EUGENIA IRIMIAŞ ● BUSINESS COMMUNICATION TOPICS Second edition
Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene Cluj-Napoca, 2010
EDITURA FUNDAŢIEI PENTRU STUDII EUROPENE Str. Em. de Martonne nr. 1 Cluj-Napoca, România Director: Ion Cuceu
ISBN 10 973-7677-43-9 13 978-973-7677-43-3
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION TOPICS
SECOND EDITION IMPROVED
Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene Cluj-Napoca, 2010
ISBN 10 973-7677-43-9 13 978-973-7677-43-3
. Cluj-Napoca : Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene Bibliogr. EUGENIA Business Communication Topics / Eugenia Irimiaş.Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României IRIMIAŞ.
................................................................ COMMUNICATION STYLES ........................................................................................................................ TYPES OF COMMUNICATION ....... 112 MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIES OF A MEETING ............. COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS........................................................................................................................... 72 XIII... 120 STEPS OF A NEGOTIATION ......... AVOIDING DISCRIMINATION IN COMMUNICATION ....... BUSINESS LETTERS ......................................... 112 PLANNING AND STEPS OF A MEETING ....................... THE AUDIENCE ............................................................................................................................................................................. REPORTS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT ............................................................................................................................................. 15 III..... 30 VII...................................................... BUSINESS MEETINGS .... 81 LETTER OF APOLOGY AND SETTLEMENT .. 6 I............................................................. NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS ....................................................... 64 X....................................... BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE ............................................................................ WRITING EMPLOYMENT DOCUMENTS ......... 9 II............ 102 XII............................................................... 117 XVII........................................ 76 LETTER OF INQUIRY AND REPLY .............. EFFECTIVE LISTENING........................... 86 ORDERS .......................................................................... 90 MEMOS .................................. 87 E-MAIL CORRESPONDENCE ...................................................... 127 ANSWER KEY ..... 53 THE APPLICATION LETTER .......................................................................................................................................... 137
............. 59 IX.............TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS .............. 48 VIII... 90 MINUTES . COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM: MEMOS..................................................................................... 38 INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS ............. 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 LETTER OF COMPLAINT......................................................... 96 REPORTS .......................................................................................................................... MINUTES................ 106 XV............................................................... COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS.................................... 53 CURRICULUM VITAE .. 124 XVIII....................... INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION ............................................................ PRESENTATIONS .................................................................. 88 XIV............................ 24 V...................................................... 45 XVI.............................................................................. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION ............ INTERVIEWS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 IV...................................... 69 XI........................................................................................... BUSINESS REPORTS ............................................................ 34 VI....................................................................................................
Communicating in Business
The cycle is repeated. The message goes through a filtering process. A response is formed and sent. ………………………………………………. Does the process of human communication differ. The message enters in the sensory world. The symbols of communication are imperfect. fax) assists in making & sending these communications. INTERNAL OPERATIONAL: the communicating done in conducting work within a business EXTERNAL OPERATIONAL: workrelated communication with people outside the business PERSONAL: non-businessrelated exchanges of information and feelings among people. in their turn. assembling reports. depending on the specific form of communication? The message is sent. and letter writing It may affect worker attitudes. communication across cultures is especially difficult.
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS
. Flatley 1993: 15) BASIC NOTIONS 1.e.: giving orders. Can you identify some other imperfections of the communication process? Meanings sent are not always received.I.” (Lesikar.: personal selling. affect worker performance. to entertain).
IMPERFECTIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
4. writing memorandums. which. Business communication should seek only to communicate. i. e.
THE PROCESS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
3.g. Read about some forms of communication in business. and communicating by computers i. telephoning. Stress on adaptation: fitting the message to the recipients.e. COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS
“Some writers have other goals (to impress. The message is detected by the senses. advertising. What do you know about the following forms of communication? Where/ when/ how/ by whom are they used? NON-VERBAL ORAL WRITTEN COMPUTER
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION
2. Can you identify some other examples? Technology (computer. Petit.
Use the information in the table below and describe the communication network in an organization you know. Do you agree or disagree with them? All organized effort. in the workplace. Discuss the following statements. I Effective communication requires tools and planning. 2. E Assimilation of a concept presented by management. goes a long way towards ensuring active participation. respect for the other person is an important prerequisite for attention getting. requires communication. J. with abundant support and encouragement. Explain the importance of communication to you and to business. and have to work hard to get the other person to understand them. M. or by another worker. There is an example at the beginning (0 D ). C The task of the communicator is to change the aspect of "fear" into that of "understanding".Business Communication Topics
5. Flatley 1993: 3-15)
COMMUNICATION NETWORK OF THE ORGANIZATION
1. Business needs good communicators. 1. Debate upon what Peter Drucker. the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. G However. the basic skill colleges teach students – as future employees – is “the ability to organize and express ideas in writing and speaking”. F To communicate successfully managers and supervisors have to understand the other person. Lesikar. you improve your chances for success. Choose the best sentence from the list below (AI) to conclude each paragraph. but most people do not communicate well. and the people involved.‖ 1. By improving your communication ability. D They need to realize that successful communication is no one-way process. Read about the importance of effective communication in the work place. B Encouraging a free flow of input from the receiver is the best way of ensuring that understanding has been achieved. The concluding sentence in some paragraphs of the text (1-7) has been removed. And the further away your job is from manual work. the larger the organization of which you are an employee. and harmonious cooperation.
A We can only discuss them very briefly here. 1. a well-known management consultant. Discussion
1. There is one sentence that you do not need. Petit.
2. H The originator of the message must play his part.
2. too. The extent of a business‘s communication depends on the nature of the business. In the very large organization … this ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a person can possess. In his opinion. The information flow in business can be: downward/ upward/ horizontal The communication channels can be: formal/ informal
(adapted from R. He continues: ―…your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. including the work of business. its operating plan. Communication is vital to every part of business. although each of these four is worth an essay on its own. states about the role of communication in business.
It is that ingredient which propels abstract or theoretical knowledge into the world of reality. or distracting mannerisms or dress. This applies whether the process is conducted verbally or through the medium of the written word.shtml)
2. if such introductions are false or stereotyped they might serve little purpose. success and failure. indirect ways of establishing the degree of understanding will present themselves. it can be avoided. but he or she has not accepted it. Real empathy.hodu. personal problems. And yes. We have preferred the term "apprehension" here primarily to retain the mnemonic of "four A's". /7__/
(http://www. physical or emotional discomfort. Its two meanings. Some call them the four A's of communication. Communication is still incomplete if he has not assimilated the information into his own being. The human greeting. be it noise in the literal sense. and even the somewhat improved "What do you understand?" is often perceived as a threat. In order to achieve this goal. Winning the attention of the person with whom we wish to communicate. but it is a very subtle one also. They are far more than givers of information or instructions. Although this word usually carries the connotation of "fear". This is the final step in our communication process. This includes everything that distracts.com/business-communication. it is accepted in a half-hearted manner. reciprocity is the essence of communication. 2. if there is the right relationship between the transmitter and the receiver of a message. yet avoidable. a person has understood a message perfectly. /5__/ Assimilation. Management must face squarely the challenge of formulating strategies to encourage personnel to communicate effectively. the bleakest of situations can be turned around for the better. To be sure. its primary meaning is "understanding". negative attitudes. but is not translated into action. leads quickly to the second step in the process apprehension. however. On the other hand. managers themselves have to set the example. all the more so important in downward communication from superior to subordinate. Alternatively. The initiator has achieved an ideal result if the recipient has assimilated the message to the extent that he becomes one with the sender. /3__/ Apprehension. is an obvious first step. or inquiry about the other person's health or personal circumstances. Managers are human beings involved with other human beings. But what we have said about the two-sided nature of communication applies here as well. /1__/ The vital four steps in effective communication might well help people to correct this distorted view of the communication process. Communication is as much a matter of human relationships as it is about transmitting facts. as it were. action on the part of the receiver should follow inevitably. As crucial as is the function of apprehension (in its positive sense as we defined it) it is not enough.what experts in this field call "noise". /4__/ Achieving apprehension is a critical part of the communication process. without any conviction. Read the following text about the types of communication and answer the questions. On the other hand. "Do you understand?" This is usually an unfair question. by Azriel Winnett Ineffective communication is a major. Often.as far as is humanly possible . obstacle to business productivity. /2__/ Attention. If assimilation has indeed taken place. making money or losing it. /0 D/ On the contrary. they are two sides of one coin. /6__/ Action. Given the will. Managers sometimes defend their inability to communicate by asking.Communicating in Business
Communicating Effectively in the Workplace: Four Essential Steps The way company personnel communicate with each other can make all the difference between efficiency and ineptitude. we must first try to eliminate . So often a good idea in business (no less than in other spheres) meets with facile acceptance or agreement.
. are related. is an effective catalyst in this process.
web sites and anything else that makes the public aware of what you do. Build the word family of the words written in bold: Top Ten Do's and Don'ts Top ten do's 1. When leaving messages. 2) computers. contact letters.
. Don't start your business without knowledge about and possession of computer tools. Vocabulary
Read the text that highlights the importance of mastering modern communication technology in business by giving advice on what to do or not do when using modern technology. you must motivate your staff through various forms of communication. telephone calls. Develop a logo to represent who you are: for stationery. 4. This type of communication includes your brochures. 6. Plan ongoing internal communications including awards. clearly and slowly repeat your name and number. they will not have the information to contact you or to purchase your products. External communication reaches out to the customers to make them aware of your product or service and to give them a reason to buy. 3.
(http://www. 2. 8. Comprehension Answer the questions:
What do you think Gwyn Myers means by being ―aware of your business‖? What ‗communication means‘ give the customer ―a reason to buy‖? What motivates the company staff?
4. meetings. your letterhead should be a selling tool. and formal and informal discussions. various forms of advertising. can be grouped into 1) basic communication tools. Use a remote Voice Mail answering system rather than an answering machine. telephone calls. 9." Gwyn Myers. your telephone message should reflect your professionalism. cards and website.org/s3/#1)
3. they must be able to contact it easily. which can include awards. You must provide the direction for the company by consistently communicating that message. When they are aware of your business. Effective communication requires tools and planning. Internal communication is essential to attracting and retaining a talented staff. Learn digital technology including use of pictures for marketing purposes.external and internal. Gain the capability to do word processing. Consider a laptop computer if your business requires mobility. Consider using an accounting software program appropriate for your business. 3. Don't overlook making regular external back-ups to computer programs. and 3) the Internet. Consider using a headset for cordless and cell phones. presentations and e-mail. Don't overlook the Internet as an important business tool. spreadsheets.myownbusiness. they are the keys to the success of your business.Business Communication Topics
Types of Communication "You can't do without communication and computers. 5. The tools that facilitate that key element of your business – communication. Management Consultant Communication is the key to any business success! Unless potential clients and customers are aware of your business. newsletters and discussions. Image is extremely important in external communication! Your logo should represent who you are. Two types of communication are essential . 2. signs. newsletters. Top ten don'ts 1. 7. 10. Use separate dedicated phone lines for your business and fax lines.
Do not turn verbs into nouns and adjectives – it weakens your writing style. Do not sign up for extended time periods on any service including phone and mobile. 8. 10. Do not spend for a top-of-line computer unless it is required in your business. articles.1. Thill 1992: 113)
5. verbs. Choose content words carefully: they carry the meaning of the sentence (e. Avoid biased language (sexist. Functional words express relations among content words and have only one unchanging meaning in any given context (e. nouns. When plans change. age or disability related). conjunctions. Choose strong words! These are the nouns and the verbs not the adjectives and the adverbs. Denotative meaning=dictionary meaning Connotative meaning=associative meaning Mind abstraction/ concreteness of the words you use. they are clear and exact. bring about Avoid Growth.g. learn Close. Pay attention to connotation and denotation.Communicating in Business
4. qualities. characteristics. Concrete words stand for something particular. Familiar Find out. Find some other examples.g.myownbusiness. adjectives. Don't fail to exercise your rights on return policies within time limits allowed.
(http://www. Use short words rather than longer ones. 5. 9. racial. prepositions.org/s3/#1)
5. Do not sign up for long term plans with Internet Service Providers. ethnic. Don't purchase more equipment than will meet your need for the next two years. and adverbs). and pronouns). concise and accurate!
Be fair and objective in content!
(adapted from Bovée. Read the following list of words and group them into two categories: familiar/ unfamiliar. 7. 6. Abstract words are concepts. increase Unfamiliar Ascertain Consummate Circumvent Increment
. be sure to request information on communication plans that more closely meet your new requirements. Use familiar words (but avoid overworked terms). Language focus
THE RIGHT WORD The two most important aspects of word choice in business communication are: Correctness Effectiveness In order to achieve these text characteristics you should pay attention to the following tips: Strategies Use functional words correctly. Don't feel an 800 number is important unless you are receiving orders by phone. Communication targets Use them correctly!
Develop your ability to choose the right content words for your message! Use terms that are low in connotative meaning! Use specific terms whenever possible! Use abstractions only when necessary!
Business Communication Topics
6. and worker. Use the following pairs of words correctly in sentences of your own. supervisor. To what extent is the ability to communicate important to the successful performance of each of them? Address the question to some other jobs you consider worth discussing.
. after you discuss the differences in meaning.
In not more than 200 words. chief accountant. Use them correctly in the appropriate context. Speaking
Take into account the following positions: company president.. …………………….
5. business consultant. describe the network of communication in an organization you are familiar with. accede – exceed accept – except access – excess allot – a lot born – borne complement – compliment correspondent – corespondent council – counsel defer – differ discreet – discrete levee – levy loath – loathe material – materiel moral – morale shear – sheer stationary – stationery waive – wave weather – whether
(selected from Bovée.
7.. 2. Find some other pairs that can be easily confused. How much personal communication should be permitted in a business organization? What companies require extensive communication and what companies require little communication? Discuss the list you have made with your colleague. Thill 1992: 613)
1. influenced by the management style of the top executives affects information flow. 6. 1. 2. highly important for the business communication? Defend your view. credibility. Bovée. Feel free to enrich the list with some other characteristics defining professional communication. ease of contact. 7. Despite the degree of abstraction or exaggeration that makes myths so fascinating. 3. 5.operational communication to transmit messages. By reading this fragment from “Ten Technical Communication Myths”. Reading
Technical communication represents one of the most important elements that contribute to the success of communication in the business environment.
2. Which of them are. 3. 4. oral/written problems conflict handling by communicating
(adapted from C. 1. J.
.II. you will re-consider the effect of communication technology and the contribution of the specialists in this domain to the development of a productive communication climate within or outside an organization. L. It is not business properly. Decide whether the following statements (1-7) are true (T) or false (F).. 1. Thill. A culture can reinvent a myth by recasting it in their own unique context. formal/informal downward/upward/horizontal internal/external influence employability (80%) perception. in your opinion. Technical communicators know that documentation is very expensive. there is often a grain of truth but no insight into some fundamental aspects of the human condition at their heart. V. It is a rule that audiences are always dynamic. Some modern communicators misinterpret the occasional rule to the point where it becomes valid for any circumstance it is applied to. Discussion
1. Business Communication Today. Professional communication is a specialized exchange of messages resulting in shared meaning. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc. There are 14 central myths in modern technical communication. 1. 2. congeniality open. Describe the key elements of professional communication mentioned in the chart above. organizational structure intercultural. but you will see that it is indispensable to the modern business world. KEY ELEMENTS OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Elements Communication chain Communication channels Communication networks Communication skills Communication effectiveness Communication climate Communication technology Communication barriers Communication crisis Indicators/qualities as direct as possible (fewer links) oral/ written. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
BASIC NOTIONS Communication is defined as an exchange of messages resulting in shared meaning. Identify the types of technology used primarily in internal and external. The things we usually do in our daily work are strongly influenced by "rules of thumb".
something important to us. but the good news about our profession's myths is that they too contain grains of truth and insights into things that are truly important to us. and many of the things we do in our daily work are strongly influenced by "rules of thumb" that are. Two of the things that fascinate me most about mythology are just how universal the themes can be and how creatively each person or culture can be in reinventing a myth by recasting it in their own unique context. or something that sheds a bright light on an aspect of our lives.. we reinvigorate them and ourselves. you can start to recognize the disabling aspects of a myth and begin taking steps to free yourself from those constraints." (par. By acting as devil's advocate. The bad news is that we've also internalized some of these myths to the point that we no longer question them and have begun to let them constrain our choices rather than to help us remember and see the truth. 3) Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important (1) Sans Serif Fonts are Always More Legible Online (2) Audiences are Static (3) Minimalism Means Keeping Text as Short as Possible (4) The Optimum Number of Steps in a Procedure is 7 Plus or Minus 2 (5) You Can Make a Bad Interface Easy to Use Through Superior Documentation (6) We Can‘t Talk to the SMEs (7) Usability Testing is Prohibitively Expensive and Difficult (8) Single-sourcing Means Dumping Printed Documents Online (9) Documentation is a Cost Center (10) (par. My hope is that each of us will find ways to answer those universal questions for ourselves by seeking out the underlying truths and building on them to create something more useful and fascinating still. consciously or otherwise. as in the myths of Prometheus and Epimetheus. or to provide cautionary tales to warn listeners against unsanctioned behavior. but despite the degree of abstraction or exaggeration that makes them so fascinating. 4) But myths aren't always invalid. All peoples have the same questions. there is often a grain of truth or an insight into some fundamental aspects of the human condition at their heart. we fancy that we've grown beyond the need for myths. and question why. There are undoubtedly others. When you pay closer attention to the rules you obey. Folklorist Josepha Sherman has observed that "Myths are attempts to explain the cosmic truths. 1) As any other profession.Business Communication Topics
Ten Technical Communication Myths by Geoff Hart Myths often represent the very human attempt to explain something important but poorly understood. (par. (par. 2) So what myths do we live by? In no particular order. 5) Each of the ten myths I've presented in this guest editorial passes this test for that idiosyncratic group of people known as technical communicators. yet "urban legends" abound (particularly on the Internet). technical communication has accumulated its share of mythical rules of thumb. they are nonetheless based on something truthful. such as the turning of the seasons. this paper presents my "top 10 list" of what I consider to be the central myths in modern technical communication. Some communicators even overgeneralize the occasional rule to the point where it loses its validity and becomes dangerously misleading. One obvious way to do this is to re-examine our current rules of thumb
. And here they are: (par.. By making the myths more relevant to ourselves. I'm hoping that I can persuade you to question these and other rules of thumb that you use daily. in a very real sense. and so all peoples have the same basic type of myths. In our current enlightened age. a form of myth.. intentionally presenting these myths in a bad light. Myths endure because no matter how much they simplify or exaggerate reality. The fascination inspired by myths has kept many alive across the millennia.
After all. or last.it gives examples that demonstrate the general idea .Professional Communication
and see how they can be refined. disabling Paragraph 4: legible. It is a unit of thought. attempt Paragraph 6: idiosyncratic. find synonyms for the following: Paragraph 1: cautionary. It involves logical thinking. misleading Paragraph 3: advocate.html#myth1)
(adapted from: http://www. invigorate. It indicates how the subject of the paragraph will be developed. depending on the writer‘s plan. dealing with some details. conjunctions) Repeated words or phrases Pronouns Words that are frequently paired
Role It contains the essence of the whole paragraph (main idea). if possible. interface dumping Paragraph 5: shed. (par.
illustration Methods to develop a paragraph comparison or contrast discussion of cause and effect
. unsanctioned.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. in the middle. The paragraph consists of three basic elements:
Elements Topic sentence
Transitional elements: Connecting words (i. insights. They make the text coherent. obey. refine
5. Explain the topic sentence. Language focus
THE PARAGRAPH The paragraph consists of several sentences all related to the same topic. They are more specific than the topic sentence.techwr-l.it presents similarities or differences among thoughts . They indicate how paragraphs and ideas are related. the thing to remember about "rules of thumb" is that thumbs bend when necessary.it focuses on the reasons of something
Explain with your own words.e. Comprehension Answer:
What is technical communication? What is a technical communicator? What are the position/ function/ role of a technical communicator in the communication diagram of an organization?
4. fancy Paragraph 2: share. overgeneralize. It can come first.
3. 2. Even in Europe the general standard of living is not bad. The sad truth is partly that Europe and North America are not the world. is not entirely a straightforward affair even in principle (the statistical problems of estimation. and coherent paragraphs! 5. choosing for each the most suitable way for the paragraph to be developed: by illustration.
(Nevin 1971: 3)
5. by classification. in America the family garage has two cars and indoors the deep-freeze contains ice cream and chicken.
(Nevin 1971: chapters 1. and shared equally amongst all the human race.it presents a problem and debates a possible solution to that problem
(adapted from Bovée. 4. Words are frequently misleading. Exchange is vital to economics. the world‘s population would still have scarcely enough food and clothing and warmth and shelter to keep itself alive. Today. sometimes downright dangerous. however. are not poor. few people die of starvation or exposure. It is also true that the relatively rich communities such as Europe and North America contain enormous pockets of real poverty. Thill 1992: 129)
DO NOT FORGET: Limit each paragraph to one general idea! Write short paragraphs (100 words or less)! Leave out unessential details! Your message should contain unified. Build a paragraph around each of the following topic sentences: Scarcity is the foundation of economics.Business Communication Topics
classification discussion of problem and solution
. Suggested connections: the issue of unemployment types of personal computers available for sale how to use a digital camera a famous company got bankrupt advantages and disadvantages of traveling on business 5. well developed. Write a paragraph on each of the following topics. Break up these sentences into shorter. of course. are very considerable) and certain pitfalls have to be avoided. television sets and cars are not uncommon. therefore. Even if all the good things of the world were placed in a gigantic common pool. Economic affairs are frequently involved with ethics. by discussion of cause and effect. and by discussion of problem and solution. more readable ones: The calculation of total expenditure. and the world is a long way yet from the day when they will be finally removed. 2)
5. it may be said. But parts of the world. each one needing food and shelter in order to do nothing more than preserve his own life. and the related sentences: The world in which we live is a desperately poor place. identify the topic sentence. and that for the majority of the world‘s population human life exists on the border between bare subsistence and extinction. by comparison or contrast. 1.it indicates the specific categories of a general idea . and in the process of avoiding them the published national income estimates become somewhat complicated because it is obvious that in calculating a country‘s national income via estimates of total
. In the following paragraph. or even the greater part of the world. three thousand million human beings crowd its surface.
organization policies. each with their own characteristics. made by one of your colleagues. Which of the systems described is better? How could the organization improve its downward communication?
. Choose two jobs you might like to have after you graduate. only purchases which provide income for someone else in the community should be included. etc. Writing
Think of an organization you are familiar with and make a list of the means used for downward communication (i. while care should be taken to see that no such purchases are excluded. Compare your list with another. What communication skills do you think would be most important to you in these positions?
6. What role does communication play in establishing their membership in each group? Give examples.).e. Employees belong to various groups. methods used by top executives to inform individuals about the organization itself. Speaking
Describe how managers use communication. employee or member responsibilities.
1. refusing. It can be: representative (statements). declaration). declarative (appointment. 1. eye behaviour. It saves time and provides opportunities for social interaction. accepting. inviting).
More reliable and more efficient than verbal communication . Bovée. collaborative (inquiring. it facilitates feedback.III.
. etc. directive (order. oral and written.In job interviews . claiming. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc. constatative/ performative (according to the theory of speech acts). quicker. It increases the sender‘s control but makes immediate feedback impossible. 2. V. spontaneous. efficient. gestures and postures. personal appearance. thanking). acknowledging.)
Less-structured. J. touching behaviour. illocutionary (content). controlled. written Letters Memos Minutes Reports
informative. It can be: locutionary (say something). 1992)
1. Add your own ideas to each of the points mentioned in it. expressive (congratulating. it often occurs unconsciously
planned. request. Discuss the table above. How can you handle emotional conflicts in business communication? Will you be able to maintain your objectivity? Discuss the topic considering the three types of communication: nonverbal. not learned. organized It is more likely to involve creative effort. spontaneous. perlocutionary (intention). Thill. persuasive. Business Communication Today. offer. more convenient than written communication. ordering.. use of time and space Supports and clarifies verbal communication verbal oral Face-to-face conversation Phone conversation Conferences Presentations Meetings Interviews Training programmes.In speech delivery
It maximizes collaboration. vocal characteristics. Easy. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
BASIC NOTIONS Types of communication Nonverbal Facial expressions.1.
(adapted from C. L. It largely has an interactive function. advice). promising (promise. etc.
ask yourself this: would you rather read well-written documentation or documentation produced by someone who can make Word 97 jump up and dance? Now ask yourself which of the two skill sets (writing versus formatting) is easier to teach. But let's assume that tool skills really are as important as some managers claim. The consequence for employers is that most experienced technical communicators have yet to encounter software we couldn't begin using productively within a day. It's not that knowing how to format is unimportant to us. but rather that I'm so average. three operating systems. or RoboHELP. Back in the Dark Ages before computers. many of my colleagues have an even more diverse portfolio of tools at their disposal. because we have that rare skill of empathizing with our audience well enough to understand that audience's needs. in my comparatively short career (not quite 15 years).) Employers hire us primarily because we can understand their products and communicate that understanding to their customers. ignores the fact that any new employee. rather. those ancients could probably teach us a few things about good writing. Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important Few managers want to hire a new technical communicator and wait weeks for the person to become productive with the company's writing tools. literally or figuratively. the period of several weeks while we adapt to our new job is more likely to pose problems than our ability to learn new software. even one who comes equipped with the desired tool skills.Types of Communication
2.Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important – from the article “Ten Technical Communication Myths” by Geoff Hart and answer the questions (1-4) by choosing the appropriate answer (A. B. and you'll know which of the two writers you should hire. Nowadays. Mastery can certainly take far longer. faces a learning curve in a new position or at a new company. and more other types of programs and applets than I care to count. all the while coping with an ever-accelerating rate of evolution in each of these software categories. None of these reasons depends strongly on the ability to work in Word. I've mastered four different layout programs.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths.
(adapted from: http://www. They hire us because we possess the ability to pry information from the grasp of reluctant Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). and decide what components of the product we must document and how we should do it. it's far less important than our ability to communicate. Hiring on the basis of "tool skills" A. advanced formatting skills are actually a red herring. few writers lack the ability to type and do basic formatting from the software's menus. FrameMaker. and these (not formatting skills) are the crucial tools that support our work. faces a learning curve in a new position or at a new company
. in many situations. and become skillful with in about a week. For example. yet hiring on the basis of "tool skills" ignores the fact that the ability to format text is a very small part of our value as technical communicators. (It also ignores the fact that any new employee. and may take weeks to learn the ins and outs of the new job. but most of what we do doesn't require that level of mastery. ignores the fact that the ability to format text is a key element that makes technical communicators valuable for the organization. the ancients did a pretty good job of documenting complex processes without these tools. because templates already exist and layout or design work consists more of applying the templates than of actively designing something new. B. even one who comes equipped with the desired tool skills. in fact. or C). Reading
Read the excerpt that describes the first myth . What's impressive about my experience is not that I'm a software prodigy. They hire us because we know how to take a product apart. All else being equal—a rare situation— choose the communicator who also knows your development tools and can use them for layout. To see the flaw in using tool skills as a primary hiring criterion.techwr-l.html#myth1)
1. and because we have the persistence to make an effort to satisfy those needs. Given that most of us have learned enough software skills to quickly develop basic to moderate competence with new software. half a dozen word processors.
of course. The crucial tools that support technical communicators‘ work are A. or any of several other 2__ or oversimplifications. Why are technical communicators needed in a company?
4. formatting skills B.techwr-l. to help them accomplish their tasks. supervisors. C. To set the record 3__. The myth that minimalism equals brevity stems from a much more interesting and complex 7__: that you shouldn't bury readers in 8__ detail. Employers hire technical communicators because A. decide which of the options A. in the right form and at the right time or in the right place.Business Communication Topics
C. The challenge. the ability to communicate 4. But many other principles play a role in this design approach either because they 5__ task orientation or because they follow from it. the "why" of graphic design rather than the "how") or writing to persuade the reader (for example. he co-wrote an article that deals with the misconceptions firmly and eloquently (Carroll and van der Meij 1996).html#myth1)
1. or D is best. An important hiring criterion for technical communicators should be A. minimalism has much to say because of its emphasis on the reader. lies in discovering what is truly extraneous. It also doesn't mean trial and error learning. 2.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. using tool skills B. they know how to advertise a product C. pure and 1__." In short. chief executives. Vocabulary
Read about another myth of technical communication: Minimalism Means Keeping Text as Short as Possible. B. for example. Yet even for such 10__ unrelated problems. There is always one correct answer. ignores the fact that a new employee takes a couple of days to learn the ins and outs of the new job 2. marketing). It's also a myth that minimalism is a one-size-fits-all solution for all communication problems because its task orientation does not make it directly 9__ to problems such as communicating theoretical information (for example. To quote Carroll and van der Meij: "The central principle in minimalism is task 4__. writing and formatting C.
(adapted from: http://www. secretaries. they can understand their products and communicate that understanding to their customers B. the minimalist philosophy involves understanding what your audience is trying to accomplish (audience and task analysis) and focusing on those needs by 6__ enough information. they have that rare skill of presenting accurately the company‘s policy in front of a demanding audience 3. For each blank (1-10). the ability to type and do basic formatting C. 3. John Carroll has been one of the leading standard bearers in the minimalism movement and no doubt has grown rather frustrated with the notion that minimalism means brevity. Comprehension
Answer the questions: Can the myth you have read about be extended to some other categories of persons dealing with the business environment? Take managers. knowing your development tools and being able to use them for layout
3. maximum simplicity. and that emphasis won't lead us far astray even when the reader's tasks are not immediately recognizable as tasks.
A clear A misconceptions A direct
B simple B conceptions B directly
C obvious C notions C straightly
D straight D terms D straight
7. thus. besides. receiver. 1. in contrast. Give your message coherence by: presenting information in logical order bridging together the information presented TRANSITIONAL DEVICES. Writing
Think of a communication experience you have had recently. the message. feedback. 6. Mind coherence of your text. Write a one-page essay about The importance on selecting positive/ negative words in a business message. present them to your colleagues and ask their help: how can you improve them?
7.Types of Communication
A orientation A help A insuring A assertion A foreign A fit A seemingly
B directive B support B assuring B discussion B outsider B matching B seeming
C direction C view C providing C asserting C lateral C applicable C apparent
D promotion D supply D offering D sentence D extraneous D correspondent D confused
5. also). Describe it taking into account the main elements communication involves (sender. 5. They indicate the kind of thought connection between following ideas (i.e.
5. in spite of. Language focus
COHERENCE Text coherence is important in a business message. 10. Evaluate your own skills in this field. the transmission channel. Speaking
Is written communication or spoken communication more susceptible to be misunderstood and misinterpreted? Verbal communication skills are very important in business. 8. Identify the transitional devices used by the author. in addition.
