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Process Industry Practices Process Control
PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves
PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice. This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.
© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.
PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.
PRINTING HISTORY March 1998 Issued June 2002 Complete Revision January 2005 Complete Revision Not printed with State funds
Process Industry Practices Process Control
PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves
Table of Contents 1. Introduction .................................. 2
1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2 1.2 Scope................................................. 2
6. Inherent Flow Characteristics .. 19
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Definitions........................................ 19 Equal Percentage Characteristic..... 21 Linear Characteristic ....................... 22 Quick Opening Characteristic.......... 22
2. References.................................... 2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Process Industry Practices................ 2 Industry Codes and Standards.......... 2 Government Regulations................... 3 Other References .............................. 3
7. Cavitation and Flashing ............ 23
7.1 Cavitation......................................... 23 7.2 Flashing and Erosion....................... 25
3. Valve Materials ............................. 4
3.1 General .............................................. 4 3.2 Valve Body......................................... 4 3.3 Valve Body Material Testing Methods ................................ 5 3.4 Valve Trim.......................................... 6 3.5 Gaskets.............................................. 7 3.6 Packing .............................................. 8
8. Noise Considerations................ 27
8.1. General ............................................ 27 8.2 Noise Reduction .............................. 27
9. Actuators and Accessories ...... 28
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 General ............................................ 28 Sizing and Selection ........................ 28 Actuator Forces ............................... 29 Positioners and Accessories ........... 32
4. Valve Types ................................ 11
4.1 General ............................................ 11 4.2 Globe Styles .................................... 13 4.3 Rotary-Style Valves ......................... 16
10. Valve Storage and Installation ................................ 34
10.1 Shipping and Storage ...................... 34 10.2 Installation of Control Valves........... 34
5. Sizing of Valves.......................... 18
5.1 Sizing Methods ................................ 18 5.2 Sizing Guidelines............................. 19
Process Industry Practices
Page 1 of 35
The edition in effect on the date of contract award shall be used. except as otherwise noted. Suitable for Fusion Welding.Fabrication and Examination Specification for ASME B31.General Instrument Installation Criteria – PIP PCSCV001 . Short titles will be used herein where appropriate.Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service – ASTM A194 . and noise.Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for High. 2.Process Piping • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) – ASTM A193 . Introduction 1.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 1. or Both – ASTM A216 .3 Metallic Piping 2. References Applicable parts of the following PIP Practices. and consideration of the effects of flashing.Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged.2 Industry Codes and Standards Applicable requirements in the latest edition (or the edition indicated) of the following standards shall be considered an integral part of this Practice: • American Petroleum Institute (API) – API 609 . cavitation.Pressure or High-Temperature Service.3 .1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) – PIP PCCGN002 . Issues addressed include valve selection. flow characteristic evaluation.1 Purpose This Practice provides designers with engineering guidelines for the application of pneumatically actuated control valves.Standard Specification for Alloy/Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service Page 2 of 35 Process Industry Practices .Standard Specification for Steel Castings. material selection.and Wafer-Type • American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) – ASME B31. for High-Temperature Service – ASTM A320 . and other references shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. valve and actuator sizing. valve accessories. Lug. Carbon. 1. industry codes and standards.Specification of Control Valves – PIP PNSC0001 .2 Scope This Practice describes the guidelines and background information for the application of control valves. 2.
25 . New York.95 .Inherent Flow Characteristic and Rangeability of Control Valves – ISA RP75. NC – Bela Liptak and Kriszta Venczel.11 . second edition.Control Valve Dynamic Testing • NACE International – NACE MR-01-75 . Process Control. 1995.Standard Specification for Castings. Radnor. for Pressure-Containing Parts – ASTM A352 ..3 Government Regulations • U.Standard Specification for Steel Castings. Ferritic and Martensitic for Pressure-Containing Parts. McGraw-Hill. NC – J. Editors. 1989. Fontana and Norbert D Green. for Pressure-Containing Parts.S.Valves in Gas/Vapor Service and in Light Liquid Service Other References – Guy Borden. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – OSHA 1910. and Automation Society (ISA) – ANSI/ISA 75. Editor in Chief. first edition.23 . Jr. Friedmann. Austenitic. ISA Handbook of Control Valves. Instrument Engineers’ Handbook. Section 112. Research Triangle Park. 1998. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – Clean Air Act (CAA). Corrosion Engineering. The International Society for Measurement and Control.Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment 2. AusteniticFerric (Duplex). Suitable for Low-Temperature Service – ASTM A217 . Systems. National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants – 2.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves – ASTM A351 . PA – Mars G. Research Triangle Park.W. Paul G. 1976.Standard Specification for Steel Castings. Chilton Book Company.4 HON Rule . Martensitic Stainless and Alloy.S. NY Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 35 .Occupational Noise Exposure • U. Control Valves. Hutchinson.Considerations for Evaluating Control Valve Cavitation – ANSI/ISA 75. Suitable for High-Temperature Service • The Instrumentation. The International Society for Measurement and Control. Department of Labor.
3.2.4 Page 4 of 35 Process Industry Practices . For additional general information. Valves should be designed to meet the design pressure and temperature.2. and aluminum should be avoided so that process integrity can be maintained in an emergency situation involving an external fire.4 3. For valves in a flammable hydrocarbon service.3 3.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 3.1 General 3. If uncertainty about material selections exists.1 The valve body material should be dictated by the piping specification but will commonly be WCB or WCC carbon steel or ASTM type 300 series stainless steel (SS). bronze.1 3.2. the final material selection should be made in consultation with those specializing in material science or with the control valve supplier.2.1. cast iron.1. 3.1 3.1. All materials used in the valve should be compatible with the process for normal and abnormal conditions. body materials such as plastic.2 Material selection should be guided by the piping specification and by the process conditions.2 Valve Body 3.1. Valve Materials 3.3 3. Table 1 provides metallurgy guidance at different design temperatures. Borden and Friedmann (1998) or Liptak and Venczel (1995) should be consulted.
then Charpy test at –50°F.3 Valve Body Material Testing Methods 3. 2.. cavitation. If design temperature is below –20°F.1 Control valve suppliers shall have a quality control plan that includes nondestructive examination (NDE) and repair procedures. which covers heat treatment and repairs of austenitic castings. fluid impingement. Consider Charpy testing.2.. flashing. This NACE standard provides metallic material requirements for resistance to sulfide stress cracking. temperature occasioned by maintenance (e. Nuts.5 NACE MR-01-75 should be used when selecting material for processes containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Physical effects of turbulence. Studs. may be exacerbated in the valve body. which covers heat treatment and repairs of ferritic and martensitic castings. Monel™.6 3. use A193 Gr B8M Class 2 strain-hardened studs. which may have minimal (or acceptable) effects on the pipe. Selection Guide for Valve Body.g. Valve suppliers should at a minimum follow specifications in ASTM A351.3. For additional information on materials.2. Passivation films that form under relatively quiescent conditions may be worn away by high-velocity fluids. Some valve body materials used in the casting (e. 3. and in ATSM A352. 3. pressure. consult Fontana and Green (1989). and Testing Temp (°F) 1 -425 < T < 100 -325 < T < 1000 -50 < T < 20 -20 < T < 100 100 < T < 800 800 < T < 1000 800 < T < 1000 1000 < T < 1100 1000 < T < 1100 1100 < T < 1500 Body A351 Gr CF8M A351 Gr CF8M A352 Gr LCB or A352 Gr LCC A216 Gr WCB or A216 Gr WCC A216 Gr WCB or A216 Gr WCC A217 Gr WC9 (Chrome) A351 Gr CF8M (316 SS) A217 Gr WC9 (Chrome) A351 Gr CF8M (316 SS) A351 Gr CF8M (316 SS) Bonnet Studs A320 Gr B8 A320 Gr B8M A193 Gr L7 A193 Gr B7 A193 Gr B7 A193 Gr B16 A193 Gr B8M A193 Gr B16 A193 Gr B8M A193 Gr B8M 4 4 Bonnet Nuts A194 Gr 8 A194 Gr 8M A194 Gr 7 A194 Gr 2H A194 Gr 2H A194 Gr 4 A194 Gr 8M A194 Gr 4 A194 Gr 8M A194 Gr 8M Testing Charpy at design temp Charpy at design temp Charpy 3 Charpy 2 None None None None None None Notes: 1.3. 3. when line is steamed out). Corrosion. For temperatures above 1000° F. and Hastelloy®) are known to be prone to flaws and voids. and other abnormal operating conditions may necessitate a different material for the valve body than for the piping in which it is installed. To ensure acceptable 3.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves Table 1.g. erosion.2 Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 35 . 4. T is design temperature in degrees F. titanium. changes in flow.
