.99 × 0. Exp. (7.5 × 350.061 By inspection.req/As.95 F3 = 310/ss ≤1.2 + 23.r0 = 0.908) = 434.48 × 1.2(2).8 OK Use 8 no. K < K' ‡ 2.0/leff = 7.5fck0. (7.30l + al.37 × 0.51% r < r0 use Exp.059/0. Table NA.95 × 1.8)] × (1/0. 7.18 of PD 6687[6] suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.5 (beff/bw = 4320/2000 = 2.2 × 350.17) Table 7.

2 × 462.53 K')0.1(8) 12 no.9 Design for beam shear a) Support A (and E) At d from face of support.3.53 × 0.3. K < K' z = (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.6 − (0.53K)0.8 Flexural design.119 By inspection. H20 T at 0.2(3) As = MEd/fydz = 426. 128 .2.061)0.2.5 ‡ Cl.(226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.1.400/2 + 0·252) × 128.3.5] (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.0 kNm K = MEd/bwd2fck where bw = 2000 mm d = 226 mm as before K = 426. VEd = 394. MEd = 516.5/2 = 516.2.5 = 336.0 × 106/(434.5] = (226/2) (1 + 0.3(2) 4.95d 214 mm < 215 mm MEd/fydz 216.119)0.0 × 106/(2000 × 2262 × 35) = 0.0 – 90.202 × 128. H25 used to suit final arrangement of links.9 × 106/(434.0 kNm At face of support.3 × 7500 + 1.5] = (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3. z = = = = As = = Cl.8 × 214) = 2948 mm2 Use 12 no.0 = 426. 9.5] (226/2) (1 + 0.max OK and cot y = 2.25 × 214 = 2518 say 2600 mm from centreline of support.0 – 0.5 kN Maximum shear resistance: By inspection. M = 516.6 + 0. H20 T (3748 mm2) (to suit links and bottom steel) Top steel at supports may be curtailed down to 12 no.53 × 0. 6.89) < 0. support C At centreline of support. VRd.3l + al = 0.95d = 199 mm Cl.76) < 0. H25 T (4910 mm2)‡ 4. 5.8 × 199) = 4923 mm2 Try 10 no.

min = 0.6 [1 − fck/250] = 0.90 × 252 × 0.3(2) & NA VRd.75d ≤ 600 mm = 183 mm H10s required to maintain 35 mm cover to H25 Use H10 @ 175 cc both ways i. 12 legs. 9.0 2000 mm as before 0.8 2.2.90 But.8 × 2.00095 = 2000 mm as before = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis.However.08 × fck0.5 × 103/(0.5 and tan y = 0.e.2(5).5 kN OK Shear links: shear resistance with links Rd.8.2. 9. for the purpose of illustration: check shear capacity. H10 in 12§ legs @ 175 mm cc (Asw /s = 5.38) bw a Cl.3(1) Cl.516 35/1.minbwsin a where rw.00095 × 2000 × 1 = 1.15 = 434.5N) & NA Exp.3/(2.5/fyk = 0.5 as before Cl.9d 0. 9.s = (Asw/s) z fywd cot y ≥ VEd for VEd ≤ VRd.2(8) § (2000 mm – 2 × 25 mm cover − 10 mm diameter)/175 = 11 spaces.08 × 350.2.5) = 1.8) Asw /s ≥ 336.2(6) Cl.max = acw bw zvfcd/ (cot y + tan y) where acw = bw = z = v = fcd = y = Exp. By inspection. maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.516 × 23. cot−1 y << 21. But cot y restricted to 2.9) & NA 1.0 Minimum Asw /s = 0. Exp.max = 1.s Asw /s ≥ VEd/z fywd cot y where Asw /s z fywd cot y = = = = area of legs of links/link spacing 0.2.0 × 2000 × 0. (6.36 Minimum Asw /s = rw.5/500 = 0.4. (9. 6. 129 .5 = 23.9d as before 500/1.4) Exp. Cl. (6. VRd.75d = 183 mm Maximum spacing of links laterally = 0.5 + 0·4) = 2089.9 × 252 × 434.2. 6. (9.3 MPa angle of inclination of strut. For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.

3 = 6. 6.516 fcd = acclfck/gC = 1.10 Check for punching shear.0 × 103/1600 × 235 = 3. 6.5vfcd where v = 0. For punching shear adjacent to interior columns u0 = 2(cx + cy) = 1600 mm d = mean d = (245 + 226)/2 = 235 mm = 1.c where b.516 × 23.b) Support B (and C and D) By inspection.s = (Asw/s) z fywd cot y = 5.1 + 517. Nonetheless check capacity of Asw/s = 5.0 × 1. i. it is assumed that the strut angle is 45°. 6. at the perimeter of the column.8 × 2. where cot y < 1.32) Cl.4.4.2 Fig.5 = 1326.5. Section 3.15 VEd = applied shear force ui = control perimeter under consideration. 130 .15 × 1087. 9. By inspection.5(3) Fig. in this instance.5 × 0.9 × 252 × 434.4. column B As the beam is wide and shallow it should be checked for punching shear.3 kN Maximum shear at support = 517.4.0.38 VRd.6(1 − fck/250) = 0. (6. the requirement for minimum reinforcement and. that cot y = 1. for H10 legs of links will outweigh design requirements.e.02 MPa OK Check shear stress at basic perimeter u1 (2.8) Cl. At B.4. Use 150 mm centres to tie in with 900 mm centres of ribs Use H10 in 12 legs @ 150 mm cc (Asw/s = 6.4.6) & NA Table C7‡ Cl. recommended value 1.3 vRd. the requirement for indirect support of the ribs of the slab using 87 mm2/rib within 150 mm of centreline of ribs (at 900 mm centres) and within 50 mm of rib/solid interface is adequately catered for and will not unduly effect the shear capacity of the beam. VEd = 569. 6.max = 0.5 = 23.38 × 0. 6.0.2.0 kN. capacity of minimum links not exceeded.5(3) Exp. (6. Check at perimeter of 400 × 400 mm column: vEd = b VEd/uid < vRd. 6.9 = 1087.8 4.13 ‡ In this case. In other cases.e.0 × 35/1. vRd. 6.max = 0.max where b = factor dealing with eccentricity. applied shear force.9 kN i.5(3) Note Exp. (6.3(2). VEd and d as before Cl.max is available from Table C7.3.0d from face of column): vEd = bVEd /u1d < vRd.32 MPa vEd vRd.28) throughout beam Exp.21N & NA Cl.

17 – 0.0152 × 0.18/ gC × k × (100 rlfck)0. 9.5 × 309) = 1135 mm2 per perimeter Try 15 no.4. 131 .c = 0. 6.4.1(1) Table C6# Exp.75 × 0.5 × 1.333 where gC = 1. For punching shear at 2d from interior columns = 2(cx + cy) + 2π × 2d = 1600 + 2π × 2 × 235 = 4553 mm vEd = 1.68) × 175 × 4553/(1. rlz)0.c within punching shear requirements.3(1) Cl.92 × (100 × 0.5 where rly.c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6.0 × 103/4553 × 235 = 1.14 with respect to possible limit of 2.18/1.0074 fck = 35 vRd. u1.0 or 2.0074 × 35)0.0036)0. rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column.5 on V /V Ed Rd.5 = 0.ef) where sr = 175 mm fywd.5 = 1.5fywd. 2d from the column: Asw ≥ (vEd – 0. (6.0036 rlz rl = (0.5 k = 1 + (200/d)0.c = 0. = 6874/(2000 × 226) = 0. # vRd. 6.17 MPa vRd.4. H10 (1177 mm2) Exp.4.0152 = 741/(900 × 245) = 0.5 ≤ 2 = 1 +(200/235)0.75vRd.47) & NA Cl. (6.u1 = control perimeter under consideration.ef = effective design strength of reinforcement = (250 + 0.25d) < fyd = 309 MPa For perimeter u1 Asw = (1.c) sr u1 /1.333 = 0.15 × 1087.92 rl = (rly.52) Cl.5(1) § See Section 3.4.68 MPa§ punching shear reinforcement required Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links): At the basic control perimeter.

c) uout = 1087 × 1. i.3d and 0. 9.4d = 100 mm from face of column.10.4.5d from the column face.21. in ribs. 9.21 have been adjusted to accommodate a perimeter of links at between 0.13.15 × 103/(235 × 0.Check availability of reinforcement‡: 1st perimeter to be > 0.e between 70 mm and 117 mm from face of column. 132 . 9. therefore beam shear governs ‡ The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or outside perimeter u1. Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl.21 Shear links and punching shear perimeter u1 Perimeter at which no punching shear links are required: uout = VEd × b/(d × vRd.4.4.3(4) H10 legs of links 175 175 175 175 175 175 s = 150 mm 600 70 u1 C L 24 H10 legs in u1 perimeter 58 Figure 4.3d but < 0.e. Say 0. C L 900 470 200 200 470 150 150 150 150 150 150 Fig.3). See Section 3. By inspection of Figure 4. The centre of links from the centreline of the column shown in Figure 4.5d.68) = 7826 mm Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm Radius to uout = (7823 – 1600)/2π = 990 mm from face of column i. the equivalent of 14 locations are available between 70 mm and 117 mm from face of column therefore say OK.

23 Section X–X 133 .3.11 Summary of design X H10 links in 12 legs @ 150 cc 12H20T 14H25T 12H25T 12H20T 14H25T A 13H25B B C 12H20B D 12H20B X E 13H25B Figure 4.4.

4.Columns General EC0 & NA Table NA 2.1 & NA A1.1 Section 5 Section 5. EC2–1–2 Cl.1 Sections 8 & 9 134 .2(B) BS 8500–1 Approved Document B.4.1 EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs EC0 & NA Tables NA A1.8 Section 6.

5.3.2(5) Table C16 135 . cnom. 5.2(5)) leads to similar effective lengths to those tabulated in BS 8110[7] and reproduced in Table 5.3. However.3. (5.2 Table C16.1.8. 38.5 kNm bottom in one direction only‡.3. fck = 30 MPa and cover. § Fig.15). condition 2 each end = 0.Edge column chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Edge column web TCC A 300 mm square column on the edge of a flat slab structure supports an axial load of 1620 kN and first order moments of 38.10 suggests that using the procedure outlined in Eurocode 2 (5.8. experience suggests that these tabulated values are conservative.8.5 kNm NEd = 1620 kN – 38.7 PD 6687[6]: Cl. 5.1 Forces in edge column 5. The effective length of most columns will be l /2< l0 < l (see Eurocode 2 Figure 5.7f).14) ‡ For examples of load take-downs and 1st order moment analysis see Section 5. l0 = factor × l where factor = from Table C16.8.85 × 3750 = 3187 mm Slenderness l = l0/i Cl. 2.10 Exp.5 kNm top and −38. 5. The 250 mm thick flat slabs are at 4000 mm vertical centres.2 and Exp.2(3) and 5. 2.10 Cl.8. PD 6687: 2. tabular values are used in this example.2(3) 5. l Effective length§.1 Check slenderness.1 of Concise Eurocode 2[5] and in this publication as Table C16.5 kNm Figure 5. PD 6687[6] Cl. The concrete is grade C30/37. = 25 mm.8.85 l = clear height = 3750 mm l0 = 0. For simplicity. (5.3.3.2 Effective lengths are covered in Eurocode 2 Cl.3.

5.4 kNm Cl.5 In this example llim = 40.1.7 n = NEd/Acfcd = 1620 × 103/(3002 × 0.4 Design using charts (see Appendix C) d2 = cnom + link + f/2 = 25 + 8 + 16 = 49 d2/h = 49/300 = 0. llim llim = 20 ABC/n0.46/300 = 36.7 − M01/M02 = 1.8.5 + 12.5/(−38. C5c).4 × (−38.7 (default) B = 1. 5. M01 + 0.1.1.5) = 2.7 − rm = 1.5M2] where M02 = where M ei e0 M02 = = = M0Ed = = = = M2 = M01 = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd = 38.5 for rectangular sections l = 3187 × 3. 6.1.9 ≥ 32. M0Ed + M2 .6 ≥ 20. C5d) .7 − 38.5 where A = 0.060.4 + 0.5 + 12.6 × 51.3 Design moments MEd = max[M02.13N) Cl.4 Cl. M0Ed + M2.6 0 (column is not slender) M02 MEd = 51.7 × 1.8.20 for NEd/bhfck = 1620 × 103/(3002 × 30) = 0.4 20.15 and 0.9) ≥ 0.1(1) 5. 6.2.06 llim = 20 ABC/n0.4 kNm 0.6 20.85 × 30/1. M01 + 0.60 136 Figs.3.1 × 2.9 Cl.1. 20] = max[300/30.4 max[M02 .4 kNm 5.2.187/400 ≥ 0.5 = 20 × 0.7.2(1) Cl.6M02 + 0. > 36.e.8.4M01 ≥ 0.5M2] = 51.8 Column not slender Exp.4M02 0.where i = radius of gyration = h/120.2.02 × 1620 38.8.5 + 1620 × 3. 20] = 20 mm 38.7/1.8 5.1 (default) C = 1.5) = 1. (5. 5.4 kNm 51. 5.2 Limiting slenderness.8.163 interpolating between d2/h = 0.4 i.5 kNm = l0/400 = max[h/30.4 × 51. 5.