. however. 5. therefore. Discuss how the text from exercise 4 is organized in terms of coherence. Coherence is achieved through the use of transitions that show the relationship between paragraphs and between sentences within paragraphs. Use the same word in a sequence of sentences: it connects thoughts. any possible barriers which affected the communication process). TECHNIQUES TO TIE TOGETHER THE INFORMATION Tie-in sentences Repetition of key words Use of pronouns Transitional words Design the sentences to tie in two successive ideas. for example. 2. Pronouns connect with the words they relate to. likewise.
Read the following text about style in business communication. "I've". improve the table below: types of style/registers formal types of style (another classification) Forceful Passive Personal Impersonal Colorful Colorless key elements for a successful business style Choose a warm but businesslike tone. Spoken English contains a great many contractions such as "it's". such as "If I were you. meaning "it is" or "it has". Emphasize the positive. Establish credibility.1. (2) Another aspect of formality which is important in report writing." This type of sentence would not be used in a business letter or report. Naturally. English is different from many other languages in that its spoken form differs considerably from its written form. Identify some particular events and topics. perhaps. Have you got style? Most people connect the word style with fashion. Project the company‘s image.. you would probably use an "active" sentence. I'd relocate the factory. If you were giving advice in spoken English. for example. particularly with clothes. Style covers a variety of subjects but two aspects of style which are vitally important in business communication are formality and diplomacy. depending on the situation you are in or who you are talking to. is the use of the passive voice. are not used in written English (except. meaning "we would" or "we had". meaning "I have". When delivering speeches and presentations you have to decide on the style you will use – casual or formal. ……………………………….2. The particular way you use words to achieve an overall impression or a certain tone in your message is the style of that message. You can do that by using the right style. Read and. decide upon the appropriate style and give your reasons for the choice you‟ve made.IV. Think of a company whose employee you would like to become. In a sense. The sentence would probably read: "It is recommended that the
. These contractions. meaning "he is" or "he has". if possible. for example. COMMUNICATION STYLES
BASIC NOTIONS Composition is defined as the process of drafting a message. When composing the message you should create a tone that suits the particular situation you are referring to. used widely in conversation.
1. language too is either "dressed up" or "dressed down". "we'd". "he's". written English tends to be more formal. What do you know about that company‟s style? Could you subordinate your own style to that of the company you chose? 1. (1) Formality. They would not be used in a formal letter or report. There always exists a company style you should be prepared to adjust to as an employee. Be polite. in informal friendly letters).
7. Statements are usually softened by qualifiers such as rather. the serifs can disappear entirely.com/ps/294-6. The diplomatic use of the English language. (5) Modifying your language in this way can be a useful tactic in business dealings when you are trying to establish a pleasant cooperative atmosphere.. it's time to consider.linguarama. Vocabulary
Write questions. Speaking 1__ layout. to which these could be the answers: 1. quite. Unfortunately. somewhat.Communication Styles
factory be relocated. The use of the passive voice. English also has a unique diplomatic spoken style.g. etc. (3) Diplomacy.. However." This resolution is certainly low. "I'd like to hear your proposals". In addition to formal written style. some. though these assertions all contain a grain of truth. This rule 2__ thumb claims. For each blank (1-10). quite.. Examples of this tactful style include using I'd like instead of I want. and you should distrust any typographic studies that claim otherwise.. even compared 4__ that of the advanced 24-pin dot matrix printers we abandoned 5__ favor of laser and inkjet printers. (6) Non-native speakers whose own language is far more direct may find it odd to use such diplomatic language. e. Formality and diplomacy are vitally important in business communication. 1. somewhat. etc. For example.". Or. it is also often preferable to avoid using personal pronouns.. "all else" is almost never equal.htm)
3. even if we ignore the fact that it's possible to optimize the designs of 9__ typeface style for online display (for example. it's time to consider. 4. which typically have resolutions of between 72 and 96 dots per inch. Notice the use of would which gives a more tentative sound to a statement or question. relating to the text.". Read about another „myth‟ of technical communication. Indeed. think of the word that best fits the context. Non-native speakers whose own language is far more direct.".. For example..
4. Its spoken form differs considerably from its written form. "sans serif typefaces remain easier to read on lowresolution displays 3__ as computer monitors. particularly with people of other cultural backgrounds. they should at least be aware of its existence.. in particular. rather than "I want to hear your proposals. "Wednesday is impossible" they might say "Would Monday be more convenient?". such as I or we." In formal written English. 6. and certainly can't do justice to the fine details of many serif fonts designed for print. 5.. "That is too expensive" can become "That would be rather expensive". instead of saying "That is impossible" they say "That is not very likely". Another example is "Perhaps we should now consider. 2. line
(http://www. some. The typographic factors that can overwhelm the 10__ of serif versus sans serif typefaces include. and character outlines may even blur 6__ the variable stroke width that characterizes traditional serif fonts lends itself poorly to fixed-size pixels. in order to make the text more impersonal. An example is "Perhaps we should now consider." rather than "Now. but are not limited to: legible design. Qualifiers such as rather. Native speakers often try not to sound too direct." rather than "Now. (4) Native speakers also try to avoid giving an unnecessarily negative impression. Use only one word in each space. 3. Many factors can overwhelm the theoretical difference 7__ legibility 8__ serif and sans serif type. For example. "I don't fully agree" or "There is a slight problem". especially if they are doing business with native speakers of English. "slab" serifs hold up better than thin serifs onscreen). instead of saying.. in many business meetings and negotiations such diplomatic use of the English language can be a very positive aid to avoiding direct confrontation with your counterparts and a useful tactic. line spacing. a commonly agreed assertion is that ‗Sans Serif Fonts are Always More Legible Online‘.
Use the word given in capitals on the right to derive a word that best fits the context: It's easy to see why technical communicators are often first on the 1__ block when it comes time to trim staff: we cost a lot.
He was the best technician in his division. Tips for developing a clear style Your sentences should be clear. and readable. for. we hide away in our cubicles and write instead of 4__ others to shout our praise in the ears of upper management.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. you have to recognize its strong points. we take 3__ away from their crucial work to answer naive questions. and appropriate for the audience. That's the myth. consequently. Although you were reluctant to his long-term plan. we make all kinds of 2__ demands (such as time and money to perform audience analysis and usability testing). so. roundabout constructions. type size. etc. He is a talented speaker and he will deliver a speech tomorrow). or.g.techwr-l.html#myth1)
1.e. and unnecessary repetition of words or ideas) TYPES OF SENTENCES type Simple characteristics Subject + predicate (+nouns/ pronouns serving as objects of the action. In order to achieve these qualities consider the following: use short sentences eliminate unnecessary words and phrases avoid repetition (unless necessary) separate strung-out sentences (sentences connected by and but containing unrelated ideas i. and we produce a product that often 5__ no obvious income for our employer. word and character spacing.Business Communication Topics
width.techwr-l. accurate.g. the degree of contrast between the type and its background. avoid cluttering phrases. anyway.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. which made him famous.
(adapted from: http://www. CHOP REASON DEVELOP PERSUASION GENERATOR
(adapted from: http://www. hence etc. Language focus
THE SENTENCE Mind the rules: Clear sentences are effective sentences! Adapt your sentences to your readers/ audience! You can compose short sentences by: limiting sentence content: the shorter sentences communicate better BUT don‘t use too many short sentences! economizing on words: seek shorter ways of saying things (e.) Independent clause (one or more) + dependent clause (one or more) examples Unemployment will decrease next year. in addition. The facts can be quite different. and by modifying phrases) It consists of two or more simple sentences (clauses) that deal with the same basic idea. they are connected by co-ordinating conjunctions and adverbs (e. grammatically correct. a coma or a semicolon separates them.
. 2. and. thus.
Choose two paragraphs from the text and analyze their structure.
7.) avoid starting sentences with it and there avoid long sequences of nouns avoid cluttering phrases (uneconomical. giving them more space. 2." While there are many nuances in communication styles there are essentially five contrasts in the way we approach topics of conversation -not the content but the way in which we debate. Which style is the most appropriate for each situation? Supplementary material Read about communication styles: In addition to the nonverbal communication cues discussed.that are challenging in interactions between people from different cultures. a resignation letter or 2.e. Speaking
Style is important in establishing a successful relation sender-audience. making them the subject of the sentence
(adapted from Bovée. Find shorter substitutions for the following cluttering phrases: along the lines of at the present time for the purpose of for the reason that in accordance with in the meantime in the near future in the neighbourhood of in very few cases in view of the fact that on the basis of on the occasion of with regard to. Thill 1992: 121)
5. 5. Writing
Write 1. Knowing something about communication styles will be very helpful to you in figuring out why ―how‖ something is said is just as important as ―what‖ was actually verbalized because we tend to react to style unconsciously and instinctively. with reference to with a view to
(see Lesikar. But when we think back on an exchange which has not gone well and analyze just the words spoken. b. and c. ask questions. each in a different style and compare them with the letters of your colleague. You can do that by: a. This is referred to as "communication style.Communication Styles
avoid hedging sentences (sentences containing may/seems to avoid stating a judgment as a fact i. Flatley 1993: 54)
6. a letter of complaint for not receiving the books you ordered two months ago. Identify specific techniques of style used by the author to maximize the effect of the message. Explain and discuss your options. Petit. 1.
. placing them at the beginning/ end of the sentence. converse. Draft three letters for each of the two topics. Do you agree or disagree with that? Consider the six styles mentioned in the introductory part of this unit and find for each an appropriate business situation to fit in that particular style. and organize verbal communication. This can be one of the trickiest aspects of communication because we tend to react to different ―styles‖ immediately and emotionally. we often cannot figure out why we are so annoyed and/or frustrated. how we say things is influenced by culture. I believe that your business plan seems to indicate that you may succeed in your endeavour. too long) use active sentences rather than passive ones keep the subject and predicate of a sentence as close together as possible emphasize key elements of a sentence.
"He or she certainly has a circular style!" than. can‘t they get to the point?" Learning to deal with a new set of communication styles is part of the challenge of studying abroad. like so many of the contrast sets we have examined so far. in Spain (and much of Latin America). direct. it will add to your ability to effectively communicate with a wider range of people than you can now and significantly increase your intercultural skills. where the rubber meets the road!) Direct: Meaning is conveyed through explicit statements made directly to the people involved with little reliance on contextual factors such as situation and timing. which is often unstated because the listener will get the point after I give them all the information. indirect. linear. it is far better to say. If a new acquaintance overseas begins a long. for example. However. relationally engaged styles. There is a high reliance on context. "What is the matter with them. and attached style of communication while also being direct. people prefer a strong. and abstract in their approach. The point here is that anyone about to enter an international study abroad program is likely to encounter styles of communication which are unfamiliar and. most countries tend to prefer one or the other of the five we will examine here: Linear versus Circular = straight line discussion versus a more circular approach Direct versus Indirect = meaning conveyed by words versus through suggestion Detached versus Attached = objective presentation versus expressive style Intellectual Engagement versus Relational Engagement = discussion is about the task versus discussion is about the task and the person Concrete versus Abstract = example driven versus theory driven discussion Why Should You Pay Attention to These Differences? In this list. relational engagement. and other contextual cues. (What you see is what you get! Tell it like it is!) Circular (contextual) Discussion is conducted in a circular manner. attached. (What you get is what you manage to see!)
. Asian. which is stated explicitly. almost like an outline. to prefer linear. you‘ll know what I mean. CONTRASTING COMMUNICATION STYLES Linear: Discussion is conducted in a straight line. (Cut to the chase. It is possible that messages will be sent through a third-party intermediary. meandering story in response to a question you posed. perhaps. intellectually engaged.Business Communication Topics
Communication styles vary enormously across the globe. A fuller explanation of these styles follows below. telling stories and developing a context around the main point.) Indirect: Meaning is conveyed by suggestion. implication. If you learn to do it well. however. many African. for instance. and concrete styles of communication. and Pacific groups prefer more circular. statements intended for one person may be made within earshot of a different person. In contrast. disconcerting. Mostly. Europeans can have a combination. detached. There is a low reliance on context and a strong reliance on words. US-Americans tend to be on the left side. intellectually engaged. that is. and detached. this style allows one to avoid confronting another person or cause them to lose face. nonverbal behavior. with the connections among the points stated as you move towards an end point. (Once you have the relevant information. The French style is often abstract. Many permutations of these five styles are found worldwide.
it helps to talk things over. albeit in a non-confrontational manner. metaphors.) Abstract: Issues are best understood through theories. conveying the speaker's ability to weigh all the factors impersonally. and data. (If it‘s important. (We‘re just arguing-don‘t take it personally!)
Detached: Issues are discussed with calmness and objectivity.uop. It is important to be objective. and examples. with emphasis on the general rather than the specific. while intellectual disagreement is handled more subtly and indirectly. If you have a problem with someone. it shouldn‘t be tainted by personal bias!)
Relational Engagement: Relational issues and problems are confronted directly. (If it‘s important.edu/sis/culture/index. it is important to be treated softly. (What‘s the principle?)
Attached: Issues are discussed with feeling and emotion. (Be authentic about your feelings and respectful of other's ideas. (What‘s an example?)
. it‘s worth getting worked up over!) Intellectual Engagement: Any disagreement with ideas is stated directly. principles.htm)
Concrete: Issues are best understood through stories. This shows the passion someone feels in a situation or for an issue. with emphasis on the specific rather than the general. This is an intellectual style found in some European countries. not the relationship. In an intellectual debate. with the assumption that only the idea. allegories. conveying the speaker's personal stake in the issue and the outcome. is being attacked.
but strictly on the type of style used while speaking. Language discrimination is based on the type of style used while speaking. People talking to someone who doesn't speak exactly like them do not find it difficult to communicate with that person. communication may not be the only barrier for people. Sometimes people loose their jobs for the way they speak. 7. 3. the interview for a job (discriminatory questions) b. employment testing d. In American schools there is discrimination against children whose home language was "black English. AVOIDING DISCRIMINATION IN COMMUNICATION
Possible situations in which discrimination by communication occurs
a. A Mutual Life Insurance is related to English-speaking proficiency. However. 5."
Language Discrimination: Is it fair? by Suzanne Crisanti Language discrimination is when a person is treated differently for the way he or she speaks. 4. people who are discriminated against for the way they speak may find it difficult to get a job. This is wrong! Because of this. Discussion
Read and comment the table above. There is language discrimination in the workplace. giving/ checking references for a post c. Reading
Read the following article about language discrimination and decide whether the following statements (1-7) are true (T) or false (F). It is not based on a person's appearance. others………………
1. Communication barriers originate from social inequality. Is distorted information a source and a tool of discrimination in communication?
2.V. 2. Some people have even lost their job for the way they speak. 6. 1. See graph below:
. Can communication be discriminatory in certain situations? Explain.
ed. However. Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company): A Korean-American family sued Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company for its denial of an application related to English-speaking proficiency. It is interesting to see that if a person has trouble communicating to people living in a particular area how easy it becomes for them to make that person feel lesser when they speak. The chart above shows historical factors as being the primary cause for social inequality. the United States Supreme Court rejected this decision on the basis of the Fourteenth Amendment. The company apparently has a requirement that applicants for insurance must be English-proficient.J." The court decided that it was appropriate that the School Board take steps to help the teachers better understand and recognize the language spoken at home by the children. and even angry? This is not uncommon. Following the arrows. A question may be asked but the desired response may not be given because that person answered the question according to the way he/she understood it. The Audience
(Graph from J. which include ethnic." In Donal Carbaugh. p.
(http://www. Keith Chick (1990) "The interactional accomplishment of discrimination in South Africa. do you ever find it difficult to communicate with that person? Do you feel frustrated. Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact.. This is related to the way people treat those types of people. upset. Ann Arbor School District): The main issue in this case was alleged discrimination against children whose home language was "black English. People have different ways of communicating with others that are influenced by where they are from. Here are some examples indicating communication barriers that led to language discrimination: language discrimination in the Workplace (Meyer v.Effective Listening.)
While talking to someone who doesn't speak exactly like you. you can see how each part of the chart is related to one another. 243. the person who asked the question might think that the response was one way of dodging the question. The case resulted in a settlement. Yet.edu/Course/350-192/discrimination. There are many communication barriers that exist among various races and groups of all sorts.uwm. their application is denied.: Lawrence Erlbaum. language discrimination in the Consumer Industry (Kim v. language discrimination in Education (Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children et al. v. Hillsdale. and socio-economic factors. regional. the Nebraska Supreme Court found Robert Meyer guilty for teaching a young student a Bible story in German.html)
. N. If not. Northwestern could no longer deny people insurance because they do not speak English well enough. Nebraska): In 1919.
In each of the following (groups of) sentences (1-7). For each sentence. 5. violated the Constitution (Yu Cong Eng v. (A) On the job. 3. in particular? Why is it important for teachers to recognize the language spoken at home by the children?
Answer the following questions: How would you explain the concept of ‗discrimination‘. an employee (B) may be subjected to language discrimination if the workplace has a "speak-English-only" policy. and ‗language discrimination‘.
(http://www. that makes the sentence incorrect. language-based discrimination should be treated as race discrimination (Hernandez v. A. (Lau v. the court ruled that (D) in some cases. B. a person may be denied (C) access to businesses or government services because (D) he or she does not speak English. But (A) language discrimination doesn't only happen (B) in the job. C or D. 4. (C) especially if her (D) primar language is not English. There is always one possible answer. there are many court (C) decisions which have found language discrimination (D) to be a violation of people's constitutional rights and civil rights laws. Some courts have found language discrimination to be (A) the same like discrimination (B) based on race or national origin. the Supreme Court ruled that (A) failing to provide bilingual instruction for public school students who did not speak English effectively (B) denied them equal access to educational opportunities. and D. B. generally. 6. find the underlined part. And. For example. 7. 2. In 1974. for example. as recently as 1991. Nichols). C.Business Communication Topics
.aclunc. Language discrimination (A) means to treat someone differently solely (B) because of his or her native language (C) or other characteristics (D) of speech. and thus constituted national origin (C) discrimination under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. What is language discrimination? 1. or if she is told she does not (D) qualify for a position because she does not speak English well enough. The (A) question rises: Is language discrimination illegal? Although the (B) law in this area is still developing. Trinidad). An employee (A) may also be the victim of language discrimination if she is treated (B) less favorable than other employees because she speaks English (C) with an accent. A. there are four underlined parts. (C) As early as 1926.org/language/lang-report. the United States Supreme Court ruled that a requirement that accounting (D) records be kept in English or local dialects but not Chinese. New York).
c. You wonder who‟s to blame but do not accuse your competitors. it is his right to get it. you. = A client who needs assistance has the right to get it. Writing
Complain to the local newspaper that your firm has been discriminated by a previous article that appeared in the same newspaper a week ago.Wrong! e. Avoid words that describe disabilities.
c. Language focus
NONDISCRIMINATORY WRITING TIPS FOR AVOIDING DISCRIMINATORY WRITING Tips Do not use masculine pronouns for both sexes. juvenile etc. elderly.g. rephrase the sentence Examples a. substitute neutral expressions (he or she. The Audience
5. choose one and describe it in detail (source.
(adapted from Lesikar. one has the right to ask for it.
Avoid words indicating minorities in a stereotyped way. he/she. When assistance is needed. Flatley 1993: 38)
6. characteristics. one. ways of preventing it. make the reference plural
Avoid words derived from masculine words. When clients need assistance. elements. person) Replace these words. Find nonbiased vocabulary to replace such words. Suggestions a.
Carefully judge the use of such terms. Man-made – manufactured Congressman – representative.
Take care to the effects of your words!
Avoid words that indicate age. mature. Speaking
Name some ethical dilemmas in business communication. When a client needs assistance. etc.) Can a business report be discriminatory? Give examples. That article contained distorted data about your organization. they have the right to get it.Effective Listening. member of the Congress Businessman – business executive Italians are Mafia members – Wrong! Blacks can do only menial jobs – Wrong! …the ghetto areas of the city… . b. Deaf and dumb = hearing and speech disabled
sensing 2. importance. distraction. Make the difference: what do they want/ need to know? Anticipate possible questions.Business Communication Topics
VI. c. use devices that make the message easy to understand (summaries. overviews. Current problems audience may face: lack of time. THE AUDIENCE
BASIC NOTIONS Listening represents a vital skill in business. content listening (understand and retain the message) 2. responding types of listening 1. remembering 5. active/ emphatic listening (to understand the other person)
What type of a listener are you? Self-centered: superimpose their experience on yours.
. charts. critical listening (evaluate the information) 3.)
1. practical) a. and problem priority. graphs. handouts. Mind the quality of information (accuracy. Try to win the audience to your point of view (agreement). specificity) b. logic. Overcome them by: a convenient format of your message. Discussion
What makes you a good listener? Make a list of attitudes and qualities that contribute to effective listening and discuss them in your group of work. Defensive: they view every comment as a personal attack Good/ effective: receptive to both information and feelings. motivational. headings. Do you usually listen according to the five steps mentioned in the table below? Which of the three types of listening do you prefer? Why? 1. etc. appendixes. evaluating 4. EFFECTIVE LISTENING. How will you use your listening skills during an interview or a meeting? Is it possible to overcome language and cultural barriers simply by listening carefully? Explain. lists.
types of listeners
Does audience represent a problem for you? Explain. Profile take into account: Audience‘s size and composition (Who?) audience Reaction (How? Why?) Level of understanding (How much?) Relationship with the sender of information (What type?) needs (information. interpreting steps in listening 3.
techwr-l. There is an example at the beginning (0-E). and may even become a "power user.Effective Listening. the job's done and all you need to do is follow up with a round of usability testing to provide a reality check. more interesting products that present exciting new possibilities. these people will have become a vanishingly small component of the audience for typical software developers. the radical fringe who first adopted a product and pushed it to its maximum potential often leave to follow newer waves.
. perhaps our employers won't grant us the time and resources to cater to their needs. 20 years after personal computers began moving out of the hands of hobbyists. There is one sentence that you do not need. but this fact has significant implications beyond the need to remember legibility issues." Some of the former power users leave. leaving behind craftsmen who feel no need for such exploration. Vocabulary
Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-10) to derive a word that fits in the space. tempted away from the fold by newer. One change that is already well underway and that may be complete within the professional lifetimes of most current business people involves computer use. For most of our audience. The Audience
2. B But will they change over time? C And the cycle begins again as more neophytes pick up the product and decide it's worth learning because it's the standard. in particular. audiences insist on changing over time.html#myth1)
3. There's a myth that once you've characterized your audience through audience analysis. and that will have profound implications for how and what we document. The neophyte you devoted an entire "getting started" manual to teaching eventually grows beyond the need for this information. How else will our audience change over the next two decades? /3__/
(adapted from: http://www. Comprehension
Answer the questions: How do audiences change over time? Does the audience of technical communicators resemble in any respect with the audience of a business presentation? Will employers still hire technical communicators in future?
4. A But within one or two decades. E That's far from true.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. computers will be so familiar that they're second nature. There's already a trend in this direction. D The only way to find out will be to keep our eye on them and start assessing how their needs are changing. since manuals that begin with the words "We assume you already know how to use Windows" have pretty much driven manuals with an operating system tutorial into extinction. we must write for an audience that includes a fair number of people who are acutely uncomfortable with computers and who may be using them for the first time. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-E) to fill each gap (1-3). /__1/ I've already mentioned that our audiences are aging. /__0 E/ Inconveniently. Even today. /2__/ If they become sufficiently rare. Reading
Read about another „myth‟ of technical communication – “Audiences are Static”.
If you are 8__. Be 9__ about crossing your arms and appearing closed or critical.htm#top
5. either tell the person you don‘t understand and ask him/her to say it another way. Depending on the purpose of the 3__ and your understanding of what is relevant.) Effects goodwill effect (favourable effect) Techniques used to achieve that effect Use a conversational language (warm and natural). memos. The code may be in the form of a question. you could reflect back the other persons: account of the facts. as it is appropriate. The dictionary or surface meaning of the words or code used by the sender is not the message. Be sincere in being courteous. diagrams).
PHRASE. Avoid a cold. Place the word/phrase you want to emphasize in the beginning/end of the sentence. it may be appropriate to respond with your own message. Once you accurately understand the sender‘s message. Be empathic and 10__. When you communicate outside the organization. the person will realize it and will likely attempt to correct your misunderstanding.e. Avoid looking at your watch or at other people or activities around the room. wants. Be careful not to manipulate! Avoid exaggeration. Face and lean toward the speaker and nod your head. persuasion etc. Give the topic you want to emphasize more space. look for the feelings or intent beyond the words. hopes and 4__. Don‘t use active listening to hide and avoid 7__ your own position. proposals. You can be accepting and respectful of the person and their feelings and beliefs without invalidating or giving up your own position. or use your best guess. Inhibit your impulse to immediately answer questions. Parroting back the words verbatim is annoying and does not ensure accurate understanding of the message. Active listening is a very effective first response when the other person is angry. but also certain effects (i. Sometimes people ask questions when they 6__ want to express themselves and are not open to hearing an answer. clear. Use short sentences that emphasize the content. feelings and emotions. Language focus
COMMUNICATING EFFECTS When you communicate within the organization you usually communicate information (reports. Know when to quit using active listening. Use ―you-viewpoint‖: it emphasizes the reader‘s interests. logic presentation
emphasis determines effect
. or without agreeing with the accuracy and validity of their view. VERB ACTION EXPECT MEAN
http://www. Use eye contact and listening body language.drnadig. you communicate not only information. especially in relationships that are important to you. procedures etc. hurt or expressing difficult feelings toward you. goodwill effect. thoughts and beliefs. If you are confused and know you do not understand.com/listening. unnatural style.Business Communication Topics
Usually it is important to 1__ and use your own words in 2__ your understanding of the message. Don‘t respond to just the 5__ of the words. needs or motivation. Use mechanical devices (colour.). mostly by letter writing.
clarity and planned effect persuasion effect moderation effect (for bad news)
clear. Use adequate vocabulary! Give special care to the words/ phrases you use!
(adapted from Lesikar. Re . Our sales agents will pass all training classes. persuasion techniques Getting information about the results To assess feedback. clarity. logic presentation Pay attention to text coherence. The pupil will organize his work so that he or she can pass all classes. then do the same with your best friend.Effective Listening. presentation. Lassiter‘s diagram) Question Who? What? Elements to care about Objectives The communication antecedents Knowing the author of the message The code and the characteristics of To describe the trends of the communication message. comparing the content to a certain standard Communication process To know the aims of the sender The receiver The message and the audience The receiver Describe the communication patterns. sometimes persuasion or good will. Writing
In not more than 200 words make the profile of the ideal audience. negotiation.write the following messages trying to render an effect of accuracy. to analyze the of communication information flow
Why? To whom? How? With what effects?
6. Petit. You are supposed to deliver a speech in front of a „reluctant‟ audience. etc. They will also increase written language skills to 3rd grade level. Speaking
Make a list of various activities that may help you improve your listening skills. trade fair. a. Do the problems you have (as a listener) affect your behaviour at school/ at work/ in your group of friends?
7. 1. Flatley 1993: 73)
Read the table about sending a message according to certain goals and objectives (Harold D. consider a particular occasion (conference. Evaluate yourself as a listener. c. Discuss the changes you have made in the text to achieve your goal. Present it to your colleagues.
. b.). PR employees will increase communication skills.
main points. audience. Be logical. location Consider: goal. best order.VII. quotations. time. etc. clear
Present main point divided into: point 1. your relationship with the audience. their reaction collect materials select relevant points group common points arrange ideas in the most meaningful sequence consider ways of linking pieces of information most effectively Consider the structure of your presentation
2. Components of a presentation Pre-preparation Planning Constitutives Consider: objectives. point 2. PRESENTATIONS
BASIC NOTIONS Definition: A presentation is a prepared talk given by a speaker (the transmitter) to one or more listeners (the receivers)
1. expectations. The structure of a presentation introduction Elements Greeting Introduce yourself (if necessary) Introduce your talk (subject of your speech) Action Gain attention Opening possibilities: human interest. coherent. etc. questions. humour. Emphasize transition between parts Invite questions (if necessary) Restate the subject Summarize main points Draw a conclusion
Call for action
etc. silence. age. friendliness) 3. lack of vocal emphasis.Communication and Recruitment
3. audience reactions: facial expressions. humour. uses notes. Classic (one person presentation) 2.) Vocabulary grammar pronunciation fluency logic never forget the audience Let them ask questions or make comments (feedback)
delivery of information
use of language
care for the audience
4. manner of walking. use the type of visual that communicates the information best. linguistic techniques (sentences. Petit.) 2. diagrams. Flatley 1993)
Types of presentations: 1. personal appearance. unpleasant voice) 6. lack of variation in speed. non-linguistic techniques 4. Use of visuals (select visuals carefully. Determination of the presentation method 2. thoroughness. sincerity. technical support (slides. movements. make the visuals points of interest in your presentation)
(all tables adapted from Bovée. questions) 5. education. The oral report (an oral presentation of a factual information) Tips for effective speaking: organize your speech logically target your speech to a clear conclusion adapt your language to the audience pronounce clearly
. audience features 3. Be careful with your appearance and physical actions (communication environment. etc. handouts. knowledge. Elements of an effective presentation organization of information Targets structure transparency content organization information level 1. Use of voice (avoid: lack of variation in pitch. image (formal/informal. transparencies. Consideration of personal aspects (confidence. Presentation making Presentation techniques Extemporaneous: thorough preparation. rehearsed Memorizing Reading Presentation strategies 1. noises) 4. Team (collaborative) presentations 3. Audience analysis (audience characteristics: size. facial expressions. gestures) 5. voice. relaxed/ high powered. posture. Thill 1992 and Lesikar.
usually because they strongly disagree with your message. F If someone denounces something that you have said. The real point of reading signals from your audience is that it can help you to judge who you have on-side. which does not belong in any gap. talking round those that can be swayed. Discussion
What kind of presentations have you delivered during your school years? Analyze yourselves as effective speakers. B It was recommended earlier that you planned your presentation to have a question and answer session at the end. Have your personal characteristics influenced your presentations?
2.even during the planned question and answer session. D A good presentation can be ruined by a poor question and answer session. Audience interaction Focusing Your Message for Maximum Impact /0 E/ Your message and the material with which you are communicating it should have been carefully prepared and radical changes will almost certainly not be practical. otherwise you will appear unsure of what you are saying. There is an example at the beginning (0 E). G Another thing that can prove invaluable is to know how to recover when a joke has failed. H When answering questions do so by speaking clearly and confidently. whilst keeping your supporters with you and trying not to alienate the opposition. avoid getting into an argument with them. and delivered a clear and concise introduction. E Recognizing both positive and negative signals from audience interaction during presentation should not change your planned presentation fundamentally. taking a drink of water and regaining eye contact with supportive members of the audience the presenter has managed to compose herself once more. K However by pausing. There is one extra sentence. M Humour should be carefully used in a presentation. one that just sits inert and will not show any interest in taking part .