4.2. or those in high-pressure applications should be specified with trim having a hardness of at least 38 Rc (hardness Rockwell C).2 The 300 series. 17-4 PH SS) have a proven history in severe service applications. e.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 valves. and the provisions should be included in the purchase order. x-ray. generally 316 SS.3.1.3. provisions for PMI should be included in the purchase order. 416 SS. If required.1. To minimize these effects and to simultaneously control cost. General NDE procedures (for pipe fabrication) are covered in PIP PNSC0001. NDE of pressure-retaining parts should be completed before machining.1 Series 300 and 400 series SS are widely used and are frequently available as standard offerings. 3.g. The relative softness of 300 series metals.1 General 3..4. less than -50°F).1 The effects of wear.4.4.2. Page 6 of 35 Process Industry Practices .2 Series 300 and 400 Series SS 3. The 300 series metals cannot be hardened by heat treatment.e.5 3. Charpy impact testing is recommended for cold service applications (i.4 The following guidelines are not exhaustive but are generally accepted..2 Standard valve trim. Types 304 and 316.. and corrosion are more pronounced on valve trim than on the valve body.1. Materials of constructions and welds can be verified by positive material identification (PMI).3 Valves in cavitating or flashing services.4.3 The 400 series SS are generally less corrosion resistant than are the 300 series SS. Refer to ASTM A352 Grade LCB materials..4.g.2.1. 3. 3.3. 3. 3. These guidelines should be compared with actual experience because the issues that impact trim material selection are complex. 3.4 Valve Trim 3. dye checking. wear-producing applications. erosion.4.) should be agreed upon with the facility owner’s material engineer before ordering the valves. 3. should be given first consideration. hardness testing. These alloys are offered as standard on some valves. 3. makes them less desirable in erosive. those containing erosive or solid-bearing fluids.3. a valve trim of a different metallurgy than that of the valve body may be utilized. etc. compared with Types 410 and 416.4. Higher alloy grades (e. magnetic particle. are relatively ductile and resistant to many types of corrosion. galling.g. The extent of NDE and acceptance requirements (for pipe fabrication) should be according to ASME B31.3 Testing methods (e. ultrasonic.4.4 3.
3 The facing material can wear or corrode away over time. As an example. trim parts of Monel™ or Hastelloy®. and galling resistance.3. If gaskets are not specified.4 For general service.5 Gaskets 3. hardness. sulfuric acid.4 Other Materials 3. 3. the 300 and 400 series SS can be applied in processes from -20°F to 650°F.4. and 17-4 PH SS can be utilized with carbon steel bodies if the process contains trace quantities of hydrofluoric acid. 3.5. Valves having high-pressure recovery coefficients. streamlined bodies having high-pressure recovery coefficients are more likely to exhibit cavitation.3 Material Overlays 3.4.2 3.5. For example.5 Assuming compatibility with the chemistry of the process.3. or dry chlorine gas or where the process is a maximum of 20% caustic material.4.2 Valve trim parts may be specified with more exotic metallurgy while using a less expensive material for the body. 3.4. 3.1 Hard-facing material includes stellite No. 3. 3. could require special or hardened trim.3 Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 35 . Refer to valve manufacturer’s literature for limitations. leaving the base.1 Type 17-4 PH SS metallurgy may be specified for components such as valve plugs.4. the default should be a spiral-wound 316 SS gasket. Inconel with laminated graphite can be used from -400°F to 1100°F. and guide bushings requiring greater strength.3 Valve trim selection may also depend on the valve body geometry.5. Moneil™. such as rotary valves. cages. stellite. softer material unprotected.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 3.2 Hard-facing is effective in erosive applications. in steam and water applications in which pressure drops exceed 50 psi. combined with an asbestos-free filler such as Grafoil®.2.2.4. 3. cavitation trim typically has a more limited range. and in general applications in which pressure differentials are greater than 500 psi.1 The gasket and packing material should be compatible with or match the piping specification and should be compatible with the temperature and chemical requirements of the process.4. 6 (CoCr) and tungsten carbide. 126.96.36.199. For example. These gaskets can be used in very low temperature applications (down to -400°F).188.8.131.52. Types 300 and 400 components can be plated or hard-faced with materials to increase their wear resistance. 3.
3.e.1.8 Piping systems that are steamed out frequently pull a vacuum when the line cools.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 3. A corrosion inhibitor should be utilized if graphite packing is used.g. dry hydrochloric acid (HCl) becomes extremely corrosive when exposed to the wet atmosphere.1.2.2. 3. studs. 3. ice should not be allowed to form on the stem because it will destroy the packing material.6. and followers should be minimum 316 SS unless 316 SS is not compatible with the process (e.184.108.40.206.6.6. Include an antirotation feature to prevent twisting of bellows during normal maintenance c. 3.6.1. screwed packing followers should be used. For example. 3.6. Approved for use in lethal and cryogenic services b. 1 inch and less).1.1 General 3.7 Attention should be given to the corrosive effects of leakage through the packing. 3. 3.6.3 The use of bellow seals should be approved by the owner of the facility.1.2.3 In cryogenic services. PTFE cannot be used below 0°F with a standard bonnet and below -50°F with an extended bonnet. 3.. 3. PTFE can be applied as packing for temperatures up to 400°F. The valve packing should be designed for vacuum service if it is not desirable to pull in air. Because it becomes hard.220.127.116.11 If an elastomer like PTFE is selected. 3.4 Pure graphite packing material can be used in temperatures up to 800°F in oxidizing service and up to 1200°F in nonoxidizing service. Therefore.6.1.. chlorine).1 Bellows seals are expensive and prone to fatigue failure. Pressure-tested to at least 1.1 Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) is widely used as a packing material because it is generally inert and has a low coefficient of friction.2.4 Bellow seals should meet the following requirements: a. allowances should not be taken for the cooling effects of an extended bonnet because heat is drawn into the packing material if a leak occurs. The packing manufacturer should be consulted to determine whether the valve should be removed during hydrotesting. Bellows Seals 3.2 Bellow seals should be considered for lethal or cryogenic services. the stem and packing bolts should be compatible with higher corrosive demands.6 For smaller valves (i.5 Packing glands.6. 3.1. Graphite packing will corrode the stem if left wet.6 Packing 3.6.3 times rated maximum allowable service pressure Page 8 of 35 Process Industry Practices .