1(4) As a worst case MEdy may coexist with e0NEd about the orthogonal axis: ey/heq ez/beq = (MEdz/NEd)/h (MEdy/NEd)/b = MEdz MEdy Exp. > 0.4 kNm 38. C5c).9(4) Exp.38b) Cl.24 × 3002 × 30/500 = 1296 mm2 Try 4 no. find MEd/bh2fck (and therefore moment capacity) by interpolating between d2/h = 0. H25.0 32.19 i. (5. Notes to Exp.4 kNm MRdz = MRdy To determine MRdz.9(4).2 and < 5. Assuming 4 no. (5.5 Check for biaxial bending ly /lz ≈ 1. 5.4 MEdy Biaxial check required Check whether (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.36 Interpolating for NEd/bhfck = 0. 5.39) Figs. 6.094 MRdz = MRdy = 0.1 kNm a is dependent on NEd/NRd where NEd = 1620 kN as before Exp.8. Asfyk/bhfck = 1964 × 500/(3002× 30) = 0. H25 (1964 mm2) 5. As a worst case for biaxial bending MEdz = M + 0 = 38. (5.0 i. C5d) Cl.1. 5.38a) Cl.094 × 3003 × 30 = 76.MEd/bh2fck = 51.5 kNm MEdy = e0NEd = 32.e.0 OK but check Exp.8. (5.38b) Cl.24 As = 0.063 Asfyk/bhfck = 0.20 (Figure C5d) for the proposed arrangement and co-existent axial load.8.9 Exp.9(2) Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only.38b) Cl.8. 5.e. MEd/bh2fck = 0.5 MEdz = = 1. ly /lz ≤ 2.39) 137 .5 kNm MEdy = 32.4 × 106/(3003 × 30) = 0. (5.0 where MEdz = 38. (5.6.15 (Figure C5c) and 0.

Cl.0) and NEd/NRd = 0.48 by interpolating between values given for NEd/NRd = 0.48 + (32.4/76.64 OK.39) NRd 5. 9.= Acfcd + Asfyd = 3002 × 0.85 × 30/1.3(3).1.1.28 = 0. f/4 = 25/4 = 8 mm Max.1)1.5.3(4) 5.5.6 × 300 = 180 mm Links at say 175 mm cc Cl.7 Design summary 4 H25 H8 links @ 175 cc 25 mm cover fck = 30 MPa Figure 5.5) (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a = (38. H25 OK Exp.2 Design summary: edge column 138 .68 a = 1. 9.0 + 853. (1.9 = 0.5/76.7.5.1)1.9 kN NEd/NRd = 1620/2383.3 & NA Cl. (1.48 = 0.9 = 2383. 9.36 + 0.15 = 1530.5 + 1964 × 500/1. 4 no. (5.6 Links Diameter min. spacing = 0.1.

(4.1 Cover cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin.1. M02zz = 6. 139 Exp.0 m and 3.1) Cl. One-hour fire resistance is required and fck = 30 MPa.325 m in the E–W direction (y direction). M02yy = 89.1 kN. cmin.2. load case 1: NEd = 1129.dur = 15 mm cmin = 25 mm Dcdev = 10 mm Therefore cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links cnom = 35 mm to links.Perimeter column (internal environment) chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Perimeter column (internal environment) web TCC This 300 × 300 mm perimeter column is in an internal environment and supports three suspended floors and the roof of an office block.3(3) .0 kNm 5. Assume XC1.1. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links = 32 mm to main bars.3 Perimeter column (internal environment) From first order analysis. M02zz = 0 Load case 2: NEd = 1072. M02yy = 68. M02yy 3575 250 325 300 × 300 Column under consideration Figure 5.6 kN.4.45 m and the clear height in the N–S direction (z direction) is 3.b. 4.2(3) Cl.7 kNm.4.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.6 kNm. 4. It is to be designed at ground floor level where the storey height is 3.dur] where cmin. 32 − 8 = 24 mm to links = say 25 mm cmin. cmin.b = diameter of bar.

7 × = 1129. Assume min.6/2383. and axis distance. < 3.56 e ≈ 0.47 between from Table C.3 EC2-1-2: Annex C EC2-1-2: 5.54 and bmin = 310 mm 140 no good.5 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 0.15h = 0. e = 0.47 interpolate for l = 30 and n = 0.6 × 103 = 79 mm no good. Use BS EN 1992–1–2 Annex C Tables C1–C9.9 = 0.7(3002 EC2-1-2: 5.2b: emax = 0.2.3.3(3) EC2-1-2: 5.25b and ≤ 100 mm l = l0 /i where l0 = 0.8 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 1.6/0. H25 = 1964 mm2 ( 2.5 where I = inertia = bh3/12 A = area = bh h = height of section b = breadth of section = 300/120.3.8 ‡ Using 4 no.34.0 m e OK.25b): 1129. .15 × 300 = 45 mm Check validity of using Method B and Table 5.325 = 2327 mm i = radius of gyration = (I/A)0.3(2) = M02yy /NEd = 89. a = 35 mm and from Table C.85 × 30/1.3(3) EC2-1-2: 5.5) = 0. emax = 0.3(2).7 × 3.85 × 30/1.7(Acfcd + Asfyd) × 0. 4 no.7 × 3. e = 0.022 × (500/1.2a EC2-1-2: 5.3.5 + 1964 × 500/1.3.325 i. Table 5. bmin = 235. 5.3.fi ≈ 0.5 = h/120.5.2 & NA EC2-1-2: 5.3. n = 0.15)/(0.2a of BS EN 1992–1–2: l0.3(2) EC2-1-2: Table C.0.2.fi/0. H20 gives w = 0.25b = 75 mm no good.15) = 0.5.2 Fire resistance Check validity of using Method A and Table 5. EC2-1-2: 5.e.25b): minimum dimension.3.6 × 106/1129.3.2%)‡ w = Asfyd/Acfcd = 0.5 = 87 mm l = 2327/87 = 276 n = N0Ed.5 EC2-1-2: Table C.

5 Cl.1.95 × 3325 = 3158 mm Slenderness ratio. l0: l0 = 0.56)0.15) Table C16 Cl. llim llim = 20 ABC/n0.5 l = 3158 × 120.5 where A = 1/(1 + 0. 141 . the column is in condition 2 at top and condition 3 at bottom (pinned support). (5.2. l: l = l0/i where i = radius of gyration = (I/A)0. 5.8. 5.46 C = 1.1(1) & NA Cl.45 + k2) ]0. 5.5 = (1 + 2w)0.74 Exp. choose to use tabular method§.8.5 Assuming min.7 n = NEd/Acfcd = 1129.2(1) l = 36.2 fef).1(1) Cl. 5.4 Cl.8.5 Limiting slenderness ratio. and a = 30 mm for w = 0. Assume 0.3. 4 no.56.5/300 = 36.7 – rm where rm = M01/M2 Assuming conservatively that M01 = 0 rm = 0 C = 1.1(1) § See footnote to Section 5. 4 no.8.6 × 103/(3002 × 0.1. l0 = 0.5 [1 + k2/(0.bmin = 185.5 = h/120.5l [1 + k1 /(0.45 + k1) ]0.3.7 B = (1 + 2 Asfyd/Acfcd)0. k2 = relative stiffnesses top and bottom But conservatively.85 × 30/1.3.3 Structural design: check slenderness Effective length. 5.5 = 1.3. and a = 35 mm OK to use Method B but use min.5 where k1. bmin = 228.5) = 0.8. H25 (for fire) w = 0.56 as before B = (1 + 2 × 0. H25 5. For critical direction.

0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa Concise: Section 6.46 × 1.4 = 21.2(1) Cl.4 llim = 40.8. Column is not slender 5.6 + (3158/400) × 1129.2(7).2. MEd = MOed = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where M = moment from 1st order analysis eiNEd = effect of imperfections‡ where ei = l0 /400 e0 = h/30 > 20 mm Load case 1: MEdy = 89.5 Design using iteration of x For axial load: AsN/2 = (NEd – accnfckbdc /gC)/(ssc – sst) For moment: [MEd – accnfckbdc (h/2 – dc/2)/ gC] AsM/2 = (h/2 – d2) (ssc – sst) where MEd = 98.4 Table C16 5. 6. 5.5 kNm Load case 2: MEdy = 68.2.1.5 = 40.4 Design moments. Appendix A3 Appendices A3.02 × 1072. 5. 5.8.2.6 + 8.2. Cl.740.9.1 where l0 = 0.4 kNm Cl. 5.2 > 21. Cl.7 kNm MEdz = 6.6 = 89.2(3) Cl.4 Cl.1.5 × 106 NEd = 1129.6 × 10−3 > 0. 5.02 × 1129.8.4 as l < llim column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not required. 3. MEd MEd = MOEd + M2 ≥ e0NEd But as column is not slender. C9.1.2(1).8.0 + (l0/400) × 1072.7 × 1.8.7/0. M2 = 0.21) ‡The effects of imperfections need only be taken into account in the most unfavourable direction.6 × 103 acc = 0. 5.2.6 = 98.llim = 20 × 0.6(1) & NA Exp.8.85 n = 1.9 × 3000 = 13.8.1 × 10−3 > 0.9 > 22. (3.9(2) 142 .2. 6.

0035(h – x – d2)/x = 0.0) × 103 = 1141 mm2 274.1N x h n. axis ey o a) Strain diagram As1 sst o b) Stress diagram d2 Figure 5.4 Section in axial compression and bending Try x = 200 mm = ecu2 = 0.5 × 103) AsN/2 = 434.5 gC ssc.8x < h where x = depth to neutral axis d2 = 35 + 8 + 25/2 = 55 mm assuming H25 = 1. (sst) = stress in reinforcement in compression (tension) o esc ecu2 fcd = accnfck/gC o As2 ssc dc d2 fck b h dc Exp.0008 × 200000 ≤ 500/1.0008 sst = 0.6 × 103 – 0.0035 ecu 0.0035(300 – 200 – 55)/200 est = 0.8/(1.8 – 160 = (1129.15 = 434.0025 ssc = 0.15 = 160 MPa 1129.1 143 .0035 × (200 – 55) esc = = x 200 = 0.6 – 816.0035 × (x – d2) 0.8 Fig.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.85 × 1.= 30 = 300 = 300 = depth of compression zone = lx = 0. 6.8 MPa = 0.19) Table 2. (3.0025 × 200000 ≤ fyk/gS = 500 ≤ 500/1.

39) 5.7/98.6 – 865.85 × 1.2 and biaxial bending is critical.5)1 + (68.5 kNm.8 (300/2 – 200 × 0.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.6 Check for biaxial bending By inspection.25.5 × 106 – 0.5.3) × 106 = 816 mm2 95 × 543.0006 sst = 120 MPa AsN/2 = AsM/2 = (1129. 9. ≈ 1628 mm2 Try 4 no.4/98.3(4) .6 × 400 = 240 mm Use H8 @ 175 mm cc 144 Cl.6 × 20 × 25 = 300 mm.8 est = 0.3(3).5 – 56. Assuming ey/ez > 0.5) × 106 = 796 mm2 95 × 554.8 + 160) 6 (98.5)1 = 0. 5.91 i.5 × 103) (300/2 – 55) (434.8 – 120 (98. 9.00054 est = 109 MPa est AsN/2 = AsM/2 = (1129.8 as AsN/2 ≈ AsM/2.] Cl. say 8 mm Spacing: minimum of a) 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm or c) 0. (5. < 1.2. x = 212 mm is approximately correct and AsN ≈ AsM.5 – 57.8 = 0.7 Links Minimum size links = 25/4 = 6. not critical.8.6 – 856.5 – 56.8 Similarly for x = 212 mm ssc = 434. and assuming exponent a = 1 as a worst case for load case 2: (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a = (21.0035 esc = 0.0 OK.AsM/2 = 98.8/2)/(1.e. b) 0. H25 (1964 mm2) 5.8 Similarly for x = 210 mm ecu = 0.9(3) Exp.1) × 10 = 733 mm2 = 95 × 594.0) × 103 = 812 mm2 434.2.5. [Proof: Section is symmetrical and MRdz > 98.8 – 109 (98.8) × 103 = 866 mm2 434.0026 ssc = 434.