. One or more members of your audience may attempt to disrupt your presentation. This should help you to focus your message where it can have maximum impact. The topic sentence in each paragraph has been removed. Reading
Read about Audience Interaction.Business Communication Topics
speak correctly maintain a vivid attitude use body language to best advantage be relaxed and natural keep eye-contact be calm support your presentation with visuals keep your temper
1. L Consider an example where the presenter has started well. Choose from the list (A-M) the best sentence to fill each of the blanks (1-11). C The use of humor in presentations is a difficult area. I You may be facing an unresponsive group. who is opposing your point of view and who has yet to decide. Learn to recognize how this disruption may manifest itself and you will be better equipped to cope with it. J You may face questions that are unanswerable. A The keywords when dealing with disruption are to be polite but firm. never lose your temper or your cool.
Step forward so that you are confidently asserting yourself as the center of attention and then deliver the summing up with confidence and authority. However. For example you could say ‗Now to sum up briefly before I answer your questions‘. Ideally it will represent about 10 per-cent of the overall presentation. In summary. You must be confident that any jokes you include do not offend or embarrass any members of your audience . However.right at the start. a badly executed joke.as this will represent negative audience interaction during presentation. Try to analyze these sort of events as they occur and respond. should be strong and clear but not protracted. if you were a sales manager trying to explain to your sales force the attributes of your competitors you might draw parallels with popular family pets . but if this fails to work then politely request that the point is discussed later at the pre-planned question and answer session. if it was based on your personal opinion then don‘t attempt to pass this off as factual . or summing up.but once again this is a skill that takes a lot of self-confidence and practice. Attention seekers may make silly or sarcastic comments simply to get themselves noticed. Good comedians work with timing. Unless you are using visual-aids make sure that they are switched off to avoid them causing a distraction during your conclusion. if you are using humor make sure it is a medium that you are familiar with. There is an increasing trend towards actually opening presentations with a joke . in order to create a memorable statement.so always plan to finish strongly. Never get into an Argument /3__/ If you enter into a shouting match with a heckler then they win and you lose. /4__/ If your point was based on fact then make this clear and present the evidence. The last impression you make with the audience will be the lasting one and the last words that you say may be the best remembered . Timing is a critical aspect of using humor effectively.and if you carry it off it can be an excellent way of creating a rapport with the audience. check the appropriateness of the content. Use a combination of pauses. The Question & Answer Session
. It may be a good idea to announce that the end is near . /2__/ Often this can be done just by pointing out the flatness of the failed joke . intonation and other verbal techniques . Losing Your Presentation /5__/ This will enable you to deliver your message and then end strongly with a clear and concise summing up before entering the relatively unpredictable area of tackling questions from the floor. Try to approach the point of contention from any common ground that you share. For example. Aim to reiterate the main points from your presentation. and practice setting up the punch line. then you may be safer using an analogy. The use of pacing. who may then swing against you.as this nearly always reflects badly on the presenter. whilst other members of your audience may respond unwittingly to a rhetorical question that you pose .from a loyal dependable unimaginative Labrador to a small tenacious hyperactive terrier to a large aggressive and dominant Rottweiller.Communication and Recruitment
Use Humor Carefully /1__/ On the whole humor is seen as a positive thing . perhaps with humor or support but don‘t try to put people down . or simply the wrong joke can create erect an insurmountable hurdle .it is your presentation and therefore your opinion should be worth expressing. this can liven up a presentation and help the audience to remember your key points. If you are tempted to use humor because the content of your presentation seems a little dull.but its all down to the way it‘s delivered.such as alliteration. Done with care.as this can refocus the attention of any members of the audience who are beginning to suffer from listening fatigue. It is vital you don‘t let disruptive members of the audience derail your presentation . Always remember that what is underlying the point of contention may be a genuine concern and that if you try to brush it aside it is likely to be taken up by other members of the audience.you are working to a tight schedule so don‘t get involved in protracted discussions. time and pauses are all important when telling jokes. rehearse it well and have a contingency plan in case it falls flat. Your conclusion.simply because they weren‘t paying full attention.
Business Communication Topics
It was recommended earlier that you provide your audience with a protocol in the introductory phase of your presentation; to include such elements as the timing of the question and answer phase. This is often best dealt with at the end of the presentation, just before your final summing up. /6__/ Conversely a mediocre one can be saved by a confident final session. The key to being confident in dealing with questions is preparation. When you have finished drafting your presentation read through it carefully and note any questions that it is likely to raise, and prepare answers to these in advance. This is the time to focus on any areas in which your message is short of facts or vulnerable to being challenged - in this way it is usually possible to anticipate most questions that are likely to arise. This analysis will also help you to prepare one or more lengthy answers in advance for questions that you are sure will be raised. /7__/ You may think that the obvious conclusion to draw is that they have no interest in what you are saying. However it is equally likely that you are just facing an unresponsive group, this may be due to the character types within it or the intra-group politics. If your presentation has a chair then the chairperson should intervene and ask some initial questions in an attempt to involve your audience. /8__/ Do not let nerves draw you into responding hastily, always think about your answer before you speak and if necessary refer back to your notes in order to answer a question. If the question requires clarification then ask the questioner to do this, rather than risk answering a question that wasn‘t asked. When answering, address the entire audience and not just to the questioner, and avoid getting into a protracted debate on any point that is raised - you may offer to see a questioner after the presentation to continue a point that is of specific personal interest to them. /9__/ These may be posed by people who are hostile to your message or by those just wishing to make a point. If you feel unable to answer a question you may find it useful to have a standard reply ready in order to reduce its impact on your presentation. Here are some examples that you may find useful: ―I'd rather not answer that here and now, but if you see me after the session I will take your details and get back to you as soon as I‘ve checked some facts‖. ―Let me think about that for a minute, can we come back to it later? Next question please‖. ―I don‘t think that the information necessarily supports either view definitively. However my personal opinion is that…‖. Regaining Control During a Presentation /10__/ However early into the main body of the presentation she became confused about where she was in relation to her cue cards, nerves set in and subsequently she lost the attention of the audience. At this stage the presentation could have degenerated into chaos, which is what would happen if control was not regained. /11__/ She followed this by telling a joke at her own expense, and then firmly re-established her position in the presentation by summing up the main points made so far. Following this her confidence returned and the presentation proceeded well, with the help of smooth running audio-visual aids and some well researched but spontaneously delivered examples. The presentation ended with a clear and memorable conclusion and the question and answer session was also well managed. The overriding impression was of a professional and successful presentation. This example illustrates a key point - that if the presenter can remain calm and composed and deal with situations as they arise then they should be able to stay in control, hold the interest of the audience and make a successful presentation.
Explain and find synonyms for the words written in italics in the text above.
Here are some phrases you can use during a presentation. Practice them in short presentations in your work group.
Communication and Recruitment
INTRODUCTION Good morning/afternoon/evening ladies and gentlemen/ colleagues. My name is… and I am… I would like to say a few words to you about…/ I would like to talk to you about…/ I would like to explain to you the operation of…. I will take about 20 minute of your time. I aim to talk to you for about… minutes. This will take about… I have divided my talk into three main parts. The subject may be looked at under four main headings. During my talk I‘ll be looking at two main areas. If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt. I‘ll be glad to try to answer your questions at the end of my talk. To start with, I‘d like to consider… LINKING SENTENCES: First of all, I‘d like to look at… Those are the main points on… That‘s all I have to say about… Now we have looked at/ dealt with… Now let‘s turn to…/ move on to… I‘d like now to consider/examine… Next we come to… Turning now to… Let‘s move on now to… The next point I‘d like to make is… As I said at the beginning I told you a few moments ago that… In the first part of my talk I said… As I have already said… As I mentioned earlier… I‘ll come to that later. I‘ll return to this point in a few minutes. I‘ll talk about this in the next part of my presentation. I‘ll comment on this in my conclusion. CONCLUSIONS So now, I‘d just like to summarize the main points. In brief, we have looked at… That‘s all I have to say for now. I think that covers most of the points. That concludes my talk. Thank you for your attention. GETTING FEEDBACK And now, if you have any questions, I‘ll be glad to answer them. Does anyone have any questions? Any questions?
5. Language focus
ASKING FOR AND GIVING OPINIONS Study the following tables and try to improve their content with some other expressions:
Business Communication Topics
Giving opinions Degree of intensity Strongly Expressions I‘m convinced/ sure/ positive that… I strongly believe that… I have absolutely no doubt that… I definitely/ certainly think that… I really do think that… I really feel that… In my opinion… As far as I am concerned… According to… I think/ consider/ feel that… I believe that… As I see it, … To my mind… From my point of view… I‘m inclined to think that… I tend to think that… Asking for opinions Intensity of manner Strongly Expressions Do you really think that…? Do you really believe that…? Are you absolutely sure/ convinced/ positive that…? Don‘t you think that…? Do you think…? Do you believe that…? Do you consider that…? Am I right in thinking that…? Would I be right in thinking that…?
(see Brieger, Sweeney 1994: 186)
Present some advantages and disadvantages of getting feedback during a presentation. Discuss some good and bad techniques of using visuals. Make a presentation to a hypothetical group of investors that may help you begin a new business.
Prepare outlines for the following speaking situations: a five-minute talk to 15 workers that must improve the quality of their work. A 10-minute informative presentation to a group of high school pupils interested in attending the Faculty of Economics A 20-minute sales presentation to a 5-member group of top executives interested in ordering some of your products.
What they actually say. they may make a reply. through to a serious misunderstanding. Therefore we have: 1. C Creating and delivering an effective presentation require a basic understanding of the communication process. giving: 1. and that if anything goes wrong consequently then the responsibility for that must rest with the recipient. Once you have the attention of the audience the communication of the message can begin.with a view to providing some guidelines that should help to promote more effective two-way communication. B The most important thing to remember is that the message that you intend to communicate is likely to be misunderstood. Ensure that your audience are tuned in and paying full attention to what you are about to say. Six Steps in Effective Communications Let‘s examine each of the six steps in slightly more detail . 3. As a result of what a recipient hears. 2. None of these are necessarily the same and three chances already exist for a breakdown in communication. What the presenter thinks they say. This is often done in the light of individual attitudes and prejudices or alternatively with reference to previous experience or associations. Each recipient will have some feeling about the message and will interpret its meaning. 2. 3. A presenter speaks to an audience. The Communication Process. Discussion
How do cultural differences affect a presentation making?
2. You have now become the receiver. Choose the suitable topic sentence for each paragraph.
. The topic sentence has been removed from some paragraphs. This screen highlights six steps that constitute a typical two-way communication. What the audience thinks they say. 5. 3.Communication and Recruitment
INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS 1. A As you can see. Each recipient listens to the message. What they actually say. What they think they say. 1. and should listen carefully to the message. It is human nature to assume that when we communicate we are doing so effectively. What the presenter thinks they say. Delivering effective presentations /1/ Most business presentations require the clear and unambiguous communication of a message in a way that can be clearly understood by the recipient. 4. Reading
Read the text about how to deliver an effective presentation. Each recipient may respond to the original message. The result may range from a simple failure for the message to hit home. and when the opportunities for miss-communication are considered you may view it as surprising how often communication works without a problem. communication is a complex two-way process. 2. Your problem is that the audience may not feel and interpret in the way that you intended.
B. Communication is a skill and like any skill it requires practice.to minimize the chance of misunderstandings. Just start strong and confident. Got a good metaphor? Use it. The problem is bad content delivered poorly. Thank you. Much more powerful and memorable. This is really hard.getahead-direct. Comprehension
Explain how a breakdown in communication can occur. You will feel and interpret something about this message. Rather. Do not get up there and say. People could care less about the five ways some XML vocabulary will enable enterprise whatever. it should be apparent that there is a need for clarity and simplicity .Business Communication Topics
6. correctly interpreted and filed in the receivers mind. I appreciate your attention today. or that a staff person spilled a pitcher of water. I guess we should probably get started. If nobody asks anything. ". because you just told them you were done. For each blank (1-10). End strong too. keep it to yourself. 8__ the uncomfortable
. and thank you so much for coming to my session. It's really great to be here.com/gwpr01-presentation-skills-training. Seriously.. say.. Besides. Then say the Web is like that. to continually check that your message has been received. /3/ Therefore in addition to carefully preparing and presenting your message. "The Web is like a school of fish. Only one answer is correct and there is always one correct answer. the presenter. Make it a slide. "Um. Vocabulary
Read about the Seven Steps to Better Presentations. put a screenshot of your project up. Today. Skip it. How can a message be distorted?
4. decide which of the options A. Also. we're going to talk about. Tell stories. It is improvement through practice that differentiates a skill from other forms of knowledge. I'm Jeff. ask them if they have any questions. or if something occurs 5__ you as a mistake during the presentation. They'll never know. well.so that's why I like social software. No need for a joke or an opening or any of that.com and type in "sardines" or "school of fish" or 4__." Instead. Seven Steps to Better Presentations I've noticed a lot of talk about Powerpoint lately. or the fact that your mic just popped off your lapel. by Jeffrey Veen. Here are some notes I wrote up for someone who is 2__ to give his first ever public presentation. This may range from satisfaction that the communication is proceeding as you intended. Don't apologize.google. Understanding the theory of communication and effective presentation will not in itself make you a brilliant communicator or presenter but should make you aware of how to maximize the impact of your presentations. About how it's so terrible and how it 1__ awful presentations. It is up to you. to bewilderment at how your original message was missinterpreted. Commiserating is fine. C. I'll be able to see my breath!" Start strong.
(http://www. Ever. and hear lots and lots of presentations at the conferences I attend. because you know the whole backstory. With the complexity apparent even in a simple communication. If something is out of order. nobody cares about the presentation itself." Make sure those are the absolute first words you say out 7__. When they've finished. stay alert for any signs that your audience is misinterpreting it. or D is best. "Hi. I speak for a living.htm)
3. Everyone will clap." Then stand there and wait. understood. you don't need to apologize about the color on the projector. /2/ This is why it so often breaks down and is ineffective. I can't believe how many presenters forget this.." But go to images. That's do not go from bullet-point slide to bullet-point slide trying to tell people what to think. tell people what you learned 3__ doing it. "If it 6__ another 5 degrees colder in here. But the problem isn't Powerpoint. and you'll be tempted to explain why something isn't quite perfect. however. Show pictures... of course. then give them a slide that reiterates those ideas in easy to digest bullets.
. One member of the group will make a short presentation of a product he/she has bought lately. Stand. saying one thing from over here.) I think X is bankrupting this corporation for the next ten years. Sweeney 1994: 188)
NOTE Make the difference: to agree with (someone/something)// to agree to (something) // to agree to do something // to accept something
6.... timed with my points.. Speaking
Work in groups..two. but… I‘d accept that. "You know what I think? (pause..three. Type Agreeing with someone Agreeing to something Agreement I totally agree with you I totally accept that I fully/ completely agree I fully/ completely agree I‘m in total agreement with you there I‘m in favour of that Partial agreement Up to a point/ To a certain extent I‘d Up to a point/ to a certain extent agree with you. But don't move too much. Study the table and use the phrases in a conversation with the topic Facing cultural diversity in negotiations.. I guess I told you everything you need to know then.veen. [heh heh] I'll be around after if you think of anything."
(http://www. (pause.com/jeff/archives/000483. Writing
Draft the plan of a presentation you have to make in front of a group of investors willing to finance a student project about the environment protection.
..) Here's why. Thanks again!" and start packing up your stuff..three. and another from over there.four. Away from the podium. Pause. leave a gap 10__ it. I pace a little bit around the stage. but… That may/ might be right. but… Disagreement (I‘m afraid) I can‘t agree with you (I‘m afraid) I can‘t accept that I don‘t agree I don‘t accept that
(see Brieger. When you say something important. Out from behind the presenter table..
7. Take off your conference badge (the lights will catch it and be distracting). The other members of the group will make comments about the accuracy of the presentation they have just listened to.two.. Keep your hands 9__ of your pockets. Let it hang there for a few seconds. but… You may have something there but… That may be so..four..html)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A creates A on A while A whoever A with A gets A louder A disrupt A out A following
B enables B ever B in B whatever B about B makes B loud B interrupt B of B ending
C produces C aloud C from C what C to C becomes C in loud C stop C off C after
D imagines D about D about D alike D by D rises D loudly D break D outside D besides
Language focus AGREEING AND DISAGREEING Distinguish between: agreeing with someone // agreeing to something.. but… You could/ may be right....Communication and Recruitment
silence with "Well. Try it when talking to your friends.
C . interview). Consider the steps you have to take. Consider the following questions: What would you enjoy doing every day? What type of corporate culture best suits you? What type of organization do you want to work for? 1.develop a strategy for selling yourself . the activities you should perform and the skills you may be required in applying for a job.use correct business vocabulary . H .attend the interview . What speaking skills should you have in order to perform well during a job interview? 1.
1. Do you have suggestions of your own to improve the table below? Essential use of communication in recruitment activity steps the job search activities . 1. Reading
Read about the importance of words at the place of work. …) 2. Skills for the position you apply for: . ………………… .VIII.apply for an interview .Credible communicator.use correct grammar .list your best prospects for employment (build a network of contacts) . 2.Credibility Assessment.Your Word Represents You.e.assessment ability .education and experience . great with people.
2. A . F .Communication truthfulness. outgoing. G . CV.personal characteristics (i.write the application letter (cover letter) skills required .functional skills (leadership.speaking and writing skills . D Say ‗No‘ when Necessary.Importance of Words You Say
1. Discuss the importance of each of the stages you have to pass through in order to get a job (jobinquiry letter. Give each paragraph (1-8) the appropriate title from the list below (A – H). 3. COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT
BASIC ELEMENTS Read about the essential use of communication in recruitment activity.Tell the Truth. aggressive. articulate. application letter.write your CV (resume) . E . Skills for the interview and the written documents you have to produce .………………………………. speaking ability.analytical and synthetic judgment .creative thinking …………………………………… ……………………………………
the interview the job application
1.analyze your work skills and qualifications .Opportunities to Earn Your Credibility. B .
3). Whenever you defend the honor of co-workers who aren't present. Workplaces provide ample opportunities for you to earn credibility. 2). ageism or favoritism. exposure (par.hodu. 2. the department of the company at large. Similarly. Your CV's assertions should be accurate. a safe confidante. Every time you make a deadline. 6. 7. your forecasts realistic and your word solid. One of the keys to success in the workplace is engendering trust from your co-workers. Say "no" when this is the right answer. it's important that there be credence to your claims. http://www. You do everyone a disservice if you falsely accuse or ascribe such motives to actions that otherwise occur. but a person who is a "straight shooter" is respected by all. Conversely. agreeing to something you ultimately can't deliver on is detrimental to your reputation. Gossiping about others or spreading falsehoods or even half-truths can flag you as dangerous. forthright (par. Strive to boost your credibility rating at work and in your professional relationships. Be cautious of assertions made about others. The credible communicator doesn't just tell people what they want to hear. even though it may not be the popular one. If you are gossiping or betraying confidences you destroy your own credibility as an honorable co-worker.
(adapted from Craig Harrison. your credibility rises. 5. Sometimes the truth isn't popular or pretty. 1). have confidence in your projections and feel secure in their knowledge you're on the team. ignore or minimize their folly. Life would be easy if we could say "yes" to every request we received. People listen to what you say and how you say it. you can lose your job and damage your career immeasurably when you lie. Over the long term. when you "say the right thing" or "do the right thing" in ethical situations your credibility is enhanced. do what you say you'll do or are there in a time of need for others. In every job situation you have the opportunity to become known as a person of his or her word. your chronology factual and your affiliations. Everyone makes mistakes. often compounding the error of their ways. Whether or not you are "found out" during the interview process. 3. for telling people what they want to hear. decisions and determinations. you will be respected for the accuracy of your assessments. Often employees fall down when it comes to admitting mistakes. Whether or not you're a manager. refuse to engage in gossip. You'll know you're succeeding when you hear others tell you they know they can count on you. your words carry a weight to them that affects others. sexism. You have to be credible when you apply for a job. which raises your credibility in the workplace. than that you fixed it and can assure others it won't happen again. it's less important that you made a mistake. the credibility counter is activated. You're also susceptible to blackmail when you lie and are then threatened with exposure. Whether you cry racism. untrustworthy and ultimately unpromotable.Communication and Recruitment
Explain the meaning of the following words in the context above: Track record (par. Credibility in the workplace means that people believe what you say because your reputation is based on a track record of telling the truth. From the moment you submit a résumé and then interview for a job.5. you can become known for shading the truth. or caution others to give co-workers the benefit of the doubt. 4). misstate or misrepresent your accomplishments. Ultimately.shtml)
3. 8. or parsing words as a defendant might do under cross examination in a court of law. you are showing wisdom and professionalism. and an ally. restoring confidence in him or herself. parse (par. even if the news isn't music to the ears of all who listen. yet the credible communicator can address them and go about rectifying them. 4. degrees and awards correct.com/business-communication. 6)
. The credible communicator can admit errors or mistakes in a forthright and direct manner. Those lacking in credibility might try to cover up. Your estimates have always been accurate. Yet realistically. engender (par.
Making a good 5__ at a job fair may give your resume or 6__ added weight. SEEK ATTEND INFORM RECRUIT IMPRESS APPLY. or. You know that before attending a fair. it depends on a main clause. both…and. no matter how Correlative conjunctions: either…or. as soon as. 2. as long as.txt)
5. Language focus
CONJUNCTIONS Simple: and.gsa. why
Observations ANY TENSE can be used in a relative clause. and size up jobseekers. Career centers. that. 4__ staff booths and answer questions.
Introduced by: Relative pronouns: Who/whom/whose Which/of which (whose) That Relative adverbs: when. The 7__ tips can help you make the most of any fair. not so…as. accept resumes. so that. are face-to-face meetings between 1__ and employers. review the business bulletin board at your school or local library. whether…or. defining relative clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence by providing necessary information. besides etc. therefore. notwithstanding. check the employment section of the newspaper. associations. But you have to find the fair. Complex: as if. and private companies organize job fairs. where. Ask a career counselor. if. Job fairs. non-defining relative clause provides extra information and is not essential to the meaning of the main clause. as well as on condition that. why.pueblo. At a fair. They are one of the easiest places to find good job leads. and search online via an Internet job fair 10__. however. Find the fairs in your area by looking 9__ they might be announced. in case that. not only…but also.
. jobseekers gather 3__ about a company to help them decide if they want to apply for a job. provided that. as though. Compound: although. Bring several copies to the fair.Business Communication Topics
Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-10) to derive a word that fits in the space. otherwise. Every employer 2__ is there to hire one or more workers.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. no sooner…than. like interviews. neither…nor. since. Leave at least one with every company that seems promising. even if. but etc. when. not…but. you should prepare a resume. FOLLOW GOVERN WHERE
(http://www. as…as. though…yet
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES The subordinate clause cannot stand by itself as a sentence. Main types of subordinate clauses
Relative/ adjective clauses (modify a noun or a pronoun)
Type 1. distribute brochures. State and local 8__. in order that.
for. owing to. since. wherever (exactly) as. providing. when. once. in order that. what if. on the grounds that. seeing that. consequently. in order (not) to. on condition (that). (Nevin 1971: 71)
. for fear/lest. that the utility derived from consumption will vary as between different commodities and different people. so as (not) to. with the aim of. but. in case. than. with a view to. provided (that). for. even if. while. or else. as long as. nevertheless. no matter what. whenever. on the other hand. now that. the moment (that). where. whereas. however. etc. after. suppose. because of. and that in general the additional utility derived from any commodity by any one person diminishes as his rate of consumption rises. just as. etc. so that. no matter how if. therefore. (just) as As. in view of. avoid. It has been seen that people desire goods and services because they derive utility from them. supposing that. (Nevin 1971: 49) Labour must be regarded as a very special agent in production. prevent that. etc. while. in spite of (the fact)/ despite. the reason for. whatever. as long as. however. the reason why. otherwise. so.Communication and Recruitment
Adverbial clauses (take the place of an adverb)
Cause or reason
as. due to the fact that. as if. for fear of. because. only if
Clauses of purpose follow the rule of the sequence of tenses ―that‖ is preceded in the main sentence by the following correlatives: such a (n)…/ so… The time clause requires a present instead of a future.
Place Manner (the adverbial clause of comparison) Concession/ Contrast
Structures that require a clause of concession: Adjective/adverb + as + subject + verb Adjective/adverb + though + subject + verb
Condition (if clauses)
Read the following paragraphs and identify the type of subordinate clauses they contain and the words they are introduced by. since. unless (if…not). before. with the result that. by the time. as soon as. since (unlike land and capital) it is inseparable from the personality of its supplier. as though although/though/even though. yet. but for + gerund/ noun. in case. till/until. every time. (and) as a result/ consequence.
Business Communication Topics
The concentration on the productive activities of human beings. Describe the situation in detail and stress the communication situations that put you into a bad light. rather than discount the bills themselves and so enjoy the profits otherwise made by the discount houses. should not be taken to imply a belief that this is the only aspect of human economic activity with which the economist need be concerned. Writing
Write an article for a newspaper in which you complain that you have suffered discrimination at the job interview you attended. Speaking
Identify particular business situations in which a certain type of subordinate is mostly used to create a well-aimed effect.
7. Bring arguments in favour of your opinion. (Nevin 1971: 317)
6. (Nevin 1971: 71) It may be asked why the banks should lend money to discount houses. which is called labour.
1. try to identify the job title used by the organization. Make your goal clear. stimulate interest. 5. Or you may want to open by referring to the company's product. The following are some tips to help you develop effective application letters. and be appropriate to the job you are seeking. phone the organization and ask for the person's name or at least the name of the personnel manager. Your introduction should get your reader's attention. the person you write to should be the individual doing the hiring for the position you're seeking. WRITING EMPLOYMENT DOCUMENTS THE APPLICATION LETTER 1. for example: "your advertisement for a graphic artist. Cover letters (letters of application). Draft your letter to show how your individual qualities can contribute to the organization. If you're prospecting for a job. For example. Additionally. Sometimes the writer chooses to describe particular experiences and skills that could not be generalized to most other recent graduates. you may want to begin with a reference to an advertisement that prompted your application. 2006. Look for this person's name in company publications. If you're answering an advertisement. which you want to promote. This is your letter. Such a reference shows your knowledge of the company. If the name is unavailable in these places. May 15. Give your readers some insight into you as an individual. Your application letter is one of your most important job-search documents. Cover Letters: How to Sell Yourself 1. try to begin where your reader is and lead quickly to your purpose in writing. name the position stated in the ad and identify the source. Reading
2. An effective letter can get you a phone call for an interview. Instead. Organize the middle paragraphs in terms of the qualifications that best suit you for the job and the organization. discuss it in detail and show how you can apply it to the needs of the company. . Or if you were president of the Marketing Club
. 2.". Preferably. which appeared in the Chicago Sun Times. That is. if your on-the-job experience is your strongest qualification. The difference can be a matter of how you handle a few key points. Discussion
How do you think companies find new employees? How do job seekers find work?
2. but a poorly written application letter usually spells continued unemployment.. Also refer in the last sentence of the first paragraph to specific work experience that can be detailed in the following paragraph.IX. Read the following text and find for each paragraph a suitable title. This tells your reader what to look for and lets him or her know immediately how your qualifications fit the requirements of the job. 4. Such a reference makes your reason for contacting the company clear and indicates to them that their advertising has been effective. Whatever opening strategy you use. so avoid simply copying the form and style of other letters you've seen. in your first paragraph you should provide a preview of the rest of your letter. 3. strive to make your letter represent your individuality and your capabilities. you may decide to adapt the professional objective stated in your resume. If a specific position title isn't available or if you wish to apply for a line of work that may come under several titles.. 6.
Make your letter strong enough to convince readers that your distinctive background qualifies you for the job but not so long that length will turn readers off. Be specific. can be enough. We are currently looking for 4 engineers who have experience in C++ and DSP for integration with our clients systems/chips.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2. Experienced and trainee positions available. You will be replying to customer queries efficiently and effectively in writing either by e-mail. preferably a Msc. Addressing a Specific Person. fax or letter using personal judgment and initiative to investigate customer requests and ensure timely fulfillment of orders. Extract from each the job requirements and the skills they are looking for and decide which best fits your career objectives and qualifications. and mechanics. Conclude with a clear. described so that the reader can picture you actively involved on the job. 2. e. grammar. style. If special projects you've done apply directly to the job you are seeking.
(http://www. One strong qualification. and suggest a procedure for doing so. elaborate on the valuable experience you gained and how you can put it to work for them. explain them in detail. You will maintain accurate task analysis records and ensure the database is correctly updated for all communications and transactions. for example. 1. Refer to your resume. Be specific about how your reader should contact you. The successful applicant will be educated to GCSE level or equivalent and have excellent keyboard
. d. Read the following job advertisements. Individualizing Your Letter. Make sure your letter is professional in format. highly responsive team. Seek advice. organization. It's always good idea to prepare at least one draft to show to a critical reader for comments and suggestions before revising and sending the letter. Highlighting Your Qualifications. If you have two or three areas that you think are strong. Other Tips. Some employers recommend a maximum of four paragraphs.
(http://www. The date and place for the interview should be convenient for the interviewer. or features of the project that may apply to the job you want.com/IT/England/Job/18860/)
2.ukworksearch. Be sure to refer to your enclosed resume at the most appropriate point in your letter. Be professional. First Paragraph Tips 2.io. courteous request to set up an interview. As it is a client facing role you must have a good personality & also your minimum academic qualification must be a Bsc (min of 2-1 but ideally a 1st). Maintain a courteous tone throughout the letter and eliminate all errors.
(http://www. 7. You can then refer your reader to your resume for a summary of your other qualifications. a. Maya and photoshop all an advantage. in the discussion of your qualifications or in the closing paragraph. give your phone number and the days and times of the week when you can be reached. Artists wanted for games industry. Catching Your Reader's Attention. g. you can develop additional paragraphs. you're welcome to suggest a range of dates and places convenient to you. names of equipment you've used. f. Use numbers. Job Advertisements.com/IT/England/Job/27076/)
3. Please supply sample of work with CV. b.Business Communication Topics
and you are applying for a position in marketing or sales. especially if you travel at your own expense or have a restricted schedule.html)
Now check if the titles you found resemble the real titles of the paragraphs (a-g) and match the paragraphs (1-7) with their headings. We will also consider junior applicants with a similar academic quals who have had work placements or projects involving C++ & DSP. Remember that readers often "deselect" applicants because of the appearance of the letter. c.ukworksearch.1st preference will be given to applicants with 2+yrs commercial exp. Knowledge of 3D Studio MAX. The Importance of Covering Letters. One of the UK's largest and award winning direct communications companies is seeking customer service agents to join this fast moving. If you ask for a phone call. However.
analyzing. aggressive. I have been employed in the materials divisions with two different manufacturing companies. At least 2 years commercial C++ experience working in a team environment Should have a strong mathematics / physics knowledge and ideally an understanding of 3D graphics Experience with a 3D graphics API such as DirectX or OpenGL would be useful Experience with DirectX 8 vertex and pixel shaders would be useful for work on the Xbox console or for PC titles and tools Experience with low level assembler programming would be useful. VSS or CVS) A game demo with sample source code
(http://www. aggressive. articulate. Notice what are the points the applicants are making. stamina.Writing Employment Documents
skills ideally allowing you to type 50 words per minute. sound practical experience (proven track record). confident.com/IT/East_Sussex/Job/24205/)
e.g. XETEL Corporation and Fisher Controls International. flair.