Fugitive Emissions Considerations 3. Repair of these valves is required as necessary to eliminate excessive leakage as defined in the HON Rule. If fugitive emissions are problematic. 1994. Pressure loss should not exceed -6 1 x 10 cm3/second of helium. 3. e.168 (h) 63. 2. Guidelines and requirements for valve repair to reduce leakage are given in Article 63. The EPA’s final decisions on the rule.3. Note particularly the following topics: 63. Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 35 .6.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves d.180 Delay of repair Test measures and procedures Frequency of monitoring Time allowed for repair First attempts at repair Unsafe-to-monitor exemption Difficult-to-monitor exemption 5. Leakage testing of existing control valves in HON-defined HAP services and toxicity-based services is required.168 (i) Note also: 63. they can be minimized by the application of specifically designed packing material or bellows seals. Helium leak-tested.168 (d) 63. The intent of this section is to provide design guidelines for control valves in chemical service that are consistent with the 1990 CAA. including control valves. or the National Emission Standard for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry [SOCMI]). (c) 63. Approved by the facility owner concerning the estimated cycle life 3. Bellows should not be in tension or compression at neutral position.171 (a).6. (b). was signed into law on February 28.168 (g) 63.168 of the HON Rule.3. called the HON Rule (Hazardous Organic NESHAP. The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990 and subsequent revisions and addenda have specified maximum allowable leakage rates of selected substances (hazardous air pollutants. or HAPs) to the atmosphere (fugitive emissions) from chemical-handling equipment and piping. 4. Have bellows set in neutral position at 50% of valve stroke.1 General 1.168 (f) 63. f.
Use of oversized actuators to overcome high packing friction is recommended to meet dead time and dead band requirements for the process. assume that a closed loop response of 10 seconds is required. 4. 6. Low fugitive emissions requirements will mainly affect stuffing box and packing design. Thus. with a normal maintenance frequency not to exceed once per year.2% of the full steady state change. a control valve step response time (T86) of 2 to 6 seconds is suitable. For example.2 New Valves New valves should be provided with a “Proof of Design” document by the valve manufacturer.6. 2.6% of its stroke within 4 seconds. Page 10 of 35 Process Industry Practices . Control valves supplied with low fugitive emission packing should operate without leaking. Typically.3. 3. 3.4 Rotary Valves and Bellow Seals 1.6. Bellows seals should be used only where multi-ring. T86 should be 40% of the required open loop response. T86 is approximately twice the control valve’s time constant of a first-order response reaching 63. lowemission packing designs will not suffice. 3. 5. as defined in the HON Rule.6.3 Valve Operation 1. 2. When subjecting the valve to a 10% input step change. assembly joints and piping connections should also be carefully designed and maintained throughout the life of the valve. the T86 for the valve should be 4 seconds (10 seconds x 40% = 4 seconds). the valve stem should move 8. verifying that the purchased valve has been designed and tested to assure that the valve will not leak.3. but for compliance.5% of its full steady state change. as defined in the HON Rule.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 3. 3. Attention should be paid to the necessary dynamic behavior of the valve so that the low-emission packing does not seriously impede the valve’s function as a final control element.3. Rotary control valves are recommended over sliding-stem valves for low fugitive emissions service wherever feasible. for a 1% to 10% input step change. for a minimum service life of 2 years. in the specified service. The step response time (T86) consists of two components: the dead time (Td) and the remainder of the response time. T86 is the interval of time between initiation of an input signal step change and the moment the signal reaches 86.
2.1. causing loss of containment.2 Valve Size Less Than Pipe Size 4. Valve Types 4.2. The installed cost may be less than that of installing a smaller valve.2.2 The cost of ANSI classes 150 and 300 carbon steel and SS valves are approximately the same depending on size. Reduces risk of under-sizing valves d. If the stem detaches.1. Minimizes the manifold size 4.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 4. 4.1. the piping mechanical stresses should be validated by piping engineers.18.104.22.168. Saves cost of the reducers. the process fluid can expel the shaft. Valve manufacturers Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 35 . 4.1.2. depending on valve size and metallurgy.1.5 The use of restricted valve trim can be considered for flow rates requiring smaller Cv coefficients.1. This indicates that the pipe is oversized.1. Allows for increasing future throughput c.2 The valve manufacturer can also provide valves with expanded inlet and outlet connections that can directly mate with the piping connections. b. If the valve size must be reduced by more than two pipe sizes. 4. 4.2.1 All valves should have a mechanism to prevent stem blowout if the stem detaches from the closure member.1. 4.2 The use of the actuator to retain the shaft is not an acceptable blowout prevention method because the actuator can be removed during maintenance.3.1.4 The process engineer should be notified if the valve is more than one size smaller than the downstream line size.3 Using a line size globe-style valve with reduced trim has the following advantages: a.1 General The following guidelines apply to globe. 4.1 Valve Stem 4. ANSI class 300 should be the standard to minimize spare parts inventory.3 Minimum Flange Rating 4.1. 4.and rotary-style valves. Allows the design of the piping system before final control valve selection e. 4.1 Valve size should not be more than two sizes smaller than the pipe size.1.1 For sites that have mainly carbon steel and stainless steel valves.
5. toxic services.7.7.5. flanged valves should be specified in hydrocarbon services.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 may use the same globe valve body castings to manufacture ANSI classes 150 through 600.1.4. 4. Bonnet Extension Criteria Temperature <0°F 0> <450°F >450°F <750°F >750°F Notes: Graphite Packing Plain extension No extension No extension1 Plain extension2 Elastomer Packing Plain extension No extension Plain Extension No elastomer packing Page 12 of 35 Process Industry Practices . 4. 22.214.171.124 Bonnet 4.1.6. 4. the only difference is how much metal is removed from each casting.3 Separable flanges are not preferred because loosening the bolts can allow the valve to rotate. this requirement is meant for manual valves. 4.1..5. the Table 2 provides guidelines: Table 2. however.6 Welded End Valves 4. For these reasons. The piping specification may require welded end valves.1 If available. separable flanges should be specified only for higher alloy or large SS valves.4.1 Welded end valves are not recommended because they are difficult to repair in line and difficult to remove for maintenance.4 Flangeless Valves 4. a warning tag should be affixed to the actuator. 4.1.2 Leakage potential is heightened in flangeless valves because the exposed studs will expand in a fire.1. Separable Flanges 4.2 The piping engineer should be consulted to verify that flanges are acceptable and to determine what types are acceptable.5.1. 4.1.1 Corrosion or erosion effects may indicate that the valve body should be of a higher alloy than the pipe. 4.1.1 Use of extension bonnets should be minimized.5.2 Economic incentive for separable flanges is not significant unless the valve is a large 304 or 316 SS valve (i.6.e. Cost may be saved by specifying separable flanges in a less expensive metallurgy. and hot services (greater than 400°F) to minimize the risk of flange leaks.g.. Flangeless (e. 126.96.36.199. The control valve should be flanged.4 If separable flanges are specified and the valve can rotate when the flange bolts are loosened. wafer-style) valves should not be used in these services.2 If extension bonnets are required. greater than 4 inches) or the metallurgy is higher than 304 or 316 SS.1. 4.
2 Consult with valve manufacturer for recommendation on the use of finned extension.2. 4. 4. bar stock.2. 6.and bottom-guided. 7. Double-ported valves will not provide the same shutoff capability as do the single-ported types because in the doubleported types.2. 4. 4. post-guided valves are typically guided by posts at the top and bottom of the plug.2. single-seated valves are used for tight shutoff applications. The double-ported valve actuators can be smaller than for single-ported valves in the same application or with the same shutoff requirements.2 Guiding Types Globe valves can be classified as post-guided or cage-guided plugs. require less positioning force than do single-ported valves. it is almost impossible to seat both plugs simultaneously. The post and guide bushing of post-guided types. because these valves are unbalanced.1 The term “globe valve” is derived from the shape of the valve body. and three-way valves. 3. Double-ported valves.2.1 General 4. Double-ported valves are not recommended because of their maintenance cost and leakage.2. 5. Double-ported.1 Post-Guided 1. however. because they are somewhat balanced by differential forces acting in opposite directions across the two plugs. under certain conditions.3 This style of control valve includes globe. Post-guided valves may be a good choice for dirty service where the fluid or fluid particles would adhere to the guiding surface or would clog the plug vent holes.1. angle.1.2 Globe Styles 4. 4.2. they will require more force from the actuator to achieve shutoff if the flow is under the plug.1. the plug can be either topguided or top. Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 35 . may be less affected by this type of buildup. 2.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 1 This method is preferred if graphite packing is compatible with service conditions. In a post-guided configuration. 4. Post-guided.2 Flow control is affected by positioning the closure member in relationship to a seat through the area of linear or reciprocating motion of an actuator.