2.5 Design summary: perimeter column 145 .8 Design summary 4 H25 H8 links @ 175 cc cnom = 35 mm to links Figure 5.5.

0 3 200 x 200 hole 8.6 8. The suspended slabs (including the ground floor slab) are 300 mm thick flat slabs at 4500 mm vertical centres. (6. 1-hour fire resistance and fck = 50 MPa.3. Assume an internal environment. A 1 200 x 200 hole 8.Internal column chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Internal column The design forces need to be determined.6 Figure 5.10a) and (6. 9. This will include the judgement of whether to use Exp.3.0 C web TCC 6.6 EC1-1-1: 6. above 5th floor they are 465 mm circular. 5. NA & Table NA.2 Load take-down Actions: Roof: gk = 8.10b) for the design of this column.5.7 146 .1 Design forces In order to determine design forces for this column it is first necessary to determine vertical loads and 1st order moments.6 Part plan of flat slab 5.4.3.0 B 4. qk = 0.0 4.0 D E 2 300 mm flat slabs All columns 400 mm sq.0 Bb 4. (6. Between ground and 5th floors the columns at C2 are 500 mm square.10) or the worse case of Exp.

26 Along grid 2 consider spans to be 6.5 2279.3) × 25 = 4th as before Col 3 – 4 a.Floors: gk = 8.63 + 0.0 147 .9 594.4 321.4 Table C3 Cumulative total 594.7 3070. 3rd a. consider spans to be 9.5 1999.5 × 0.b.1 601.b.6 m and 8.b.b.63 = 1.3 594. Therefore elastic reaction factor = 0.6 2279.b.4 279.b.7 2449.9 594. Col 6 – 7 a.3 594.5 + 0.5 26.8 5553.5 17.5.0 × (6. qk = 4.2)/2 × 1.8 279.b.7 1720.0 612.5 1160. Consider spans adjacent to column C2: Along grid C.6)/2 × (8.00 Load take-down for column C2.5 17.2 279.3 42.6 + 8.9 594. Item Calculation Gk From item = [erfy × (lz1 + lz2)/2 ] × [erfz × (l y1 + ly2)/2 ] × (gk + qk) = [1.2 279. At above ground floor Roof Qk Cumulative From total item Section 3.6) = Col 8 – R = π (0.0 In keeping with Section 3.5 17. 6th a.5 26.7 3691.5 = 1.465/2)2 × (4.b.0 279.6 279. Col 5 – 6 a.4 Section 3.b.3) × 25 = 8th = 1.2)/2 ] × [1.5 26.5 + 4.5 − 0.7 1224.8 881.6 m and C2 to be the internal of 2 .26 × (9.0 + 6.7 4312.8 279. Elastic reaction factor = 0.0 + 6.b.5 × (4. 5th a. Col 4 – 5 = 0.6 5553.9 594.5 26.5 26.6 + 8.2 m and internal of multiple span.5 + 0.3 594.3 594.7 42.7 4932.26 × (9.span element.5 + 0. Col 2 – 3 a.5 17.0) = Col 7 – 8 as before 7th a.5 − 0.0 m and 6.4 use coefficients to determine loads in take-down.0 × (6. Col G – 1 a.7 1837.6)/2 ] × (8.4 279.b. 2nd a. Col 1 – 2 a.6) = 69.9 × (8.b.2 1440. 1st a.

5 for n > 10 where n = number of storeys supported an= 0.1gQQk1 + c0.37 ≥ 0.2 (11).75 = 1 – 9 × 69.3. (6.5 × 0.0) × 0.5 × 2237.4 + 2013.3.3 kN b) Axial load to Exp. 6.10a) NEd = gGGk + c0.7 × 1.75 = 0.4 + 1436.1. & NA where aA = 1 – A/1000 ≥ 0.1.10) NEd = gGGk + gQQk1 + c0gQQki where gG = gQ = c0. NEd = 9555.6 + 1.50 0.10a) & NA According to BS EN 1991–1–1 6.6 + 0.1 = Qk1 = Qki = EC0: Exp.35 1.6 ( 279. NEd a) Axial load to Exp.6 + 0.10).1 – n/10 for 1 ≤ n ≤ 5 = 0. (6.8 + 44.35 × 5553.10) & NA 148 .2 & NA 1.10a).10b) NEd = jgGGk + gQQk1 + c0. (6.9/1000 = 0.1 = 8933.3 kN To Exp.6 for 8‡ storeys supported as an < aA. use an = 0.1 = 9555.6 Assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable action: NEd = 1.5 × 42.3.5 × 42.8 + 1999. (6.5 × (2279.6 + 1.0 = 1. EC0: Exp.7 (offices) leading variable action (subject to reduction factor aA or an) accompanying action (subject to aA or an) EC1-1-1: 6. (6.0 = 7497.5 + 0.1gQQki ‡ EC0: Exp.10) & NA EC0: A1.7 × 1. NEd = 8933.1gQQki = 1. (6.2 (10).35 × 5553.4 kN c) Axial load to Exp.6 for 5 ≤ n ≤ 10 and = 0. ground– 1st floor.5.7 × 1.7) = 7497.5 − 42.2[11] the imposed load on the roof is category H and therefore does not qualify for reduction factor an.2.3 Design axial load.75 an = 1. (6.1.3.35 × 5553.4 kN To Exp. (6.

2)/2 × 8.9 kN/m qk = 6.4 kN/m Relative stiffness of lower column: Assuming remote ends of slabs are pinned.0 + 6. relative stiffness blcdlc3/Llc = blcdlc3/Llc + bucduc3/Luc + 0.0144 + 0.1 x 4.5 = 4/4.1 = 9000.5 × 2237.925 × 1. NEd = 9000.9 kN/m qk = (6.6 + 0.6 2 × 0.75 × 6.5 × 42.assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable action: = 0.5 = 0.0 + 6.6 + 1.1 + 2013. similarly 21 = beam 21 0.33/9.0129) = 0.5 = 51.10b).6 + 0.1 × 0.0278 + 0.2)/2 × 4. M a) Grid C Consider grid C to determine Myy in column (about grid 2) gk = 6.8+ 44.5 + 0.252 149 .5 × 0.7 × 1.4 First order design moments.6 + 1.7 × 1.5 − 42. (6.0 = 24.5 × (2279.33/8.0 = 1.75b23d233/L23 + 0.0 kN To Exp.75 × 6.0 = 24.35 × 5553.25 × 5553.1 x 8.4 kN/m 4500 3 300 thick ave 6100 wide 2 500 sq 1 4500 8600 9600 Actions: gk = (6.75b21d213/L21 where b = breadth d = depth L = length lc = lower column.6 + 0.54/4.5 = 51.1 × 0.0 kN 5. uc = upper column 23 = beam 23.0139/(0.0 = 6942.0) × 0.3.5 × 42.

47 × 8.yy = 0.47 × 4.4) × 9.4 kNm Exp.6 + 9.10) FEM 23‡ = 1.8 kNm FEM 21 = (1.5 × 24.252 × (735.yy = 0.5 × 24.9 × 8.35 × 51.5 × 24.9 + 1.9 × 8.35 × 51.8 kNm FEM 21 = (1.62/12 = 431.62/12 = 106.2(4) PD 6687 23 = Fixed end moment in span 23 at grid 2. (6.6) × 8.8 kNm FEM 21 = (1.8) = 76.25 × 51.252 × (779.35 × 51.5 kNm Mlower.7 kNm 1st order moment using Exp.252 × [819.7 × 1.62/12 = 399.5 = 97.62/12 = 779.8) = 95.10a) FEM 23 = 1.4) × 9.8] = 97.7 × 9.5 – 399.9 × 8.5 kN/m qk = 11. 150 .4 ) × 9.62/12 = 735.7 × 9.5 = 11.62/12 = 431.62/12 = 95.0 – 431.5 × 9. (6.9 kN/m gk = 97.8.62/12 = 819.5 kN/m 4500 B 300 thick ave 11470 wide C 500 sq D 4500 6200 6000 Figure 5.7 kNm 1st order moment using Exp.10a) critical b) Grid 2 Consider grid 2 to determine Mzz in column (about grid C) qk = 45.5 kNm Mlower. (6.9 + 1.yy = 0. (6.1st order moment using Exp. 5.10b) FEM 23 = 1.9 + 0.8 Subframe on column C2 along grid 2 Actions: gk = 0.35 × 51.62/12 = 101.3.5 – 431.9 kN/m Relative stiffness of lower column: Assuming remote ends of slabs are fixed. relative stiffness ‡ FEM Cl.63 × (8.0 kNm Mlower.25 × 51.0 = 45.

=

0.54/4.5

0.54/4.5 + 11.47 × 0.33/6.2 +11.47 × 0.33/6.0

= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0500 + 0.0516) = 0.107 1st order moment using Exp. (6.10) FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12 = 200.5 × 6.22/12 = 642.3 kNm FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.02/12 = 394.9 kNm Mlower,zz = 0.107 × (642.3 – 394.9) = 26.5 kNm 1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a) FEM CB = 1.25 × 97.5 × 6.02/12 = 365.6 kNm FEM CD = (1.25 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12 = 190.7 × 6.22/12 = 611.0 kNm Mlower,zz = 0.107 × (611.0 – 365.6) = 26.3 kNm 1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b) FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12 = 190.7 × 6.22/12 = 576.0 kNm FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.02/12 = 394.9 kNm Mlower,zz = 0.107 × (576.0 – 394.9) = 19.4 kNm Exp. (6.10a) critical again

5.3.5 Summary of design forces in column C2 ground–1st
Design forces Method Using Exp. (6.10) Using Exp. (6.10a) Using Exp. (6.10b) NEd 9555.3 kN 8933.4 kN 9000.0 kN Myy about grid 2 97.7 kNm 95.7 kNm 76.4 kNm Mzz about grid C 26.5 kNm 26.3 kNm 19.4 kNm

Notes: 1) To determine maximum 1st order moments in the column, maximum out-ofbalance moments have been determined using variable actions to one side of the column only. The effect on axial load has, conservatively, been ignored. 2) It may be argued that using coefficients for the design of the slab and reactions to the columns does not warrant the sophistication of using Exps (6.10a) and (6.10b). Nevertheless, there would appear to be some economy in designing the column to Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) rather than Exp. (6.10). The use of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) is perfectly valid and will be followed here.