(http://www. economical. Discuss their content (logical sequence of ideas. TX 78703 Dear Mr. For the past four years. I believe that I am qualified to fill this position. dedicated.com/Customer_Services/Avon/Job/27096/)
4. bright. Job advertisements and job requirements To be: sociable. to planning materials. talent. style. layout. particularly MIPS / PowerPC Creative programming ability . anti-social. self-motivated. You will be able to demonstrate excellent written communication skills and computer literacy including word and e-mail.having an eye for quality and special effects Passion for games (both playing & programming) Experience of version control software (e. Both full time and permanent opportunities exist. specialised. limited. buying. TX 78759 6 June 1997 John G. numerative. etc. You will have a minimum of 6 months working in an office or clerical environment.
.g. tone. aptitude for…. patient. My experience there has ranged from controlling. conscientious. To apply please e-mail your CV with a short cover letter. 1707 Guernesey Lane Austin. Application letter examples Read the following letters. reserved. Holloway: I am writing in response to your classified ad in the Austin-American Statesman for Assistant Director of Materials Management. industrial experience………… 2. 3. mature. Based on my experience and continuing education. mean To have: appropriate professional qualifications. talkative.). Holloway Brackenridge Hospital 4505 W. or for more information call the number above. Austin.ukworksearch.ukworksearch. accuracy. the ability to establish rapport drive. Tom Thumb Ave. integrity. sensitive.
at (512) 545-0098. Sincerely yours.: resume
3303 West Valley Cove Round Rock. Pascal.: resume
( http://www.m. The Pascal programs are completely responsible for the user interface and system integration management.m. Enclosed you will find a resume.io. I have converted a large database that was originally written in a customized C language database into the Query database environment. This product was written using a combination of C. which will give you additional information on my background and qualifications.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex1. I believe that I have the qualifications and experience that you are looking for.html)
. I hope to get a chance to discuss my qualifications and goals with you. I am attending night school at Austin Community College where I lack only nine hours to complete my Associate Degree in Business Administration. 1990 Personnel Assistant JD Employee Credit Bank of Texas P. Sincerely. In that capacity.Business Communication Topics
Currently. John M. Texas 78664 August 5. I hope to return to St.m. I am currently working on a contract with Texas Parks and Wildlife to make major modifications to its existing Query database application. Owens Encl. Box 32345 Austin. I can be reached by phone between 9:00 a. and Query programming languages. Virginia Rementeria Encl. I would welcome a chance to talk further with you about the position you are seeking to fill. As for my experience with database programming.io. and 6:00 p. Texas 78745 Dear Personnel Assistant: I am writing about your newspaper ad in the August 1 Austin-American Statesman concerning your need for an experienced programmer in the database environment. When I complete this degree. Related to this database-programming experience is the work I have been doing to write and market an automated documentation utility for Query database applications. I was responsible for the authorship of the Pascal and Query programs. On both of these assignments. Brackenridge Hospital and the Children's Hospital supply such a vital service to the Travis county area that I would be proud to be a part of your team. I have worked for the past year as a programmer/analyst in the Query database environment for Advanced Software Design. I can be reached at (512) 877-0991 after 5 p. I have also served as customer contact person. Edward's University to complete my course work for a degree in Technical Business.
. … Dr. Vocabulary
4. If you are interested. … resume will demonstrate that I have the characteristics and 9. … someone with excellent communications skills. best. I discussed Kentech's products with marketers and 11… personnel from around the world. sales. IN 47902 1. The knowledge of the aircraft industry I gained from this 14… would help me analyze how Aerosol products can 15… the needs of regular and prospective 16…. Ms. 2. background. Find the right place for the following vocabulary items missing from the following letter of application (covering letter): 311 Nestor Street West Lafayette. position.m. MD 21038 Dear 2. … I believe that my 8. welcome. candidate. … to train for a management 7. organizational. In addition. informed. a consultant to your firm and my Organizational Management professor. June 6 1998. P. Write an answering letter to one of the two candidates announcing him/her that he/she is hired refusing him/her
4. I look forward to meeting with you to discuss the ways my skills may 23… serve Aerosol Monitoring and Analysis. Comprehension
3. experience I would 19… the opportunity to discuss these and other 20… with you. 5. … you seek. Christine Rennick Engineer Aerosol Monitoring and Analysis. clients. Box 233 Gulltown. enclosed. please 21… me at (317) 555-0118 any morning before 11:00 a. development. Rennick. Inc. experience. leave. position As a promoter for Kentech Training at the 1997 Paris Air Show. contact Sincerely yours.
. and leadership 6. and marketing would help me use that information 18… researched. effectively. meet. Fill in the following table with information you have found in the letters above: Applicant‘s name Employer‘s name Position Source of information Previous jobs Future plans Applicant‘s motivation Virginia Rementeria John Holloway
3. … Ms. 1. sales. I also 12… and wrote reports on new product 13… and compiled information on aircraft industry trends. … for the position.Writing Employment Documents
3. … experience. has 3.O. qualifications. I'd like to mention how my work experience last summer makes me a particularly strong 10. … me that Aerosol Monitoring and Analysis is 4. or feel free to 22… a message. and the valuable 17… I gained in promotion. 1. Saul Wilder. looking for.
Judith M. please consider me for the position. he said you need…. my experience would be invaluable in… My particular interest is… Through… I am well aware of… By …ing and …ing I would be able to… Ways of ending a letter of application: I have no urgent commitments at present. Business Writing Strategies and Samples.year experience in the field.. adapted from: Halpern. Please keep my application in your active file. New York: Macmillan.html. please contact me at… I would welcome the opportunity to meet you. call me. could we discuss the possibility of putting my skills to work for your company? I am available. I should like to… I wish to become involved in… I feel strongly that… Giving evidence of work experience: I feel I am well qualified to… for the following reasons:… As a … who has…. and Agnes Lokke. 2. 1988. Stating the reason for writing: I am applying for the………position advertised by your firm in……….io..Business Communication Topics
First Last name Enclosure: resume
(http://www. Read the following useful phrases in an application letter: Getting attention: Highlight your strongest work skills: When you need a …… who can …..
. Expressing application follow-ups: Please keep my application in your active file. a BA in chemistry and a real desire to succeed? If so. You can contact me on … (your telephone number) between 11 am and 6 pm at the above address. Kilborn. Make reference to publicized company activities or achievements: The Financial Times reports that you may need the expertise of a ….com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2. Subject: Application for ………position (you may use a title at the opening of your letter) Expressing motivation and expectations: If my application were successful. I am seeking a position in…. and let me know when you need a skilled….)
4. Use a question referring to the organization‘s needs: Can your R&D division use a specialist in ……… with nine . Jeanne W.for the opening of your new division in Germany. and let me know when a position opens for a capable…. should you wish to discuss matters further. After you have reviewed my qualifications.. Mention the name of a person highly regarded by the reader: When X of your division spoke to our business communication class last week.
edit. The format of the resume
Read the following checklist for resumes and discuss it with your colleagues. imagining you are applying for the post of CEO of a wellknown multinational. Give it to a colleague in your group. areas of study work experience: should list all the related jobs you‘ve had activities and achievements: projects. lecture. collaborate. arbitrate. attain. After reading it. evaluat. discuss their usefulness when writing your CV and application letter and try to find some more. consolidat direct.
BASIC NOTIONS RESUME LAYOUT
1. improve. A resume should contain:
name and address. pointing out its value and its weak points. institutions. assign. not opinions avoid personal pronouns omit the date of preparation omit mention of your desired salary. degrees. phone number career objective: be as specific as possible education: it contains: the school you most recently attended. references
Keep in mind! The following expressions are alternatively used: Career objective = summary of qualifications Education = academic credentials// academic preparation// professional college training Work experience = employment history
2. Management skills Communication Administer. work schedule. dates. Try to improve it.
6. each in the group will have to concisely analyze the document. most relevant qualifications do NOT use whole sentences use facts. date of availability. direct. Write a covering letter applying for one of the positions advertised at the beginning of the unit. Writing
Draw an application letter (cover letter). contents and style present the strongest. chair. Vocabulary
You will find in the table below some action verbs for pointing out accomplishments. list for each school you attended (the name and location). community service activities personal data (hobbies. Write an application letter for the position you consider best fits your qualifications. vacation schedule contact information use a title/ your name and address as a heading
3. organize. mediate. etc) other relevant facts: miscellaneous facts: foreign languages proficiency.
. plan ……………………………………………………… Address. computer expertise.Writing Employment Documents
5. increase. convince. draft. arrange. Speaking
Work in groups.
memberships. assist. Use a heading for the entire resume and subheadings for the parts Include a statement of objective: e. calculate. Writing
Write your resume according to the standard procedure being careful to include the elements below: Arrange logically the information on education (dates. places. 1. conceptualize. establish …………………………………………………… Helping skills Assess. coordinate. Reading
2.―. coach. firms. 1993: 337)
Supplementary information and activities Other types of employment messages
1. ―Sales Representative for X Corporation leading to sales administration. 2. appraise. More verbs for Achieve. special information (achievements. expand. design. Clarify. balance…………………………………………………………. implement. Read the list containing other types of employment messages and check your knowledge: do you know when to use them? Job-inquiry letter Application form Application follow-up letter References (testimonial or open letter of reference)// Recommendation letter 1. 1.‖
(adapted from Lesikar. build. advise. restore.Business Communication Topics
promote……………………………………………………………………………………………. Basic Business Communication. examine. collect. Be creative and finish the following recommendation letter by adding the missing information: I am pleased to support Tom Smith‘s application for……
. employment (dates. critique. institutions. ―To apply 20 years of successful furniture sales experience to selling quality products for a progressive company. inform………………………………………………………… Financial skills Administer. spearhead. explain. references. abilities). Clerical or detail Approve. design. resolve (problems). degrees. compute. audit.‖. investigate ………………….: ―To serve in an entry-level position in personnel management that will provide an opportunity for growth and advancement. arrange. communicate. Discussion
1. operate………………………………………………………… Teaching skills Adapt. Petit. analyze. coach. develop. educate. qualifications. accomplishments transform skills Research skills
(adapted from Lesikar. devise. prepare skills ………………………………………. Petit. allocate. achievements). duties).g. pioneer. major field). clarify. clarify.………………………………………………… Technical skills Assemble. IRWIN. counsel. customize. Flatley 1993: 339)
4. Flatley. create. collect. improve.. Answer: What‘s the goal of a recommendation letter? What should such a letter contain?
2. execute. classify. personal details (interests. facilitate ………………………………………………………. reduce (losses). Creative skills Act. facilitate. evaluate..
In light of current legalities. at the second stage Third. the next step. which show the relationship between ideas. Language focus CONNECTING AND SEQUENCING IDEAS
Connectors and sequence markers are words or phrases. subsequently. at the final stage Other language forms: before + verb …ing. Vocabulary
Reference-writing expressions – you may need them in giving references about a job candidate. first of all. So. to start with. however. (after) having + verb …ed
. We need more…like Tom. the third step. at the third stage Then.
3. e. e. the final step. they connect the following information with the earlier information: The merger has already been decided. He has been a most valuable/ loyal/ hard-working/ co-operative employee // She has a logical mind and is sensitive…// She has a talent/ flair for design and is creative…// She is an effective…// He was a very active member of………and he had a good relationship with colleagues// Through full and active membership of the… team. I have found that he is a good…Not only is he…but he also…I have really enjoyed working…with him. after + verb …ing. Your instructors at the community college would have more relevant knowledge of your ability to perform the type of job you are applying for. 2. secondly. we cannot comment on the job performance of people who no longer work here. so I suggest you ask them for recommendations. and the classes you have taken should help you get a job.
4. after that Next. In brief. initially. he created/ initiated/ inspired/ encouraged/ built up strong personal relationships. the first step. I would be happy to elaborate on his skills if you call me at home any evening.g. thirdly. Your decision to…………seems well thought-out. from May 1999 through July 2203. Good luck in your hiring process. at the first stage Second. Good luck to you in your future endeavors. Read the following letters refusing to recommend a candidate and identify their characteristics. Types of relationships between ideas Connectors and sequence markers First. I am sure you understand the dilemma.g. the purpose of my lecture is to convince you to buy our product. at the next stage Finally. 2. there‟s no use fighting against it. 1 – letter addressed to the employer Tom Smith did work at ………… as a ……. the second step.Writing Employment Documents
For the past five years. 2 – letter addressed to the job applicant You have had an interesting year since you left………… Thank you for bringing me up-to-date. Tom and I have……………Working closely with him.
chiefly. so. at any rate Contradiction In fact. on the whole Stating the obvious Obviously. such as. because of this. normally. to conclude
(see Brieger and Sweeney 1994: 208)
. then. furthermore. second. if Alternation Instead. overall. but. in that case. clearly Equivalence In other words. in the same way. although. notably. besides. also. in most cases. whereas. moreover. hence. or rather Inclusion/explanation For example. meanwhile. still Concession Anyway. say. in particular. in contrast Time sequence Formerly. likewise. on the contrary.conversely. finally Highlight In particular. as a consequence/result. in general. sometimes Categories Connectors and sequence markers Addition Also. that is to say. consequently. too Summary To sum up. naturally. overall. too. as follows. for instance. however. first. as a rule. what‘s more in brief/short. actually. when. finally. for the most part. on the other hand. thus. after. as a matter of fact. nonetheless. to illustrate. here again. namely.Business Communication Topics
Connectors and sequence markers
Therefore. in any event Repetition That is. in detail. as has been said Generalization Usually. accordingly. in addition. of course. especially. mainly Intensification Indeed. even so. in brief/short Conclusion In conclusion. in this case. that‘s why. indeed Condition Then. all the same. that means. alternatively Contrast Yet. for this reason Comparison Similarly. in fact. in comparison. still. nevertheless. lastly. in other words.
Test your skills in writing application documents
1.. 2.(the name and the address of the company) sending an application letter and your CV to……….with……. Write a letter to follow up a job application using the information below: A month ago you applied for the position of……. Since you have ten-year experience in ………. Unfortunately. Write a follow-up letter to………that will reinforce your application with………
. 4. you………. Consider the following points in your letter: You don‘t know what has happened with your resume and application letter you sent them a month ago Since you wrote. You have submitted applications to several other firms but would prefer to work at……. 3. 5..industry and a good academic record. Write two recommendation letters – one. Write the corresponding letter of application. you haven‘t got any reply yet. the other – as neutral as possible. you are very confident in your chance to get the position. so you decide to write a follow-up letter to show your interest in the position. highly enthusiastic. Look in the local newspaper for a job advertisement or compose the advertisement for an imaginary post you would like to apply for. the director of personnel. Write your CV.
and telephone and
. /0 C/ Interviews are an opportunity to show you are an enthusiastic worker who would do a job well. E Although these interviews often have different purposes.
2. job interview (directed.) information interview persuasive interview exit interview evaluation interview counselling interview conflict resolution interview disciplinary interview
Types of interviews
(from C. stress interview etc. D Responding to interview questions should not sound as if you are reciting a script. Discussion
Work in groups. C But it doesn't have to be. designed to whittle the applicant pool. try to respond aloud to the following: G Preparation can be as important as the interview itself. B Another important step in preparing for a job interview is to practice describing your professional characteristics. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc. Seizing the Opportunity and the Job by Olivia Crosby Interviewing is the most stressful part of the job search for many people. presenting a professional demeanor. F As a starting point. Present the list to the class and bring arguments in favour of your choice. L. intended to help employers make final selections. simultaneous. There is one sentence that you do not need. A Employers say they are impressed by well-informed jobseekers. Choose one of the eight types of interviews from the table above and make a list of some specific communication skills you suppose it calls for. J When responding. simulating. There is an example at the beginning (0 C). Try to find similarities and differences between the interviewer and interviewee (purpose. Employment Interviewing. skills they need. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-K) to fill each gap (1-9).. focus on subjects related to the job. INTERVIEWS
BASIC ELEMENTS The interview is a planned conversation with a specific purpose involving two or more people. K Clothes should be clean. Reading
Read the article about employment interviewing. I The company itself is often the easiest place to start your search. 1992)
1. well fitting. being careful never to criticize a previous employer or coworker. style etc.). You can make the most of that opportunity by being prepared. V. H Focus on what you learned from the experience. and wrinkle free. and describing your qualifications well. unstructured. less formal. Bovée. longer second and third interviews. Thill. There are many types of interviews: screening interviews. Business Communication Today.X. they all require basic interviewing skills. J.
if asked to describe yourself. and what role you could play in its organization. ability in a craft. Public libraries and career centers also have valuable information about employers. /1/ Read on for advice about what to do before. ways to demonstrate enthusiasm for a job is to research both the company and the position for which you are being interviewed. Some questions – such as those about hobbies or interests – may seem irrelevant. Research. /2/ Researching. be ready to accentuate the positive. you can show how your qualifications match the company's needs. For example. interviewers suggest rehearsing with a career counselor or friend to gain confidence and poise.gsa. such as needlepoint.txt)
(http://www. With these facts. Recalling accomplishments beforehand. such as Hoover's Business Index and Dun and Bradstreet.Interviews
video conferencing interviews. One of the best. practicing. And many companies' human resources departments will send recruiting information if you request it. when you don't have to respond under interview pressure. * Tell me about a time you worked as part of a team. Practice describing yourself. Preparation. choose one that does not affect your ability to do the job. Interviewers ask these types of questions to learn about your personality and test your interpersonal skills. Career centers and libraries have many books with additional questions and possible answers. you should know what the company does.pueblo. such as being fired from a job or receiving poor grades. but most frequently overlooked. /4/ Many businesses fill their websites with information tailored to jobseekers. /3/ Before arriving for an interview. any recent changes it has undergone. how large it is. and after a job interview. /7/ For example. These sites often include a history of the company and a description of its products and customers. and activities to illustrate important skills. /9/ Interviewers suggest rehearsing with a career counselor or friend to gain confidence and poise. including companies' annual reports to shareholders. In addition. arranged to capitalize on available technology. Nevertheless.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. Every interview will be different. and your career goals. /5/ Think of examples from past jobs. * What are your short-term goals? * Why do you want to work in this occupation and for this company? Each question gives you an opportunity to illustrate your favorable characteristics. Try to learn about the company's goals and values. reports kept by local chambers of commerce. will strengthen your answers during the actual event. or transcript. If there are weaknesses evident on your resume. Career counselors say a good job interview starts well before the jobseeker and interviewer meet. rehearse an explanation before the interview in case you are asked about them. * Describe a work or school-related problem and how you solved it. trade journals. /8/ Whatever the question. talk about your professional characteristics and background. The goal is to become comfortable speaking about yourself. and your career goals. and business indexes. shows an attention to detail. your training and experience. during. cite your lack of paid experience. The goal is not to memorize responses to these questions but to become comfortable speaking about yourself. or describe a shortcoming you are working to overcome. schoolwork. your training and experience. answering questions about your hobbies or interests allows you to highlight some of your other strengths. /6/ * How would you describe yourself? * What did you like most about your last job? * What types of courses do you enjoy most? * Why should I select you over other applicants? * What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses? * What are your hobbies? * Tell me more about the project you described on your resume. The interviewer might ask for a weakness or failure. Participating in a sport might demonstrate teamwork. not your personal life. and there may always be surprising questions. if interviewing for an entry-level job. and dressing appropriately are the first steps to making the most of a job interview.
. A useful guideline is to dress 2__ you would for an important day 3__ the job. The interview is your chance to confirm that 5__ BELIEVE and establish rapport. nod. Use only one word in each space. think of the word that best fits in the context.
(http://www. Many employers say that women's skirts should be kneelength 10__ below. for example. Ask about the next step in the process. Arrive on time.Business Communication Topics
3. don't eat a 7__ morning meal on HEART interview day.jobweb. Securing 1__ job is much easier if you look the part. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-7) to derive a word that fits in the space. closed-toe shoes complete 11__ professional image.
http://www. Most employers expect jobseekers 6__ wear a traditional two-piece suit. To reduce 6__. 8__ black.pueblo. 9__ trendy. Read company materials while you wait.htm)
4. Most people are nervous when interviewing.txt
4.2. 5__ wrinkle free. a briefcase serves a function: it gives 3__ to things you will PROFESSOR. interviewers recommend getting NERVOUS a good night's sleep and maintaining your usual morning routine – if you never eat breakfast. give nonverbal feedback to the interviewer. They also recommend calling to mind some of your happiest memories or proudest moments before arriving for the interview. Vocabulary
4. In addition to giving you a CONSIDERATION 2__ look. But remember: you have been asked to interview for the job because the employer believes you could be right for it. Thank the interviewer.gsa. Use body language to show interest. Smile. Polished. Comprehension
Arrange the steps of the interview in an acceptable order and discuss your option. 1. Have a firm handshake. For each blank (1-15). 10 Steps to a Successful Interview Write a thank-you letter to anyone you have spoken to. 1__ carrying a briefcase to the interview. such as REFER writing samples. On the day of the interview. like a meeting with a supervisor or a presentation 4__ a client.PORTABLE want at the interview. copies of your résumé or application and 4__. well fitting. preferably 7__ a conservative color such as navy blue. Introduce yourself in a courteous manner. Clothes should be clean. These include a pen and paper to record important information. such as the proper spelling of the interviewer's name and the time and date of followup interviews. gray. Listen. Dress professionally. The object is to look reliable.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. give yourself plenty of time to get ready for and travel to the interview. Plan to arrive 10 to 15 minutes early.com/Resources/Library/Interviews/10_Steps_to_a_02_01. and examples of your work.
please? Did you say…. you may use. Business Communication Today. Bovée. if you have shoes that tie.Interviews
Avoid last-minute clothing disasters 12__ trying on your suit a few days before the interview. Is that correct? How was your trip? I‘d like to know more about…
Types of interview questions
(from C. and heavy or unnatural makeup.
Asking for spelling Repeating information
Do not forget to use a polite formula before. Sorry. Example Sorry? Pardon? Pardon me? (AE) Excuse me? (AE) I‘m sorry. Thill. J. Could you go over that again. L. buy an extra pair of stockings.
(http://www. putting it up. Language focus
Open-ended: it invites the interviewee to offer an opinion Direct open-ended: it suggests a response Closed-ended: it calls for short responses or yes/ no answers Restatement: invite the respondent to expand on an answer Warm-up: it helps break the ice Indirect: elicits further information What do you think your company expects from you? How have you trained in…. These distract the interviewer 15__ your qualifications.? You did say…. please? Would you mind repeating that.pueblo.. I think you‘ve made a mistake.gsa. V. I didn‘t quite hear/ catch what you said. or cutting it short. large pieces of jewelry. 1992)
Checking and confirming information Techniques Asking for repetition Advice If you didn‘t hear the message. Keep hair neat by tying it back. you may use: State your problem and then make a request.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp. didn‘t you? Is it true/ a fact that he …. And plan 13__ the unexpected: if you will wear a skirt. please? In other words… What I mean is…/ By that I mean that… Let me just go over/ repeat/ summarize the main points again. You can paraphrase the information or summarize the main points. …
Asking for clarification
Ask for more precise information.? Can/could you spell that. New York: Mc Graw Hill Inc.
Asking for verification
If you want to check that you have understood the message. … Sorry. If I could just bring/ draw together the points we have discussed.txt)
5. Avoid cologne and perfume. get more shoelaces. Excuse me.
. Bring such extras 14__ with you the day of the interview.? Did you attend those classes? You said you like travelling. that‘s not quite right. please? What exactly do you mean by…? What is the precise purpose function of…? Could you tell us a bit more/ Could we have some more details about….. please? I don‘t understand what you have just said. Could you repeat that / say that again. I missed that part.
(see Brieger and Sweeney 1994: 182)
How do you prepare for a job interview? Is there advisable to mention your weaknesses in a job interview? Why? Comment upon discrimination during a job interview. Writing
Select a job advertisement from the local newspaper and write the following letters: a job inquiry letter a thank-you letter for the interview a request for more time to decide a letter of acceptance a letter declining the job offer
.Business Communication Topics
making the correction.
minutes. persuade.) Type General: to inform. Professional communication ability remains a significant factor that employer use in evaluating and comparing applicants. in your opinion. Discussion
What will be. establishing the main idea
2. etc. . It should make a statement about the topic. Business Communication Protocol A universal format. with: . warning etc. motivated/ unmotivated. Job candidates can alienate potential employers simply because they do no use standard business writing style. style.all necessary information included Review the message for content and organization
1. Each letter. Reading
Read about some key elements of the Business Communication Protocol and discuss them in your study group. collaborate Specific: to present specific data…. defining the purpose
1. to help somebody to do something Small/ large Informed/ uninformed Specialists/ casual public.logically grouped and presented ideas .
Types of business correspondence
Steps (ii) 1. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE
BASIC NOTIONS inside the firm: memos. however. showing potential employers the copy may save a job offer.clear subject and purpose. Misunderstandings often occur because of the failure to follow up in writing. Take the extra time needed to avoid confusion. complaint. Always keep copies of letters sent because they may save later embarrassment.information related to the subject and purpose . order. to convince somebody to do something. and etiquette is accepted by nearly all organizations. selecting the channel and Oral/ written communication medium The result should be a well organized message. the main characteristics of business correspondence? What are the prerequisites of a well organized business message?
4. If correspondence is lost in the mail. reports outside the firm: business letters (of inquiry. analyzing the audience (audience profile)
. must be individually tailored to the needs of the prospective employer and individually produced.
Kennedy) someone with long experience in the place Disagreement at the last minute develop by yourself without outside support from politics. Check your work carefully for grammar and spelling. has ability to pay do you understand (military communications) financial presentation don't disagree or contradict policy depressed
(http://www. Never duplicate a letter. Here are some common phrases used by American businesspeople during U.Business Communication Topics
The importance of proper communications cannot be overemphasized.pacificovertures. and exaggerated praise of the employer.-Japanese business meetings.com/BizJargon. and use his/her correct title. Vocabulary
Colloquial American Business Jargon Defined Native speakers unconsciously use jargon or slang that doesn't mean much to speakers of English (or even American in this case) as a second language. Make paragraphs average in length. Why were they emphasized in the text? Bring arguments in favour of their importance for business correspondence. involving both parties wealthy. It is a good idea to have someone else proofread it. Be wary of suggestions to use gimmicky attention-getters. never a resume alone. Saying 20-20 hindsight A rising tide that lifts all boats An Old (China. each must be an original. Correspondence Tips Use a standard business style format and 8 1/2" x 11" paper. A good succession of communication shows the employer that you sincerely want the job. Comprehension
Consider the words/ phrases from the text above. Address letters to a particular individual.S.com/job_search_tips/protocol. Employers type even personal notes. overzealous or desperatesounding phrases. Type all letters. which are written in bold.) Hand at loggerheads at the 11th hour Bootstrapped both sides of the aisle deep pockets Do you read me? dog and pony show don't make waves down in the dumps Meaning perfect knowledge but too late something that benefits all (Pres.
4. Always send a letter with a resume. Japan etc.jobtrak. so follow suit. Written communication is the backbone of every personnel office.html)
Perhaps we will accept merger with NTX International. besides. perhaps. Techniques Fronted topic Cleft sentences: It‘s + subject + that Relative clause + is + subject Inversion (after certain negative words: no-one. a little Express possibility with: maybe. moderately) Connecting expressions of highlight (in particular. fully. Downtoning is used when you are not certain and want to protect yourself from your listeners. In a way I have to agree to their proposal. It‘s just only a minor delay. might Example Rarely is he punctual at meetings.
Their company is completely bankrupt. absolutely. Writing
In not more than 200 words write an essay about the manipulative power of words. especially. It is the competition that counts.) Use the verbs: seem. very. Sweeney 1994: 174)
6. nobody. appear Use the verbs: tend to. Speaking
Which is the most important. reasonably. to some/ to a certain extent
He upgraded his computer. only.Business Correspondence
5. Language focus
ASSERTING AND DOWNTONING INFORMATION You use assertion if you want to emphasize what you are saying and to influence the attitudes and behaviour of your listeners. totally. He tends to underestimate the expertise of his competitors. the correspondence outside or inside the firm? Bring arguments to support your opinion. Give examples of adapting the message you are sending to the audience. We might accept merger with them.
Express reservation with: in a way.
(adapted from Brieger. What it counts is the competition. a bit. nothing Intensifying adverbs (wholly. never. it‘s nothing serious. completely. extremely. fairly. be inclined to Minimize message with: just. In particular. highly. It seems that the stocks will plummet.
. entirely. nowhere. he maximized the PC memory. quite.
7. etc. In no way will I deceive you.
planned activity The ending of the letter Closing formula The signature The name (typed) Keep in mind Ref. Reading
2. Read the following examples and try to figure out what do they refer at? Match them (a-e) with the suggestions you have below (1-5). = references: names (initials of the author/ typist of the letter) Common introduction formulae: I am writing in connection with…/ I have received your letter of…concerning… Ending formulae: I look forward to receiving your …/ Looking forward to hearing from you Closing the letter: Yours faithfully/ Yours sincerely/ Sincerely
1. on the right no punctuation in the address or after the salutation the paragraphs start at the margin. Thomson/ Mrs…/ Miss/ Ms…/ Kate) Heading (it says what the letter is about) The body of the letter Introduction: it says why you are writing The main message: details The close: it usually mentions a future. with double space between them the writer‘s name and title are under the signature Letter layout The logo of the firm The sender’s address The recipient’s address
Your ref: Our ref: The date
The salutation (Dear Sir/ Sirs/ Madam/ Mr.
. COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS
BASIC NOTIONS Business letters usually use the BLOCK STYLE. This means: the addressee‘s name and address are at the top ON THE LEFT the date: usually. Discussion
What function do letters perform in society/ in business? What do the style and tone of a letter depend on? What does the format of a letter depend on?
―As soon as you…. May I expect to hear from you within the week?‖ ―I am available in the afternoons. If you are responding to a letter. avoid such words as: cannot.
. ‘positive ways’. ‘itemize’. refuse. I will …to …. Provide topic indicators at the beginning of paragraphs. Can we set up an appointment to discuss………? I‘ll look forward to hearing from you. you will not get the money…‖ ―Please send us the computers we ordered till the 1 July as we agreed in the contract. changes in the method of payment. prohibit. Vocabulary
Read the following pieces of advice about business correspondence. What do the following words mean in that context: ‘compartmentalize’. place important information strategically: info in the first and last lines of paragraphs tends to be read and remembered better. ‘strategically’. Since 2001 I have been teaching at ―…. Change the cold. Any change of the deliverate date may entail. place important information in high . ―I have worked as a teacher in London for about ten years. ―topic indicators‖ = a word or phrase that indicates the topic 3. forbid. cordial and tactful. 2. Comprehension
Consider the tips presented under 2. legal-sounding phrasing (picture yourself as a plain-talking.‖ b.‖ d. comprehend and remember the important facts or ideas list or itemize whenever possible: it makes it easier to pick up the important points. Explain or find synonyms for the words written in italics. ―If you do not send us the computers by the 1 July.visibility points find positive ways to express bad news. down-to-earth person)
3.Communication with Partners
Style of business correspondence a. Comment upon their value in business writing: ―compartmentalize‖ the contents of your letter: place each different topic of the letter in its own paragraph keep the paragraphs short: these will help the reader to read rapidly. State the main business. Give your business letter an ―action ending‖ whenever appropriate: make clear what you expect the recipient to do and when 2. inflated. purpose. subject matter right away: 5. 2006 letter in which you…‖ c. unfortunately. ―I am writing to apply for the position you currently have open…‖ ―I am writing in response to your letter of… in which you discuss problems you have had with…. fail. restrict. ―I am writing in response to your July 2.‖ ―I have just received your September 20. Here are some tips you may find useful in writing your business letters. commonsense. 4. ‘pompous’?