As a result.2. ported cylindrical spool through which a plug is axially positioned. 4. 10. 3. 9. In one. high-noise. The increased guiding area is desirable for high-pressure drop. on the upper side of the plug is guided by a bushing clamped in the valve bonnet or top enclosure. or post. 4. and stem wear than do postguided types. Because of the equal flow distribution through the cage. 6. Because of their superior stability. lower plug-positioning forces are required from the actuator. seat. Balanced styles undergo less horizontal vibration and consequently less guide. 11. or flashing services. 2. thus. the plug is vented such that process pressure interacts with the top and bottom side of the plug.2. In high pressure drop services. The cage is a massive. In balanced styles. 8. their larger port area allows greater flow capacity compared with post-guided types of equal body size. cage-guided valves provide greater rangeability than do their post-guided counterparts. Unbalanced types can provide a tight shutoff given sufficient actuator force. an extension. cavitation. 9. The other style has rectangular ports and a contoured plug.2.2 Cage-Guided 1. Cage-guided valves have a cylindrical plug guided through a cage clamped in the valve body. 5. and anticavitation applications. The cage-guided valve can achieve flow characterization with two different style variations. the lower guide area should be hardened. These valve types generally have only one port and a single seat. Cage-guided valves should not be used in services where coke may form or where solid particles are present. Inner valve plug removable through top of valve body (push down to close) b. cage– guided valves are subject to less side load and are inherently more stable than are post-guided styles. relatively small pressure differentials exist across the plug throughout the valve stroke. In high pressure drop.2. In addition.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 8. 4.3 Globe valves should have the following characteristics: a. Removable nonthreaded seat rings Page 14 of 35 Process Industry Practices . the cage ports are contoured and the plug is cylindrical. 7. Cage-guided valves may have either unbalanced or balanced plugs.
5.3 Bar Stock Bodies Bar stock bodies may be used if any of the following apply: a. one actuator.188.8.131.52. Process Industry Practices Page 15 of 35 .4.2.4 Spring-assisted actuators should be avoided.1 Angle valves should be used for the following: a.2.1 Three-way valves can control converging or diverging streams. If construction specifications require offset inlet and outlet ports d.4. typically of a hardened material.5 The angle valve has a bottom-exiting venturi throat.2.4 Three-way applications consisting of two valves. If the valve operates at less than 20% lift at minimum flow.2.2. Special alloys required b. Bottoms service e. 4.2. or a sleeve may be added to the angle valve.2 Three-way valves can provide an economical alternative to separate valves and are frequently used to bypass flow around an exchanger (diverging flow) or to mix two streams (converging flow). 4. 4.3 Use of three-way valves can simplify failure analysis because only one actuator failure needs to be considered.2. Solids carried in suspension c.2 Side and bottom connections should be inlet and outlet.4. Cavitating services g.2. Significant cost advantage 4. 4. High pressure drops 4. Severe flashing services d.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 4. 4.4. a volume tank with double-acting piston actuator should be used. High-pressure applications c. respectively. 4. and a mechanical linkage are high-maintenance items and should not be used. The preferred installation is two separate valves with their own actuators and other accessories.2.3 The plugs on the noncage-guided angle valves in flow-to-close applications tend to be forced into the seat as the plug nears the seat. and the piston should be adjusted so that it is near the bottom of the cylinder when the valve is closed.5.5 Three-Way Valves 4. 4.4 Angle Valves 4. The smooth entrance and exit are effective if applied to high-velocity fluids containing erosive solids.4. Coking service b. Drains f.2.
3.2 For purposes of design.6 Split Body Globe Valves Split body globe valves are prone to leakage and should be avoided. 4.10 Bearing material should be selected to prevent galling of the bearing or valve stem.3. and less friction-producing packing.3 In fugitive emission services. except for high-performance types with low-torque disk designs. This avoids wear on the seat and disk. Shear pins should be avoided.3.6 The actuator end of the valve stem should be spline or keyed. and simpler.4 High-performance butterfly valves are recommended over standard butterfly valves. lower cost.2 Butterfly Valves 4. 4.3. 4.5 Butterfly valves are available with seat designs and material that can obtain a tight shutoff.1 Rotary-style valves have certain features in common.2. including quarter-turn rotary actuation.1 General 4. Page 16 of 35 Process Industry Practices . 4.2. 4.9 The valve stem bearing should be designed to prevent the stem guide bushing from rotating in the valve body.2.3. 4.3.8 The shear safety factor should be a minimum 150% at the specified shutoff pressure drop condition. rotary valves rather than reciprocating valves should be considered because of the inherent design of shaft and packing. 4. 4. should be sized to control between 10° and 60° of disk opening.3. 4. 4.2.2. more reliable. 4.2.3 Rotary-Style Valves 4.7 Shafts should be made of one piece.2.2 Disadvantages of rotary-style valves include fewer trim sizes.3.3.3. and general unsuitability for applications requiring body sizes smaller than 2 inches (although “characterized” ball valves are available in smaller sizes).2. propensity to cavitation.3 High-performance valves having specially designed disks can be selected to permit operation with the disk as much as 90° open.3.2. high-performance butterfly valves should be sized to control within a 15° to 75° range of disk opening.1 Butterfly valves. low weight. if high side thrust loads exist on the shaft and bearings. 4.2.3. These high-performance valves have double offset shafts to lift the disk out of the seat immediately upon actuation.184.108.40.206. 4.3. Conventional butterfly valves in particular applications require relatively high opening and closing torque from the actuator.3. Leakage is minimized because the disk is pressed into the seats. high capacity.3.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 4.
Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 35 .12 For temperatures up to approximately 400°F.3. i.2.1 Full Ball 1.3.3. 4. 4. 4.3. 3. orifice plates. 2. 4.3. 4.4 The designer should be aware of the effects of pipe reducers commonly used with ball valves and accordingly apply the appropriate factors to the sizing equation.2.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 4. 2. A full ball valve has a waterway or port through a solid. butterfly valves generally have a high-pressure recovery coefficient. Segmented balls may be cut to provide parabolic. a section or segment has been removed from the ball such that the flow is “characterized” as the ball rotates.5 Ball valves exhibit a higher potential for flashing and cavitation than do comparably sized globe valves.3. Full port valves are ball valves having an opening the same diameter as that of the pipe inside diameter.” or other contours on the leading edge of the ball. Special valves having metal seats are available for “firesafe” applications. full and segmented.e. complete sphere. The ball is supported in the valve body by stub shafts that rotate in bearings or bushings. 4. The designer should be aware that the disk does extend into the pipe and can interfere with a reducer and with close-mounted instruments such as thermowells. The higher pressure recovery coefficient makes flashing and cavitation more likely in a butterfly valve than in a globe valve of comparable capacity.11 The minimum disk-to-pipe clearance should comply with API 609. 4.3. and another valve. “V.3 Ball Valves Ball valves are of two basic types.3.. and the valve body can be smaller than the line size. In segmented ball valves.3. tight shutoff can be achieved with sealing designs using elastomeric materials.13 Because of their higher valve coefficient.3. Special anticavitation trims are available that may solve ball valve cavitation in some cases. 3.2.3. 4. 4. depending on the configuration of the rotating ball.2 Segmented Ball 1. Reduced port valves are commonly used as block valves. Reduced or normal port ball valves have a port that is commonly one size smaller than the flange size and have much lower Cv values than do the equivalent full port valves.” “U. Temperatures above approximately 400°F will require the use of metal seats.3.3.3 Ball valves and butterfly valves have a large valve coefficient.3.