To avoid duplicate designs for both Exps (6.10a) and (6.10b), a worse case of their design forces will be used, thus: NEd = 9000 kN, Myy = 95.7 kNm, Mzz = 26.3 kNm
151

5.3.6 Design: cover
cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur] where cmin,b cmin,dur cmin,dur = diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links. = 32 – 8 = 24 mm to link = minimum cover due to environmental conditions. Assume XC1. = 15 mm Exp. (4.1)

Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)

BS 8500-1: Table A4

cmin = 24 mm, say 25 mm to link Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 25 + 10

= 35 mm

Cl. 4.4.1.3 & NA

5.3.7 Design: fire resistance
Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a a) Check l0,fi ≤ 3.0 m where l0 = effective length of column in fire = 0.5 × clear height = 0.5 × (4500 – 300) = 2100 mm b) Check e ≤ emax = 0.15h = 0.15 × 500 = 75 mm e = M0Ed,fi/N0Ed,fi = M0/NEd = 99.5 × 106/8933 × 103 = 11 mm EC2-1-2: 5.3.2, Table 5.2a

OK

EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2) OK

c) Check amount of reinforcement ≤ 4% OK Assuming mfi = 0.7 bmin = 350 with OK amin = 40 mm For fire using Method A and Table 5.2a is valid

EC2-1-2: Table 5.2a

5.3.8 Structural design: check slenderness
Effective length, l0: l0 = 0.5l [1 + k1/(0.45 + k1)]0.5 [1 + k2/(0.45 + k2)]0.5 where k1 and k2 are relative flexibilities at top and bottom of the column. ki = (EIcol/lcol)/S(2EIbeam/lbeam) ≥ 0.1
‡ PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam should be taken as 2EI/lbeam

Exp. (5.15)

PD 6687[6]‡

152

Critical direction is where k1 and k2 are greatest i.e. where slab spans are greater blcdlc3/Llc k1 = k2 = 2b23d233/L23 + 2b21d213/L21 = (0.54/4.5)/(2 × 6.1 × 0.33/8.6 + 2 × 6.1 × 0.33/9.6) = (0.0625)/(0.0383 + 0.0343) = 0.86 l0 = 0.5 (4500 – 300) [1 + 0.86/(0.45 + 0.86)]0.5 [1 + 0.86/(0.45 + 0.86)]0.5 l0 = 0.5 × 4200 × 1.66 = 0.828 × 4200 = 3478 mm Slenderness ratio, l: l = l0/i where i = radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5 = h/120.5 l = 3478 × 120.5/500 = 24.1 Limiting slenderness ratio, llim: llim = 20 ABC/n0.5 where A = 1/(1 + 0.2 fef). Assume 0.7 as per default B = (1 + 200)0.5. Assume 1.1 as per default C = 1.7 – where = M01/M2 = –84.9/109.3 = –0.78 C = 1.7 + 0.78 = 2.48 n = NEd /Acfcd = 8933 × 103/(5002 × 0.85 × 50/1.5) = 1.26 llim = 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.48/1.260.5 = 34.0 as l < llim column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not required

How to[8]: Columns

Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)

Cl. 5.8.3.1(1) & NA Exp. (5.13N)

5.3.9 Design moments, MEd
MEd = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where M = moment from 1st order analysis eiNEd = effect of imperfections

Cl. 5.8.8.2(1), 6.1(4)

Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)

153

where ei = l0/400 e0NEd = minimum eccentricity where e0 = h/30 ≥ 20 mm MEdyy = 95.7 + (3570/400) × 8933 × 10−3 ≥ 0.02 × 8933 = 95.7 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7 = 175.4 < 178.7 kNm MEdzz = 18.8 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7 = 178.7 kNm Both critical. However, imperfections need only be taken in one direction – where they have the most unfavourable effect Use MEdzz = 178.7 with MEdyy = 95.7 kNm

Cl. 5.2.7 Cl. 6.1(4)

Cl. 5.8.9(2)

5.3.10 Design using charts
MEdyy /bh2fck = 178.9 × 106/(5003 × 50) = 0.03 NEd/bhfck = 9000 × 103/(5002 × 50) = 0.72 Choice of chart based on d2/h where d2 = depth to centroid of reinforcement in half section assuming 12 bar arrangement with H32s d2 = 35 + 8 + (32/2) + (2/6) [500 + 2 × (35 + 8 + 32/2 )/3] = 59 + (1/3) × 127 = 101 Use Figure C5d) d2/h = 101/500 = 0.2
d2 C L

Figs C5a) to C5e)

d2, to centroid of reinforcement in half section From Figure C5d) Asfyk/bhfck = 0.30 = 0.29 × 500 × 500 × 50/500 As = 7500 mm2 Try 12 no. H32 (9648 mm2)‡ Fig. C5d)

‡ Using design actions to Exp. (6.10) would have resulted in a requirement for 8500 mm2.

154

39 NEd/bhfck = 9000 x 103/(5002 x 50) = 0.) 95.20 and Asfyk/bhfck = 9648 × 500/500 × 500 × 50 = 0. 5.72 2f = 0.057 MRd/bh ck MRd ≈ 0.12 Design for biaxial bending Check (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1. (5.9.3(3).54 i.7 kNm MRdz = MRdy = moment resistance.9. C5d) 155 .9 Cl. for d2/h = 0. Exp. 5. 5.11 Check biaxial bending Slenderness: ly ≈ lz OK.0 For load case 2 where MEdz = 178.057 × 5003 × 50 = 356.8. Eccentricities: as h = b check ey/ez MEdz critical.8. Using charts: From Figure C4d).2 and < 5 Design for biaxial bending. C z ey Centre of reaction Cl.5. (5.e.9(3) Cl. 5.3.3.38b) MEdy b * ez y 2 MEdz h Figure 5.7 kNm MEdy = 95.3 kNm Cl. Exp. > 0.3(4).7 × 106/9000 × 103 = 0. (Imperfections act in z direction.10 Eccentricities 5.7 × 106/9000 × 103 ey/ez = 178.39) Fig.

< 1.14 Design summary 12 H32 H8 links @ 225 cc 35 mm to link 500 mm sq fck = 50 MPa Figure 5. 5.67 Check (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.13 Links Minimum diameter of links: = f/4 = 32/4 = 8 mm Spacing.7 (1.6 × 20 × f = 12 × 32 = 384 mm.5.6 × h = 0. either: a) 0.67 + (95.5 + 9648 × 500/1.6 × 400 = 240 mm.0 (178. Use H8 links at 225 mm cc Number of legs: Bars at 127 mm cc i. (5.5.3(4) Cl. 9.32 + 0.3 & NA Cl. Use single leg on face bars both ways @ 225 mm cc Cl.0) a = 1. 9.0 (2.85 × 50/1.3)1.3(4) Notes to Exp.8.3)1.e.e.39) 5.4.3.5.11 = 0.5.67 = 0.0 OK Use 12 no.2 5.5) and for NEd/NRd = 1. < 150 mm no need to restrain bars in face but good practice suggests alternate bars should be restrained.a = exponent dependent upon NEd/NRd where = Acfcd + Asfyd NRd = 500 × 500 × 0. 9.11 Design summary: internal column 156 .87.7/356.3(6) SMDSC: 6.3.6 × 500 = 300 mm or c) 0. b) 0.43 i. Interpolating between values given for NEd/NRd = 0.3(3). H32 Cl.7/356.15 = 7083 + 3216 = 10299 kN NEd/NRd = 9000/10299 = 0. 9.

cnom cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin. measured from top of foundation to centre of slab.e.1 kN‡. From analysis it has moments of 114.Small perimeter column subject to two-hour fire resistance chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Small perimeter column subject to two-hour fire resistance The middle column.0 gQ = 1. Slab 300 450 350 x 350 column 4000 Paving web TCC Foundation Figure 5. cmin.1. Assume the base is pinned. (4. Ultimate axial load.1 kN.dur] Gk = 562. as imposed loads are from storage c0 = 1.1 Cover Nominal cover. supports two levels of storage loads and is subject to an ultimate axial load of 1824.b.9 × 789.4.12 Perimeter column 5.1) .35.5.1.5 kNm in the plane of the beam and 146. B. 157 ‡ Exp.1 = 1824. NEd = 1. 4000 mm long.5 × 0. The column is 350 mm square. Qk = 789.35 × 562. as column supports loads from 2 levels an = 0.1 + 1. It is supporting storage loads. in Figure 4.9. about the z axis).50 and gQ= 1. in an external environment (but not subject to de-icing salts) and is subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement on three exposed sides.1 kNm perpendicular to the beam (i.

1 × 103 = 80 mm no good Try Method B b) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method B Determine parameters n.2a EC2-1-2: 5.8b) .5 + 2252.7(Acfcd + Asfyd) = 0.9 × 103/0. where cmin.fi = 0.b Cl.0 OK e = first order eccentricity = M0Ed.7 × 146.2(3) EC2-1-2: Exp. cmin.dur = 25 mm Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation = 10 mm Try cnom = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to 8 mm links Try cnom = 35 mm to 8 mm links.1.2(3) BS 8500-1[14] : Table A4 5. providing: 8 bars used – OK but check later l0. and for mfi = 0.4. w.5.fi/N0Ed.5 + 5180 × 500/1.2% OK – integrity OK) n = N0Ed. and check lfi.1 × 103/0.7.1(1) & NA 5.08 ≥ 1 But say within acceptable engineering tolerance use w = 1.3. and e.7 (350 × 350 × 0.2.8a) EC2-1-2: 5.2b Cl.2%) (say 4. Table 5. 9.7 (350 × 350 × acc × fck/ gC + 5180 × 500/gS) = 1276.15 × 350 = 52 mm but e = M0Ed. Assume 4 no.0) = 0.3.15h = 0. Table 5.42 OK w = mechanical ratio = Asfyd/Acfcd ≤ 1. Assuming primarily XC3/XC4.0 = 2252/2082 = 1. H25 = (5180 mm2: 4.fi 158 EC1-1-2: 5.15) = 1276. a = 57 mm.7 × 1824.7 × 1824.fi ≤ 3 m – OK but check e ≤ emax = 0.85 × 30/1.4. (5. a for 350 mm square column For mfi = 0.3. a = 45 mm.= diameter of bar.2 Fire resistance a) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method A Axis distance available = 43 mm + f/2 Required axis distance to main bars.3.3(2) EC2-1-2: Exp. H32 + 4 no. 4.9 × 103/0. Assume 32 mm main bars and 10 mm links cmin.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.3.7 (2082.5. (5.1 × 106/0.fi/N0Ed.fi/0. secondarily XF1.

R120.4.42 and w = 1. l0.8 For w = 1.3. about z axis: l0z = 0.46) = 27.7 × 146. (5.25/(2 × 31.25b.1 where Treating beams as rectangular and cancelling E throughout: = 3504/(12 × 3850) = 3.2(3) EC2-1-2: 5.3(1).3.2(3) PD 6687 .10 Cl. H32 + 4 no.45 + k2) ]0.45 + k1) ]0. 5.2(2) Note 2 EC2-1-2: 5.3 Structural design: check slenderness about z axis Effective length.46 for a rectangular section lfi = 2800/(350/3. H25 with 35 mm cover to 8 mm links (a = 55 mm min.25 × 105 Icol/lcol Ibeam1/lbeam1 = 8500 × 3003/12 × 6000 = 31.1 k1 = 0.7 × 4000 = 2800 mm i = radius of gyration = h/3.5 where l = clear height between restraints = 4000 – 300/2 = 3850 mm k1. check adequacy of section to Annex B3 and Annex C Using BS EN 1992–1–2 Table C.7 × 1824. 48 mm Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK c) As additional check. Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK 4 no.7l = 0.5l [1 + k1/(0.8.3. column width = 350 mm and axis distance = say. e = 0.1 k2 = by inspection (pinned end assumed) = ∞ 159 Exp. Annex C & NA EC2-1-2: Annex C(2) 5. l = 30 and interpolating between n = 0. bmin = 350 mm.0.1 × 103 = 80 mm as before 0.5 [1 + k2/(0.7 < 30 OK Table 5.fi/i where l0.) OK EC2-1-2: 2.15) PD 6687: 2.= 0.3 and n = 0.051 ≥ 0. Interpolating from BS EN 1992–1–2 Table 5. k2 = relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1 and 2 respectively k1 = [EIcol/lcol]/[2EIbeam1/lbeam1 + 2EIbeam2/lbeam2] ≥ 0.2b for n = 0.5. amin = 48 mm.4.fi = effective length of column in fire = 0. OK lfi = slenderness in fire = l0.8 × 105 Ibeam2/lbeam2 = 0 k1 = 3.8) = 0.1 × 106/0.0.2b valid for use in this case.23h.

34.85 × 30/1.3(2) PD 6687* * PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking. the contribution of each beam should be taken as 2EI/lbeam 160 .46l0z/h = 3.7 n = relative normal force = NEd/Acfcd = 1824.88 llim.2(1) = 29.5 × 3850 × [1 + 0.46 × 2965/350 Limiting slenderness ratio.7/0.85/1. It should be noted that in the final design w = Asfyd/Acfcd = 6432 × (500/1.45 + k1) ]0.15) ‡ On first pass the default value for B is used.7 – 0 = 1.7 – rm where rm = M01/M02 say M01 = 0 (pinned end) rm = 0 C = 1.5) = 0.1 relates approximately to a column with fck = 30 MPa and r = 0.45 + k2) ]0.1 × 103/(3502 × 0.7 × 1.1) ]0.3. (5. 5.45 + ∞)]0. EC2-1-2: 5. B = 1. l0. about z axis: l0y = 0.15) / (3502 × 30 × 0.8.087 × 1.1(1) Exp. lz: lz = l0z/i where i = radius of gyration = h/3.4 Check slenderness on y axis Effective length. 5.3.8.68 × 105 Exp.4.3.1(1).5 where A = 0. (5. llim: llim.3 Cl.3. & NA.7 B = 1.z column is slender about z axis.4%. 5.45 + 0.5) = 2796/2082 = 1.5 = (1 + 1.8.5 where ly = clear height between restraints = 4000 + 300/2 – 750 = 3400 mm = relative column flexibility at end 1 k1 = (Icol/Icol)/[S2(Ibeam/Ibeam)] where Icol /Icol = 3504/12 × 3400 = 3.9 As lz > llim.5 Cl. Cl.34)0.l0z = 0.z = 20 × 0.5 [1 + k2/(0.z = 20 ABC/n0.1/(0.5ly [1 + k1/(0.5 × 3850 × 1.46 lz = 3.5 [1 + ∞/(0. 5.1‡ C = 1.880.41 = 0.13N) = 27. So B = (1 + 2 w)0.5 = 0.1 × 1.5 = 1.92 and the column would not have been deemed ‘slender’.77 × 3850 = 2965 mm Slenderness ratio.