4. 2. unfriendly negative tone with one much more positive.‖ e. I have worked…. avoid pompous. identify that letter by its subject and date in the first paragraph or sentence 2.‖ 1. impossible. deny.‖ University…‖ ―As for my work experience. 2006 letter in which you…. from 4 pm to 5 pm.
such as prospective employer‘s name. person who replied. This kind of self-appraisal is usually best understated. A. date of reply. Keep these charts up to date and hold on to letters you receive. capacity for hard work or intelligence. You should also take into account some general suggestions for letter writing: follow rules of layout and format of a standard business letter slant letter toward what you can offer employers. The appearance and tone of your letter and resume can say more about you than you can gracefully say about yourself. whenever possible.fsu. the person contacted.e. any commitments you made in the letter and follow-up. Listed below are two formats for organizing your letter campaign. concise and to the point close with a direct request for some sort of action (i. if you are sending out 40 letters to various employers. and action taken. punctuate. Also. X asking for an interview and offer to call her during the week of June 6th. B. For instance. This method can be especially helpful because you have reference to all your letters for use when composing other letters. along with his/her correct title spell.
(http://www. it can be critical to know what you have said in a particular letter to be able to follow it up with accuracy. if you send a letter to Ms.career. not what you think they should be offering you address.Business Communication Topics
Before you begin sending any letters. Make another chart showing the response you received from each letter with column headings. Make copies of all the letters that you send out and file them in a folder. mentioning the name of someone you know in the organization)
It‘s not advisable to: use stiff language or phrasing be gimmicky in an attempt to be original or clever load with constant use of the word ―I‖ be lofty in tone or indicate you will do the employer a great service by ―considering‖ a position be excessively emphatic about your reliability. it is important that you devise some way of keeping track of when and what you have sent. the date sent. and paragraph correctly write in your own words and in conversational language hand-sign. Create a chart with columns for the prospective employer‘s name. Keep another file folder for the letters you receive which call for further action to be taken on your part and a separate file folder for your rejection letters. interview appointment) take advantage of any link to the employer that can put your foot in the door or give you an edge over the competition (for example. Also.edu/ccis/guides/write_eff. you need to have that date on record so you can be sure to meet that commitment. you can look back over the letters you have sent and see which ones were the most effective in generating interviews. rather than type your signature print your letters on good quality paper be brief.html)
. to an individual.
even so. correspond to difference: Differ/ vary/ diverge/ deviate + from
6. still. although. They should pay their debts rather than defer them. Write a letter to the Department of Modern Languages Applied to Business in which you communicate your plan for installing the equipment for a new computer-assisted language-teaching laboratory. Sweeney 1994: 178.Communication with Partners
5. However. but. resemble. Their price is the same as two years ago. even though. all the same Clauses of comparison Comparative + than Rather than As… as….180)
Expressions of comparison Compared to/with. I ordered as many pieces as you told me to. He was promoted in spite of some serious mistakes he has made. nevertheless. in comparison with Words and expressions of similarity: Conform to. Writing
You are the system chief engineer of the university. though. we need to improve the quality of our products. Their business plan is not reliable compared to ours. We are the first car supplier on the market. however. Their price differs from that of their competitors. while. match. What is a recipient-oriented style?
7. Having a reliable investor is more difficult than I have ever imagined. in spite of Sentence connectors of contrast: yet. Language focus
CONTRASTING AND COMPARING IDEAS Function Language techniques Clauses of contrast But. look like. not so… as… Examples: We will deliver you the merchandise even though the deadline of delivery is a bit too tight. whereas Phrases of contrast Despite. Can you establish a hierarchy among these issues? State your reasons. Speaking
Discuss each of the style requirements in writing business letters.
(adapted from Brieger.
Classification By function Direct requests/ Routine inquiries Inquiries about people Favourable responses/ Routine. good-news. Read the list and try to figure out what particular situations do they serve for. and good-will messages Bad-news messages/ Claims Persuasive messages Orders By message direction Miscellaneous
Refusing a request Adjustment grants I. Discussion
You have here a long list of letters that can be written in business environment. 1. Try also to assign them to a particular type from the table above. Initiating letters Adjustment refusal II. Read the following example of inquiry letter in the form of an e-mail message. Response letters Credit refusal Sales letter Order acknowledgements
(adapted from Bovée. Thill 1992: 70 and Lesikar. Describe the situation in your own words.XIII. Is there any difference between the electronic form and the typed form?
1. letters of acceptance letters accepting a job offer letters acknowledging orders/ order confirmation letters of appreciation letters approving credit letters of authorization letters checking a reference letters for claims and adjustments letters of condolence letters of congratulations letters conveying news about products letters declining a job offer letters denying routine requests letters giving unfavourable replies to orders letters of greetings letters of inquiry letters of job application letters offering a job letters placing orders letters providing credit references letters of recommendation letters replying to requests letters requesting action/ credit/ information/ a recommendation/ a time extension letters of resignation letters responding to customer claims sales letters reminder letters order letters response letters request letters follow-up letters
LETTER OF INQUIRY AND REPLY 1. Petit and Flatley 1993: XVii)
We would be most grateful if you could recommend a Romanian company. since 2001. 8261 TO: J SMITH SUBJECT: Comments on AB document and AB987 quotation John Please send me your comments asap on the documents. Yours faithfully Signature Tom Smith Director b. We have recently been allocated a considerable sum in order to improve our marketing offer in this area. One of our projects is to establish a car-components industry and we wonder if you could help us to find a suitable partner. What do they have in common. with international marketing experience and a strong technical staff. Read the following letter and identify its main parts: Dear Sir We are a multinational corporation established in 2000 by the merger of two of the biggest organizations in car industry and we have been operating in your country for 2 years. 8261 Comments on AB document and AB987 quotation 1.
. Regards. One of our projects is to establish a car-components industry in this area. letter asking for information (preliminary inquiry). Jan Jansen Nedco Den Bosch DB 99-36 TEL. Read now the proper letter of inquiry and then compare the two letters. We are most interested in developing secondary industry in this area. The sort of company we have in mind is a large-scale manufacturer of wheels and accessories. I‘d like to finalize them this week.Communication inside the Firm
FROM: J JANSEN 09-03-02 16:28:56 NEDCO DEN BOSCH INTERNAL ADDRESS: DB 99-36 TEL. 2. Other models of inquiry letters a. what are the differences between them? Dear Sirs Your name has been given to us by one of your clients in Germany. which fits this description. We are an industrial organization operating in cars branch and would be most grateful if you could help us. which is quite satisfied with your services.
I would very much appreciate a ……….g.. Read the example: Because you are a valued customer who has been conscientious about paying bills on time. written when a business/ agency advertises its products/ services. c. collecting what is owed. Yours faithfully XXX (name)
. urgent notice and ultimatum. Is there a problem we should know about? Please send us your payment right away or phone me at 453 – 579 to discuss your situation. e. and easy-to-read format Offering further information Ending the letter: express gratitude for any help DO NOT use ―thank you in advance‖ expression You may find the following pieces of advice useful: Since the inquiry letter is usually asking for information and is a personalized message. it must avoid accusations or any suggestion of customer dissatisfaction. Booking accommodation. Problem-inquiry. I‘m wondering why we haven‘t received your October payment of $ 200. written when the recipient has done nothing to prompt your inquiry.
3. Unsolicited inquiry letter. the steps in the collection series are: notification. Could you please confirm that there is………. 3. Job-inquiry letters.with their descriptions below (a-f): a. 5. you want more information about an article you have read. This type of a letter is part of collection series. i. 4. Solicited inquiry letter.Business Communication Topics
You will appreciate that our technical knowledge is limited. asking for money e. specific. Mr.. We want to help you fulfill your obligations. and we need the expertise of someone who has experience in this industry. identify the purpose: to obtain help or information Request making: list questions or information needed in a clear.e. Looking forward to hearing from you. enquiring about a hiring decision – a direct request d. Making a routine credit request) . inquiry. Yours sincerely XXXXX (name) Keep in mind! The content of an inquiry letter is the following: Introduction (introduce yourself or tell them wherefrom you have heard about them). requesting an application form. f. you ask specific questions about a product/ service you are interested in b. Would you consider helping us in any or all of the following ways? supplying modern machinery supplying technical know-how helping with the marketing operation training personnel setting up the plant We should like your views on the possibility of setting up a partnership. 6. 2. Smith. Read the example: Dear Sir I would like to reserve a………………. Comprehension
Match the different types of inquiry letters (1-6: 1. reminder.
Communication inside the Firm
Read some useful phrases you may use in a letter of inquiry: Introducing yourself: Your company has been recommended to us by… We have heard of your firm We are particularly interested in… We are most interested in/ increasing/ developing/ extending… Your name has been given to us as one of the most important … manufacturers in Europe. What we have in mind is… Making the request: You will appreciate that… We need… Would you consider supplying us with…? If you could send/ give… we would be most grateful. Could you please let me/ us have… You will appreciate that we require/ need… We would like your comments/ thoughts on the possibility of opening/ becoming/ entering/ sharing…/ What we require is… What we need is… We would like you to… Offering further information: We will be only too happy to supply you with/ let you have more details. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you require/ need further information. Offering an alternative: However, we are interested in… Expressing interest/ regret: We could possibly…but we regret that… Ending the letter We look forward to hearing from you/ meeting you/ seeing you We would be most grateful if you could help/ advise/ send/ give us… Important language to remember in a response letter: The Start Thanking the potential customer for his/her Interest: Providing requested materials Providing additional information Closing a letter hoping for future business Ending Dear Mr., Ms (Mrs., Miss; very important: use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs. or Miss) Thank you for your letter of ... inquiring (asking for information) about... We would like to thank you for your letter of ... inquiring (asking for information) about... We are pleased to enclose... Enclosed you will find ... We enclose ... We would also like to inform you... Regarding your question about ... In answer to your question (inquiry) about ... We look forward to ... hearing from you / receiving your order / welcoming you as our client (customer). Yours sincerely (remember use 'Yours faithfully' when you don't know the name of the person you are writing and 'Yours sincerely' when you do).
Business Communication Topics
5. Language focus
DEALING WITH FACTS Stating a fact Refuting Everyone knows that… It‘s a fact that… Actually, … In fact, … As a matter of fact, … Well, I‘m not really sure that‘s correct. Are you sure that‘s right? Isn‘t it true that…? For example? For instance? Such as? Could you give me an example? Let me give you an example. To give you an example, … For example, … For instance, …
(see Matthews, Marino 1990: 85)
Asking for examples Giving examples
Directness is not preferred in some situations you ask for information. Identify several such cases. Imagine you want to write a routine inquiry to find out about a merger. Work in groups of four – six. Write only one paragraph – the one you consider the key paragraph of your inquiry letter. Read it to your colleagues and notice the similarities or differences between your style/ tone/ vocabulary. Discuss the differences, mainly.
Letters of reply to inquiries 7. 1. Read the letter in which a multinational inquires about specific conditions of setting a car subcomponents industry in Romania. Write an answer acknowledging their inquiry, using the following plan: thanking for the letter/ politely refusing/ offering an alternative/ asking for information/ expressing interest/ ending. 7. 2. Starting from the same letter, refuse their inquiry using the following plan: acknowledging letter, expressing regret, encouraging but giving a reason for refusal, offering an alternative, ending on a warm note – promise future cooperation. 7. 3. Write a letter of inquiry and booking accommodation using the following information: you require a single room the dates are from 20 May to 23 you need a room with shower and seashore view You would like to have confirmation that your room will be available at the required date, from 9 a.m. 7. 4. Consider the following situations: You are a bank manager. Reply to Tom Smith who wants to set up his own small business and asks for a bank loan. You are able to grant the bank loan on the following conditions: ………………… You are unable to grant the bank loan because ……………………………………..
7. 5. Read the following example letter of response to an inquiry. Try to write the inquiry letter sent by Mr. Beare.
Communication inside the Firm
Jackson Brothers 3487 23rd Street New York, NY 12009 Kenneth Beare Administrative Director English Learners & Company 2520 Visita Avenue Olympia, WA 98501 September 12, 2000 Dear Mr. Beare Thank you for your inquiry of 12 September asking for the latest edition of our catalogue. We are pleased to enclose our latest brochure. We would also like to inform you that it is possible to make purchases online at http:\\jacksonbros.com. We look forward to welcoming you as our customer. Yours faithfully (Signature) Dennis Jackson Marketing Director Jackson Brothers
LETTER OF COMPLAINT
The complaint letter indicates discontent about inadequate services, defective products, damaged merchandise, etc. It could be mild/strong.
When do we complain? Give examples linked to the business environment (but not only). Can complaining be considered a business strategy? What are, in your opinion, the basic principles of writing a letter of complaint?
2. 1. Read the following instructions about writing a letter of complaint. Identify some situations in which you can write such a letter. Occasionally we find ourselves on the receiving end of a defective product, company error, or poor service. This experience can be so infuriating that we feel we must mention it to someone in charge and have the situation rectified. However, many of us choose instead to swear off a company or product altogether simply because we lack the skill and confidence to express our disappointment. This is a small tragedy since many businesses are fully prepared to remedy any problems that arise. With a little know-how, you will be able to get the results you deserve and find happiness in the consumer world. The most important step to customer satisfaction is the need for you to act immediately. Not only do most companies have a fourteen-day return policy but also you may need to recall details of your transaction and you will need to act while the events are fresh in your mind. Before you sit down to write
Business Communication Topics
your complaint letter, ensure that you have made photocopies of all pertinent information such as product and postage receipts, warranties or contracts, as you will need to back up your request with tangible proof. Before composing the letter, take a moment to think about how you want the situation to be rectified. You must clearly outline your demands for the company to be given the proper opportunity to please you. Do you want your money back, a replacement product or perhaps credit applied towards your account? Once you are certain of your request you will then be ready to compose your letter. It is not necessary to know the name of the person that will be receiving your letter, so it will be quite acceptable to address your letter; "To whom it may concern". When relating the information, stick to the facts only. No need to get insulting. Your letter only needs to be a few sentences long, just enough to get the point across. State the "when" first, followed by the "what" and the "how".
2. 2. Read the sample letter below. To whom it may concern, On April 1 2006 I received a book entitled, "How To Write A Complaint Letter." by the author XXX. I believe I was shipped this book in error as I had ordered the book "How To Write A Love Letter" by the author YYY on March 15 2006 and to date I have not received the book. I am returning this book and including my postage receipt. Please credit my account the amount of the postage and send me the book I had originally ordered entitled "How To Write A Love Letter" by YYY, product-number 011011. Yours Truly, Your Name Here
Comments: The "when" in this example is April 1 2006. The "what" is the situation of the shipping error and the "how" is the credit on account for postage and a second request for the desired book to be sent. The complainant will include the postage receipt and a copy of the original order form, proving she ordered the book in the correct manner. The complainant should also photocopy the letter for her records. If you give a company the opportunity to right a wrong, many times they offer their customer an additional bonus such as a gift certificate, coupon or free product. Complaint letters written to several companies always receive the results you expect as well as a few unexpected extras. If you take the time to express your lack of satisfaction, many companies will not only meet your requests but will thank you for giving them the opportunity to do so. While you have your pen and paper out, why not take the time to commend a company or sales person that made an effort to please you? It will do your heart good to know you gave someone a boost.
(Melanie Cossey, http://wywy.essortment.com/complaintletter_rcst.htm)
2. 3. Read the letter and make the summary of the problems it raises. 111 White Horse Lane Austin, TX 78728 8 October 2006 Director of Consumer Relations Cincinnati Microwave One Microwave Plaza Miami, TX 75249 Dear Director:
Communication inside the Firm
I am writing you concerning the purchase and subsequent return of a Waveport 5000 I made on 10 August 2006 in the amount of $225. On 10 August 2006, I purchased a Waveport 5000 from your company in the amount of $225. This price included a two-day delivery and a 60-day money-back trial offer. The $225 was immediately charged to my Ritz card. However, this product did not perform satisfactorily, and on 15 August, I decided to return the Waveport 5000 to your company. When I spoke to one of your company's representatives by phone, I was informed that the shipping and handling charges, as well as the price of the Waveport 5000, would be credited to my account. I shipped the item by UPX and was notified 19 August of its receipt. Today, October 7, I received a statement for my Ritz card. And as of today, no credit has been applied to my account for either the Waveport 5000 or the shipping and handling charges. If the Waveport 5000 was charged to my account immediately when I ordered it, I fail to understand why the same promptness was not used in crediting my account immediately upon receipt of the returned item. There is no real excuse for this delay other than someone not wanting to take the necessary time in crediting my account. These finance charges, as well as this letter, could have been avoided if your employees had been as prompt in crediting my account as they were in charging to it. It is not my responsibility to pay for your company's lack of promptness and I rightfully deserve a refund to any and all finance charges that may be applied during this time period. Your company's quick detection products have greatly helped me in the past, and I would like nothing more than a quick solution for my problem so that I may be a customer of yours in the future. Sincerely, John A. Somebody Encl.: Copies of sales receipt and credit card statement 2. 4. The reply to a letter of complaint: some tips for keeping the business running, in spite of complaints, apologies, problems of any kind. respond quickly; the correspondent needs to know the complaint has been received and is being dealt with acknowledge and apologize give your version of the facts explain what action is being taken concede a point if possible sympathize and reassure your correspondent
In answering complaints you may refer at three distinct situations: 1. making concessions, 2. disclaiming possibility and 3. apologizing and excusing. Read the three lists with expressions used in such situations and attach a suitable heading (1-3) to each of them: A. We are sorry to hear/// We were distressed to learn/ hear about…/// We must apologize for the delay in returning/ replying/ forwarding…./// The delay was due to the fact that/ the result of…./// I would like to explain the situation. B. In the normal way we would have been obliged to…/// However, in view of the circumstances…/// Under the circumstances we are prepared to/ can….
We regret that in no way can we be held responsible for…/// We would like to emphasize that it is your responsibility to…. // I am not prepared to… I am now left with no alternative but to…………. 3. 2. Express anger: I am/ was// somewhat/ very/ most/ extremely// disappointed/ concerned/ surprised…… I am/ was// disgusted/ furious/ outraged………… I am/ was// hurt/ upset/ sad/ confused/ surprised……
. 3. Strong complaint 3. you will find that the guarantee states…. we/I have not received… We would be grateful if you could… I should like to point out… Unless….Business Communication Topics
C./// Now that you know the full facts perhaps you…/// Now that you understand the situation perhaps you…/// We are bound by the terms of our contract…. which have strong negative associations: positive negative incorrect wrong misunderstanding mistake imperfect faulty ineffective useless E.: We received your criticisms. while others “make a point” (4). Please. (negative) // Thank you for your comments. we will…. (positive) Your order will be 3 weeks late. Vocabulary
3. others to strong complaints (2).. You leave me no option but to… I am forced to/ obliged to…. you will find some useful phrases for a letter of complaint. could you… I hope that is not necessary to remind you that… I regret// Unfortunately// I am afraid… I have had nothing but trouble…. 1. In the following list. Mind the advice: Change the aggressive tone into more diplomatic sentences by using indirect sentences: I was told instead of You told me… A mistake was made instead of You made a mistake. or 4. I should like to draw your attention to (the fact that) Unfortunately. we will be forced to… It is now ten weeks since we … I should like to point out that we… We really must insist that… Unless we hear from you… If you not…./// If you check. some suggest warning (3). Avoid words. 2. Here are some useful expressions when you want to: a. 1. Place each expression under its appropriate heading – 1. Making a point
3. // …it is still unserviceable. Mild complaint 2. you forgot…. Warning 4.
3. I am writing to complain about I am sure you will appreciate the annoyance I look forward to hearing your comments// to receiving your cheque Unfortunately. some belong to mild complaints (1). (negative) // We have been obliged to reschedule your order (positive) 3.g.
not denied. the problems I experienced with your… were due to your negligence. // I‘m sorry for the bother you‘ve had. Make a polite but direct request: I would like to hear from you by return of post. is reasonable. 4. Put the blame on… Not only did you… but you… d. which is informal language in the following examples? I very much regret the inconvenience my action may have caused you. c. e. vocabulary. also for the loss of business and any legal costs. Analyze their style. Read the following letters of complaint. I hope it hasn‘t upset you too much. X I was astonished to receive your letter of 20 May. Why are they called strongly worded complaints? Dear Mr. 1. Independent work: revise the tense system in English. 4. your responsibilities. not to mention the anxiety and discomfort. In view of the business I have lost. Language focus 4. I would like to hear from you by return of post. Yours faithfully Dear Mr… As you have not replied to my letter of….Communication inside the Firm
b. Reject the arguments in the letter of apologies: I would have thought that……….
. I am now left with no alternative but to start proceedings against you. Under no circumstances can we extend your credit. Take action: to lodge a complaint// to send copies of the correspondence to the editor// to see that it is published: Not only am I forced to…but also I………… 3. I must repeat. // We are sorry to inform you that we are unable to…………. // I suggest you to get in touch with… 4. I intend to claim all the expenses I incurred on your behalf. sentence structure. Please accept my sincere apologies. but must point out that unless you settle my claim in full you leave me no alternative but to place the matter in the hands of my solicitors.// I consider that my request…. not mine. Which is formal. I would have thought that a reputable company such as yours would have accepted. I consider my request for a refund of your repair bill very reasonable. I appreciate the honour of being asked to address your members but I regret…// Thank you for the invitation to speak. I‘m sorry……… You would be well advised to contact your local representative. 2.
000. You will find the vocabulary items at the end of each paragraph. placed
2. unreasonable. Dear Mr. assurance. You have our 10…. Saying what you can/ cannot do: We are/ are not able to…. that we 9…. Writing
Write a letter in which you complain about the poor quality of the after-sales services of the firm that sold you 20 computers and 2 OHPs. Copies of our correspondence will be sent to a popular motoring magazine. who is a personal friend. for the delay in replying. Therefore we are happy to 8… our cheque for $ 10. B was suddenly taken ill and your letter was 4…. that the misfortunes of the production process will disappear. On checking with the main agents of Toronto they confirm that the assembling disfunctions could not have been discovered without 6 months use and careful examination which. consideration. concerned On re-considering the 5. We hope that in spite of these problems. … we do realize that you were 6. you still will consider us your main deliverer. I have been asked to take over where he left off. I have no doubt that the matter will be of considerable interest to them. will ensure that the matter will receive maximum publicity. We would not like you to think however.
. expressing confidence that you and the writer will continue doing business
LETTER OF APOLOGY AND SETTLEMENT 1. Some useful expressions for:
Referring: Further to…/ With reference to…? I am writing in connection with…/ With regard to… Giving bad/ good news: I regret/ am sorry/ am happy/ am pleased/ am delighted to inform/ advise/tell you that….
5. enclose. Vocabulary. Giving reasons: This is due to…/ owing to…/ because of…/ as a result of…. X We were most 1…. was not possible since you ordered the machines in a shorter period of time. in a difficult position. …. put on one side. Please accept our 3…. I must explain that Mr. Writing
Identify a business problem/ circumstance you have to apologize for. Reading
Read the following letter and fill in the blanks with the missing words. produce unsafe sewing machines. including the following suggestions: begin with a reference to the date of the original letter of complaint and to the purpose of your letter express your concern over the writer‘s troubles and your appreciation that he has written you conclude cordially. Apologies. I have to remind you.Business Communication Topics
I hereby inform you that I am lodging a formal complaint with your company‘s Trade Association. We appreciate that you felt it would have been 7…. Negligently. to receive your letter of 1 September 2003 and have given it careful 2. Write the corresponding letter. accidentally. The editor. to expect you to stick to the fine print on the contract. ….
3. circumstances. Yours….
Bring arguments in favour of your statement. substitutions. they will bill you for the total cost plus shipping charges. time. Because we are considering your company as the supplier please send us any model you have.
. catalogue numbers. Reading
Read the following order and evaluate it (good/bad). middle section (summary of the transaction: delivery date. Choose one and write an order for that product. taxes. credit terms. cost of the merchandise.
1. expressed intention for future dealings) bad news about orders entailed by some situations such as: unclear orders. shipping. 1. arrangement for payment (method. Elements of the order form: Direct statement of the request: Please send me/ ship… Justification. Therefore. and nonconforming orders. back orders. Find their description in their sales literature and then write the order letter. The price should be acceptable. 2. you will request rush delivery. pointing out your criticisms of its bad parts.. product description.) Because you have ordered from ………. closing section (resale information. explanation of the problems that might have arisen. Lots of products are being advertised in your local newspaper. We are interested in 10 washing machines for our new hostel. shipping instructions (date and place). 3. cost totals Courteous close with request for specific action Order responses: acknowledging orders – confirmation that the order has been received. (you want 2 hardcover books for the library and 10 paperbacks for your students. We would appreciate receiving your reply by October 5.) …… (you want 1 hardcover book for the library and 10 paperbacks for your students. deposits). details (such as: quantity.Communication inside the Firm
The order is a simple type of direct request.).) ……(you want 2 hardcover books for the library and 10 paperbacks for your students. ……. you have to order the following books published by …………. and you know that there isn‟t too much bibliographical material on this subject at the library. Discussion
Is there any difference between an order letter and an order form? Consider the following beginnings of an order letter: I need the following items… I would appreciate your sending me the following items… Can you send me the following items… I would like to have the following… Please ship the following items… Specify the situation in which you will use each of them. unfillable orders. this is a positive reply that contains: introduction (a statement of good news).
2. price/ discounts. in the past. You will deliver a course of lectures about ………. size. As your course of lectures will begin in 19 days. explanation. sales promotion.
e. social and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. They are usually used in internal correspondence – between business people at the same company as part of an intranet system – but they can also sometimes be used between two different companies. In S. Here is a possible structure for an internal email message: Context in subject line Extra information – if necessary Request for information or action Layout.) (Source:http://www.g.html)
Practice. Bargiela-Chiappini & C. Email messages often need an informal or casual tone. In F. J. For example.g. The writer will often provide a context for the reader in the subject line in the header and then begin their text immediately as if they are continuing a conversation. and as if the person writing the email message is shouting. Regards and they almost never use Yours sincerely. Structure of Email messages. e. to rush through the analysis of one hundred chemical samples – the ABC Batch . e. issues and problems in an institutional setting. Sometimes writers pre-programme the close of their email messages so that they automatically include a closing phrase.albion. (1999).). 243-264). London and New York: Longman.). Like in a business letter. writers usually identify the action or information they need and they sometimes provide extra information for the reader of the message. for example between a supplier and one of their customers. Email messages are usually much less formal than business letters. because they are usually written between people who have an established relationship and/or between colleagues who know each other well. Style tip 3: Many corporations recommend that their staff do not use capital letters in their email communication as this can be misinterpreted as impolite. Herring (Ed.g. like Regards. I‟m instead of I am. Write a corporate email message using the following instructions: You are Bart de Wit. They have widely been replaced by e-mail correspondence. at the beginning of an email message without adding Dear as a salutation. In the same way. e. They also often need to bring about a certain action. which has induced a considerable modification of the business correspondence style. John. Writing business: Genres. and then details of their name and (internal) address. Style tip 2: Writers often use abbreviations in email communication. media and discourses (pp. Business people often have to answer large numbers of email messages everyday.
(Source for E-mail messages: Mulholland. a writer may want to find out about something quickly from one of his or her colleagues or they may want to send them some information. Nickerson (Eds. Writing to work: How e-mail can reflect technological and organizational change. Email messages usually have a very straightforward structure. asap instead of as soon as possible. email messages often end in an informal way. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Tips for Email messages Style tip 1: Writers often use contractions in email communication.Business Communication Topics
Usual business letters sent and received by post are less and less common.g. E-mail: Uses. 57-84). John Smith. Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic. O. Here are some characteristics of e-mail correspondence: Email messages are often written in order to obtain or exchange information about a business related topic.com/netiquette/book/0963702513p91. or don‟t instead of do not. Ziv. You have received a request from an internal client. (1996). so they have to be written very quickly without very much time available for editing the text. technical manager for a research and development department at a large multinational corporation based in Den Bosch.before a very
. The employees working within the same business organization will often use first names only.
8. one mild complaint and one strong complaint. enquiring why payments have not been done yet your suppliers. Which is more effective – a letter of complaint or an inquiry letter? 5. what differences have you noticed? 7. Speak about the layout of a business letter.Communication inside the Firm
important meeting of senior management in two weeks time. write two letters of complaint. 2.
Test your knowledge in letter writing
1. Unfortunately you are very short staffed at the moment and you may not be able to meet the request. Write an answer to one of the two letters from 2. Considering the same two situations from 2. What do the two letters have in common. Name the characteristics of Block Style. Write inquiry letters to: football clubs. Home assignment: look for a business letter on the internet and write a letter to a friend you haven‘t spoken to for many years.. Email John Smith and deal with his request. 4.
. You are a textile company tailoring sportswear for famous football teams. 6. you do not want to lose John Smith as a customer and you know that he has the option of sending his samples to an external contact. announcing them that you didn‘t receive an important quantity of material you have already ordered and paid and enquiring about the reasons of the delay 3. Present orally three types of business letters you know and underline their specific characteristics. Try to write your text as quickly as you can without too much editing. Compare the two letters. On the other hand.
. To: NN Sales BB Accounts CC Advertising MM Legal TT R & D PP Production Date: 1 August 2006 From: AA (MD)
Subject: Annual Sales Meeting – 1 September Our company organizes the annual meeting with our customers on 1 September. a memo and the minutes of a meeting?
What are the advantages of using memos inside the organization? What are the differences between a memo and a letter. REPORTS MEMOS
BASIC NOTIONS MEMO LAYOUT The memo is usually used for the routine. neatness. COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM: MEMOS. A typical memo contains: Date: To: From: Subject: Many organizations have memo forms printed and contain the 4 pieces of information (arranged in almost any order. Reading
2. Read the following memo and identify its component parts. Production Group. careful arrangement. Sometimes memos are addressed to groups of people: All Sales Rep. 1. Assistant Vice Presidents. How will each receiver react to it? Comment upon the action they will take.XIV. The characteristics of a memo are: The subject line must be short but still informative. It is a memo addressed to the Heads of Departments by the Managing Director. A memo does not require a complimentary close or a signature. The program is as follows: Time 9-12 Subject new products presentation Participants BB.