2 Sizing Guidelines 5.3.1 Pinch-type valves can be used with limitations for plugging services and in streams with entrained solids. shutdown. If this is done. 5. Higher turndown ratios should be used with caution because of the inability of the actuator to accurately position the plug near the seat.1 Pressure Drop Control valves should be sized to consume a certain percentage of the total system pressure drop (typically 30% to 50% at normal design flow).4. 4.4 5. cavitation.) to size the valve for all process conditions.1. Electronic sources provide tutorial instruction and are valuable sources of explanatory information.2 These valves have diaphragms and/or flexible liners that can be proportionally opened and closed by mechanical or pneumatic pressure on the outside line.4 Pinch Valves 4. which results in valve instability.1. At normal flow rate. especially on very small valves. Sizing of Valves 5.1. 5.3 5.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 4.2. Alternately.2 5. If greater turndown ratios are required. The need to precisely predict the total system pressure drop is rarely critical because the control system corrects for errors in estimated pressure losses.3.1 Generic valve-sizing methods are available in commercial PC-based electronic formats.4. flashing.3 Pinch-type valves are also zero emission-type valves. Viscosity should be considered because it can affect capacity. When the valve manufacturer is selected. 4. etc.3. Valve manufacturers provide sizing services. If the system pressure drop is grossly overestimated. 5.2.2 Turndown Ratio The valve-sizing coefficient for globe valves should be selected to limit turndown to a ratio of about 30:1. upset.1. the valve will throttle too near its closed position. the process data can be supplied to the manufacturer for sizing of the control valves. valve manufacturers’ methods should be used in the final selection of a control valve. the application of the 30% to 50% guideline will likely result in an oversized valve. This will limit the valve opening to approximately 10% of maximum for globe valves with equal percentage trim. Page 18 of 35 Process Industry Practices .1 Sizing Methods 5. and noise at various flow rates and differential pressures. the valve trim should be re-sized using the valve manufacturer’s computer program to calculate the valve size. Control valves may initially be sized by any acceptable industry standard. care must be taken to ensure that the manufacturer has all the conditions necessary (startup.3. however.4.
causing a jump in flow. Inherent Flow Characteristics 6. However.3 6. the valve outlet should be no more than one size smaller than the downstream piping size. and quick opening. This effect makes throttling unsuitable near the seat. knowing the valve inherent flow characteristic is essential to the initial sizing and application effort.1. The primary valve flow inherent characteristics are equal percentage.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves consideration should be given to using rotary valves with characterized trim. For a discussion of the considerations involved. 5. This makes them unsuitable for throttling near the seat. Inherent Rangeability 6.3 5. Two-Phase Fluids Cv calculations for two-phase fluids are more complex than for single fluids. An expander should be located on the outlet of the valve.1 The term “installed flow characteristic” refers to the relationship between the flow rate and the closure member travel as it is moved from the closed position to rated travel as the pressure drop across the valve is influenced by the varying process conditions.1.1. A minimum of 10 diameters of straight pipe should be provided on the outlet of the valve to minimize vibration of the piping caused by the high-velocity flow from the trim. The installed flow characteristic is a more accurate representation of how flow in the system changes relative to changes in valve opening and valve and system pressure drop.2. The valve manufacturer develops the “inherent” flow characteristic of the valve by measuring flow through the valve at various openings while maintaining a constant pressure drop across the valve. liquid-vapor combination should be avoided if possible.11. 6. Installations with sequentially operated parallel valves may also be considered if turndown ratio requirements are even more extreme. Flow-to-close valves may suck the plug into the seat if throttling near the seat.1 Inherent rangeability is the ratio of the largest flow coefficient to the smallest flow coefficient in which the deviation from the specified inherent flow characteristics does not exceed the limits stated in ISA 75. In general.1. the valve differential pressure drop changes as the valve opening changes.1.1. For two-phase and flashing applications.1 Definitions 6. Section 4.2.2 6. For this reason a more meaningful representation of valve dynamic behavior is the “installed” flow characteristic. linear. refer to Hutchinson (1976). Control of a two-phase.2. 6.5.4 5.4 6.5 Eccentric disk valves may pop out of the seat.5 Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 35 .
and the changing pressure drop with flow rate. Rangeability can vary when this definition is applied. Figure 1 shows the relationship between valve opening and valve flow for the equal percentage characteristic.6 0. For example. however. Equal percentage increases in valve opening cause equal percentage increases in previous flow through the valve.1 If a constant pressure drop across the valve is assumed. rangeability is a useful tool for making initial selections.55 to 0.57 0.6 0.6 0.5. Rangeability.2 Inherent rangeability is an indication of how well the valve manufacture can control the effective orifice created by the closure member-to-stroke curve. the instabilities of the process fluid.55 6.2 Page 20 of 35 Process Industry Practices . Table 3. the inability to control areas near the seat because of bathtub effects or seat stiction.92 to 0.55 to 0.3 The ratio is of limited value because it does not consider the accuracy of the positioner/linkage. the flow will increase 46% to 22% of maximum.999 0.9 0.4 A more meaningful definition of rangeability recognizes the variation in pressure drop and is expressed as the ratio of maximum Cv (at minimum pressure drop) to minimum Cv (at maximum pressure drop). consider an equal percentage valve with a 30:1 rangeability over 90% of its stroke.7 0. and Pressure Recovery Factors Valve Type Globe Globe w/ cavitation trim Angle w/ venturi Ball standard bore Segmented ball Eccentric rotary plug Ball characterized Butterfly 60° open Butterfly 90° open Inherent Characteristics = % & Lin Lin = % & Lin Lin Lin Lin = % & Lin = % & Lin Lin Rangeability 20:1 to 50:1 20:1 20:1 to 50:1 20:1 300:1 100:1 100:1 to 300:1 20:1 20:1 Pressure Recovery Factor (FL) 0.2.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 6.3 to 0. the flow will again increase by 46% to 32% of maximum. Table 3 provides typical rangeability and pressure recovery factors. 6.55 to 0.2 Equal Percentage Characteristic 6.8 to 0. If the valve is opened another 10% (from 60% to 70%).5. the flow will be 15% of maximum.5. a valve with an equal percentage characteristic produces a nonlinear increase in flow as it opens. If the valve is opened an additional 10% (from 50% to 60%). 6. At 50% open. Representative Valve Characteristics. 6.1.5 0.1.1.2.
Typical applications include liquid level control. equal percentage valves exhibit increasingly linear characteristics.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves % RATED FLOW % VALVE TRAVEL Figure 1.4.4 Quick Opening Characteristic 6. 6.2. a valve with a linear flow characteristic produces a linear increase in flow as the valve opens. pump minimum flow bypass control.2 Valves with linear trim are generally required for applications in which the valve differential pressure drop is relatively constant over the valve travel range. Linear Characteristic 6. Flow rate “flattens out” as the area created by the rising plug begins to equal the port area. depressuring. For this reason.3 Linear Characteristic 6.3.4 6.1 As shown in Figure 2.3. centrifugal compressor antisurge control. linearized flow control. % RATED FLOW % VALVE TRAVEL Figure 2. As the pressure drop available to the valve decreases. Typical process applications include pressure control and nonlinearized flow control.3 An equal percentage valve exhibits increasing gain as it opens and is recommended for a process in which the system gain decreases with increasing valve load. equal percentage valves are recommended for systems in which the valve absorbs varying amounts of pressure drop or if a relatively small amount (less than 30%) of the system drop is consumed by the valve.1 Valves with a quick opening characteristic exhibit a rapid increase in flow as the valve opens. Process Industry Practices Page 21 of 35 . Initial valve flows are fairly linear until the valve travel is about 50% to 70% open.2. Equal Percentage Characteristic 6. gravity flow level control. and split range. 6.