7 Cl.z = 27.5 kNm M0Ed = equivalent 1st order moment at about z axis at about mid-height may be taken as M0ez where M0ez = (0.8.8.9 Limiting slenderness ratio.34) 161 . (5.8.5 = 0.45d)] where Kv = a correction factor for axial load = (nu – n)/(nu – nbal) Cl. 5.8.8.8.5 Design moments: MEdz about z axis MEdz = max[M02.5 [1 + /(0.2.5 = 95. 5.4.5M2] where M02 = Mz + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where Mz = 146.2(3) Cl. 5. 5. M01 + 0.5 × 3400 × 1.6 × 159. M0Ed + M2. ly: ly = 3.68/(2 × (16. 5.6M02 + 0.9 As ly < llim.4M01) ≥ 0.1 kNm from analysis eiNEd = effect of imperfections where ei = l0/400 e0 = 20 mm M02 = 146.1.1 + 13. llim: llim. 3 Exp.2(2) Cl.1 ≥ 0.087 × 1.4 Cl.y = llim.8.1/(0.2 × 105 IbeamBC/lbeamBC = 350 × 7503/[12 × (8000 – 350)] = 16.15) = 25. (5.2) = 0.1 + (2965/400) × 1824.77 × 3400 = 2620 mm Slenderness ratio.4M02 = 0.1 + 14.1 k1 = 0.4 × 159.5 = 159. column not slender in y axis. 5.2(1).2 Cl.46 × 2620/350 Exp.Treating beams as rectangular IbeamAB/lbeamAB = 350 × 7503/[12 × (9000 – 350)] = 14.y.1 k2 = ∞ (pinned end assumed) l0y = 0.41 = 0.1 = 146.1) ]0.45 + 0. 5.4 > 36.46l0y/h = 3.060 ≥ 0.4 × 0 ≥ 0.5 × 3400 [1 + 0.45 + ∞) ]0.02 × 1824.8.8. 6.5 + 0.8.1 × 105 k1 = 3.7 kNm = nominal 2nd order moment = N e2 M2 where e2 = (1/r) l02/10 where 1/r = curvature = KvKh[fyd/(Es × 0.

t0) = final creep coefficient = from Figure 3.0.15 – 0. However.1. 3.5 × 46.1.3N) 162 .4 M0.where nu = 1 + w where w = mechanical ratio = Asfyd/Acfd = 1.35 + (fck/200) – (l/150) 0.20/1.4(2) where h(∞.40 (default) (2.5 kNm Cl.13N).0 100.t0) M0.35 + 30/200 – 29.3 + 1.4(2) Fig. 3. (5.3 + 0.88 nbal = the value of n at maximum moment resistance = 0.Eqp/M0Ed Kv = = Kh = = where b = = = = hef = = Cl.5 = 159. t0 = 15 2.35 + 0. 5.71 a correction factor for creep 1 + bhef 0.1 kNm M0Ed = M02 ‡ With reference to Exp.305 effective creep coefficient‡ h(∞.1a = 108.35 × 63.40) 1.1 × 146.8 × 46. hef may be taken as equal to 2.3/150 0.1 + 13.88)/(2.1/2082 = 0.08 – 0.195 0.8. Exp.68 = 0. (5.08 n = NEd/Acfcd = 1824.4 154.0 × Mz + eiNEd 1. for the purpose of illustration the full derivation is shown here.08 – 0.1 for inside conditions h = 350 mm. C30/37.Eqp = 1st order moment due to quasipermanent loads Gk + h2 Qk × Mz + eiNEd ≈ jgGGk + h0gQQk = = 63.08 as before nu = 2.

5 = 1. M0Edy + M2 .305 × 2.1 × 103 × 15.8.1/159.5 + 13.9(2) 163 . Cl.5 + 0.4§ ≥ 36. 3.4M02y 0.6 × 114.50 × 434. M01 = 0.15 = 434.45 × 291) = 0.0000177 × 29652/10 M2 = NEde2 = 1824.5 kNm Cl.Kh = 1 + 0.0000177 l0 = 2965 mm as before e2 = (1/r) l02/10 = 15. 95.8 kNm = Mz = 0 M2/2 = 14.6 Design moments: MEdy about y axis where M02y = = = M0Edy = = MEdy = max[ M02y .8/(200000 × 0.4/2] = 159.5M2] = max[159. 5.4.13 Design moments MEdz 5.1 kNm eiNEd = 13.4 kNm MEdz = 159.6 = 28.9 kNm (0.2.50 fyd = 500/1. M0Edz + M2.4 × 0 § Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only.4 M01y) ≥ 0.6M02y + 0.4 kNm + MOEdz = 95.7 kNm 127. M01 + 0.4 kNm =0 M01 MEdz = max[M02z.6 mm = 0.71 × 1. 0 + 28.7(3) Mz = 146.5.7 + 28.5M2] My + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd 114.5M2] Figure 5. MOEd + M2.5 kNm M2 = 28.8 MPa Es = 200000 MPa d = effective depth = 350 – 35 – 8 – 16 = 291 mm 1/r = 0.2 kNm Mz = 0 a) 1st order moments from analysis c) Design moments: MEdz b) Including 2nd order moments: about z axis MEdz = max [M02.4 × 108.4. M01 + 0.

9 kNm 5.7 kNm = 0 (as column is not slender not slender about y axis).50 MEd/bh2fck = 0. T25 (5180 mm2) OK.4.4. (5. H32 + 4 no.0 where MRdz = MRdy = moment resistance Using Figure C4e) Asfyk/bhfck = 5180 × 500/(3502 × 30) = 0.124 Assuming 8 bar arrangement.25 MEdy 127.38b) Exp.25 From Figure C4e) Asfyk/bhfck = 0. C4e) .M2 = 68.38a) Exp. Fig.8 Check biaxial bending ly ≈ lz OK. C4e) Fig.1 × 103/(3502 × 30) = 0.50 From Figure C4e) Asfyk/bhfck = 0.5 ey/heq = = = 1.10 NEd/bhfck = 0.9 × 106/(3503 × 30) = 0.160 × 3503 × 30 164 Exp. MEdy = 127.50 MEd/bh2fck = 159.34 × 3502 × 30/500 = 2499 mm2 As 4 no. H32 + 4 no. ez = MEdy/NEd ey = MEdz/NEd MEdz 159. centroid of bars in half section: d2 ≥ 35 + 8 + 16 + (350/2 – 35 –8 – 16) × 1/4 59 + 29 = 88 mm d2/h = 0. In y direction: MEd/bh2fck = 127. (5. T25 (5180 mm2) OK. C4e) 5.5 × 106/(3503 × 30) = 0.160 MRd = 0.70 for NEd/bhfck = 0.9 ez/beq need to check biaxial bending (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.34 = 0.39) Fig. (5.50 × 3502 × 30/500 = 3675 mm2 As 4 no.7 Design in each direction using charts In z direction: NEd/bhfck = 1824.50 = 0.

5 kNm = 0.5/245.19 No good Try 8 no. OK Cl.27 + (114.7)1.3(3).72 + 0.3 & NA Cl.10 Design of links Diameter min.= 205.27 5.11 Design summary 8 H32 H8 links @ 200 cc 35 mm cover to link No laps in column section Note The beam should be checked for torsion.8)1.88 0.85 × 30/1. C4e) Check biaxial bending (159. = 0.39 = 0. Figure 5.5 + 2252.5.6 × 350 = 210 mm Use H8 @ 200 mm cc Cl. 9.4. = 32/4 = 8 mm Spacing max.50 0.27 (159.19 5. T32 (6432 mm2) For Asfyk/bhfck = = for NEd/bhfck = = MEd/bh2fck MRd = 6432 × 500/(3502 × 30) 0.5/205.42 a = 1. 9.59 + 0.5/245.5.7 = 0.4.8.8 kNm a depends on NEd/NRd where = Acfcd + Asfyd NRd = 3502 × 0.14 Design summary: small perimeter column 165 .5 + 5180 × 500/1.47 = 1.2(3) & NA PD 6687: 2.2 = 4332.9(4) Fig. 9.7)1. 5. 9.2% > 4% However.9 Check maximum area of reinforcement As/bd = 6432/3502 = 5.187 240.8)1.15 = 2082.27 + (114. if laps can be avoided in this single lift column then the integrity of the concrete is unlikely to be affected and 5.27 = 0.2% is considered OK.1/4332.3(4) 5.98 OK Cl.5/205.5.4.7 kN NEd/NRd = 1824.5.

8 Section 6.2(B) BS 8500–1 Approved Document B EC2–1–2 Cl.Walls General EC0 & NA Table NA 2. 4.1 Section 5 Section 5.1 Sections 8 & 9 166 .1 & NA: A1.1 EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs EC0 & NA: Tables NA A1.4.

(6. the wall is to be designed for the critical section at ground and first floor level using BS EN 1990 Exp. in addition to providing vertical support to 200 mm flat slabs at roof level and floors 1 to 3.2 Section X–X 167 . Assuming the stair itself provides no lateral stability.Shear wall chg CCIP – 041 1 Oct 09 Shear wall web TCC Wall A is 200 mm thick and. X 300 4800 4800 4800 300 300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300 N X Wall A 1300 4400 1500 7200 30700 Figure 6.1 Typical floor plan 61 900 Roof 3rd 4@3300 2nd 1st 600 900 Gnd Figure 6. The concrete is C30/37.10). The wall is supported on pad foundations and the ground floor is ground bearing. it helps to provide lateral stability to the four-storey office block.

59 2.4.48 3.50 0.30 5.15 5.00 5.2 Floor slabs Carpet Raised floor Suspended ceiling Services Self-weight 200 mm slab Imposed load Section 2.6.05 × 22 = Plaster Tiles and bedding Imposed load Section 2.21 4.00 0.15 0.2 Section 2.2 Section 2.30 0.15 × 0.10 0.60 0.21 1.03 0.03 0.05 0.00 5.30 0.42 5.30 5.15 0.40 0.10 0.4.50 2.8 Stairs 150 waist @ 30 Treads 0.78 2.4.8 Cavity wall 102 mm brickwork 50 mm insulation 100 mm blockwork Plaster 200 mm wall Plaster both sides wk = RC wall Section 2.1.00 5.2 Ground floor slab (ground bearing) Carpet Raised floor Services Self-weight 200 mm slab Imposed load Section 2.00 7.50 0.02 1.8 Roof Paving 40 mm Waterproofing Insulation Suspended ceiling Services Self-weight 200 mm slab Imposed load Section 2.42 1.88 1.8 EC1-1-4 & NA Wind 168 .4.8 Section 2.1 Actions Permanent Variable actions actions gk qk kN/m2 1.37 0.00 8.10 Section 2.00 4.00 0.40 1.25 × 25 × 4/2 = Screed 0.

4 (8.5) 41.4 = 214. F (traffic).7 3rd floor (6.6 196.5 At above 2nd floor 479.5 At above ground floor 944. b.3/2) × (7.6 Landing (2.8 At above foundation 1021.5) = 100.9/4.6 kN/m Qk = an × 196.1 34.5) 11.7 Wall 3.5 At above 1st floor 711.0 Qk From item Cum.8 × 196.9 60.4 + 1.1 60.6.5/2) × (5. 232.1 = 156.1. wall and stair a.6) = 13.7 At above 3rd floor 246. 232.48 + 3.1. landing.2 Ground floor assume 1 m all round = 2 × (1.6 250 mm wall to foundation 4. G (traffic) and H (roofs).2(11) & NA ‡ Includes storeys supporting Categories A (residential and domestic). wall and stair a.2 76.1 1.0) = 63.4 × 5.2 14.2 × 0.1.05 + 0.05 + 0.4 × 0.6 74.0/2) × (1.4 = 35.8 Qk/m = 156.6 Wall a. landing.59 + 2.3/2 + 4.40 + 1.5/2) × (5.2 Gk/m = 944.6 × 25 = 13.78 + 2. b. total 13.1 where an = 1.9 6.5/2) × (7.2 Load take-down Consider whole wall.42 = 78.2/4. b.6 135.7 1st floor.9 kN EC1-1-1: 6.4 + 1. B (office). C (areas of congregation) and D (shopping). 78. total Roof (6.8 230.3.5 60.2 2nd floor.1 – 3/10 = 0.3 43. Gk Item Calculation From item Cum.0 12.3 × 4.5/2 × 1.6 232.1 × 4.7 246.3 Roof (6.6) = 154. but excludes E (storage and industrial).1 – n/10 where n = no. of storeys qualifying for reduction‡ =3 = 1.3 14.0/2) × (1.3/2 + 4.7 Stair say 1.5/2) × (5.78 + 2.5 5. 169 .5/2) × (4.0/2 + 2.3 Design actions due to vertical load at ground–1st Gk = 944.7 kN/m Qk = 0.