1. etc. to help recipients understand at a glance what they have received and from whom. TT. Qualities of a good memo: clarity. as long as they are present). day-to-day exchange of information within a company. MINUTES. a memo and a report. The memo often has internal headings.
who wants to start up a fitness centre. Read the list and try to find an appropriate description for each of them. etc. why you want to know. and less formal.30 – 16. NICHOLSON HAD ABSOLUTELY NO IDEA HOW MUCH MONEY SHE NEEDED FOR SETTING UP HER BUSINESS!
. headings) f. bad news comes before the reasons d. 4. of acceptance. written to solicit funds. g. they are more direct. for intercultural communication. 10. 6. Loan Division Subject: Outcome of loan negotiation As a result of your request – to have the summary of my meeting with Ms. I decided to take care personally of Ms. 2. inter-office memos. Nicholson. written to provide an answer to requests j.Communication inside the Firm
12-12. 7.30 placing orders. written to people within one company. of authorization.) she came prepared to sign the papers and take the money just after our meeting. used to persuade top management to approve a proposed investment or project. say what you want to know. Will participants please brief me in writing before 15 August? I hope you will be able to join us for the cocktail party at the Intercontinental. they tell employee what to do for conveying bad news: in a memo. or cooperation h.30
coffee visit R&D department. 2. persuasive memos. Nicholson‘s impatience seemed to be trifling compared to what came next. memos written to and from subsidiaries. 30 12. or joint venture partners. information. Nicholson. short paragraphs. it acknowledges the assignment to do something (write a report) c. Nicholson regarding her loan request. I report the following: Ms. informal memos. just to make sure her request will be treated appropriately and the credit would be a viable one for our bank. periodic reports describe what has happened in a department or a division during a particular period i. 2. the opening and closing phrases are omitted
(adapted from Bovée. 8. 5. discussing terms of delivery The product presentations will be made in the Conference Room. for direct requests. branches. Considering the re-organizing activity our bank is experiencing. 9. new location lunch 14. Read and discuss the good/ bad points of the following memo: Date: 5 may 2003 To: Managing director From: assistant manager. explicit words. to estimate the feasibility of the business plan she may come with. they could be brief. a written document that authorizes you to do something (e. concise. for reports. write a report) b. You should be clear (use concrete. 1. Ms. In spite of the fact that she was told that it takes time for a bank to approve a loan (since we need to check the papers. simple and direct sentences. 30. after the merger with the Continental Bank. 3. for justification reports.g.13. 3. containing directives. came today to our bank asking for a loan to support her financial needs related to this matter. Here are several types of memos (1-10) you may be asked to write or answer to in your future career. Thill 1992)
2. responding to requests a. In 15 years of work I have never heard something like that: MS. or written to clients or other outsiders. favors. why it is in the reader‘s interest to help you e.
4. The car had an excessive speed. We waited for the police to come and they asked for all documents and the amount of $ 300. starting to complain about our bank‘s policy In conclusion. Vocabulary
Re-read the memo from 2. Comprehension
Re-write the two memos. hitting the right parapet. Re-read the memo from 2. the driver lost control of the wheel.
4. Read the following memo reporting an accident. trifling.
. give rise to. being thrown back and hitting the back of the trailer. Language focus
CAUSE AND EFFECT A. excessive. bring about. addressed to an insurance company in order to obtain money to repair the damaged car. the right corner of the bumper. Nicholson‘s skills as a sports instructor. Is the memo adequately written? Would you have any suggestions for its improvement? 2. I put down the address of the police officer who took my green card. I consider that our bank could not possibly accept the high risk to make a loan to a person who does not seem to have the ability to manage a business. She argued that she considered her professional skills to be enough for the success of her fitness club and that she does not have to know the financial data from her business plan by heart. Is the memo adequately written? Would you have any suggestions for its improvement? Date: 1 May 2003 To: ARDAF Insurance Reinsurance Company From: Tom Smith Subject: Car accident On 23 April 2003 I was driving the motor lorry with the registration number CX 473. The relationship cause-effect can be viewed in two directions: a. guilty. I think that I do not need any other argument to support my decision to refuse Ms. she did not seem to accept my doubts regarding the success of her business and took it personally. After getting in front of my lorry.3. They took the green card and they didn‘t want to return it saying that this was the procedure. result in. Moreover. crossing transversely the three lanes on the right. Nicholson refused to accept my argument that is inconceivable for a person who wants to run a business not to know the financial issues related to its activities. though I do not intend to contest Ms. account for. I do not consider myself guilty for the accident as I was driving according to regulations. with the semi trailer YZ 209 from York to Manchester on the M 45. and find antonyms for outrun. cause effect: lead to. the driver losing control of the wheel
3. At Junction 7 on the motorway I was outran on the left side by a green vehicle whose registration number I was unable to see. 4. Nicholson‘s request for a credit.
5. feasibility. reluctant. and find synonyms for: viable. be responsible for Government spending resulted in low unemployment rate. I was driving according to regulations on the left lane. refuse.Business Communication Topics
Ms. lose control. she was very reluctant.
You mustn‘t speak on the phone all day long. as a consequence/result. be required to. Used for repeated. not need to
(adapted from Brieger. so. You ought not to be so rude with them. oblige Oblige someone not to do something: prohibit. As a consequence. consequently. Used when someone else has the authority: You have to be punctual (the policy of the firm requires it). demand. be attributable to Low unemployment rate is attributable to higher government spending. general obligation: I often have to do all the work myself. B. force. The relationship cause-effect is linked by conjunctions: because. due to. Sweeney 1994: 191-192)
Revision for modals FUNCTION OBLIGATION MODAL VERB MUST HAVE TO (have got to) EXAMPLE Used when the speaker has the authority: You must write the report till tomorrow. a lot of small firms will make deposits instead of investments. make. not make Obliged to do something: must. effect cause: to result from. as. A strong prohibition: You are not to merge with them. Used for an obligation resulted from an arrangement or regulation: They are supposed to deliver the goods tomorrow. be prohibited from. need to.
HAVE TO OUGHT TO
BE SUPPOSED TO MUSTN‘T BE NOT TO
.Communication inside the Firm
b. as a consequence of He sold all his stocks. compel. that’s (the reason) why Banks offer high interest rates. D. hence. not be permitted to. may not. not compel. be supposed to. not have to. accordingly. not be allowed to. This is owing to the deceiving information he got from his broker. The cause is introduced by an adverb phrase: because of. OBLIGATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS The person/ situation causing the obligation = the obliger The person receiving the information = the obliged Oblige someone to do something: require. Used for moral obligation/ duty: You ought to pay him a visit. C. stem from. arise from. be forced to Obliged not to do something: must not/mustn‘t. forbid. not force. have to. because of this. owing to. The cause (in one sentence) is linked to an effect (in the following sentence) by a connector: therefore. cannot/can‘t Not obliged to do something: need not/ needn‘t. on account of. thus. since Their products sell on the market because their high quality. ban Not oblige someone to do something: not require.
They should have met the Japanese by now. You needn‘t be so rude. MIGHT. COULDN‘T Past deduction: MUST/ CAN‘T/ COULDN‘T + have + past participle
PERMISSION (asking for…)
Giving PERMISSION REQUESTS
Close the door! Strong commands: You are to give them an answer immediately! In informal situations: Can I smoke? In formal situations: Could I take your car? Very formal: May I see him now? Would you mind if we leave now? Yes. She couldn‘t have reacted like that. OUGHT TO HAVE + past participle MUST CAN‘T.) You request action: you make some suggestions for improving the service activity at the canteen and ask your employees to vote for them.Business Communication Topics
IMPERATIVE BE TO CAN COULD MAY WOULD CAN/ MAY (never COULD) CAN/ COULD WILL (informal. Is there any difference between printed memos and electronic memos?
7. NEEDN‘T Present/ future possibility: MAY. COULD + short infinitive Present/. You give them a questionnaire and ask them to respond to the questions. Writing
7. DON‘T HAVE TO.
NECESSITY LACK OF NECESSITY POSSIBILITY
They should be in London by now. We should have met them while in New York (not now. Can you help him? Will you close the door? Would you answer the phone? Would you mind writing the report? You should be punctual. (2 par.)
. You‘d better tell him the truth. future probability: SHOULD. OUGHT TO Past probability/ not accomplished past probability: SHOULD HAVE. Speaking
Discuss the need for conciseness and clarity in memo writing. He may be a good doctor. 1. I need to get that job.) He must be your friend It can‘t be him. Consider the following situation: You are a supervisor interested in your employees‘opinion about the quality of food at the canteen. you don‘t have to be very polite) WOULD (more polite/ formal) SHOULD SHOULD HAVE HAD BETTER NEED TO DON‘T NEED TO. Should we do that? An action not completed: He should have learned more. you can/ may. (1 par. They must have met him.
director of the Human Resources Division of IBM at Franklin Lakes. "It owns the desks. Day-shift employees must park in Lots A and B in their assigned spaces. in order to use it. You are Anna Thomson. 4. Situation: Your firm “Starcraft Engineering” changes its policy of working hours and introduces a new flex-time schedule to the R&D team. If they have not registered their cars and received their white stickers. 2. One serious problem is lack of registration (as evidenced by white stickers). following the suggestions above. She said. Use itemization techniques and strive for a tone that fosters a sense of cooperation rather than resentment. Your task is to write the memo. the cars will be ticketed. Ms. Employee Relations will be in the cafeteria May 12 and 13 from 11:30 a. Moreover. 7. the Project Manager. Day-shift employees are forbidden to park at the curb. swing-shift employees may park in any empty space— except those marked Tandem. As you recall. Letter-writing in memo form! Consider the following situation: At lunch one day you had a stimulating discussion with Barbara Wilson. Write a memo to all employees in R&D department. Employees have no legal right to use the employer's property for personal business. "If an employee can demonstrate that the employer violated his or her reasonable expectation of privacy. and everything else. or Management. Car Pool.html)
7. Return your completed questionnaire by Friday. Registration is done by Employee Relations. 3. Handicapped.. to 5 p.Communication inside the Firm
You end the memo like that: Please feel free to make additional signed or unsigned comments at the bottom of this memo.m. to take applications and issue white parking stickers. New York. "then he or she can hold the employer liable for that violation." Equally important." said Ms. Swing-shift employees may park at the curb before 3:30 p.m. Wilson. stationery. machines. Van Pool.m. and from 3 p. and you will be serving on a panel discussing e-mail privacy. even in the workplace. Both day. Day-shift employees may loan their spaces to other employees if they know they will not be using the space. To encourage registration. Memo writing again! Assume that you are Tran Crozier.
.com/~tcm/busi1304/planners/guffey815.m. Write a procedure memo that reviews the parking guidelines and encourages your employees to get their cars registered. however." You also remember a rather startling comment.io. to 1:30 p. Any car without a sticker will be ticketed. Wilson emphasized the fact that the employer owns the workplace.
(http://www. You wonder if you remembered this conversation accurately. computers. Wilson said that an employer may listen to or read only as much of a communication as is necessary for the employer to determine whether it is personal or business. about e-mail privacy. 7. The components of the project are: work 40 hours a week work a minimum of 4 days a week work no more than 12 hours a day the employees may schedule work time as they please the employees must declare their work hours during the previous week the supervisor will record each employee work schedule the employees who wish to try this new project must stay on it for three months before returning to the current policy The employees must sign up for this plan by 1 June 2003. is the recognition of a right to privacy. You brought up the topic because you will be attending a conference shortly on Internet uses and abuses. after 3:30 p.m.m. presenting them the conditions of the flex-time schedule and reminding them that they have to sign up for the plan by 1 June 2003.and swing-shift employees need to be reminded of the parking guidelines. your company attorney. Ms.
5.A.m. why and how are they used?
2. Fred Knox. Reading
Read the following article about taking minutes. will come at 9:30 a. The minutes-taker should be a participant in the meeting. in these interviews. who has been an accountant for 15 years with Bechtel Corporation. in alphabetical order. All of these appointments were for Friday.html)
1. had scheduled three appointments to interview applicants for an accounting position. etc. asking her to confirm what she said. Write a memo to Mr. generally by rank. Mr. who has a B. He asks you to reschedule all the appointments for one week later. or in some combination) ABSENT: THE BODY OF THE MINUTES includes all major decisions reached at the meeting. However. CLOSE ending formula: Submitted by (signature of the person who took the minutes. operations personnel officer. Mark Cunningham. he now must travel to Philadelphia on that weekend. all assignments of tasks to meeting participants. Wilson. tables. Stastry usually is part of the selection process. who is a CPA and a consultant to many companies. the typist initials should be added if someone else typed the minutes. Decide whether the following statements (1-7) are true (T) or false (F). Paul Scheffel. all subjects that were deferred to a later meeting it objectively summarizes important discussions and the names of those who contributed major points additional documentation may be added. Knox including all the vital information he needs. degree and eight years of experience in payroll accounting. you decide to write to Ms.Business Communication Topics
Because one of the topics your panel will discuss is whether employers may monitor e-mail. charts.com/~tcm/busi1304/planners/guffey823. October 7. if necessary (i. Your boss. will come at 11:30. 3. You're wondering if Mr. He also wants a brief summary of the background of each candidate. followed by the typed name and position of the person). 1. Knox forgot to include Don Stastry. agreed to come at 10:30 a. Geraldine Simpson.e. You call each person and arrange these times.com/~tcm/busi1304/planners/guffey828.io.io. The Chairperson will clarify any points that might have been made by the minutes-taker.
What is the difference between the agenda and the minutes of a meeting? When. reports. 2.html)
MINUTES LAYOUT SUBJECT: DATE: PRESENT: (attendees are listed. The minutes will reflect the way in which the meeting was organized.m.
especially if they seem trivial to him/her. The whole process can flow much more smoothly if the minutes-taker has some knowledge of the subjects to be discussed. having a tape recording of the meeting can be of great value. This will make for mass confusion. If there are any questions regarding importance. The minutes-taker should record every action taken. In order to allow for the minutestaker to pay the best attention possible. The meeting needs to be organized. All background information pertaining to the meeting should also be provided to the minutes-taker. In case the minutes-taker become distracted and misses something at the meeting. Be sure to list the names of all attendees making and seconding any motions. It can be replayed for the vital information that might have been overlooked. All background information used at the meeting should be provided to the minutes-taker. A motion is a formal suggestion made by an attendee at the meeting that has been seconded by another attendee. The minutes-taker should have at his or her disposal the agenda for the meeting and a copy of the minutes for the last meeting. written in a narrative style. The minutes-taker may need to restate a motion after a lengthy discussion. This should be done as soon as possible. and carried that all members of the Board will receive a three percent cost of living raise. After the meeting has finished. it should be noted if any of the attendees arrives late or leaves early. the minutes-taker should speak to the Chairperson as soon as possible after the meeting.Communication inside the Firm
4. The minutes-taker needn‘t record every action taken. The minutes-taker should have a list of all attendees at the meeting and a copy of the Agenda. Their sole responsibility should be that of taking the minutes. If this is not possible. the minutes must then be transcribed into the style that was previously followed. 7. 8:00 am. the location. It is a final accurate record of what transpired at a meeting. movers and seconders of any motions. Minutes of Narration – these include some of the discussions that took place and important details. The following article addresses some basic items to remember when taking minutes at a meeting. For the record. 6. If a meeting is not structured or if it is disorganized. 2000.
. There are three basic styles for minutes. chances are the minutes will reflect this. Tucson. The minutes-taker should sit as close as possible to the Chairperson. before the meeting begins. the Hilton Hotel on Broadway Avenue. 5. It does not have to be a difficult task. It is best to stick to the agenda as much as possible in order to keep all information on record. They may need to refer back to this information during the meeting. An example of this would be. The minutes should reflect the name of the association meeting. and then passed by a vote. whether they seem trivial or not. seconded. It is best to keep the minutes in the same style as they were recorded in the previous months meeting. Having the minutes-taker sit close by the Chairperson will make it easier for that person to clarify any points that might have been made. The following styles for minutes are: Report – this is a full record of all discussions that includes the names of all speakers. This style of minutes is considered a legal document. This will be the first step in the whole process running smoothly. Make sure that the Chairperson holding the meeting understands the fundamentals of what must occur. It is therefore very important to record these motions exactly as they have been stated. The minutes-taker should not be a participant in the meeting.
Taking minutes Taking minutes is a necessity of many organizational gatherings. Record motions properly. date and time of the meeting as well. January 1. Arizona. An example of how to document a motion is as follows: Moved. he or she should not be a participant in the meeting — only the taker of the minutes. pass around a piece of paper for everyone to print his or her name on. You shouldn‘t discuss business that is not on the agenda at the meeting. ―MINUTES OF THE MEETING OF ABC COMPANY‖. Do not allow any business to be discussed that is not on the agenda. It is not necessary that the minutes-taker note if any of the attendees arrives late or leaves early.
and D. EasyScript/ComputerScript was introduced (A) to writing and typing faster.essortment. Each resolution that is made commences RESOLVED THAT. Minutes-taking is a necessity for formal meetings. A. It is estimated that (A) up to 70% of small and medium size corporations in the United States are not (B) in compliance to their State or Federal Requirements. These systems (B) are mainly used in the courtrooms and for deaf and hard of hearing individuals to provide real time translation from speech to text and a written record that (C) can be reviewed later. Real-time captioning and speech-to-text systems provide an accurate transcription of words (A) for they are spoken into text. (C) It doesn't take long to learn. 2. easier. two major options (D) are available to provide real-time captioning and speech-to-text processing. Movers and seconders are not recorded. 4. and installed in their corporation record's book. C. find the underlined part. One of the main reasons is that their meeting minutes are incomplete and improperly recorded (D) due to the lack of appropriate systems and tools to accurately record meeting minutes. For each sentence. B. Writing meeting minutes 1. signed. The steno-based systems use a 24-key machine to encode (A) phonetic spoken words and to enter them into a computer where they are converted into readable text and (B) can be displayed on a computer screen or television monitor (C) in real time. This revolutionary way to learn speed writing and typing will enable you to take meeting minutes quickly and accurately. A. There is always one possible answer. that makes the sentence incorrect. computer-aided note taking systems are (C) more costly effective. This style of minutes is also considered a legal document. and more efficiently than any method (B) you have ever used.
. 5. just a few hours. These systems are also called CART (computeraided real-time transcription) because they are often transported from one location to another on wheels.Business Communication Topics
Minutes of Resolution – these are limited to the recording of the actual words of all resolutions that were passed. and order/message processing. or D. tape and message transcription. (C) have them recorded. Currently.com/takingmeetingm_rrga. For computer-aided note taking systems (CAN) a standard keyboard is used to input words in an abbreviated form as they are being spoken and transcription software translates the abbreviations (A) into readable format. Good luck!
(http://iaia. (D) Due to the high cost of equipment and stenotypist training. The method of abbreviating words is a major factor of how efficiently you can process and enter verbal information (D) in an abbreviated form. Comprehension
Answer: What are the three styles for minutes? Which of the three styles do you consider the most effective for the company you work for? (or an organization you know)
In each of the following paragraphs (1-6) there are four underlined parts. steno-based systems are mainly used in courtrooms when verbatim is required. C. For non-verbatim applications (B) such as meeting minutes. B. and you (D) can become effective taking meeting minutes and more comfortable with this work assignment. yet it doesn‘t have to be difficult.htm)
3. Use the tips listed above the next time you or someone else needs to take the minutes at a meeting. 3. They do not document their corporation meetings with minutes.
. and Interim City Clerk … **** Mayor Wilson announced that the Council met in closed session to … **** ANNOUNCEMENTS Mayor Wilson asked if there were any changes or additions to the agenda. In contrast. 2005 A regular meeting of the City Council of the City of … was held January 11. Those in attendance were presented with a plaque. The Interim City Clerk noted that there were none. Language focus
Independent work: revise the SEQUENCE OF TENSES. Supplementary material Read the following minutes. Each officer received a plaque and was presented with a bouquet of flowers for their significant others by the Mayor. Detective …. Productivity Plus. As a result.m. In addition. MINUTES OF THE CITY OF … – COUNCIL MEETING January 11. ShortCut Windows and Abbreviate) assign a unique code (A) to each word. Existing typing abbreviation systems (Instant Text. **** PRESENTATIONS Mayor Wilson recognized San Ramon Police Officers … and … as Police Officers of the Year for 2004.
7. Vice Mayor … and Mayor Wilson. Writing
Prepare the formal minutes of a meeting you have attended. Mayor Wilson asked if there were any changes or additions to the Boards.html)
5.com/meetingminutes. If you don't remember the codes you (B) will not able to retrieve a corresponding full word. The Interim City Clerk noted that there were none. a certificate. 2005 at 7:07 p.easyscript.Communication inside the Firm
6. 2222 Camino Ramon. Test and practice Write the minutes for an imaginary business situation. You will need to memorize tens of thousands of abbreviations to type efficiently. Present it to your colleagues. Mayor Wilson presiding. in the City Council Chamber at City Hall.
Point out the importance of the minutes of a meeting. and Officer … were thanked for their service to the San Ramon Police Department by Mayor Wilson. …. Identify its components. learning curve and memorization volume are drastically reduced and attaining proficiency can be achieved in (D) a short period of time. PRESENT: Council members …. Computer script (C) assigns all words to five basic categories and you only need to learn one rule per specific category. Planning Services Director …. Committee and Commission meetings schedule. City Attorney …. Officer …. these systems do not provide codes for all words and the user has to create additional abbreviations.
6. Parks and Community Services Director …. Police Chief …. and flowers for their significant others by the Mayor. STAFF PRESENT: City Manager ….
**** UNFINISHED BUSINESS Public Hearing #2 . He requested that the Council open the public hearing. This event recognizes and honors returning local military servicemen. A motion by Cm. **** NEW BUSINESS Grant Funding Agreement for Child Care Facility at Bollinger Canyon School
. the Stormwater Management and Discharge Control Ordinance. at the Crow Canyon Country Club in Danville. Cm. thanked the Mayor for attending the December 29. She invited interested individuals to attend their monthly meeting on the third Wednesday of each month at 12:15 p. Mayor Wilson thanked Mr. Communication was received on this item. 2004 Sentinels of Freedom meeting at San Ramon Valley High School. Rowley asked to remove Item 8.1. Hudson requested more detail on the definition of the transit village and if there are any stipulations on the low and moderate income housing projects. Cm. C. The General Plan Amendment is being submitted to correct a mapping error and the appropriate designation for this property. Six San Ramon servicemen were among the fourteen honored.2 from the Consent Calendar was seconded by Cm. from the agenda. Mr. Mike C.2. be removed from the agenda. Interested persons may contact her for additional information. Hudson‘s motion to approve the following Consent Calendar was seconded by Vice Mayor Livingstone and passed 5-0. **** CITY COUNCIL APPOINTMENTS The Interim City Clerk noted that there are none. and continue the public hearing to the next Council meeting for consideration of the resolution and ordinance for approval and adoption. Hudson and passed 5-0.m. No public comments were received. Hudson and passed 5-0. for his service on this project. Perkins to remove items 8.Business Communication Topics
Mayor Wilson thanked the officers for their service. **** CONSENT CALENDAR The Mayor requested that Item 8. recognized the Mayor‘s efforts and said that he appreciated the Mayor‘s support of the program.2. She also described their winter fund raiser which is a performance of the "Wigged Out" show in Danville on February 26 includes a raffle with great prizes. The item was referred to staff. 2004 meeting was seconded by Cm. Cm. Cm. Hudson clarified that the item would be discussed at the January 25th Council meeting and not at the January 22nd workshop.1 and 8. **** APPROVAL OF MINUTES Vice Mayor Livingstone‘s motion to approve the minutes of the December 20. Theo N.General Plan Amendment for the N‘s Restaurant Property The Planning Services Director reported that this is the second public hearing in a series of three required under Measure G. C. He requested further evaluation from staff. He noted that the Planning Commission has conducted the required hearings and they unanimously recommended forwarding the item to the City Council for its approval. Hudson‘s motion to continue the public hearing to the next Council meeting for action was seconded by Vice Mayor Livingstone and passed 5-0. accept public testimony. Cm. **** PUBLIC COMMENT The Interim City Clerk reported that two people have requested to speak under Public Comment and that one fax was received relating to Item 8. spoke on behalf of Soroptomist International of San Ramon. concerning the carpet cleaning agreement. for continually demonstrating excellence in the execution of their duties and for their significant and valuable contributions to the City.
Cm.m. Cm. Executive Director for Kids‘ Country. reviewed the history of Kids‘ Country operation at Bollinger Canyon School. She also invited the public to attend the Dublin San Ramon Women‘s Club‘s First Annual Art Auction and Wine Event on January 30. 2005 City Council meeting. Mr. **** CITY MANAGER COMMENTS The City Manager had no report. He invited citizens to bring any hazardous material concerns to his attention. thanked the Council for the opportunity to speak to them about the project.Communication inside the Firm
The Parks and Community Services Director said it was the recommendation of staff that the Council adopt Resolution 2005-01. and the City which benefits everyone.ci. Mayor Wilson asked for a moment of silence for the tsunami victims. and for nominating him to the Hazardous Waste Commission. There were no questions from the Council. Cm. Rowley complimented the Mayor on the State of the City address which he presented at the January 11.m.us/councilminutes/yr2005/ccmins01-11-05. 2005
(http://www. Leonard H. He noted that he will not be present for the January 25. He remarked that the City funded the original building in 1989 with the adoption of the Child Care Ordinance. Rowley and passed 5-0. The procedure to do the GPA was brought under review by Supervisor U. Interim City Clerk Approved: January 25. There was no public comment. There being no further business to come before the City. Perkins thanked former Vice Mayor Hudson for his service last year. Rowley observed that this is another example of a wonderful partnership between Kids‘ Country. Hudson‘s motion to approve the resolution was seconded by Cm. 2005 from 1:00 to 5:00 p. 2005 Chamber of Commerce luncheon. The GPA included 55 homes and some commercial buildings at the former Navlet‘s site. 2004 to review the proposal and recommended forwarding the item to the Council for its approval.html)
. He added that he is looking forward to working with Vice Mayor Livingstone. and recapped their experiences with the other sites that they operate in San Ramon. Abram Wilson. Hudson reported that the last SWAT meeting included a General Plan Amendment (GPA) from Danville. H. The Parks and Community Services Director introduced Mr. The San Ramon Valley Unified School District has approved a new master plan for the entire Bollinger Canyon site with the exception of the kindergarten and the new multi-purpose room and this plan requires the relocation and retrofitting of the child care facility. for training him in the ways of Council procedures. at the San Ramon Golf Club. He introduced his staff.ca. The Director noted that the Finance Committee met on December 8. Mayor Patricia Edwards. Cm. the meeting was adjourned at 8:12 p. Signed: H. **** COUNCIL MEMBER REPORTS Cm.san-ramon. Tickets are $35 per person.. the San Ramon Valley Unified School District. He noted that Kids‘ Country is in a position to rebuild and they need to replace the structure with a building that conforms to current seismic requirements and State building codes.
e.especially useful for business problems . recommendation .g.formal/ informal .audit report
. methodology. What kind of reports have you already written? Types of reports A. LONG Characteristics . recommendation Definition: a presentation for consideration of something -types: invited proposals. Prerequisites of a good report: Carefully prepared Unbiased approach Based on real events. facts. findings and analyses. discussion.written in the direct order (it gives the main message first.in long form these reports vary so much that they say no typical form exists .progress report .personal writing is common .little need for introductory material .highly elaborate . problem/objective. facts.g. if possible. objective records and accurate data Useful for the organization Read about the types of reports and their characteristics.it contains ample information .the technical report .REPORTS
BASIC NOTIONS A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual information that serves a business purpose.memorandum reports (informal style) B. conclusions and recommendations) .in short form.the proposal (vary in length)
You can write a good report if you are well informed.
. e.it follows a fixed plan irrespective with the problem discussed . Read about the report sources.staff report
. a university department writes proposals to philanthropic foundations
.usually begin directly – with conclusions and recommendations .letter reports (personal style) . resemble rational sales letters.it presents a review of progress made on an activity . SHORT (the most common in business) . a government agency might have funds to award for research projects prospecting proposals. it is a standardized statement verifying an accountant‘s inspection of a firm‘s financial records . discussion. conclusion. conclusions. then introductory material is presented.parts: identifying information. summary.typically organized in a fixed order introduction.it consists of a title page and the report text . add some more.any type of long reports can also have a short form .
readers will always find it easier to deal with fewer items at a time than many items. his publication (1956) is also probably his least-read. revisiting an article often leads to inspiration and the discovery of new ways to build on those old thoughts.government documents Computerized databanks Note cards
1. Choose the best sentence from the list below (A-G) to fill each gap (1-5). /0 B/ In effect. F More interestingly. almanacs.books and articles .basic references (dictionaries. several generations of writers have made the assumption that (for example) lists and procedures should contain no more than five to nine steps. E In effect. but he is famous for discovering "the magical number seven. minutes. based solely so far as I can tell on the title of Miller's article and the myths that have grown up around it. this represents the number of cognitive tools typical readers can hold in their mind's hand (so to speak) and use to attack a problem. D All else being equal. biographical reference books. the article actually discusses the human ability to reliably distinguish categories (for example. There is one sentence that you do not need. /1__/
. There is an example at the beginning (0-B). B This failure to consult the source has led to one of the more pernicious misunderstandings in the field of technical communication. Reading
Do you remember the article about “Ten Technical Communication Myths” by Geoff Hart? Read now about myth number five which mainly deals with the problem of „how much information the audience can manage at a single time‟. C Given the importance of what Miller discusses. G That may mean we'll have to reconsider an interface design because we're asking users to deal with too many inputs at once.abstracts . etc. The Optimum Number of Steps in a Procedure is 7 Plus or Minus 2 George Miller studied. As it happens. distinct shades of gray. sound levels) and the related issue of "channel capacity. encyclopedias.Communication inside the Firm
Report sources primary sources Facts Questionnaires (opinions) Library resources: . reports) Why is direct order preferred in the shorter reports?
2. human short-term memory. Discussion
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of formality for the documents used inside the company (memos.) . among other things." which represents (simplistically) how much information your audience can manage at a single time. A Our value as communicators lies in our ability to figure out where the barriers to usability lie and create documentation that guides users as painlessly as possible around the problems. we should begin thinking about how to test the applicability of this body of research in our own unique context so we can begin applying the new findings to our work." Unfortunately.
3.techwr-l. both because I want to encourage you to read the original article yourself and because an update on this subject merits its own article. we notice it first because we have a devil of 4__ time trying to document 5__ to use it. For example.g.
(adapted from: http://www. and if something is difficult to use. we need to learn to write in such a way as to let readers digest one chunk of information before we force them to begin dealing with the next one.