4. and fluid. and reducer factors.1 Cavitation in a valve body can occur when the pressure of the flowing liquid drops below the fluid vapor pressure and then the pressure is recovered above the vapor pressure.23 describes an effective methodology for communication by defining cavitation parameters. The small holes used in cavitation trim for the valve are susceptible to plugging during operation.1.4.23 defines the sigma index as follows: Sigma σ = (P1 -Pv)/(P1 -P2) 7. pressure. 6. Figure 3 shows the flow characteristic curve for the quick opening valve. Quick Opening Characteristic 7.3 (this Practice).1. The sigma recommended should be adjusted from the reference valve to the actual application using size.4. evaluating cavitation characteristics. flow rate. Care should be exercised to ensure that the sizing methods are applicable to the valve being evaluated. pressure drop.2 ISA RP75. then the valve should not experience damage.1.4 Page 22 of 35 Process Industry Practices .3 7.4. This results in a sigma proposed (σp).1. Cavitation and Flashing 7.4.1 Cavitation 7. temperature.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 6. depending on valve trim design.1 ISA RP75. and providing guidelines for selecting control valves.1.1. then a “cavitation control” trim can 7.3 % RATED FLOW % VALVE TRAVEL Figure 3. which should be considered in the selection of valves and trim.2 Quick opening valves are typically specified for “on-off” service and for pressure-relieving applications but also can be used as linear valves if their travel is restricted to the linear flow regime as cited in Section 6. If σp > σ. Cavitation affects valve sizing and can damage valve parts and downstream piping.3 The valve manufacturer should provide a recommended sigma (σmr). Sigma Index 7. If σp < σ.1. 7.2 7.
2 c.1 The best method for eliminating cavitation is to find a successfully functioning valve in a similar application and use that design and/or to consult the valve manufacturer.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves be selected or an evaluation can be made using the intensity index (I) described in Annex C of ISA RP75. Mitigation Methods 7.1. d. Relocate the valve to a lower temperature. does the pump need to produce the pressure?) b. intermittent. f. 7. Three-stage cavitation trim . 7. Because of the small holes (on the order of 1/16 inch or less) in the trim. Anticavitation trim valves are extremely effective in demanding applications and can significantly reduce the capacity of the valve. and the small orifices can plug in particle-laden or viscous fluid applications. Install a restriction orifice directly downstream of the valve if flow rate variations are small. (For example.The damage for continuous. FDC . e. Butterfly or ball . 7. Relocate the valve to a higher outlet pressure (e. The intensity index modifies sigma incipient damage (σid) with the following factors: a.7. c. Globe and angle . Duty cycle factor.1. the following actions may be considered: a.Once damage or pitting has commenced at the incipient damage sigma or velocity. Fluid temperature factor.6 If cavitation is predicted. FT .5 Intensity Index The intensity index is a life reduction factor.3 b.. b. c.2 For severe cavitation in water service (greater than 350 psi drop).For water.0 to 2.1. the rate of pitting increases exponentially with increased velocity. Single-stage cavitation trim .23. or replace valve from available stock.g. The magnitude represents how many times faster erosion will occur over the threshold damage rate. a strainer is Process Industry Practices Page 23 of 35 . cavitation damage is approximately three times greater halfway between freezing and boiling.1.7. or rare cavitation conditions is considered.4 Nominal values of sigma recommended (σmr) are as follows: a.1.025 7.2. Verify that the upstream pressure is required.1.4. FU . 7.1. an anticaviation trim is recommended.2 d.2.7 Install a spare valve in parallel. grade versus top of column). Velocity factor.1. Install additional valves.
c. a multiple plug-style valve should be considered. which can cause the pipe to wear. Page 24 of 35 Process Industry Practices .1.1.1 If the pressure of a liquid at its flowing temperature is reduced below its vapor pressure.7. If this design is used. If the downstream pressure in the valve does not recover. vapor in the form of bubbles evolves from the liquid.1.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 recommended upstream.7 Rotary-style valves should not be used in cavitating services or in erosive services. When selecting hardened trim. d. 7. 7.8 In cavitation and erosive services where tight shutoff is required.3 If plugging is a concern. A rotary-style valve has a higher recovery factor. 7. Break the flow into many small streams. should immediately expand to the pipe size on the outlet.4 For moderate cavitation of water (less than 350 psi) and for most hydrocarbon-cavitating services. A sharp-edge seat port orifice to keep the discharge away from the body wall should be selected. Reduce the pressure in multiple stages.1.1.2 Flashing and Erosion 7. The anticavitation trim is designed to do the following: a. and should provide a minimum of 10 diameters of straight pipe downstream of the control valve.7. 7. causing more intense cavitation. Direct the jets into the center of the cage to cancel the energy force. the calculations may be overly conservative for these classes of services. the valve outlet should not be more than one size smaller than the pipe. a separate ball valve should be considered. These valves divide the pressure drop into more than one pressure drop. b.1. the cracking that is due to impact of repeated valve closures and thermal shock should be considered.2.2. Force the flow through multiple turns or tortuous paths. 7.7.7. and will direct the flow energy at the side of the pipe.5 For minor cavitation applications such as hydrocarbons with less than 500 psig drop.1. 7.7. This is called flashing. Because all cavitation damage prediction data use water.6 Hydrocarbons and especially viscous or mixed hydrocarbons do not cause as much damage to valves as does water. but remains below the liquid vapor pressure. a flow-to-open standard globe valve with hardened trim is recommended. Two valves can be installed in series to achieve the same anticavitation results. an angle valve with hardened venturi is recommended. 7. a mixture of liquid and vapor will exit the valve.1 Flashing 7.7.
2. Like flashing. This design focuses the energy down the center of the pipe. 7. or pipe.3 If a valve is controlling feed flow to a vessel. As an example.2. thus effectively eliminating the downstream piping.4 Another type of erosion is caused by corrosive agents in the fluid.2. further reduction in downstream pressure serves only to cause more vapor to evolve. this film can be eroded away. and special trim designs are also recommended for solving problems associated with flashing.2. Flashing tends to smoothly wear away the plug and seat material.2.3. should be used.2. 7.1 Erosion is caused by high-velocity flow. flashing frequently causes erosion. hardened trim should be selected. differential pressure should be used in the sizing formula. If this design is used.3.2. 7. 7. exposing a fresh surface to the corrosive agent in the fluid. 7. carbon steel can be used in sulfuric acid if the velocity is kept low.2. 7. causing loss of fluid. particles. 7.3 Particles—especially hard particles in the moving fluid—can also cause erosion.2.2. Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 35 . If the type of metal used does not corrode because it forms a protective surface film.2.2 Because high-velocity flow is associated with flashing. and corrosion. mounting the valve directly on a vessel flange should be considered. and a design with streamline flow. A minimum of 10 diameters of straight pipe should be provided downstream of the valve. 7. which prevents direct impingement upon the trim.2 Sacrificial downstream piping. or allowable.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 7.2.3 Mitigation Methods 7.4 To determine the capacity of the valve under these choked conditions. the allowable. differential pressure is reached.2 Erosion 7. Increasing the size of the pipe and providing straight lengths will allow time to dissipate the energy of the fluid from the valve.1. the valve should not be more than one size smaller than the downstream pipe. 7.4 Reducing the trim exit velocity to acceptable levels (20 ft/second) helps eliminate problems associated with erosion.2. multistage pressure reduction.2.3.2. not the actual. body.3.1.2 When vapor continues to evolve to the point that flow becomes restricted or choked. hardened alloys. A recommended solution is an angle valve with a venturi liner.2. causing leaky valves and changed flow characteristics.1 To prevent erosion.2.1. 7. the seat can wear.3 Increased differential pressure caused by the lower downstream pressure has no effect in accelerating flow through the valve after the effective. and worse. it can erode away the body.
