RESOURCE B@KS OR F TEACHERS

series editor A l a nM a l e y

Rinvolucri M John organ Mario I

OXTORD

Vocabulary

Titles in the Resource Books for Teachersseries
Beginners Peter Grundy Dynamics Classroom Jill Hadfield Conversation and Rob Nolasco LoisArthur Teaching !earner-based Colin Campbell Hanna and Kryszewska Letters Levy, Burbidge, Gray, Peta Sheila andMario Nicky nvol Ri ucri Listening Goodith White

Awareness Cultural Stempleski Literature BarryTomalin and Susan Alan and Maley Duff Alan Dictionaries Wright Jonathan Drama Wessels Charlyn Exam Classes Peter May and Music Song Murphey Tim Newspapers Peter Grundy ProjectWork edition 2nd

D r a n a .t n e 0 - b o o l n L Film BarryTomalin Pronunciation and Susan Stempleski Laroy Clement Global lssues

Hillyard and Ricardo Sampedro Susan Dictation Grammar Wajnryb Ruth Homework Painter Lesley TheInternet David ScottWindeatt, Hardisty, David Eastment and Primary Resource Books with Children Art andCrafts AndrewWright

Role Play Porter Gillian Ladousse 2nd Vocabulary edition Morgan Mario and Rinvolucri John Writing Tricia Hedge

with Learners Proiects Young Dunford Phillips, Bunruood, Helen Sarah and Diane

Young Learners Assessing with Storytelling Children and Pavlos AndrewWright loannou-Georgiou Sophie ravtou Learners VeryYoung with Children Creating Stories Vanessa and Reilly Sheila Ward M. AndrewWright Writing with Children Drama with Children Sarah Phillips Games Children for Bedson Lewis Gi.inther Gordon with Learners TheInternet Young and Gordon Lewis Reilly Vanessa Reilly Jackie and Young-Learners Phillips Sarah

Resource for Books Teachers series editorAlanMaley Vocahulary Second edition M John organ Mario Rinvolucri OXTORD IJNIVERSITY PRESS .

A11 stored in a retrieval system. scholarship' and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford NewYork Auckland Bangkok BuenosAires CapeTown Chennai DaresSalaam Delhi HongKong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi SioPaulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto oxFoRD and oxrono BNGLISHare registered trade marks of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries @ Oxford UniversitY Press zoo4 The moral rights ofthe author have been asserted Database right Oxford University Press (maker) First published zoo4 rights reserved.FORD \JNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Street. Oxford oxz 5op Oxford University Pressis a department ofthe University ofOxford. School purchasers may rnake copies for use by staffand students. bufthis permission does not extend to additional schools or branches Under no circumstances may any part ofthis book be photocopied for resale Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only' Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content rsBN o 19 4421864 Printed in China . You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose tltis same condition on any acquirer Photocopying The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying ofthose pages 'photoiopiable' according to ttle following conditions. Individual marked purchasers may make copies for their own use or for use by classesthat ihey teach. It furthers the University's objective ofexcellence in research. in any form or by any means.OX. or transmitted. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced.

Acknowledgements

from We should like to thank the following people:stLrdents Cambridge,the New School,Cambridge,and Davies's/Eurocentre who have suppliedus Pilgrims, Canterbury;the many colleagues where possible; with ideas,who are individually acknowledged Michael Rundell,for inspiration and practical guidancein using who edited the first edition of the book, corpora;Yvonnede Henseler, who solvedmany of the problems thrown and Simon Murison-Bowie, up by the second;our families in their participation in writing and testing. The authors and publisher are grateful to thosewho havegiven permissionto reproducethe following extractsand adaptationsof copyright material: m rces.comfor Bereavement Publishing, (www.bereave entsou Inc. ) permissionto reproducethe poem 'The Elephantin the room' by TeryzKettering. Blackrazell Mott for permissionto reproducean extract from and GrooksllbyPietHein. and BloomsburyPublishing,McClellandand Stewart(Canada), House(Alfied Knopf) for permissionto reproduce Random 'Fugitivepieces'by Anne Michaels. Committee on Povertyand the Arms Tradefor an extract from Bombs by forBreakfastpublished CampaignAgainstArms Tradein 1978. of CedricRobinsonand David Charlesfor an extract flom SandPilot (79801. MorecambeBay Daniella Cammackfor an extract fiom an email. for David HighamAssociates permissionto reproducean extract Pilgrim'byJohn Le Carr6. 1990DavidCornwell. @ from'The Secret Publishedby Hodder & Stoughton,1991. rNhitsunWeddingsby Faberand Faberfor an extract from The Philip Larkin. Farrar,Strausand Giroux, LLC,and Faberand Faberfor permissionto by cte reproduce'Home is so Sad'fr om Colle d Poems Philip Larkin. Philip Larkin. of Copyright@1988,1989bythe Estate newspaperfor 'Viaduct rescue'published in the The Guardian dian,23 February1980. Guar 'You Guy Browning for permissionto reproducean extract from section,9 June talking to me?'published in the GuardianWeekend 2001,@GuyBrowning. Acknowledgements Iv

Hodder and Stoughtonfor an extract fromTheSecretPilgrimby John Le Carr6. for Julius Nyerereand Oxford University Press an extract from Ujamaa (1e68). 'Drive-thru destroyedby Group for an extract from Kent Messenger 15 inferno' ftom Kmt Messenger, March 2002. Little, Brown and Co.and Mclntyre Managementfor permissionto reproducean extract ftomGridlockbyBen Elton. NicholasBrealeyPublishingfor permissionto reproducean extract fromBreakingthroughCulhreShock:lNhatyouNeedtoSucceedin byElisabeth Marx. @ElisabethMarx 1999. InternationalBusiness Publishedby NicholasBrealeyPublishingLimited in 1999. andl SheilaHocken and Victor Gollanczfor an extract fromE;rnrna (79:77\. for'Charlie Cairoli the clown diesaged70' Times Newspapers 1980. February publishedin TheTimes,l8 Although every effort has been made to trace and contact copyright holdersbefore publication, this has not been possiblein somecases. We apologize for any apparent infringement of copyright and if notifled, the publisher will be pleasedto rectify any errors or omissionsat the earliestopportunity.