36) = 51% of wind load.800 –0.41/(1.1.2 × 4.912 –4.00 –0.38 5. Area. x 1. N–S 300 3600 6000 6000 30700 6000 6000 2500 300 2400 o/a Wall A 2400 4400 Lift shaft 200 thick walls wk = 1.4 Vertical loads from wind action: moments in plane Consider wind loads.76 –4. A 2. = 2.732 1.6 × 0.10 kN/m2 N Figure 6. CoGL of the lift shaft.04/12 – 0.32 1.41 + 1.2 1.0 × 2.2 2.36 m4 Wall A: IWallA = 0. Check shear centre to resolve the effects of torsion.3 Ax 6.41 m4 where I = inertia Wall A takes 1.0 = –1.63/12 Lift shaft: ILS = 1.4 × 2.44 2400 CoGL x 170 Figure 6.44/12 – 2.6. Determine centre of gravity.2 = 2400 1600 200 200 Lever arm.4 = –2.3 Lateral stability against wind loads N–S Check relative stiffness of lift shaft and wall A to determine share of load on wall A.4 Lift shaft .2 × 1.43/12 = 1.

05‡) 1.956 = 1. 171 . wall A = 51% × wk × Lx = 51% × 1.2 kN/m Figure 6. C Wall A‡ L 2. there is no torsion to resolve in the stability system for wind in a N–S direction. Cw of walls.1 × 30.38/1.# 900 3300 3300 3300 3300 600 900 14100 Roof 3rd 2nd 1st Gnd wk = 17.56 + 2.41 ILS + IWallA = 12.49 = = 12.80 15.444 m Shear centre.31 from east end of building.80 – 0.35 Figure 6.45 24. from face of lift shaft to CoG of shaft = 2.00 Wall A CoGL * * Cw Wk 15. Cw and centre of action.05 = 15.2 kN/m ‡ Assuming centreline of wall A is 50 mm to right hand side of grid. so characteristic wind load on wall A.56 m from wall A 1.44 + 24.44 = 0.00 + 0. Wk Centre of action (30.31 1. wk. from centreline of wall A = or ILS × (1.36 + 1.6 Wall A – wind loads N–S 300 4400 300 Wall A takes 51% of wind load.40 – 0.5 Shear centre.e. #Had there been significant torsion this would have been resolved into +/– forces in a couple based on the shear walls.x = Ax/A = 1.7/2 = 15.956 m i.7 = 17.36 × 25.35 m from end of building) and shear centre (almost) coincide.

67 am = [0. characteristic wind load in each end.8/3.0 = 0.4) Cl. Mk. 2 172 .0 m of wall either end of the wall. due in this case to wind = 17.52 ≤ 1. Wk = 1709.6. The reinforcement in tension is assumed to act at the centre of one end and the concrete in compression (with a rectangular stress distribution) acts at the centre of the other end. consisting of 1.67 ≤ 2/l 0.0 = 0.5 Effects of global imperfections in plane of wall A Roof 3rd 2nd 1st Gnd yI HIR HI3 HI2 HI1 HIG Figure 6. characteristic in-plane moment in wall A.0 = 0.at just above ground floor.70.5 where m = no.67 ≤ 0.0 m in length.8 kNm Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall‡. Cl.2 × 14. 5.5 to 5.2(8) & NA ‡ For medium-rise shear walls there are a number of methods of design.1.67 ≤ 2/14.12/2 = 1709. of members contributing to the total effect = 25 vertical elements on 4 floors = 100 Exp.7 Global imperfections Global imperfections can be represented by forces Hi at floor level where Hi = yi(Nb – Na) where yi = (1/200) aham where ah = 0.5 ≤ 1. The method used here assumes a couple. (5. 9.4 = ±502. Another method[26] is to determine elastic tensile and compression stresses from NEd/bL +/– 6MEd/bL2 and determine reinforcement requirements based on those maxima.9 kN 6. Vol. The method is useful for typical straight shear walls of say 2. 5.2(5). 5.1 suggests strut-and-tie (see Volume 2 of these worked examples[30]).2(1).5 ≤ 1.5(1 + 1/m)]0. The forces generated by the couple add or subtract from the axial load in the 1 m ends of the walls.

1 kN/m = 3615.3(1) Exp.2 kN At 3rd floor (Na – Nb) = 420.67 × 0. 5. GkH = ±50.1 kN i.am = 0.0 At 2nd floor (Na – Nb) = 3615.78 + 2.7 + 1050.7 + 1050.6 × 4.6 – 20.7 + 2.5) + 89.8 = 420.Ed ≤ kl SEcd Ic ns = ns + 1.2 + 11.5) = 89.71 yi = 0.5 = 428.Ed = Total vertical load (on braced and bracing members) where Floor area = (30.3 × (5.7 + 1050.9 × 4.8 × 0.1 § As H derives mainly from permanent actions its resulting effects are i considered as being a permanent action too.8 kN 6.0/3.e.5 = 408.6 = 8.5 = 11.51 × 334.3.1.3 × 2.0 kNm As before.7 + 1050.2) = 7.6 × 4.5 – 1.4 + 252. (5.8 – 1.8.0024 × (3615.3 × (7.9 + 0.6) + 89.4 – (2 × 0.30) = 112.8 m (Na – Nb) = axial load from roof level = 420.15) – 3.5 – 3.15) × 14.4 = ± 50.6 Check for global second order effects To check whether the building might act as a sway frame check FV. 173 .8 kN HiR = 0.0024 × (3286.05 + 0.8 kN At 1st floor (Na – Nb) = 3615.90 + 6. GkH§ = 0.5 kN Hi3 = Hi2 = Hi1 = 0.71/200 = 0.8 = 334.4 × 14.4 + 252.3 m3 Perimeter = 2 × (30.3 × 4. wall A resists 51% of this moment.0024 = axial forces in members below and above Nb.3 × 2.18) where FV. Na (Nb – Na) = axial load from each level At roof level Area = 30.2 × (9.4 + 14.2 + 221.7 – 2 × 0.8) = 8. Mk = 8.5 × 13.0 = 3286.2 kN Characteristic design moment at ground floor.8 × 3.6 L2 Cl.60 + 3. Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall.

3) Gk 2876 7075 3845 13705 13705 Qk 245 3060 3305 661 2644 FV.965/14.2 = –0.800 –0. 5.965 m4 L = total height of building above level of moment restraint = 14.35 + 1.1.001 1.78 + 2.44 as before (6.30 + 0.912 –4.2. with reference to Figure 6.05 + 0.e.6) Check ns SEcdIc × on weak E–W axis: kl L2 ns + 1.4) in E–W direction ILS.2 2.4 h×d 2.Ed 174 .6)] × 27500 × 103 × (0.3 Ax 6.44 = 0.0 × 2.Ed ≈ 13705 × 1.6) = 3–1 floors: 3 × 408 (5.76 × 1.333 –0.5 × 2644 = 22468 kN = 0.431 – 1.1) × 4. > FV.31 kl = number of storeys ns = 4 (including roof) = Ecm/gCE = 33/1.765 –1.4 × 2.44 × 0.2(6) & NA Table 3.41 = 2.5) = Allow cavity wall at 1st floor and above (3 × 3.Loads from roof: 408 (7.294 –5.4).38/1.431 Cl. 5.0 = –4.8.38 Ax 2 8.7 (see Figure 6.683 0.6(3) & NA –2.2 1. i.760 –1.851 + 1.4 + 14.32 1.36 + 1.4 = Area.732 1.851 I 2.77 m4 (See Section 6.9) × 2 × (30.1.00 –1.0 = Imposed load reduction 20% (see 6.6 × 0.8. A 5.956 m ILS = INU = Ax 2 + I – Ax 2 = 0.5 GPa Ecd = Inertia of bracing members Ic in N–S direction Ic = 1.956 = 0.2 = 27.6 = 0.1.31 × [4/(4 + 1.72) = 27200 kN no need to design for 2nd order effects. x = 1.

9 Section A–A Section A–A @ 1st floor The slab frames into the wall.35 × 5.02/8 = 5.6.6 × 62/8 = 302.4 m long shear wall (see Figure 6. consider the fixed end moment for 1.30/2 = 5. Therefore.7 Design moments – perpendicular to plane of wall C L 150 C L 650 B B 1350 200 1st 4400 A 750 A Gnd up C L Figure 6.10 Subframe section A–A @ 1st floor FEM‡: assuming imposed load is a leading variable action: = nl2/8 = 5.8 × 11.8 m width of adjoining slab framing into the 4.78 + 1. n ks kw kw Figure 6.8 Plan of wall A and location of sections A–A and B–B Figure 6.40 + 1.50/2 + 4.8).1. For the purposes of assessing fixed end moments.8 kNm ‡ EC0: Exp.5 × 2.5) × 6.8 (1. the width of slab contributing to the moments in the wall is assumed to be the length of the wall plus distances half way to adjacent supports either end.10) & NA FEM: fixed end moment 175 . (6.

8 × 0.8 × 10.2/4.9 kNm/m @ ULS Section A–A @ ground floor By inspection not critical – nominal moment.5 kNm/m @ ULS Similarly.4 kNm kw = I/l = 2200 × 2003/(12 × 1650) = 8.4 × 8.e.42 = 121.88/(2 × 8.22 × 105/2 = 1.8 (1.11 Section B–B FEM = 302.8/2.88 × 105 ks = EI/2l = E × 5800 × 2003/(2 × 12 × 6000) = E × 3.4 × 0.78 + 0.7 × 1.6 kNm/m @ ULS 176 .4 kNm M = 271.22) = 302.35 × 5.2 = 31.8/2 = 151.2 kNm i.61 × 105 M = 151.42/4.kw = EI/l = E × 4400 × 2003/(12 × 3300) = E × 8.88 + 1. assuming imposed load is an accompanying action: FEM = 5. 1st 1650 Landing Gnd Figure 6. 63.46 = 69. 121.8 + 3.8 × 8.22 × 105 M = 302.5) × 62/8 = 5.5 × 2.88/(2 × 8.6 kNm i. Section B–B @ 1st Consider the landing influences half of wall (2.4 × 62/8 = 271.40 = 27.40 = 25.4 × 0.e.61) = 151.2 m long) and that this section of wall is subject to supporting half the slab considered before at 1st floor level at Section A–A.88 × 105 ks = 3.

Exp.7‡ = 268.8 × 10.6 kN/m Qk = 35.Similarly.8 Consider slenderness of wall at ground floor To derive maximum slenderness (at south end of wall).8.4 kN/m @ ULS ‡ Assuming wind load is lead variable action.1 = 1158. ignore effect of landing.6 × 1.46 × l0/h = 3.35 × 5.3. floor imposed load as accompanying action M = 28. l0 = 0. 5.85 × 30/1. ground–1st floor At ground to 1st consider maxima.8.25 C = 1.3.5 = 3400 kN n = 0.340.34 llim = 20 × 0.46 × 2325/200 = 40.95/0.2 Limiting slenderness.4 × 0.8 + 754.5 + 98.7 B = 1.9 × 1.4 × 62/8 = 271. Vertical loads Gk = 214.2) = 28. 5.6 kN Acfd = 200 × 1000 × 0.5) × 62/8 = 5.78 + 0.5 = 51.7 + 502. assuming imposed load is an accompanying action: FEM = 5. (5.46/(2 × 2. floor imposed load as leading action M = 31. 177 .5 where A = 0.7 × 1.9 kN/m Vertical load due to in-plane bending and imperfections GkH = ±50.4 kNm/m @ ULS Section B–B @ landing level and ground floor By inspection not critical 6.7 kN/m Vertical load due to in-plane bending and wind Wk = ±502.5 × 0.1.6 kN/m @ ULS Maximum moment out of plane.5 As l < llim wall is not slender and no secondary moments Table C16 Cl.1 kN/m Maximum moment out of plane.1.2 × 1.2(1) Cl.1(1).7 – rm where rm = M01/M02 = say = –0.13N) 6.4 kNm M = 271.4 + 103.1 C = 1.1 × 1.95 n = NEd/Acfd where NEd = 214.25 + 31.7 × 1.5 × 2. Effective length.2 × 1. llim = 20 ABC/n0.3 + 32.8 (1.75 × (3300 – 200) = 2325 l = 3.5 × 0.9 Summary: design forces on wall.