Read about another myth of technical communication – “You can Make a Bad Interface Easy to Use Through Superior Documentation”. The value added tax.techwr-l. Comprehension
What does Miller‟s article actually discusses and what trend did it initiated? Debate upon the need to consult the source when doing research. But corporate culture is often such that making our voices 15__ is difficult. I'm not the first to recognize this. 13__ am I the first to propose that we do something about 14__. namely Mr.Business Communication Topics
I won't try to summarize 16 pages of rich. We should always go to the source rather than blindly accepting someone else's report of what that source said. even if they're not the ones we've assumed for almost 50 years. /5__/
(adapted from: http://www. increasingly.html#myth1)
5. that is to say By reformulation: the first idea is reworded Or (rather). namely. our audiences have very real limits on how much information they can process simultaneously. that means. e. will visit our company tomorrow. that's the role we must take 12__ for ourselves. Tanaka. 1__ definition. If we can understand the barriers well 10__ to solve the problems in our documentation.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths. in more technical terms Our major investor. (more) simply/ to put it simply. /3__/ Miller's study does have intriguing implications for technical communication. and it's time we began making concerted efforts to go one step 9__. Language focus
EQUATING AND INCLUDING IDEAS To give more information about an item you can use two types of text connectors: By designation: the second idea is identified as the equivalent of the first. /4__/ As a starting point for applying Miller's findings.
4. And we should. that's all that most of us have been able to do thus far. /2__/ While we wait for those results to trickle in. and there are many barriers raised in our paths. two things we already know give us much to ponder. technically (speaking). moderately dense prose by Miller in any depth. and recognizing the existence of these limits means that we need to better understand how we can help readers to process information. Unfortunately. simply VAT will rise again. Use only one word in each space. in other words. For each blank (1-15) think of the word that best fits in the context. 11__ we understand the barriers well enough to propose changes in the interface itself. but it greatly reduces the number of myths and misconceptions that we'll perpetrate and perpetuate. Our value as communicators 6__ in our ability to figure out where the barriers to usability lie and create documentation 7__ guides users as painlessly as possible 8__ the problems. I stated earlier that one thing that makes us so valuable 3__ our employers is our ability to think like the product's users. This takes longer and usually requires considerably more thought on our part. really good documentation makes even the worst interface easier to use—but it will never 2__ a truly bad product easy to use.
especially. Sweeney 1994: 176)
6. and accounting became a sort of fashion nowadays. chiefly
The economical sciences.Communication inside the Firm
The first item includes the second: Exemplification: for example. need a lot of practice. Speaking
Discuss the differences between letter reports and memo reports. Writing
You are the manager of a large high-tech retail store and you are concerned about customers complaints of late deliveries of computers purchased. You are the manager‟s assistant in the case above. say. for instance. notably. especially management. You want to know the cause of the delays. you ask your assistant to write a short report about this problem. in a memo. The economical sciences.
7. as follows Highlighting: in particular. Consequently. such as. such as management.
. Write the memo.
(Brieger. marketing. Find three major differences in writing short and long reports. Write the short report.
Which are the factors that affect the report format. objective document that serves a business purpose. manuscript formal/informal. another person = authorized reports) Subject: What subject does the report cover? (economic. BUSINESS REPORTS
BASIC ELEMENTS format Essentials in report writing style organization letter. 1. accounting. style and organization? What types of reports do you know? Consider the following and fill in the table below with the corresponding types of reports: Origin: who initiated the report? (yourself = voluntary report. Routine/ special Internal/external ……………… …………………. memo. 1992: 343) Can other elements/ characteristics be added in order to make the definition more clear? How long should a business report be?
2. Thill.” (Bovée. recommendations) Probable reception: How receptive is the reader? Voluntary/authorized Technical.
Types of reports
Read the following definition of a business report and comment upon it: “any factual. Work in groups.XV.
. interpretation. etc. ……………………. impersonal/personal grouping of ideas
1. analytical reports – that include analysis. Reading
2. conclusions. …) Timing: When is the report prepared? (routine/ special reports) Distribution: Where is the report being sent? (internal/ external reports) Purpose: Why is the report being prepared? (informational reports – focused on facts. Here are some tips for writing a report: consider the audience before beginning and while writing the report describe facts or events in concrete terms be clear and concise report all the relevant facts put the facts in perspective give plenty of evidence for your conclusions present only valid evidence and supportable conclusions keep your personal biases in check Choose one of them and discuss the advantages of using it and the disadvantages of ignoring it. business.
statement of the purpose and scope of your investigation
. description of the end products that will result from the investigation (e. Plans. to document work performed for a client. position reports f. The income tax return. to monitor and control operations – (help managers find out what‘s happening) 2. 2. plans. Justification reports d.g. indicating who will be responsible for what. used to persuade top management to approve a proposed investment or project 9. indicating sources of information. required experiments or observations. Justification reports or internal proposal report h. the annual report to a company‘s shareholders i. analyze problems and propose solutions a. final reports g. to help implement policies and procedures – help managers communicate the company‘s standards 3. to comply with legal or regulatory requirements – explain what a company is doing to conform to government regulations. presentation of the tasks to be accomplished. money. to guide decisions on particular issues – help managers make decisions about problems and opportunities. 6. unsolicited proposals (initiated by a company in order to obtain business or funding on its own)
3. statement of the problem d. when tasks will be completed. schedules. Interim progress reports. Would you find an appropriate sequence of the actions? a. contain background information and analysis of options 8. tangible products) c. how much the investigation will cost e. procedure reports. Research reports e. Solicited proposals (prepared at the request of clients.Business Reports
2. operating reports.it should provide all the information the client needs. review of project assignments. and resource requirements. guidelines. available data) b. Speaking
Work in groups: answer the following questions: What are the important steps in report preparation? What does a formal work plan contain?
You have below the answer to the second question but the steps mentioned are not in the right order. meant to show that your organization is better qualified than your competitors to handle a particular contract). General Purposes of the Reports Match the characteristics of the reports (1-9) with the appropriate type of report (a-i): 1. Reports. personal activity reports c. operating improvements. to obtain new business or funding – sales proposals: 5. Troubleshooting reports b. and restrictions (on time. 7. they are required by law 4. Memos.
There are three basic trends: ascending. ―An investigation of…‖ e. horizontal. the name of the author. your expectations// introduces the purpose. references: the list includes any documentation that is not your own (books. (contract number. each expressed by several verbs and nouns.Business Communication Topics
4. Thill 1992: part five Reports and Proposals)
5. i. Report writing
Generally. include keywords in your title but omit words and phrases such as ―A study on…‖. Tom Smith Chief Executive Officer AMRO Bank 13 July 2003
by Anna Thomson PR director B. recommendations G. title page: the report title.e. data. table of contents: contains each major section of the report. body. discussion: analyze the results. introduction: your hypothesis. in an abbreviated form. abstract: the representation of the contents. descending. b. results of tests. tell what was done and present selected results. the date the report was completed. The parts of the abstract are: BASIC ELEMENTS. body: it includes details. D. articles)
(adapted from Bovée. you should introduce your subject matter. C. CONFIDENTIAL). Language focus
DESCRIBING TRENDS Trends are changes or movements. research problem. conclusions (it may consist of: a. as you can read in the following table:
.: Using personal computers in PR department Submitted to Mr. c. conclusion: summarize your results) F. acknowledgements: you should give credit to all who assisted you H. results and conclusion. experiment: describe the method you used to collect your data and observations. an explanation of your idea. and background of the research (facts that the reader must know in order to understand the discussion) E. the name of the person/ company/ organization for whom the report has been prepared. in a paragraph of about 150 words. a security classification. scope (outlines the method of investigation).g. a report should contain: A. facts.
You are asked to write a report about the curriculum of your specialty/ the educational system in Romania/ the academic perspectives/ a random topic. level off. huge(ly). Read an article and write an informative abstract to convey the main points from it. slight(ly). rise and do not use down after fall. gradual rise. a little The speed of change: rapid(ly). moderate(ly). erratic movements. dramatic fall. quick(ly). b. gradual fall. decline. Before you actually write your report.
NOTES Do not use up after increase. Writing practice
a. sharp recovery. slow(ly)
substantial(ly). a plateau. risen. vast(ly). gradual(ly). steady increase. try this prewriting exercise: provide answers for the following issues: describe the purpose of your report describe the most important feature of your report
. Try to clearly summarize and NOT describe the information from the article. take a plunge. enormous(ly). decrease Rise. raise. rose. swift(ly). significant(ly). drop. raise. reach a peak
6. Useful words and expressions: Fluctuation. leap upwards. (AE) Use: to increase by (with the verb) // an increase of (with the noun) Use: to rise to (verb) // a rise to (noun) Interpreting graphs. considerable/considerably.Business Reports
Intransitive verbs increase increase raise rise put/push/step up go/be up grow extend extend expand expand boom keep/ hold … stable/ remain stable constant maintain … (at the same stay constant level) decrease decrease fall drop drop put/ push down go/ be down decline cut reduce collapse slump
Nouns increase rise growth extension expansion boom stability
decrease fall drop decline cut reduction collapse (dramatic fall) slump (dramatic fall)
Other phrases: To focus on a particular point: to stand at Maximum: to reach a peak You may also need to describe: The degree of change: dramatically. raised mean ―increase in pay‖: Workers get an annual rise of 10%. (BE) // Workers get an annual raise of 10%.
If you are seeking to publish your report. museums. Consider the specific guidelines under which you are working. cultural facilities – theatre. Write a report about the leisure facilities in your native town. Write a report about the meeting between three bank officials and two groups of students. Clark Nicholson as a potential client of the bank. Include: sport facilities. First. g. e. Suggest that the bank committee may trust him in offering a loan of $ 200. If relevant. with a figure? Describe the consequences of your research. 000 for a new business he wants to start (The National Gazette. h. educational background) of the students at your college/ university the best part-time employment opportunities in your community the best of two health/ gym clubs in your community actions that can be taken in your community to combat alcohol/ drug abuse improvements that can be made in the food service at your university your university‘s image in the community and ways to improve it your community‘s strengths and weaknesses in attracting new businesses Choose one topic and write a report.
. c. etc. make some notes on the topic. residence. a financial magazine). Highlight his qualities as a businessman and mention some of his profitable businesses. socioeconomic status. Write a report about the consequence of introducing 20 new buses (bought from Icarus) on the already existing routes of your transport agency.. Imagine that your managing director asked you to investigate the use of paper in your company‟s offices and to make recommendations for improvement.Business Communication Topics
make a list of anyone who could be involved in writing the report compile a list of works that you used in your report describe the ways in which your report proves or disproves other reports (if the case) describe the background of the report/ topic describe what you expected to find before you began your research. in a table. describe the journals in which you would like to see your report appear. make a list of the sections you are required to include in your report. The second group operates parttime computing consultancy for two years already but they still have to improve their market strategy. Mention the fact that you had to hire new personnel (15 bus-drivers) and to train them. requiring capital for their business. You are John McGuiver. how did your results differ from your expectations? Describe your findings. d. You will perhaps find out that… you discussed with… their opinion is… Your recommendations could be:. the manager of the loan department of a commercial Bank. employment. f. The first group wants to open a small shop selling CDs. Write a report to the Board in which you highly recommend Mr. How will it affect future activity of the organization? Describe the ideal audience for your report. How can you best represent them: with text. Give arguments for the choice of the three bank officials. gender. Consider the following topics for reports: a demographic profile (age. Link this project to your future plans of expanding your business. They have much knowledge in the field but they don‘t have experience at all in business.
Investigate the problem of unemployment in your town/city and recommend ways to decrease it. Advise your company on the advantages and disadvantages of hiring students from the local university. 3. Afterwards. Only after you have all the necessary information. Give examples of routine report problems. In your group or with a colleague. 6. 7. write the report.
Test your report writing skills
Draft the report to your MD. find elements that may fit in the blank spaces. 2. Recommend for your company a city and hotel for holding its annual meeting of sales representatives. What can your company do to improve the quality of its product or service? 8. 9.
. Write a report about the impact of mass media in the Romanian business environment. What is the difference between a letter report and a memorandum report? 4. read the report in your group and discuss the quality of the report you wrote. What are the characteristics of a technical report? 5. 10. Report to your company on the ethics and effectiveness of subliminal advertising. Describe the organization of the conventional short report.
summarizing good behavioural skills
1. sticking to the point good language skills: asking for repetition and clarification. keeping an eye on the time. the secretary. Discussion
When should you call a meeting? Debate upon the importance of the meetings for the business environment. On the other hand. clarifying problems. Our advice? Being realistic is the best way to allocate an appropriate amount of time for a meeting. directing conversation towards conclusions. preventing irrelevance. Don't try to cram too many agenda topics into a 30-minute meeting.
Essential elements of a meeting
PURPOSE: Problem-solving. training AGENDA (list of points) MEMBERS: the chairman. then allocate an appropriate amount of time.
. controlling decision-making. Find the title (A-F) that best suits each group of paragraphs (1-6). stopping people talking. You'll end up going overtime and attendees will become frustrated. When scheduling your meeting. idea-gathering. the other participants RESULT (the goal of the meeting) REPORT: the minutes of the meeting
Prerequisites of a good meeting: good chairing skills: controlling. BUSINESS MEETINGS PLANNING AND STEPS OF A MEETING
BASIC NOTIONS Definition: The gathering together of a group of people for a controlled discussion with a specific purpose. bringing people in. don't schedule too much time or the meeting may become slow-moving and get off-topic.
2.XVI. A Lead the Meeting B Provide the Meeting Information C Schedule the Meeting D Wrap-up the Meeting E Create the Meeting Information F Distribute the Meeting Information
Leading a Meeting 1. Reading
Read the following guidelines for leading a meeting. consider the information that must be covered. paraphrasing. indicating follow-up tasks good participating skills: listen actively.
everyone has a clear picture of who's responsible for what when the meeting's over. When sending invitations to a meeting. who's responsible and by when. it gives them sufficient time to prepare for any discussions or decisions that will occur during the meeting. Assign a particular individual or group to follow-up on each action item. Even if it's thirty minutes earlier than expected! Don't continue meeting simply because that's what the schedule dictates. more in-depth discussions. This way. high-conflict meetings. 6. whether it's on an interactive whiteboard. ask attendees if they have any agenda item requests. "That's a valid point. you're responsible for recording the meeting notes. Introduce each agenda item by mentioning who will speak next and what will be discussed. Perhaps we should schedule a separate meeting to address it fully. flipchart or in a notebook. Many people will automatically allocate either 30 minutes or a full hour when scheduling a meeting simply because these quantities of time are common and expected. This means steering the meeting discussion in a way that fulfills the meeting objectives. As the meeting leader. 5. Schedule a 40-minute meeting if that's the amount of time it takes to cover the subject. Another item that should be addressed at the end of your meeting is the meeting process itself. At the end of the meeting. the agenda must be created at least one day before the meeting is scheduled. the leader should review the action items. Once the meeting objective has been accomplished. send the meeting information to all the participants. After the meeting is over. "It's obvious there are some opposing views surrounding this issue. If you have difficult personalities in the room or opposing views. Carefully consider who should be attending the meeting. This also saves time during the meeting. adjourn the meeting. but doesn't directly apply to this discussion. begin when you said you would. you may be the only one who has this information after
. it's best to address what's possible in the meeting but consider hiring a professional facilitator for the next meeting – a neutral leader who's trained to deal with high-pressure. this can be challenging! Try using sentences such as. Perhaps our time would be best spent working towards a compromise. As the meeting begins. When participants have the agenda and access to background information before the meeting. Only invite those whose attendance is absolutely necessary. It's also your responsibility to keep the meeting on track. These individuals will be thankful for that one extra meeting they DIDN'T have to attend that week. A deadline and priority level should also be assigned for the action items. Once the agenda items have been requested. If attendees come to the meeting prepared.Business Meetings
Don't get caught up on halves and wholes. Start your meeting on time! Even if all the attendees haven't arrived. but whose attendance isn't absolutely necessary. Adhering to the schedule sends out a message that you're serious about the meeting and expect attendees to arrive on time. Any suggestions?" If a meeting becomes particularly heated. This provides direction for the meeting and reinforces what needs to be accomplished during this time. you can distribute the agenda to all of the attendees before the meeting begins. less time will be spent answering background information questions and more time for discussing the important issues." Or. 2. Because you were responsible for note-taking during the meeting. All of us already attend too many meetings. remind participants that it's their responsibility to come prepared to the meeting! 4. Items that surface and must be addressed should be assigned during the meeting discussion. Don't feel pressured to fill an hour if you don't have an hour of issues to cover. 3. Take a few moments at the end of the meeting to discuss what the group did well during the meeting and which areas need improving. provide an overview of agenda items and introduce the overall objective of the meeting. send them a quick e-mail outlining the outcomes of the meeting. This way. This will free participants from the burden of notetaking and encourage richer. When distributing the agenda. If there's someone who should know what happened in the meeting.
etc. sharing this meeting information is vital for proper follow-up. moving to the 1st point 3. This acts as a reminder to all participants of who's responsible for what and by when. decision-making. keeping an eye on the time 12. opening/ objectives 2. listening actively 7.effectivemeetings. encouraging hesitant speakers 5. paraphrase 10.
(http://www. moving to the next point 13.com/meetingbasics/before. controlling decision making
. arranged in logical order according to the table below: STEPS OF THE MEETING 1. Vocabulary
Match the following groups of useful phrases you can use during a meeting with the current steps of the meeting. stopping people talking 6. asking for repetition/clarification 8.) GO ALONG/ BODY OF THE MEETING move to the first point on the agenda hand over to another person bring people into discussion/stop people talking listen actively/ask for repetition or clarification prevent irrelevance paraphrase summarize (keep eye on time) move to the next point control decision-making indicate follow-up task CLOSE MEETING thank participants announce next meeting
4.Business Communication Topics
the meeting ends. summarizing 11. Comprehension
Compare the information you have just got from the text with the following steps of the meeting: OPEN THE MEETING invite introductions from participants (if necessary) explain purpose present agenda discuss ground rules (who speaks. It's also a good idea to include a summary of all the action items assigned during the meeting. Whether you provide the notes by e-mail or photocopied hand-outs.asp)
3. preventing irrelevance 9. handling over to another person 4.
shall we? Shall we start/ get started/ make a start? First of all. D. over to you. H. Keep to the point. I think you wanted to say something? I. please. Pete. Mary. I think we should begin. Let‘s move on to/look at the first point. We‘re beginning to lose sight of the main point. first. how about preparing some figures for the next meeting? B. then Tim. closing the meeting PHRASES A. to…and secondly to… We are here today to consider firstly…secondly…thirdly……… The main objective of our meeting is………… I‘ve called this meeting first to…. I think we‘ve all got the point now. I‘d like to introduce two colleagues from… Have you all got a copy of the agenda? The purpose of this meeting is. Paul? G. Well. thank you. To sum up then… So. Tina? Anything to add. thanks. ladies and gentlemen. I think that‘s clear now. Clint. We haven‘t heard from you yet. Could we have some other opinions? Right. thank you. One at a time. As some of you probably know. Right then. Let‘s begin/ get going. As you know. Would you like to begin/ to open the discussion…? Perhaps you‘d like to explain/ tell us/ give us… What do you think…? Shall we continue then? Let‘s move on. please! We can‘t all speak at once.
. What do you think about… Would you like to add anything. Right. F. Shall we move on? Okay. Would you like to comment here? What about you? E. Right then. I‘m afraid that‘s outside the scope of this meeting. … Some months / years ago/ yesterday… The situation now is… Right. secondly to………. I think we‘d better leave that subject for another meeting. I think we should begin. then Nina. Tom. do you think you could…? Tina. Tom. indicating follow-up tasks 15. to summarize what has been said so far… C. Would you mind addressing your remarks to the chair? Well. Tom. I think it‘s about time we got started/ going. Perhaps we‘d better get started/ get down to business. George. Tom first.Business Meetings
That just about covers everything.. Driscoll. / Right. So what you are saying is… In other words…/ So you mean…/ So.Business Communication Topics
Right. I‘d like to thank our guest for coming over from…. please? Okay.
. we agree with some reservations/ unanimously that… Well. Language focus
ABILITY AND INABILITY Study the table: Make someone able or something possible Enable Allow Permit
Be able Can Be able to Be capable of (+ …ing)
Make unable/ impossible Prohibit Prevent Stop (+from+…ing)
Be unable Can‘t Not be able to/be unable to Be incapable of (+. Who‘s going to open this one? Well. I‘d like to propose that…/ the following amendment… Can we take a vote on that proposal? All those in favour. L. I understand. / Okay. ing)
(see Brieger. Could you please be brief? K. Pilbeam. I think that covers everything on that point. would you like to introduce the next point. I see. So that motion has been accepted/ rejected by 5 votes to 3. We are running short of time. Meetings and discussions. Writing
Write the minutes of a meeting you attended. Right.
5. Right. / That‘s interesting. I don‘t quite follow you. Let‘s move on. thank you. on to item five. the next meeting will be on… (date) at…(time) Thanks for your participation Right. Speaking
Identify circumstances in the business activity that can be solved by calling a meeting. / Okay. So. J. Right. Tim. Let‘s move on to the next point. Could you go over that again.
(see Ellis. Very well. Would you mind repeating it. All those against. I declare the meeting closed. if I understand you correctly… M. There‘s not much time left. please? I‘m sorry. then. please? What exactly do you mean by…? O. Sweeney 1994: 196)
6. it seems that we are broadly in agreement that… N. Right.
in your opinion. participants. ACTIVE PARTICIPATION/ TAKING PART STRATEGIES Active participation involves the use of some typical language functions such as: getting attention checking and confirming information asking for/ giving opinions comparing/ contrasting ideas agreeing/ disagreeing asserting and toning down information advising and suggesting connecting and sequencing ideas requesting information/ action describing trends Active participation involves techniques of questioning such as: have a definite purpose build clear questions ask well-balanced questions (not too easy/ wait for the answer (do not answer your own questions don‘t‘ interrupt encourage complete answers
. actions. Follow-up: distribute the meeting‘s minutes. location. Thill 1992: 522)
self-oriented Roles people play in groups (group dynamics)
You can read about some of the duties a leader has for managing a meeting. What are. and recommendations. restate main points at the end. Controlling/ dominating others Withdrawing/ retiring from the group Diverting Encouraging Harmonizing/ reconciling Compromising Initiating Information giving/ seeking Coordinating Procedure setting
(Bovée. In which category would you include yourself? Bring arguments in favour of your choice. environmental facilities Conduct: begin and end on time. agenda. take the follow-up action agreed to b. But the participants have their duties too. those duties? The leader‘s duties: pacing the meeting appointing a note taker following the agenda stimulating participation and discussion summarizing the debate reviewing recommendations circulating the minutes What do you know about the strategies one should use to make a meeting successful? There are: a. encourage participation. COORDINATING STRATEGIES Preparation: objectives. sum up decisions.Business Meetings
MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIES OF A MEETING
BASIC NOTIONS Read about the roles people play in groups. control the meeting.
Read about effective meetings. ………………………………………………………………. One of the keys to having more effective meetings is differentiating between the need for oneway information dissemination and two-way information sharing. Six tips for more effective meetings 1. …have generated three ideas for increasing our sales. Your agenda needs to include a brief description of the meeting objectives. Assign Meeting Preparation. a list of the topics to be covered and a list stating who will address each topic and for how long. Write a concise summary of each of the six tips. you can schedule a meeting to simply answer questions about the information you have sent. Present it to your colleagues. Provide an Agenda Beforehand. "Is a meeting the best way to handle this?" you'll cut down on wasted meeting time and restore your group's belief that the meetings they attend are necessary. e-mail or brief report. 2. Avoid a meeting if the same information could be covered in a memo. Give all participants something to prepare for the meeting. 3.
1. and that meeting will take on a new significance to each group member. I want the group to… Depending on the focus of your meeting. such as sending an e-mail or posting the information on your company's intranet. …understand the way we do business with customers. What's the most important thing you should do with your agenda? Follow it closely! 4. To disseminate information you can use a variety of other communication media. your ending to the sentence might include phrases such as: …be able to list the top three features of our newest product. Set objectives before the meeting! Before planning the agenda for the meeting.. the more focused your agenda will be. or …solve the design problem. data or information Leading: Questions that suggest answers Encouraging: Questions that help respondents Ambiguous: Questions that suggest two or more answers. …decide on a new widget supplier. …leave with an action plan. When you send the agenda. have the
2. write down a phrase or several phrases to complete the sentence: By the end of the meeting. Discussion
Discuss about the necessity of calling a meeting. Were you successful in meeting the objectives? Why or why not? Is another meeting required? Setting meeting objectives allows you to continuously improve your effective meeting process. Set Objectives for the Meeting. Provide all participants with an agenda before the meeting starts. A second important benefit of having specific objectives for each meeting is that you have a concrete measure against which you can evaluate that meeting. The more concrete your meeting objectives. If you want to be certain you have delivered the right message. Don't Meet.Business Communication Topics
difficult) use natural tone of asking questions use open direct questions
ensure equal opportunity to provide answers
and use of a variety of types of questions such as: Overhead: general questions to the whole group Direct: Question to a specific individual Factual: Asking for fact. One benefit of setting objectives for the meeting is to help you plan the meeting. you should include the time. For problem-solving meetings. date and location of the meeting and any background information participants will need to know to hold an informed discussion on the meeting topic. By remembering to ask yourself.
6. teleconferencing. ask the participant to re-phrase the comment as an action. The statement We should be more to-the-point when stating our opinions is a more constructive suggestion.asp. Writing
Prepare the agenda of a meeting you have decided to call.)
4. By immediately addressing these statements with the suggestion of making an action item to examine the issue outside of the current meeting. Addressing off-topic statements during the meeting in this way also allows you to keep the meeting on track.effectivemeetings. For example.Business Meetings
group read the background information necessary to get down to business in the meeting. 5. For example. that's a topic for a different meeting…. Don't finish any discussion in the meeting without deciding how to act on it. horizontal/ formal. Answers to the second question should be phrased in the form of a suggested action. and their impact on productivity. hold another meeting or further examine a particular idea. Listen for key comments that flag potential action items and don't let them pass by without addressing them during your meeting. Remember – don't leave the meeting without assessing what took place and making a plan to improve the next meeting!
(http://www. downward. costs and attitudes toward business travel. Examine Your Meeting Process.)
3. A network MCI Conferencing White Paper. or I wonder if we could… are examples of comments that should trigger action items to get a task done. have all participants recall their biggest success since the last meeting and ask one person to share his success with the group. Assign Action Items. see Meetings in America: A study of trends. For less formal meetings or brainstorming sessions. etc. Statements such as We should really…. 1998. if a participant's answer is stated as Jim was too long-winded. Ask each group member to think of one possible solution to the problem to get everyone thinking about the meeting topic.com/meetingbasics/6tips. you show meeting participants that you value their input as well as their time.
. ask a trivia question related to the meeting topic and give the correct answer in the first few minutes of the meeting. Assigning tasks and projects as they arise during the meeting means that your follow-through will be complete. Speaking
What makes business meeting ineffective and boring? Analyze different types of meetings taking into account the communication network of an organization (upward. These tips are sure-fire ways to warm up the group and direct participants' attention to the meeting objectives. Assign the last few minutes of every meeting as time to review the following questions: What worked well in this meeting? What can we do to improve our next meeting? Every participant should briefly provide a point-form answer to these questions. to start a sales meeting on a positive note. informal.
(adapted from Bovée. Thill 1992: 515)
Rehearse ………………………………………….‖ said Odd Einar Doerum.
2. in your opinion. Consider the other person‘s needs. the state telecommunication companies of Norway and Sweden.e.. Win concessions by using some ‗tricks of the trade‘ (i. Be aware of your strengths and weaknesses. Make the most of your strong points and minimize your disadvantages. draft different scenarios. time pressure: This sale ends tomorrow. Norway‘s transport and communications minister.) Practice what you will say. 000 is too much . Know what you hope to obtain Accurate and complete information supports your opinion. Resist the pressure to cave in. Be informed. Checklist for improving your negotiating skills Define your goals. Reading
Read the following article:
Big telecoms merger talks collaps by Tim Burt in Stockholm Talks on a SKr80bn-SKr100bn ($10bn-$12bn) merger of Telenor and Telia. 000 is my best offer. Can you imagine business world without negotiations? How would it look like? What are. Ministers in Oslo and Stockholm said negotiations had foundered on the failure to agree on valuations and the management structure in what would have been Scandinavia‘s largest telephone company. ―It has been impossible to reach agreement on a model that would sufficiently safeguard Norwegian interests. You should mutually benefit from the negotiation process.
. / fear of loss: Another customer expressed interest in… / extreme proposals: $10. Discussion
Evaluate the importance of negotiating in business.$ 5. collapsed yesterday amid bitter recriminations between the two companies. The compromises you will do should be mutually convenient. the most important elements of a negotiation? Is it advisable to negotiate when applying for a job? State your reasons. Find satisfactory solutions for both parts.XVII.
1. NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS
BASIC NOTIONS Consider the negotiating process an exchange of information and opinions whose target is to obtain a mutually acceptable solution.
Telia expressed dismay at the collapse of the talks. Don‟t forget that “The negotiating process is chiefly an exchange of opinions and information that gradually leads to a mutually acceptable solution”. Tormod Hermansen.
(from: Financial Times. they wanted a takeover in practical terms‖. Telenor went further by accusing its larger Swedish rival of altering the negotiating terms in an attempt to secure management control of the merged group. Describe the economic conditions of your example and the expected results.Negotiating in Business
However.6bn on sales of SKr44bn last year. ―We wanted a 50-50 partnership. The Norwegian government had offered to inject up to NKr10bn into Telenor to give it financial parity with Telia. What went wrong with these negotiations? Where did they mistake? Who‟s to blame?