6 Colmonoy® c.1.1. If the noise exceeds accepted levels as specified in the PIP PCSCV001 “Control Valve Specification Sheet. valve noise should not exceed this level. which is much lower than the acceptable limits within the plant (i.5 The following are recommended pressure drop limits versus material for erosive service: a. Frequency of use (continuous versus less than once per year) Comment: The maximum acceptable noise level is identified in the PIP PCSCV001 “Control Valve Specification Sheet” because this value varies between facility owners and locations.7 8. 6 stellite b. >200 psi . and the facility owner advised.95 provides a formula that calculates acceptable exposure time to the different noise levels to which a person may be exposed during a shift. 70 dBA for adjoining industrial facility and 55 dBA for adjoining residential area). OSHA 1910.No.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 7.e. 125 psi .1.1.tungsten carbide 8.1.. Almost all states or local governments regulate the acceptable noise level at the plant fence line.2. Page 26 of 35 Process Industry Practices .17-4 PH SS and No. General 8.1. A final solution should be rendered in consultation with the valve manufacturer or the facility owner’s noise control expert.1. As an example.6 8. 150 psi . Proximity of valve to normally attended versus isolated area d.1. Valve manufacturers’ noise prediction calculations normally are accurate to within 5 dBA.” alternate methods of noise reduction should be evaluated. Facility owner’s location and standard noise limitation practices b.1 Noise prediction is a specialized study that typically requires the use of valve manufacturer prediction methods.4 8.440-C SS d.3 8. 8. Noise Considerations 8.2 8. the allowable noise exposure for 95 dBA is 4 hours. therefore.3. Acceptable noise level depends on the following: a. 200 psi . Proximity of valve to the fence line c.5 8.8 Noise levels that consistently exceed 110 dBA can cause valve failure.1. A 115-dBA exposure is the maximum allowable noise for 15 minutes. It is important to understand the facility owner’s noise reduction strategy and to incorporate it into the selection of valves.
1.3 9.3 9.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 8.4 Process Industry Practices Page 27 of 35 .2. 8. Silencers (e. The application of antinoise trim is the only method that will eliminate damaging noise at its source. thrust.2. and spring return cylinder (piston) valve actuators. Actuators and Accessories 9.g. A strainer is recommended upstream of an antinoise trim. Sizing and Selection 9.1. Other solutions to reduce excess noise. Pneumatic spring and diaphragm actuators should not contain forcemultiplying linkages. the preferred solution is the use of noise reduction trim. d.2. shutdown.2 8. Acoustic sheds .2 Valve actuators are typically sized and selected by the valve supplier or manufacturer. they tend to work well at the maximum flow conditions. c.2. Consideration of the additional packing friction force may be indicated for these applications.1 9.1 9. limp diaphragm.2. Antinoise trims and silencers are susceptible to plugging in some process conditions.2 The following discussion applies to spring return.2 Noise Reduction 8. b.2. 8.2. air supply pressure at the plant should be confirmed and regulated to prevent exceeding torque.Noise will not reappear downstream at next device. the maximum noise will often be calculated at mid range. may include the following path treatment methods: a. When diffusers are used.2. In addition. Acoustic lagging .1 General 9. Actuators that are infrequently stroked through their entire range may develop stem-packing friction problems. diffusers are acceptable only for applications with limited rangeability.Noise will reappear downstream at next device. and steam-out. plates and diffusers) . Pipe/valve insulation . For this reason.1 If noise exceeding acceptable levels for human exposure cannot be mitigated by adjusting the process or piping geometry. In some applications.4 Because diffusers work by absorbing some of the pressure drop.Noise will reappear downstream at next device.Noise will reappear downstream at next device. given the minimum nominal air supply pressure available at the valve.Noise will reappear downstream at next device. Thicker pipe wall . and case pressure specifications..2 9. while possibly less effective or more costly. e. the actuator needs to be 9. Actuators should be sized to meet the control and shutoff requirements. Actuator design should ensure shutoff capability under conditions of maximum differential pressure including abnormal conditions such as startup.
is dependent on valve port size and shutoff classification. particularly for an unbalanced plug.3. Table 4 provides nominal seat loadings to ensure repeatable tight shutoff for each seat leakage classification. cylinder actuators can accept higher instrument air pressure and can generate greater thrust than can comparably sized diaphragm types. 9.5 Page 28 of 35 Process Industry Practices . The process fluid will exert a force on the plug that will tend to either open or close the valve.5 Both diaphragm-type and cylinder-type actuators normally will require positioners (piston types will always require a positioner).PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 sized to shut off in the reverse flow direction. have a wide range of adaptability to various valve sizes.3 Actuator Forces 9.2.4 9.7 9.3 9.” Seat load.1 Forces that influence actuator design include those exerted on the plug by the process medium.3. In these cases. The valve manufacturer’s recommended seat load should be used to achieve the leakage class.3. the seat load force exerted by the spring to close the valve tightly or position the plug in its fail-safe position. pneumatic boosters may be required to provide the necessary actuator air volume and pressure. Slow processes or processes requiring control with a wide proportional band (low gain) normally will benefit from a positioner.2 9. positioners by themselves may not be suitable for fast processes such as compressor surge control. 9. and the force needed to overcome stem-packing friction. The amount of unbalanced force that exists due to differential pressure across the plug is termed “static unbalance.2. However. Because of their higher cylinder pressure ratings. Seat loading is based on meeting ANSI/FCI leakage criteria.3.2. are commonly available from various manufacturers. the force necessary to provide valve shutoff.6 9. Diaphragm actuators are more widely used than are cylinder types. and may be less expensive than cylinder types of comparative size. The actuator should be designed to balance the sum of these forces. This can be a significant advantage where high thrust forces are needed because a diaphragm actuator having comparable thrust capability most likely will be larger and heavier. This requirement should be identified and designated for the person who specifies the valve 9.3. the spring forces necessary to stabilize the plug.
Graphite packing has a much greater friction load than does TFE and other elastomers.8 9.9.7 Seat ring circumference is defined as the line of contact between the plug and the seat if the valve is in the fully closed position. 9.1 An actuator bench setting is the instrument air pressure required.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves Table 220.127.116.11 For an air-to-close actuator on a flow-to-open valve.3. the type and style of packing. If the plug forces are large. 9. in the absence of service process pressure.3. Bench settings are adjustments made to the actuator spring if the valve is out of service or “on the bench. respectively). Dynamic Forces The following is a discussion of the dynamic forces that act on various types of valve and diaphragm actuator combinations: 9. Graphite also tends to bind to the stem if the stem is not moved for a long time. Normally the actuator is bench-set to begin moving the plug at the minimum input signal from the controller or positioner (typically 3 psi or 6 psi. and the effects of these forces need to be considered in the various sizing methods provided by the valve supplier.3. both the actuator spring force and the force of the fluid against the plug are additive and are opposed by the force provided by the diaphragm case pressure.” These settings are applied by adjusting the spring compression to compensate for the process pressures that will act on the plug area.3.3.6 9. graphite packing is used only in applications that are exposed to high temperatures and if fire-safe applications are required. Viscous/sticky fluids increase the packing friction forces and will affect the actuator force requirement. a positioner may be required to provide the force necessary 9.9 Process Industry Practices Page 29 of 35 . The actuator should be designed to compensate for the various dynamic forces acting on the control valve plug. Friction between the packing and stem must be considered in sizing the actuator. Nominal Seat Loading versus Leakage Class Leakage Class Class I Class II Class III Class IV metal seats Class IV soft seats Class V metal seats Class V soft seats Class VI soft seats Nominal Port Size <5 inches 10 lb/linear inch 20 lb/linear inch 40 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 250 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch Nominal Port Size >5 inches 10 lb/linear inch 20 lb/linear inch 40 lb/linear inch 80 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 400 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 100 lb/linear inch Note: Seat load = seating force/port circumference. and the fluid characteristics. For these reasons. This force varies with the diameter of the stem. to begin moving the stem and to fully stroke the actuator over its entire range.