9 + 1.1 – 1.7 × 35.5 × 502.2 = 28.3 + 53.6 – 1.2 kNm/m or NEd = 1.1) + 1. However.0058 × 788.6 – 67. Wk is leading variable action NEd = 1.4 Strictly incompatible with Qk = 0.2(9) Cl.7 ≥ 23.8.8 mm e0 = h/30 ≥ 20 mm = 20 mm MEd = 28.4 kN/m (tension) MEd = 28.5 × 502.1.5 = 1149.2(7).6 + 377.5 × 502.1 kN/m MEd = 31.35 (214.4 ≥ 0.5 × 502.1 kNm/m b) At ULS.4 Cl.6 – 0 – 377.4 + 37. MEd = 36.2 = –230.5 × 35. for maximum axial load.2(1).6 ≥ 15.9 = 214.35Gk + 1.4 kNm/m ei = l0 /400 = 2325/400 = 5.10 Combinations of actions at ground–1st floor a) At ULS.3 + 754.6 + 4.7 = –607.1.5 × 0. 6.020 × 1149.1 – 0 × 31.5c0Qki = 1.8.0 = 31.2.5 × 0.9 = 357.35 × 50.2 kN/m (out of plane) and NEd = –607.6 + 0.4 + 0.0058 × 1149. 6.5 × 0.8 = 36.5 ≥ 23.4 = 28.0058 × 230.4 + 3.4‡ + 0. 5.6 + 50.2 kN/m MEd = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where M = moment from 1st order analysis = 28.6 + 0.0 kNm/m d) Design load cases Consolidate c) into a) and b) to consider two load cases: NEd = 1149.2 = 33.1.0 × 214. 5.1 ≥ 0.6 – 1. Wk is leading variable action NEd = 1.020 × 602. allow Qk = 0.7 = 357.020 × 788.0 × 214.1 ≥ 0. for minimum axial load.6 + 50.35 × 50.6.1) + 1.35 (214.7 + 1.4 kN/m. 178 .2 kN/m (out of plane) ‡ Cl.1 = 31.9 kNm/m c) At ULS. for maximum out of plane bending assuming Qk is leading variable action NEd = 1.0 = 35.4 + 6.4 kN/m.0058 × 607. MEd = 36.9 + 0 × 35.2 – 1.2 kN/m (tension) MEd = 31. 5.2 = 788.5Qk1 + 1.

μfi = 0.dur = for XC1 = 15 mm Dcdev = 10 mm 25 mm to lacers cnom = 15 + 10 = (35 mm to vertical bars) Exp. 12 mm diameter Try T12 @ 400 Figs C5d). cmin.1.b .2 × 106/(2002 × 1000 × 30) = 0.dur] where cmin. Min.2 & NA Cl.4 × 103/(200 × 1000 × 30) = 0. 9. axis distance = 10 mm i.6. min.215 interpolate between charts C5d) and C5e) for NEd/bhfck = 1149.11 Design: cover above ground cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin. C5e) Cl.002 × 200 × 1000 = 400 mm2/m = 200 mm2/m each face max. 400 mm cc. (4. SMDSC e As /2 + e = e › s sst2 + As /2 0 Moment 0 Tension = › sst1 0 Combined 0 Combined Figure 6. not critical EC2-1-2: Table 5.7 and fire on both sides.4 6.2(3). 9.030 Gives: minimum area of reinforcement required Asfyk/bhfck = 0 = 0.b = diameter of bar = 20 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers cmin.6.12 Stresses and strains in wall subject to tension and out of plane moment p 179 .13 Design using charts For compressive load: d 2/h = (25 + 10 + 16/2)/200 = 0.1.6.002 Ac = 0.12 Fire resistance Assuming 1-hour fire resistance required for.1. thickness = 140 mm.192 MEd/bh2fck = 36. min.e.1) 6. as a worst case.

8 + 11.1. 9. referring to Figure 6.8] = 1397 + 730 = 2127 mm2 sst2 = 2NEd/As – sst1 = 571. 6.7 – 434.3/3.6.6. hmin = 0.4 × 103/434.51/3.15 Check for tension at top of foundation Permanent and variable: = 1021.14 Horizontal reinforcement As.9 kNm = 365.8 = 136 MPa Use 6 no.5 × 13.6) Mk = 365.0/4. By inspection all concrete is in tension zone and may be ignored.1/2 + 0.1. Cl.3 kN/m Mk Resolved into couple 1 m either end of wall = 1855.1 × [14.1.2 × (10. Use H10 @ 300 (262 mm2/m) both sides.001As or 25% As vert = 200 mm2 or 0.25 × 2036 = 509 mm2/m requires 254 mm2/m each side Spacing ≤ 400 mm Links not required.9 + 0.4 = 54.3(1) & NA Cl.2 Section 6.12 and ignoring contribution from concrete in tension.9 kN/m GkH Section 6.6] = 1855.2 × 106/[(157 – 43) × 434.1.9 × 0.2 × 14. 9.0 kN/m Gk = 230.8 = 607.9/4.4(1) 6.5 + 7.3(2) Cl. H16 @ 200 cc both sides for at least 1 m each end of wall (2412 mm2).4 = 52.For tensile load and moment: Working from first principles.5 180 .4 = ±545.8 + 36. NEd and MEd so = (sst1 + sst2) × As/2 = (sst1 – sst2) × As/2 × (d – d2) sst1 + sst2 = 2NEd/As and sst1 – sst2 = 2MEd/[(d – d2)As] 2sst1 As sst1 As = 2NEd/As + 2MEd/[(d – d2)As] = (NEd/sst1) + MEd/(d – d2)sst1 = fyk/gS = 500/1.5 kN/m Qk Wind: = 17.1. 9.7 kN/m Wkw Global imperfections: = 8.6.15 = 434.4 Section 6.4 = 232.2 + 3.

b = diameter of bar = 16 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers cmin.35 × 54. 6. locally increase thickness of wall to say 250 mm thick with cnom = 50 mm 181 .7 MEd = 13.dur = for assumed Aggressive Chemical Environment for Concrete (ACEC) class AC1 ground conditions = 25 mm Dcdev = 10 mm cnom = 25 + 10 = Exp.5 = 1261.16 Check for axial compression at top of foundation At ULS for maximum axial compression Wk is lead imposed load: NEd = 1.9 – 1.0 – 1.1.7 × 103/434. for at least 1 m either end of wall (2412 mm2).1.0 = 25.9 + 1.b . Cl.7 × 1.0 kN/m MEd = nominal = e2NEd = 0. H16 @ 200 cc b.35 × 232.4 = 660.5 × 545.0 × 232.1.5 NEd = –660.5 × 545. not critical Use 6 no.At ULS for maximum axial tension Wk is lead imposed load: = 1. cmin.1) BS 8500-1 Annex A[14].2 kNm/m As before As = NEd MEd + fyk/gM (d – d2)fyk/gM Cl.0 + 1.2 × 106/[(157 – 43) × 434. (4.4 Section 6. 6. 6. How to: Building structures[8] 35 mm to lacers (45 mm to vertical bars) In order to align vertical bars from foundation into Gnd–1st floor lift as starter bars.e.1.7 + 0.s.dur] where cmin.5 × 52.7 kN/m = nominal = e2NEd = 0.7 + 0 × 52.8] = 1520 + 266 = 1786 mm2 i.02 × 660.1.8 + 13.2 kNm/m By inspection not critical (minimum reinforcement required). tension critical as above.02 × 1261.35 × 54.17 Design: cover below ground cnom = cmin + Dcdev where cmin = max[cmin.13 6.

05 + 2.6) Mk = 17.8] = 0.1.s 12 12 24H16 @ 200 Gnd (12NF.4 kNm EC0: Table A1.2) = 3757. 6.5 + 1.0 kNm At ULS.0 x 1.2 m wide by 0.9 m deep.7 EC0: Table A1.6 Fig.1 + 4.5 × 14. is 5.7 + 11. Overturning moment = fn(gQ.1/2 + 1.0 + 11. Overturning moments Wind (see Figure 6.9 x 2890 = 2601 kNm i.1 x 211.2 × (11.6.0 m long and is 1.5 x 2073.e.9 x 357.1.2 x 0.3 kNm OK. Use 1.infGk) = 0.51 x [125.5)] = 0.1 × [14.supGk) = 1.1Qk1 + gG.0 = 3381.8 + 1.5 kNm Global imperfections (see Section 6.1.3 m beyond either end of wall A.3 + 2. restoring moment = 0.2(A) & NA Fig.51 x [8.5] = 2073.0 = 3342. 12FF) 50 mm cover to 250 wall below ground floor 1050 1050 182 .2 × 25.4 + 8.3 + 2.2(A) & NA no good Try 1.05 m outstand Restoring moment Mk = 2890 (1.2) / (0. i.9 ) x (0. > 1818.2) = 2890 kNm At ULS of EQU.05 m outstand to wall.2(A) & NA EC0: Table A1.9 x 25 + 0 x 230.e.18 Check stability Assume base extends 0. 6.5) Mk = 0.19 Design summary 1st Lacers H10 @ 300 m outside 25 mm cover to 200 mm wall above ground floor H12 @ 400 b.4 kNm Restoring moment = fn(gG.51 x 414.0 + 5.2 × 14. 6.0 = 211 kNm Restoring moment Mk = (1021.

7 References and further reading References 1 1a 2 2a 3 3a 4 4a 5 6 7 8 9 10 10a 11 11a 12 12a 13 13a 14 15 16 17 18 183 .

19 20 21 22 23 24

25 25a 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Further reading

184

Appendix A: Derived formulae
A1 Flexure: beams and slabs
A1.1 Singly reinforced sections

d2 x h d As As2 neutral axis

ec esc lx Fsc

nfcd

Fc z

es a) Section
Figure A1 Strains and forces in a section

Fst c) Forces

Fig. 3.5

b) Strain

e a g g

n

l

3.1.6(1), 2.4.2.4(1) & NA 2.4.2.4(1) & NA

Lever arm, z 0.8x Fc

z = d – 0.4x Fst

Figure A2 Beam lever arm

185

Table C5

Area of reinforcement, As

Limiting value of relative flexural compressive stress, K'

Table 3.1

e e

Cl. 5.5(4)

d

e

e

186

Table A1 Limits on d

with respect to redistribution ratio, d 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7

% redistribution K'

this publication adopts a maximum value of K' = 0.167

A1.2 Compression reinforcement, As2

As2

As
Figure A3 Beam with compression reinforcement

'

A2 Shear
A2.1 Shear resistance (without shear reinforcement), VRd,c
r g s s
Exp. (6.2) NA

187

5N) & NA a 188 . 6.2. (6.2 Shear capacity Exp. Exp. (9.6N) & NA v a g y y y y y y y y y y y A2.r s r A2.9) a a v v y y Cl.3(3) Note 1. (6.13) y a a g a a y y a Exp. (6.3 Shear reinforcement Exp.

1 e e a) Strain diagram s b) Stress diagram Figure A4 Section in axial compression and bending s s s s s s s s s s g s s a n s s s s s s s s a n g s s Note ≤e Cl.1 189 .1.a a A a A3 Columns e e a n g s Fig. 6. Table 3.1(6). 6. 6. Fig.

1 TCC method[5.Appendix B: Serviceability limit state B1 Deflection B1.2 RC Spreadsheets method[28] s s s s s s s B1.19] s s s s ‡ s g d g d B1.3 Rigorous analysis ‡ 190 .

5 Note regarding factor 310/ss (factor F3) s ≤ B2 Neutral axis at SLS s s 191 .4 Differing results B1.B1.

Relative modulus E/Ec ae – 1 1 As2 d2 x d ae As Figure B1 Cracked concrete section at SLS Where ae = modular ratio Es/Ec a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a 192 .

modular ratios and stresses Figure B3 SLS stresses a s s s a a s s 193 .B3 SLS stresses in concrete. and reinforcement. sc.1 Singly reinforced section b Fc Mqp x/3 x z As a) Section Fs b) Dimensions and forces Figure B2 SLS stresses: singly reinforced section s s s s s B3. ss B3.2 Doubly reinforced section E/Ec = ae – 1 s = sc(ae – 1)(x – d2)/x b As2 Mqp As E/Ec = ae s = sc d2 x d a) Section E/Ec = ae s = ss b) Dimensions.