4. although it could remain a stand-alone business. 000 is my best offer) know what you want: define your goals consider the other person‘s needs: see that the other person benefits too
. saying: ―The pre-conditions for establishing a company on businesslike and commercial principles do not exist. Then announce your counterpart (another group) that you are ready for negotiations. 1. Hermansen said the Norwegian group would explore partnerships and possible alliances with other partners. The Swedish company made profits of SKr3. 1. the discussions were initially blocked by Norway‘s minority coalition government. which feared the creation of an unassailable monopoly. in your opinion the key to being an effective negotiator? Here are some tips for achieving this essential business skill. 4. but it became clear that the Swedish interpretation of balance meant Swedish control. However. Imagine a situation in Romanian economy where negotiation is essential. 3. What is. When the list is ready. Industry analysts in Stockholm suggested yesterday that the Norwegians had walked out of the talks because of lingering government disquiet over the merger. Would you find their right sequence? do your homework: gather information that supports your position resist the pressure to cave in: time pressure (This sale ends tomorrow). Sweden‘s industry minister. Comprehension
3. Explain the italicized vocabulary items from the text either using synonyms or words of your own. 3. The companies began secret talks last year aimed at pooling resources and defending their market share after the deregulation of the Nordic telecommunications market. 000 – 5. as group chief executive. It was forced to drop that opposition last month after a threatened parliamentary revolt by opposition parties. Thill 1992: 515) 4. (Bovée. Each group should prepare a list with the problems they want to put forth at negotiations. its managing director. discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each point included. but they are not arranged in the order of their importance. while Telenor reported gains of SKr2. fear of loss (Another customer wants it. 2.‖ he added.5bn on turnover of SKr23.‖ But the Swedish group declined to comment on Norwegian claims that it had insisted on locating the company in Stockholm with Lars Berg. chief executive of Telenor. Speaking
4. Mr. Negotiators failed nevertheless to agree on shareholdings or senior management roles. extreme proposals (You must be crazy to ask for $ 10. 2)
3. Andres Sundstrom. others the Swedish part. p. ―We started these talks on the basis of equality. Work in groups: some of you will represent the Norwegian part. said Telia remained a strong and competitive company that could also survive on its own.2. said there had been a ―fundamental breakdown‖ over how the enlarged company should be run. weekend February 21/February 22 1998.6bn. but…). Telenor described such claims as groundless.
bargaining/ trading b.1. By answering the following questions. asking for clarification e. disagreement. confirm in writing the points agreed) 3. research. Negotiating is also important when you apply for a job! But how far can you go? What are the right/ wrong questions to ask? How should you formulate your demands without making a bad impression or offending the interviewer/ employer? 4. respect. 1. Can you give some examples? 4. you will also improve your negotiating techniques. How do you behave when you have to negotiate? 4. 6. Language functions
The most common language functions you use in negotiation are: a. Negotiating interculturally 4. select one and highlight its importance in the process of negotiating. parameters – confirm the purpose of your negotiation and establish areas of common ground and possible areas of conflict. Vocabulary
Choose from the list of words/ expressions bellow those you consider important in a negotiation. agreement – at the end of your negotiation. It is well known. strategy) 2. Is the language you use important when you negotiate? To what extent? (use a simple. clear. practice what you will say know your strengths and weaknesses: minimize your disadvantages and make the most of your strong points search for mutually satisfactory solutions: look for compromises that result in joint gain
4. confirm exactly what you have agreed. you should improve the lists). There are people that consider customary and necessary to win some concessions. objectives. the better your performance will be. arrange them in the order of their importance. making a suggestion f. review – by summarizing and reviewing you check understanding. listen – attentively. approach – concentrate on your key points. stating your position: agreeing
. 4. Negotiation. if possible. 5. listen carefully. 4.Business Communication Topics
rehearse: the more you rehearse.3. Some suggestions are given to you between brackets. How do you prepare for a negotiation? (plan. opposite number. rejecting d. clear language. determined to win. informal business negotiation. use short words and sentences. Elements of intercultural communication are very important and should be carefully considered in the negotiating process.4. areas of conflict. attitude – be constructive. tenacity
6.4. persuasive. objectives. It is well known that there are cultures in which a deal is not a deal unless bargaining is involved.4. limits. interrupting c. concession. emphatic language. Do you use special techniques? (rapport – social talk. compromise. for example that is not advisable to send a businesswoman to negotiate with your Arab or Japanese partner. confirmation – in a follow-up letter. flexibility – consider a range of alternatives. ask questions if there is anything you don‘t understand)
5.2. benefit. resolve. success. Can you explain why? Give other examples you know.
asking for a reaction i. I‘d be / I‘m in favour of that.Negotiating in Business
g. I‘m afraid it‘s just not possible. warning about consequences Match these functions with the following useful expressions you may use when you negotiate. That‘s out of the question. In my opinion we should… I believe the best…would be… But what about the idea of …. discussing consequences j. I‘m sorry. but I have reservations about that. I‘m absolutely/ completely against that. That‘s a good idea. I‘m afraid I can‘t accept that. Secondly… I‘m sorry but I don‘t think… Any further delay is quite out of the question. I see no other alternative but to….and secondly……. I‘m sorry. I suppose that‘s OK. You may combine two functions for one group of phrases. Firstly because…. first of all….ing… How about… 2. I‘m sure that‘s the best solution/idea. Unless we… I‘m against / for that proposal…because. but that‘s not really practical. disagreeing h. due to…. I really can‘t accept that.. is a good idea. 1.and secondly to……… One reason is… Another is… My first reason is… My second is… For one thing…and for another… …that‘s just not feasible. That seems quite a good idea. I‘m sorry but I really don‘t think that…. I‘m afraid I‘m not very happy about that.
. First. We must… I recommend that we should… Have you thought of…ing… I would suggest that we We could always… One solution would be to … 3. I think we all appreciate the problem but… I don‘t want to be discouraging but… I appreciate your point of view but… That‘s very interesting but… I can see why you want to do this but… 4. I‘ve absolutely no objections. I‘m completely in favour of that. The only solution is to….
/ Good idea. decide on the highest price that you will pay for the item. Now. You might not care about scratches or tiny dings. that you want to negotiate or dicker with another person on a price for an item at a garage sale. then you will need some bargaining power on your side. Unless we buy/ If you don‘t buy… I won‘t be able to finish the project. it‘ll mean/ it‘ll result in/ it‘ll lead to bankruptcy. Now. offer the seller five dollars. for example. and you come up with five dollars. in order to be successful negotiators. Finally. And. Discussion
Imagine you have to prepare a negotiation of a very important contract for your company. If you put off the decision any longer. / Fine by me. First. or else/ otherwise 7. Point out any flaws that you can find in the item. but if you to get the item for the right price. Terrific. 6. then your next step is to negotiate it. If the item is priced at ten dollars and you find that price to be too steep. that makes the item seem like it is less valuable than they think it is. but hold your ground and don't be undaunted. then you cannot let them know that. 5. we have to know the basics of the game. we won‘t be able to overcome our competitors. Let us say. From there the seller should typically make a counter offer to your five dollar offer. How would you proceed?
2. and let us say you will pay no more than eight dollars. If they are adamant about the ten dollar price tag. / Sounds fine. Rule Number One Know what you want and how much you will pay to get it. you will have to figure out how much you think that item is really worth. then you can say eight dollars and probably be on your way with your newly-purchased
. Do any of you have any suggestions? How do you think we should do this? What would you suggest? What do you recommend? Do you think we should…. He or she might laugh hysterically. /. We must buy a…. the new product will never be sold on the Japanese market.. I‘d like to hear your ideas on this. This is a great way to get people to lower their prices. By pointing out any flaws.Business Communication Topics
Some less formal answers are: Great idea. And so/Therefore/ Consequently/ As a result. decide on a lower price that you can try for. Let us say that you decide it is worth a mere seven dollars. That is half the original price the seller is asking. If they say nine dollars. / Excellent. but it is a good place to start. Reading
Read the following text about the rules of negotiating: Most every day we have a chance to negotiate one if not many types of deals in our lives. / OK by me. As long as/ if these products continue to come back as returns.? Any suggestions? I suggest we should…What do you think? What are your views on this? What‘s your opinion? How do you see this?
STEPS OF A NEGOTIATION 1.
4. … Even if that is true/ so. I‘ll agree with you there. when you negotiate. Repeat the offer to the other person in order to verify their terms. so this list will be a listing of things you would like to receive. Let us say now. and. but in return you can ask for more vacation time.essortment. he or she offers more sick days. In conclusion. To help avoid falling into their traps. if it sounds too good to be true. There are plenty of pretty slick Joes out there in the world. … But then again. the lowest amount of pay. Now. and do not be swayed by emotional games that some people will try to play. use your good judgment and do not be swayed by their tactics. The pay is too low. even though chances are against you getting the perfect deal. And. … Nevertheless. Marino 1990: 223)
Counter arguing Conceding
3. and so on. … In any case. … Still. … Well. keep in mind that the perfect job only exists on television. The prospective employer you will be negotiating with will have a list in mind too. at least you can get a good deal that you can live happily with!
(http://nene. for example. both sides come out contented that they have gotten what they have wanted. Rule Number Three Do not let the other side fool you.. That might sound like a double use of words. … All the same. that you have been offered a job. but what it means is that must first be prepared before you go into negotiations. You take less pay. be prepared. etc. and be prepared to give and take. Sit down and write exactly what you would like to have in a perfect job. I‘ll go along with that. Rule Number Two Be prepared. Comprehension
Summarize the main points of the text and present them to your colleagues. Do not let them convince you with a sob story either.
(see Matthews. Explain the words written in bold from the text about negotiating. you two just have to come to terms with each other. take your time when negotiating. then it usually is! Do not listen to statements made by other people that are intended to bully you into making a deal. do not be afraid to ask for the highest amount. … Anyway. write down the least you will accept. and that is a great start! This is a simple example of a negotiation. But what if you are negotiating on a higher scale. and there are not sick day benefits in the package deal either. Also write down if you want benefits such as stock options and other benefits. Now. You will have saved two dollars off of the original price.Negotiating in Business
item. Remember. Think about it carefully first. you must be prepared to give some in exchange for something else. vacation time. take your time. I‘m willing to go along with you. Language focus Useful phrases while negotiating:
Persuading You must admit that… You have to agree that… Don‘t forget that… Let‘s not forget that… Don‘t you agree/ think that…? Even so. sick days. you‘ve convinced me.… Yes. Now. In successful negotiations. but it is not exactly what you want. Be prepared to take as well as to give. That is.. Next. and they have all kinds of tricks up their sleeves.com/howtonegotiate_rjvf. the vacation time is not enough. but less pay. know what you want. determine what you can do without. Do not jump at any offer just because it sounds good. No matter what. Here again. This is a good starting point for you. … But still. This is the part where each of you will be expected to take and to give. In that case.
Use in your imaginary dialogue as many ‗negotiating‘ expressions as possible. Speaking
Debate upon the following: In some cultures a deal is not a deal unless bargaining is involved. What and how do you negotiate at a job interview? 4. Define negotiating. In order to have a successful negotiation process you should: be rigid.
Test your negotiating skills
1.Business Communication Topics
5. Consequently you hire an important advertising company to advertise your products for the next six months. it‘s a sign of power reject the first offer not mind the tone of the speaker avoid using the word ‗never‘ concentrate only on the speaker‘s words embarrass your adversary suggest time away from the table to think about options make as many concessions as possible for the beginning emphasize the need to reach an agreement try to see the situation from the other person‘s perspective 3. To win some concessions is considered a sign of your professionalism. You are the marketing director of ―Terapia‖ pharmaceutical company and you want to expand your business.
. 2. State weather it is true (T) or false (F). Negotiate with them the terms of providing their services. Name some special negotiating techniques 5.
touching attitudes toward: TIME (e. Cultural differences affect communication in two major ways: differences in body positions and movements differences in attitudes toward various factors of human relationships (time. wheel. circle. Reading Read about the analysis of business communication practices: Staff Communication. women role) VALUES (attitude toward work.g. letter-writing techniques are not universally acceptable.g.g. their difference in grammar and syntax. roles and status: intimacy among people varies. all-channel)? What language(s) do they speak? How is performance recognized or encouraged? How do staff communicate (Written communication? Oral?) What are the most common genres used (e. intimacy. emails. beliefs. and norms for behaviour. punctuality) SPACE (e. body odours) FRANKNESS (e. How is internal communication structured? How formal or informal is communication among employees or between employees and managers? Is communication predominantly horizontal or vertical? What are the communication networks (e. animation displayed)
(adapted from Lesikar. laughter. chain. space.g. employeeemployee relations.
.g.g. memos. A shared system of symbols.XVIII. Communication across cultures could be improved by: word processing communications software translation
1. progress reports. Thill 1992)
Business communication techniques are affected by cultural differences.g. hands.) Eye movement Handshaking. e. affection. difficult equivalency in translation) What can one do to overcome the language equivalency problem? 2. etc. attitudes.) body positions and movements Sitting/ hunkering Manners of walking Manners of communicating with body parts (head. etc. words with multiple meanings. superior/subordinate relations. directness in relationships) RELATIONSHIPS (e. authority) SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR (e. emotion. INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
BASIC ELEMENTS Culture: The way people in an area view human relationships. print. Petit. Flatley 1993 and Bovée. bulletin board notices. notices in pay envelopes. e-mail.g. distance between interlocutors) ODOURS (e. arms. values.g. Discussion
Explain the language equivalency problem as a cause of miscommunication (the huge number of languages used – 3000. expectations. meetings)? What media are used most commonly (face-to-face interaction. they‘re certain barriers both to written and to oral communication.
)? How are these communication practices influenced by the contexts in which the businesses operate? Customer-Company Interaction.htm)
3. tent cards on a table top. Consider the following topics: job application.g. Why don‘t you ask him to leave? How about answering their questions? I suggest you/ (I think) you should write the report.Business Communication Topics
etc. etc. He recommended/ suggested (that) we (should) finish the report immediately. specific greetings. How do customers interact with the staff and vice versa? What genres are used to maintain customer contact and to manage customer relations (e. face-to-face greetings. blackboards)? How formal or informal is communication between customers and staff? Are there any standards for customercompany interactions (e. What are the prevailing attitudes in our culture toward them?
6. American. businessman. notices.education. English. I (would) advise you/ it‘s advisable to ask for help.)? How much training do new employees undergo? What is the dress code (if any)? What is it intended to communicate? How are products or services communicated and promoted to customers? How are these communication practices influenced by the contexts in which the businesses operate?
(http://www. Language focus
SUGGESTING/ADVISING Suggestions involving the speaker Shall we/ why don‘t we/ let‘s analyze the matter now? I suggest we/ we should/ we ought to debate the issue now.
4. I recommend that you make a presentation. specific templates. French.
. I (would) recommend a trustful counselor. I recommend (you to make) a presentation. truth in advertising.
(see Brieger. menus.mcgill. Identify some of the common sources of misunderstanding that occur in written and oral intercultural communication. Comprehension
Select from the text two questions and give detailed answers. Speaking
Select a word with more than tree meanings and imagine you have to explain it to a foreigner. etc. Make a list of some tips for handling intercultural business communication more effectively. German. negotiating a business.g. Sweeney 1994: 200)
Suggestions to another person
Other constructions Advice Recommendation
5. women‟s chances of promotion. emails. The consultant advised us to improve our training. letters. Japanese. Writing
Make the cultural profile of a Romanian. How about +…ing? How about making things clear? He advised me to improve my writing skills.ca/profs/starke-meyerring/ProjectDescription.
3-G. overdo/overdue. precedence/precedents. instance/instants. pedal/peddle. 5-B. 7-t 5. Certain pitfalls have to be avoised. role/roll. loose/lose. 2-A. later/latter. a gesture whether – if
(selected from Bovée. of course. peace/piece. 3-f. Language focus accede – to comply with accept – to take access – admittance allot – to distribute born – given birth to complement – complete amount. 5. rap/wrap. forth/fourth. and in the process of avoiding them the published national income estimates become somewhat complicated. 6-E. 4. 3. 4-f. 4-C.ANSWER KEY
I. miner/minor. than/then. their/there/they‘re. however. The calculation of total expenditure. a lesson shear – to cut stationary – immovable waive – to set aside weather – atmospheric conditions
exceed – to go beyond except – to exclude excess – too much a lot – much or many borne – carried ompliment – to flatter corespondent – letter writer counsel – advice. 7-H. a lawyer differ – to be different discrete – separate levy – tax loathe – to hate materiel – equipment morale – sense of well-being sheer – thin. Reading: 1-f. It is obvious that in calculating a country‘s national income via estimates of total
. 2-t. to/too/two II. device/devise. are very considerable). is not entirely a strightforward affair even in principle (the statistical problems of estimation. Language focus Suggested connections: the issue of unemployment (discussion of problem and solution) types of personal computers available for sale (classification) how to use a digital camera (illustration) a famous company got bankrupt (cause and effect) advantages and disadvantages of travelling on business (comparison or contrast) 5. 6-t. 1. right/rite/write. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 2. to go well with c correspondent – party in a divorce suit council – a panel of people defer – to put off until later discreet – careful levee – embankment loath – reluctant material – substance moral – virtuous. 5-f. residence/residents. Language focus Advice/advise. persecute/prosecute. Reading 1-F. lead/led. principal/principle. COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS 2. steep stationery – paper wave – a swell of water. 3. 2. Thill 1992: 613)
since in accordance with = by in the meantime = meanwhile in the near future = soon in the neighbourhood of = about in very few cases = seldom in view of the fact that = since. 8. 5.interaction. They will also increase written language skills to 3rd grade level". 4-c 4. 1.either. 10choice 4. 3. 2. 5-b. 7-a. VI. 1. Reformulating: a. Vocabulary: 1-paraphrase. 10-a.in.
(Nevin 1971: 249)
III.(B) less favorably than. 8. 7. 4. 4-a. 7.meaning. 3. They will demonstrate written language skills that include spelling at 2nd grade level. 6. REWRITE: With modifications and assistance. Language focus along the lines of = like at the present time = now for the purpose of = for for the reason that = because.generates 5.(A) the same as. 3. 5.(A) means treating. 5-t. 3-b/c. 10. 2. and correct punctuation and capitalization. 5. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 2. 6-c. 6. while care should be taken to see that no such purchases are excluded. Reading: 1-c.Business Communication Topics
expenditure. 3-d.verbalizing.persuading. Vocabulary 1-b. AVOIDING DISCRIMINATION IN COMMUNICATION 2. IV. 5.developers.because. 3-f.with/to. use of complete sentences.(D) primary language. 3-d. 6. Reading: 1-t. 7revealing. Our sales agents will pass all training classes".such. 5.. 9-c.incorrect. Vocabulary: 1. 6-t.of. only purchases which provide income for someone else in the community should be included.2.in.careful. with reference to = about with a view to = to V.expectations. c. 2.nonjudgmental. 4. b.chopping. 4. 4-f. Vocabulary: 1. 2-a.(A) failure to provide. 1. Reading: 1-b. 4. 2-a. 2-a. PR employees will increase communication skills. 4. EFFECTIVE LISTENING 2. 8-d. because on the basis of = by on the occasion of = on with regard to. Student will organize his work so that he can pass all classes.between.really. REWRITES: PR employees will increase communication skills to 2nd grade level. 3.unreasonable. 2.(A) question arises. b-not needed 4.of.(B) on the job. 2. Rewrite: Student will establish and maintain a system for organizing his work and other responsibilities so that he completes required work and assignments and turns them in on time 80% of the time. our sales agents will continue their progress with basic skill activities in marketing and negotiating classes and improve their performance with problem-solving
. 2-t. 7-t. 9. 9. COMMUNICATION STYLES 4.
17 experience. 2-g. 3-a 4. 6-d. 9-everywhere. 7-i. 4-f. 6-a. 23 best. if impressive enough to list) list relevant courses in descending order of their importance list any other relevant educational or training experiences (seminars. 5-impression. Writing: Tips for writing the perfect resume: career objective and skills summary are optional be as specific as possible about what you want to do (a broad and flexible goal) summarize your key qualifications state the moment when you are available to start work
Education list all relevant schooling and training since highschool. 3-information. 1. 2-d. 10-c. 2-attending. 4-recruitment. WRITING EMPLOYMENT DOCUMENTS Application letter 2. 10-l. Resume 2. 7-c. 2-b. 10-location. 2-G. 8-h. 3-E. 5-c. 8-A 4. 6 background. 10 candidate. your gradepoint average. 4 looking for. Reading: 1-c.the-job accomplishments (awards. 5 organizational. major fields. 3 informed. 14 position. 1. workshops) Work experience list all relevant work experience list full-time and part-time jobs state the month/ year when you started and left each job provide the name and location of the firm that employed you list your job title and describe your functions briefly note on. 7-b. degrees or certificates you obtained. 8 enclosed. Vocabulary: 1 date. 3-a. 8-d. 11-k. 7following. overall or in your major. 22 leave. Format: Name and address / Objective / Experience / Education / Personal data / References / Resume submitted in confidence 4. 15 meet.Answer Key
activities in advertising and product promotion by applying problem-solving techniques to at least one such problem in their current activity. 16 clients. 5-b. and achievements list all relevant unpaid activities exclude mentions of religious or political affiliations
. 4-H. Vocabulary: 1-b. 9-j. 2 Ms R. 6-application. 6-F. 19 welcome. COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT 2. Reading: 1-e. 11 sales. 3-d. 4-b. 7-D. Reading: 1-c. 7 position. 9 experience. 2-b. 21 contact. m-not needed Intercultural aspects 2. 5-g. IX. 5-B. 4.Vocabulary 1-jobseekers. with the most recent first (name and location. Reading: 1-C. 6-a. PRESENTATIONS 2. 9-a. VIII. 18 effectively. 8-governments. 20 qualifications. etc) Activities. 12 researched. 13 development. 4-f. 3-a.
Use body language to show interest. 2. 12.references. Arrive on time. 13. 9-h. 5.on. k-not needed. 6.by. 7hearty
. Thill 1992: 285)
Employment documents Some useful tips for writing recommendations: – include in your letter relevant details such as: the full name of the candidate the job/ benefit that the candidate is seeking whether the writer is answering a request or taking the initiative the nature of the relationshipbetween the writer and the candidate facts relevant to the position or benefit sought the overall evaluation of the candidate‘s suitability for the job Supplementary information and activities Job-inquiry letter – a letter in which you request an application form Application form – a standardized data sheet containing mainly the applicants‘ qualifications Application follow-up letter – a second letter meant to keep your file active References (testimonial or open letter of reference)// Recommendation letter X. if relevant list job-related interests and hobbies Reference list three to five references. or add ―Resume submitted in confidence‖ at the tob or bottom of the resume. nod.or. 6. 4-i. 4.as.nervousness. Have a firm handshake. or offer to supply the nameson request (provide name. 4. Comprehension 1. 5. or computer software used in the job Personal data omit data that can be regarded negatively or be used to discriminate against you omit or downplay references to age if it could suggest inexperience or approaching retirement describe military service. 7. 15. 3-a.a.consider. Ask about the next step in the process. 6. address.not. equipment. 9. Smile.belief.2. 4.along. 5. key: 1.
(adapted from Bovée. Listen.professional. Reading: 1-e. Vocabulary: 1. 10. 9. 3.the. 6-f.to. 14. 7-j. 4. Thank the interviewer. 2. 4. 8. 3. 5-b.for. give nonverbal feedback to the interviewer.portability. Write a thank-you letter to anyone you have spoken to. 3.in.or. 8. INTERVIEWS 2.Business Communication Topics
Other relevant facts list other relevant information mention your ability to operate any machines.and. 1. 3.to. Introduce yourself in a courteous manner. 7. 8-d. title. and telephone number WITH the person‘s permission to do so) exclude your present employer if you do not want him/her to knoe you are seeking another position. 10. 2. Read company materials while you wait. 2-g.from. 11.
2. D-3. C-2. After careful consideration we regret that we are unable to help you in………………………. E-5. Yours faithfully nnnnn (name) 6. Reading: A-4. Writing Dear Mr X Proposed …………………… Thank you for……………. c-4. 2. We are sure you will be content with their services. The format of the letter depends on the traditions of the organization. 1. 3. COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS Discussion 1. However. BUSINESS LETTERS Inquiries 3. b-1. They will communicate whether they agree with your project or whether they need some extra information in a week‘s time.. Dear Mr. we would like to wish you…………… Yours sincerely Letter of complaint 1. 6. our parner operating in the Eastern Europe seems to be intersted in your project and we gave them the informmation you sent us. BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE XII.but we fear that (in practice)…………. if you would like to reconsider the project.. Writing 6. However.. B-1.We fond your project of…………very interesting but for the moment we cannot expand our business in this area. X Thank you for your letter of….Answer Key
XI. Should you decide to proceed with your original plan. you might prefer to………. XIII. 1. Discussion
. Your project is……. e-2. d-6. 3. Looking forward to hearing from you. f-3. 2.Style and tone are governed by the relationship between the writer and the reader. Thank you again for your inquiry. Comprehension: a-5. as far as I know they asked for the following details: is there any demand on the market for this product? is there an adequate labour force available? what is the transport system in the area? Don‘t hesitate to ask for their co-operation. I give you their address:………Meanwhile.Letters perform an important public relations function in addition to conveying a particular message. We would be happy……….
g-1. 4. reasoning or reproaching? Find some way to view the problem as an honest mistake. Use the meeting agenda to formulate an outline. 2. Reading a-6. (A)phonetically spoken words. (B)in compliance with. 2. assurance Note: another type of letter of apology: Letter of reconciliation. Before the Meeting. i. Reading: 1-T. Yours………. C – 2. b-5.e. 6-T. Minutes 2. 2-F. consideration 3. circumstances 6. Don‘t imply that the recipient deliberately committed the error Express confidence that the recipient will grant your request 2. Read the example below: Dear Mr X Thank you for your letter and the enclosed cheque. Note the time the meeting begins. and am sorry the delay was caused by illness. Letter of apology and settlement 1. I-10. 1. Reading: A – 3. laptop computer. At some point your boss may ask you to take minutes at a meeting. 3. (A)to write and type faster. I am glad that the matter had to go no further. 2. 4-F. (B)will not be able 7. placed 7. This task isn't reserved for secretaries only. accidentally 5. If I need to hire a car I hope I may call on your services again. pleading. Pass around an attendance sheet. apologies 4. e-3. XIV. d-2. negligently 10. provide a fully detailed description of the problem imply that your claimwill be met as a matter of course summarise your claim. Choose your tool: Decide how you will take notes. Writing: The most important steps of attending a meeting and writing the minutes are included in the following text. You may be interested to know that. concerned 2. despite the lost opportunities. unreasonable 8. 7-F 4. 5-T. Don't try to write down every single comment
. 3-F. Read it. you must be very accurate. 6. Make sure your tool of choice is in working order and have a backup just in case. State clearly what you expect. Vocabulary: 1. h-4. Since the minutes will serve as an official record of what took place during the meeting. or tape recorder. my last visit eventually proved quite successful. (C)more cost effective. COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM Memos 2. Any person who attends a meeting may be asked to do this. 5. During the Meeting. j-8. f-9. Get a list of committee members and make sure you know who is who. pen and paper. Here are some pointers to help you master this skill. enclose 9. Decide on the emphasis you want to give Do you want to appear threatening. B – 1. 3. 4. c-7. (A)as they are spoken.Business Communication Topics
The basic principles of writing a letter of complaint are: be polite state clearly and factually what is wrong support your claim with documents.
1. complete.1. Note the ending time of the meeting. Include the name of organization.2.. 2.. and purpose of meeting. 8-g.around. Report writing: Useful tips in writing a report: While writing the report have the following questions in view: Is my main point easy to identify early in the report? Have I carefully described the procedures used? Have I defined unfamiliar or technical terms and clearly explained new concepts? Have I provided a context for the research or is more background information needed? Have I used tables and figures to represent data? Have I summarized my findings? Have I written clearly? Have I stayed on topic throughout the report?
. Consider the following steps (Bovée. while everything is still fresh in your mind. prepare a work plan: it can be formal/ informal 4.about.2. 4. Organize the study using either the alphanumeric system (I. 11then.2.) C. 9-a 3. how the situation originated.heard.a.2.1. 3. 3.2. Thill.. name of committe. 4-d. In a report the information you provide must be accurate. 2. your report is a document that leaves your control after you have written it. Make note of any motions to be voted on at future meetings. no need to write down who seconded a motion. 1. a. who is involved in the situation.com/cs/communication/a/minutes.. type of meeting (daily.Answer Key
-. 12. 14.. or special).. Speaking 3. 10. 1.0. and the results of votes. After the Meeting. write the statement of the purpose of your report B.on.. 2.to. define the problem: what needs to be determined..enough. 3-a. annual. a process called factoring. monthly. 5-f. 15. 2.by. honest. who made them.
XV. when it started.just the main ideas.) or the decimal system (1. 8. 4-I. 1.0. where the trouble is located.nor. Reading: 1-e... Reading: Purposes of the report: 1-b. 2. 2-e. 9.. 3-f.how. Develop a logical structure either based on subtopics (in the case of informational assignments) or structured around theories that the report writer plans to prove or disprove during the investigation (the analytical assignments).further.1. a-not needed 4. 1. Proofread the minutes before submitting them.it. BUSINESS REPORTS 1. Write down motions. A. 6-c. 5. 2-c.1.. Vocabulary: 1. 3. 3-h. 4-e. 4. 1. B. 2-d. 2. 1-c. if any. weekly. 1.lies.that. 7-d. Type up the minutes as soon as possible after the meeting. 5-b. outline the issues for investigation: break the problem into a series of specific questions. Discussion The report is a management tool. 5-g. why the issue is important. 2.1.2. b. 1992: 371): A. 6.htm)
Reports 2.. Include the time the meeting began and ended. 2. 7.make. 13. It presents the information in such a way that it will help the reader solve the problem. 2. 2.
e-mail or brief report. 3-f. 6-b. Your agenda needs to include a one-sentence description of the meeting objectives.
XVIII. 000 is my best offer) know what you want: define your goals
6. 10-b. Reading: 1-c. 9-l. 5-d. 7-h/d. Before planning the agenda. 4. extreme proposals (You must be crazy to ask for $ 10. Examine Your Meeting Process.Business Communication Topics
XVI. 5-f. 2-e. practice what you will say know your strengths and weaknesses: minimize your disadvantages and make the most of your strong points search for mutually satisfactory solutions: look for compromises that result in joint gain resist the pressure to cave in: time pressure (This sale ends tomorrow). 4-f. 3-e. Speaking: do your homework: gather information that supports your position consider the other person‘s needs: see that the other person benefits too rehearse: the more you rehearse. 2-e. Give all participants something to prepare for the meeting.l. INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
. Reading: Meeting Tips Summary Don't Meet. NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS 4. and that meeting will take on a new significance to each group member. Assign Action Items. determine the objective of the meeting. The more concrete your objectives. 12-o.
XVII. 6-g. 3. 2. 2-d. the more focused your agenda will be. 3-c/g. Avoid a meeting if the same information could be covered in a memo. 4-k. Vocabulary: 1-c. 8-f. 000 – 5. a list of the topics to be covered and a list stating who will address each topic for how long. Language functions: 1-g/c. 15-i. 14-a. 7-n. 5-i/j.h. but…). fear of loss (Another customer wants it. 6-j. Provide an Agenda Beforehand. the better your performance will be. Follow the agenda closely during the meeting. Assign Meeting Preparation. Set Objectives for the Meeting. Don't finish any discussion in the meeting without deciding how to act on it. BUSINESS MEETINGS 2. 13-m. 4-a. Don't leave the meeting without assessing what took place and making a plan to improve the next meeting. 11-j.
Technology. Inc. John V. and Medicine. 1973. S. Cynthia. IRWIN. D. Harold.. J. Lasswell. Practical Written English for the Modern Business World. BBC English by Radio and Television. Oral Communication Skills in Science. Edward. Practical written English for the Modern Business World. Paris. The Language of Business English. Macmillan: London. Larousse. 1990. Basic Business Communication. R. Lesikar.
. Business Communication Today. Professional Interactions. Structure et fonction de la communication dans la société. etc.. McGraw-Hill. Illinois. Nevin. 1993. New York.BIBLIOGRAPHY
Beresfor. 1992. Cynthia. Textbook of Economic Analysis. Joanne Marino. Grammar and Functions. Beresford. M. Third Edition. N.. Business Communication. 1984. Candace. Thill. Prentice Hall. New York. Business Communication. textes fondamentaux. Courtland L. Flatley. Matthew. Bovée. Brieger. in Sociologie de l‘information. BBC English by Radio and Television. 1971. 1994. Sweeney. Petit. 1995. New York.. Prentice Hall.