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histology #06

histology #06

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Published by: hamza jassar on Aug 02, 2008
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Faculty OF Medicine

Lecture no: 6



Bayan AI-Khdoor


DR.: Faraj Al-Bustami

By The Name Of Allah
Page 18 Ossification =bone formation How the bone is formed by (replacement) of preexisting connective tissue NOT by conversion This connective tissue could be : *primitive mesenchymal connective tissue occurs by process called intramembranous ossification *cartilage ( removal of cartilage by process called Endochondral ossification ) In these 2 process the essential process is the same ,and the very essential process is the presence of osteoblast(bone forming cell) Any connective tissue is rich in mesenchyme which rich with mesenchymal cell or from the cells that derived from it such as osteoprogenitor cell Minimal bones in our body are develop by intramembranous ossification examples (clavicle& most of the mandible &bone of the skull) , the majority developed by endochondral ossification examples ( bone of the extremities "bone of the lower limp "& vertebral column & base of the skull & face ) Very important note Osteoplast doesn’t form calcified bone directly, first it forms uncalcified bone matrix (osteoid)which rich with collagen type I & proteoglycan If you are a nerd and remember that we find the osteoblast on the surface of existing bone tissue & on calcified cartilage during endochondral ossification If we want to remove the cartilage that be able by calcification the matrix of cartilage no more diffusion & arrival of nutrients Then the cartilage will suicide ♫♫

Page 17 All newly formed bone is spongy bone whether it form by intramembranous or endochondral ossification then it may converted into compact bone

Page 18 Primary center ossification appears in the embryo at the end of 8 week ( the end of the second month of intrauterine life ) These changes appears in the middle of hyaline cartilaginous model (the future shaft) By the way: Calcified matrix of cartilage is basophilic ( blue ) *After calcification of cartilage the lacunae open ( large spaces ) and between it there are (divisions )which are the remnants of the calcified cartilage *in the middle of cartilage there are cavities & dead cell that make it more weak soooooooo we need compensatory mechanism periosteal collar

The cartilage are covered by perichondrium& in its inner layer has chondrogenic cell which differentiate into osteoprogenitor cell ((NOW the perichondrium become known as periosteum)) then the osteoprogenator cell differentiate into osteoblast All these steps occur outside the cartilage Then form bone ( periosteal collar ) by intramembranous ossification

We can say that the endochondral ossification consist of 3 step : *death of catliage ( calcified matrix =blue ). * formation bone outside = periosteal collar by intramembranous ossification that will be resist and form the shaft of long bone . *formation bone inside ( indochondral ) that will be removed by


to leave the medullary cavity ( will fill with bone marrow )

We define this process as endochondral ossification because the % of bone that

form by this process is more than bone form by intramembranous ossification How the shaft of femur was formed ? from primary center ossification ……………………………………..from periosteal collar . Page 19 *At birth the shaft is bony and the ends are still cartilage *Each end have 1 or more secondary center ossification * in the secondary ossification center (no periosteal collar ) * the shaft of long bone is diaphysis ( developed from primary center ossification ) * end of bone is epiphysis ( developed from secondary center ossification ) Page 20 Some hormones like ( testerone ) will affect on proliferation ( stop) then stop the growth in length . * when we study endochondral ossification We use fetal finger Such as (metacarpal , phalanges) = long bone Page 24 Growing end : in which the ossification appears earlier than other end and the fusion between diaphysis & epiphysis take long time * ossification = appearance of secondary center ossification

* fusion is more important * growing end in upper limp ( distal end of radius & ulna , proximal end of hummers ) the growing toward the elbow joint * growing end in lower limp( knee , lower end of femur , upper end of tibia & fibula ) the growth of femur from down to above ,but in tibia from above to down ) Exception!!!!!!! The fibula in the upper end the ossification is late and the fusion also BUT in the lower end the ossification is earlier and the fusion also Because the fusion is more important so the growing end is still the upper end

Page 25

All the long bone are endochondral except the clavicle

Page 29 * fibrous joint = bones articulate by dense connective tissue
Example –inferior tibio fibula joint five more stability than movement during standing it doesn’t move to

Shoulder joint = freely mobile & easy dislocation *is synovial bone & socket joint * have 6-movements Tri –axis (Add, abd,ext,flex, medial & lateral rotation )

* Elbow 2-movement (flx , ext ) Uniaxial Hinge parietal joint * wrist 4-movements ( add, abd , ext ,flex) Biaxial Illbsoid(check the spelling ) Hinge parietal joint Intraparticular structure Examples : 1-shoulder joint ( long head of bicep pass through the capsule but it intracaspsular & extrasynovial ) 2- knee joint ( cruciate ligaments ……….the same )

Additional notes * if the spongy bone have small cavities that is mean it convert to compact bone *the spongy bone in mesenchymal tissue = intramembranous ossification

‫‪Special thancks to Brilliant DR . Faraj Bostamee‬‬ ‫‪As usual I want to dedicate this sheet to all my‬‬ ‫‪colleagues in our faculty‬‬ ‫‪With my best wishes‬‬ ‫‪Bayan Alkhdoure‬‬
‫أﺧﻲ وأﺧﻴﺘﻲ :‬

‫وددت أن ﻋﻨﺪي وﺻﻔﺔ ﲮﺮﻳﺔ أﻟﻘﳱﺎ ﻋﲆ ﳘﻮﻣﻚ وﲽﻮﻣﻚ و أﺣﺰاﻧﻚ , ﻓﺈذا ﱔ ﰷﻟﻨﺴﻤﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﻴﻘﺔ .......‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ أﻳﻦ ﱄ ﺑﺬكل ؟؟؟‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻧﱲ أﻫﻞ اﻟﻄﺐ واﻟﻌﲅ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ أﺧﱪك ﺑﻮﺻﻔﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻴﺎدة ﻋﻠﲈء اﳌةل وﻋﺸﺎاااااق اﳉﻨﺔ‬ ‫وﱔ اﻋﺒﺪ اﳋﺎﻟﻖ وارض ابﻟﺮزق وﺳﲅ ابﻟﻘﻀﺎء وازﻫﺪ ﰲ ادلﻧﻴﺎ وﺗﻮاﺿﻊ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻖ وارﺗﻖ ابﻟﻌﲅ‬

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