Appendix C: Design aids
C1 Design values of actions

c

c

c c

C2 Values of actions

Table C1 The parts of Eurocode 1[11] Reference BS EN 1991-1-1 BS EN 1991-1-2 BS EN 1991-1-3 BS EN 1991-1-4 BS EN 1991-1-5 BS EN 1991-1-6 BS EN 1991-1-7 BS EN 1991-2 BS EN 1991-3 BS EN 1991-4 Title

194

C3 Analysis

Table C2 Coefficients for use with one-way spanning slabs to Eurocode 2 Coefficient Location End support/slab connection Pinned end support Outer support Near middle of end span Continuous Outer support Near middle of end span At 1st interior support At middle of interior spans At interior supports Internal supports and spans

Moment Shear Notes 1 2 g 3 cg

Table C3 Coefficients for use with beams (and one-way spanning slabs) to Eurocode 2 Coefficient Location Outer support Near middle of end span Moment and k Moment Moment Shear Notes 1 2 3 4 g 5 g g 6 Key a cg cg cg
k a

At 1st interior At middle of At interior support interior spans supports

k k b

Cl. 9.2.1.2 Cl. 9.3.1.2

b

195

C4 Design for bending

f

Table C4 Values for Redistribution ratio, d / for
a a

1–d

1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70
Note d Key a

under-reinforced

g

How to: Beams[8]

over-reinforced

196

d d

Table C5 Values of / and / for singly reinforced rectangular sections / 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.208 Note
c c c c c c c c c c b b

/

(1 – d)maxa

Key

a b c

C5 Design for beam shear
C5.1 Requirement for shear reinforcement

197

00% Notes 1 2 3 r C5.50% 1.19 40° 1.25% 0.75% 1.18° 2.00% 1.50 2.c (MPa) Effective depth G 200 (mm) 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750 225 0.75% 2.14 25° 1.43 35° 1.25% 1. v a a y 198 .00 45° Strength reduction factor.max (MPa) Rd.max cot y y 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Notes 1 2 v 3 v y 2.2 Section capacity check y y Table C7 Capacity of concrete struts expressed as a stress.Table C6 Shear resistance without shear reinforcement. ck Rd.73 30° 1.50% 0. rl = w sl/ Rd.

0 0.0 6.73 C50/60 1.min/ w for beams for vertical links and yk = 500 MPa and compatible resistance.19 C45/55 C40/50 C35/45 C30/37 fywk = 500 MPa 1.min/sbw for beams (x 103) vRd for Asw.43 1.0 7.z (MPa) C25/30 4.14 1.0 vEd.0 1. C1b) 3.3 Shear reinforcement design y g g y y Table C8 Values of sw.0 2. Rd Concrete class Asw.5 2.0 vRd.min /sbw (MPa) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 8.00 5.max for cot y = 2.0 See Fig.C5.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Asw/s required per metre width of bw 12 14 C20/25 Figure C1a) Diagram to determine sw / required (for beams with high shear stress) 199 .

4.c for range d = 200 mm.0 0 C30/37 fywk = 500 MPa C25/3 3.z (MPa) 2.0 Asw. 12.4.ef ywd.0 Range of vRd.0 C20/25 vEd.4.ef for grade 500 reinforcement 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 ≤ 200 y .0 0 1 2 Asw/s required per metre width of bw Figure C1b) Diagram to determine sw/ required (for slabs and beams with low shear stress) C6 Design for punching shear b b Concise: 10. r = 0.0% to d = 750 mm.min/s for beams C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 3 4 0.5% 1.3 Table C9 Values of fywd.2. r = 2.

2 s s ‡ s d d g s s s s g c g s c d ‡ 201 .5.2.2 Concise: 5.C7 Check deflection r Concise: 10.

80% 0. r' = 0 fck = 50 fck = 45 fck = 40 fck = 35 1.50% 3.00% 4.40% 1. for members without axial compression Required reinforcement.60% 1.30% 0. .40% 1.60% 1.90% 1.req /bd) = 1.00% Figure C2 Basic span-to-effective depth ratios.40% fck = 25 fck = 20 0. r0 Notes 1 2 3 r 4 r r ck 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 32 Basic span-to-effective-depth ratio N (l/d) 30 28 26 24 fck = 30 22 20 18 16 14 12 0.Table 7.00% 1.50% 5.20% 1.50% 0. for 202 .80% 2.00% 3.00% Design tension reinforcement (100As.4N Table C10 Basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth. .50% 4.20% 0.00% Reference reinforcement ratio.60% 0.80% 2.80% 1.00% 2.70% 0.40% 0.60% 1. r 0.

25 y2 = 0. m Flat slabs eff 7.35 y 2 = 0.0 16. stress in reinforcement.00 2.5 eff 8. ssu 203 .25 =1 .0 8. modifier for flanged beams eff/ w 1.0 11. gG .5 2.00 4.0 7. gG .8.0 Factor Table C13 Factor F2.0/ eff 320 300 Unmodified steel stress ssu 280 y2= gG= 1. modifier for long spans supporting brittle partitions Span. g G = 1.0 13.0 2.6.2 .0 14.3 =1 =0 y2 . y 2 = 0.35 .0 1.6.0 8.0 10.5 9.00 Figure C3 Determination of unmodified SLS. gG = 1 1.3.Table C11 factors to be applied to basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth Structural system Beams Slabs Table C12 Factor F1. g G = 35 1.0 12.5/ Beams and other slabs 7.2 =0 y2 y2 = 0 .25 . 260 240 220 200 180 .0 15. gG = 1.00 Ratio Gk/Qk 3.35 0.5 3.

75 –30% 0.15 10% 1.70 2 & C8 Control of cracking s Table C15 Maximum bar diameters f or maximum bar spacing for crack control Steel stress (MPa) ss 160 200 240 280 320 360 Notes 1 2 OR Maximum bar size (mm) k = 0.4 mm 204 .3 mm k = 0.4 mm Maximum bar spacing (mm) k = 0.Table C14 (1/d) factor to be applied to unmodified ssu to allow for redistribution used Average redistribution used Redistribution ratio used.3 mm k = 0.20 15% 1.05 0% 1.00 –5% 0.80 –25% 0. d (1/d) Notes 1 & 20% 1.95 –10% 0.10 5% 1.85 –20% 0.90 –15% 0.

6.2 Design by calculation a n g s s a n l Concise: Fig.1 General Table C16 Effective length 0: conservative factors for braced columns End condition at top 1 2 3 Key End condition at bottom 1 2 3 Note C9. 6.C9 Design for axial load and bending C9.4 205 .3 Concise: Fig.

3 Rectangular column charts a 206 .l s s a n g s s C9.

3 1.4 Kr = 0.3 0.2 1.40 1.6 0.9 0.7 A s Centroid of bars in half section 0.05 1.25 0.3 0.2 k /b d 2 /h = 0.35 0.20 MEd/bh2fck 0.8 0.10 0.15 0.2 1.2 0.7 0.1 h/2 0.4 1.4 0.3 hf ck A s fy h/2 h d2 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.40 0.1 1.3 0.5 0.8 NEd/bhfck 0.0 0.2 0.35 0.2 k /b d 2 /h = 0.5 0 0.0 0.3 0.4 fy h d2 0.8 NEd/bhfck 0.20 0.8 0.05 0.1.7 0.2 0.5 0.05 0.6 0.3 hf c k 1.9 0.6 0.9 0.30 0.4 0.5 0.05 0.10 0.7 1.9 0.0 0.9 0.1 0 0 0.6 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.45 Kr = 1 Figure C4b) Rectangular columns 2/ = 0.6 0.1 0 0 0.25 MEd/bh2fck 0.30 0.15 0.1 1.4 Centroid of bars in half section 0.5 0 0.45 Figure C4a) Rectangular columns 2/ = 0.1 0.10 0.7 0.10 207 .3 Kr = 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.

3 1.3 hf c k h/2 h A s fy 0.20 MEd/bh2fck 0.6 0.10 0.8 0.7 0.0 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.1 1.15 0.20 208 .2 1.4 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.05 0.10 0.35 0.6 d2 Centroid of bars in half section 0.9 0.3 1.5 0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.9 Kr = 1 0 0.3 0.1 0 0 0.7 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.8 0.25 0.7 0.15 0.1 1.15 1.9 0.20 hf ck fy 1.1 k /b d 2 /h = 0.4 0.20 MEd/bh2fck 0.2 0.5 0.15 0.6 d2 Centroid of bars in half section 0.6 0.2 0.2 1.2 0.25 0.3 0.2 Kr = 0.2 0.30 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.1 0 k /b h/2 h A s 0.35 Figure C4d) Rectangular columns 2/ = 0.1.3 0.3 Kt = 0.9 0.40 Kr = 1 1.30 Figure C4c) Rectangular columns 2/ = 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.8 NEd/bhfck 0.05 0.8 NEd/bhfck 0.7 0.1 0 d 2 /h = 0.

1 Kr = 1 0 0 0.9 0.8 0.05 0.0 0.30 0 0.25 C9.15 MEd/bh2fck 0.8 NEd/bhfck 0.5 Circular column charts a C9.3 0.10 0.0 0.4 Biaxial bending in rectangular columns l l Concise: 5.4 0.3 C9.7 0.1 1.9 0.9 Kr = 0.6 0.6.1.25 hf c k fy k /b 0.6 0.1 h/2 h A s 0.7 0.5 0.3 1.2 d 2 /h = 0.20 0.5 0.3 1.2 1.4 0.25 0.7 Figure C4e) Rectangular columns 2/ = 0.6 Links 209 .2 0.4 d2 Centroid of bars in half section 0.3 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.

1 0 0 0.0 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.7 210 .4 d h 1.6 0.2 0.2 1.k /h 2 fc k 1.1 1.6 0.4 0.06 MEd /h3fck 0.3 0.2 0.2 k /h 2 fc k A s fy 1.6 1.3 0.9 0.1 0 Ratio d/h = 0.5 0.9 0.03 0.2 0.2 Ratio d/h = 0.9 0.04 0.6 0.8 NEd /h2fck s fy 0.12 Figure C5b) Circular columns / = 0.9 Kr =1 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.05 0.8 Kr =1 0.01 0.1 1.0 0.5 0.2 0.1 0 0.7 d h 0.10 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.1 0 0 0.8 NEd /h2fck 0.08 0.02 0.8 0.7 0.07 MEd /h3fck Figure C5a) Circular columns / = 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.04 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.2 A 1.5 0.9 0.5 0.02 0.8 0.3 0.06 0.0 0.5 0.

10 MEd /h3fck 0.5 0.16 0.9 0.2 0.1 1.8 0.20 Figure C5c) Circular columns / = 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.9 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.9 211 .0 0.08 0.3 0.5 0.18 0.20 0.3 d h 1.6 0.4 0.8 0.Af s y / 2 k h f c k 1.6 0.7 0.1 1.4 0.7 NEd /h2fck Ratio d/h = 0.25 0.4 0.6 0.2 1.9 Kr =1 0.12 0.1 0 0.8 0.8 0.04 0.7 NEd /h2fck Ratio d/h = 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.30 MEd /h3fck Figure C5d) Circular columns / = 0.02 0.9 0.1 0 0 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.1 0 0 0.0 0.15 0.06 0.8 0.2 0.8 Af s y /h 2 k f ck 1.0 0.2 0.5 0.2 1.14 0.3 d h 1.5 0.4 0.05 0.6 0.9 Kr =1 0.10 0.7 0.

eurocodes. User guide and CD Websites Eurocode 2 – www.co.com Institution of Structural Engineers – www. Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1: Design of concrete structures – General rules and rules for buildings National Annex to Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1 Software RC spreadsheets: V3.eurocode2.Eurocode 2 resources Publications Concise Eurocode 2 How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 Economic concrete frame elements to Eurocode 2 Precast Eurocode 2: Design manual Precast Eurocode 2: Worked examples Concrete buildings scheme design manual Properties of concrete for use in Eurocode 2 Standard method of detailing structural concrete Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2 BS EN 1992-1-1.istructe.info Eurocodes Expert – www.uk The Concrete Centre – www.concretecentre.org 212 .

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