the dynamic plug forces oppose the actuator spring force and are additive to the diaphragm case pressure.8 Dynamic torque is determined by applying manufacturer-specific factors to the valve differential pressure at selected valve openings.6 A rotary valve actuator applies force through a lever to exert torque on the plug. disk.3.4.1 All electronic components should be UL. or CSA NRTL approved for the area classification according to OSHA and NEC requirements. This control valve configuration tends to be unstable and normally should be avoided. As such. Torque requirements should be checked at appropriate angles of rotation from nearly closed to fully open. the spring force becomes less as the plug approaches the seat. calculations should be performed in consultation with the valve supplier or manufacturer.3.9.3 For an air-to-close actuator with a flow-to-close valve.7 Break-away torque is that torque required to move the disk from its closed. Higher bench pressure settings are typically required to ensure adequate shutoff. Determining rotary valve torque requirements involves highly valve-specific sizing procedures. Break-away torque is a function of seating friction and can be significant for elastomer-lined valves. assuming an adequate bench set. Major rotary valve torque components are break-away and dynamic torque. This valve and actuator combination fails closed. This type of control valve opens on loss of diaphragm case pressure (fails open).3. and requires a bench pressure setting greater than 3 psi to unseat the valve.9.9. The reduced actuator stiffness may cause valve instability in the low lift operation region.9.9.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 for complete shutoff.3. FM. 9. With this actuator.1 Electronic Components 9. Page 30 of 35 Process Industry Practices .3. 9. The actuator air pressure requires less force to unseat the valve while on the bench than when in service.9.4 For an air-to-open actuator with a flow-to-open valve. 9.1. Dynamic torque is a direct function of the effective differential pressure at the various angles of valve rotation. or ball.9. fully seated position.3. 9.9 The total torque requirement is the sum of the break-away and dynamic torques. 9.4 Positioners and Accessories 9. 9. 9. The amount of bench-set force applied to the spring must be reduced by the plug force exerted by the process.5 For an air-to-open actuator with a flow-to-close valve. the process pressure on the plug and spring forces are additive and in opposition to the diaphragm force. 9.4.3. the diaphragm case pressure and plug forces are additive and oppose the actuator spring force.
2 All electronic components should be able to withstand electromagnetic interference for the wiring method used (e. 9. 9.1 A well-tuned positioner with zero slop linkage and correctly sized actuator is required for accurate control of the valve. open wiring versus conduit systems).4. 9.25 also includes measurement techniques for dead band and response time. All piston actuators in throttling service should be furnished with a positioner..3 If a piston actuator needs air on each side of the piston to operate (typically referred to as double acting).4. Valves expected to have a large impact with small movements (e.2. If the positioner is not employed.4.g. and air regulators are also required.2 Positioners 9. Digital positioners (HART®. a postioner is required with volume boosters..18.104.22.168.2 To achieve the economic benefit of control strategies available with distributed control.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 9. 9. etc.4 In applications requiring large step changes in the valve travel within short periods (e. Oversized tubing.g. Fieldbus®. The valve specification should identify special dead band/response time and testing requirements for valves that require a high degree of performance. 9.2.g.3.25 provides a guide and specification to set dead band and response time requirements for vendors.2 Boosters are selected to provide the required capacity to stroke the valve in the required time.2.1 Boosters are one-to-one self-contained regulators that are used to increase the speed of a control valve by providing large air volumes.3 Boosters 9. ISA 75.4.) provide capability for valve diagnostics that are not available with analog electronic positioners..4.4 Electronic input positioners are preferred to positioners that accept a pneumatic signal.5 ISA 75.4. 9.3. filters.1.25 specification.4. it is critical to be able to make small movements of the valve position with minimal dead band. liquid pressure control) are candidates for ISA 75. positioners should be the default choice for valves tied to a distributed control system. compressor recycle valve for surge control).3 Valves with piston operators normally require full system pressures of 60 to 100 psig.4. then accurate control will not be possible during recycle operation after the quick stroke has occurred. 9.4. 9. The valve stroking time must be consistent with the valve supplier’s and surge control requirements.3.4. and only a filter should be provided to the positioner. The pneumatic boosters are required to provide necessary actuator air volume and pressure around the positioner. For this reason. Process Industry Practices Page 31 of 35 .2. two boosters are required. The valve performance should be tested at the valve supplier’s shop. fittings. 9.
2-second full stroke . 1-second full stroke .5. larger tubing. 9. 9.5 The following is a guide to achieve stroking times: a.5.4.5 If the solenoid valve is 24 VDC.5.5 Solenoid Valves 9. 9.3 Solenoid valves should be installed between the positioner and the actuator to eliminate the positioner as a source of failure. Division 2 areas because this type valve minimizes spare parts and because the cost difference is minimal.2 Installation of Control Valves 10.4.5.1 Refer to PIP PCCGN002 for installation requirements.2 A solenoid valve should be the last device tied to the actuator to directly vent the air off the actuator.. blown dust. enclosed in watertight dust-proof housings with terminal strips for wire connections. Valve Storage and Installation 10. 9. electrical.4. or Fieldbus®).4 Limit Switches 9.5.2 Some positioners provide a continuous signal of the valve-position feedback (e. HART®.4. 22.214.171.124.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 9.g. larger tubing. b.6 The solenoid valve can be explosion-proof even in Class 1.1 Shipping and Storage 10. a “low-powered” solenoid valve should be used so that the wiring used for loop-powered instruments can also be used for the solenoid valve. etc. To provide the necessary force to move the spool.1. Failure direction will be accomplished via volume tank with trip and lock-up pneumatic relays. 9. and quick exhaust relays.4.4. and quick exhaust relays. 10. air) sealed. mud.Use volume booster.2 Valves should be stored in an enclosed building that will not flood and that allows protection from rain. 10. process. volume boosters.126.96.36.199. Climate control should not be required.Use double-acting positioner.1 Valve position switches should be proximity type.1 Solenoid valves are used to force the valve to a specified position. these valves typically require an auxiliary air supply to the pilot valve.2. 9. 10.4.4.g.4.1 Valves should be shipped with all valve openings (e. 9.4 The port size and tubing shall be sized to trip the valve within the specified time. Page 32 of 35 Process Industry Practices ..
3 Take special care with the piping of high-recovery valves (Cd > 20).1 Bypass manifolds should not be provided in highly reactive chemical services if inadvertent valve leakage could result in an undesirable event such as backflow contamination. It is essential that valves with handwheels or bypass manifolds be readily accessible either from the grade or from a permanent platform.4. should be arranged to prevent the accumulation of dirt or other solids in stagnant lines.5. vent.2. consideration should be given to installing redundant control valves in parallel.2.6 For severe services. Bypass manifolds may affect control valve performance.2. 10.. 10.5 Block valves used in manifolds with low-recovery control valves should have the same body size as the control valve unless known expansions or uncertain operating conditions dictate the use of linesized valves. 10.5.4Piping should be designed to prevent accumulation of water. 10. Further. 10.5.2.4. which may freeze. which will plug stagnant lines). 10. and drain valves should be installed to enable removal of the control valve.3Sufficient block.2. especially butterfly and other rotary valves.2 Bypass manifolds should be provided if the process cannot be shut down for repair or replacement of the valve. Process Industry Practices Page 33 of 35 . 10.2.4. 10. This is typically done by placing the bypass above the valve. 10.3 Bypass manifolds should not be provided if manual control is impossible or if the bypass line cannot be kept in service (e. butterfly valves and valves of similar design may require a larger actuator when installed just downstream of an elbow.2.4. if required.2.5.2 Control valve installations should be accessible from grade or platform to aid in operation and maintenance. and for such valves.4.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 10. The capacity of high-recovery valves may be significantly decreased by reducers and elbows near the valve ports.g. an upstream strainer should be installed. 10.4 Manual throttle valves should be selected for control valve bypass manifolds to provide approximately the same capacity and trim characteristics as those of the control valves that they bypass.2Bypass manifolds. 10.2.2.1Ports in valves with cavitation or noise reduction trim are commonly less than 1/4 inch in diameter.2.2.5 Control Valve Piping 10. 10.2. in slurry service.4 Bypass Manifolds Bypass manifolds should be identified on the piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID).4.2.
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