vi I Acknowledgements

Contents

The authors and series editor Foreword Introduction
Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) Page

I Pre-text activities 1.1 What'sinthetext? Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced 20-30 Tomotivatestudentstoreadatextby 13 getting tospeculate them beforehand about content. its towork from 15 out To encourage students the ofunfamiliar words. context meanings Toreviewareasofvocabularywithwhich 16 thestudents already some have familiarity, in areas more sothat items these can new in'and easily be'slotted remembered; to interesta dull in text. stimlate focus students' To the attention the on 19 words ways associate bymeaning they or onthe context, especially positive and negative connotations have words and forthem. To encourage students toexplore their 20 preconceptions particular about words before meeting ina context, them so reading more that their becomes directed and critical attention how on To focus students' the words, on they toremember and how try context influence memory. might their Tomotivate focus students' and the the readinga text first of by exploring ' personal ofsome connections ofthe words ohrases and used. 22

1.2 Predicting meanings 1.3 Predictingwords

'10-20

Intermediate 2O-25 to advanced

1.4 Criminalrecords

Elementarv to advanced

30-40

gender 1.5 Ungrammatical

Intermediate to advanced

30-40

1.5 Look,remember, and completethe set 1.7 Wordson a map

Elementary to advanced lntermediate to advanced

30-40

20-30

23

Contents vii I

11 Towardslearningatext by heart (b) 2.7 Ghostdefinitions Intermediate to advanced 20-35 Elementary 20 to intermediate Elementarv to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginner to advanced Beginner to advanced Elementary to advanced 2040 20-30 2.9 Thewords in your past 2. telllng to than simply them read text.3 Cotrecttheteacher 25-35. Toencouragestudentstoremember 41 contextswell single as as words and phrases. 38 39 2. To and scan re-contextualize text fragments.8 Patchwork text 2.1 Customizing text a Intermediate to advanced 20-30 focus students' 1 To the attention by 28 giving a specific rather them task.12 Cross-associations 15-40 Toencouragestudentstoremember 40 contextswell single as as words and phrases. Tousecreativeword-associationasan 42 aid memorv. personal overcome dislikes. 2. get To studentslook to closely at 33 vocabulary incontext. Togivestudentsachancetosharetheir 30 feelings vocabulary perhaps. To make vocabulary new memorable by linkinqto imoortant it memories inthe students'own lives.5 Huntthe misfits 2. for or 25 2 Working with texts 2.2 Favouritephrases Beginnerto advanced Elementary toadvanced 15-30 2.5 Marginalia 2. to 15-30 15-25 viii I Contents .Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) 20-30 Page 1. the 2 To encouragethem closely tolook atwords phrases and incontext.4 Deletingwords Post-beginner 15-20 to advanced Intermediate to advanced 20-45 2. about and. how can expressed and they be by definitions orparaphrases. especially thatwillbeused the one as basis discussionessay-writing. To focus whether on is a word necessary33 ornotasa way exploringmeaning of its incontext.8 Cardson the table Intermediate to advanced qet To thestudents toclarifv ideas their about topic attitude a or before reading a text. 45-60 1 Togiveatask-basedfocustolistening 31 2 Toencouragestudentstobuildupa wider ofvocabulary set choices. To develop students' awareness 34 critical of meanings incontext To focus the on exact meanings oflexical 37 items.10 Towardslearningatext by heart (a) 2. toexpress and their own understandings meanings ofspecific and connotations.

provoke awareness of To contrastive intwo vocabulary languages 53 4. controlled give studentsopportunity to an To the writing creatively a safe. intheir get 45 tolearn from'informal'.1 Sensory vocabulary choices 40-50 Lower-intermediate to advanced words 52 To make target-language more byevoking personal strong memorable tongue. To students native-speaker texts unconected Upper-intermediate 40-50 to advanced 3 Writing activities writing 3.6 Two-language texts 10-20 Beginner to intermediate All 15 Contents ix I .the important items represent vocabulary can of aspectsa culture get tovisualize look a the of 56 To students as to word thepage.2 Changing order of the the words 4. to learn and what and each other reading discussing by have written.1 Invisible Elementary to advanced 10-20 get toreflectand on use To students 'known' from vocabulary.4 Expanding sentence a 50 4 Bilingual texts and activities 4. anaid memory on and spelling.2 The oracle 15-20 Lower-intermediate to advanced 49 3. of 57 deduce meaningtarget-language the To context.13 Be someone 2.3 Addingwords to a story 30-40 Elementary to intermediate 10-1 Lower-intermediate5 to advanced give an to To thestudentsopportunity creativelv a safe.14 Email language Intermediate to advanced get about and 43 To students thinking words phrases cultural/historical context. others vocabularya in newlv-learnt Topractice of and widerange contexts situations 47 3. through associations themother to use The students encouraged all are inthis.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) 30-40 Page else 2. controlled 49 3.5 How many letters in the word? 4.4 Culturalkeywords Elementary to upperintermediate Intermediate to advanced 15-20 40-50 54 40-50 Lower-intermediate to advanced of 55 the resonance To explore cultural and ways which in specific vocabulary.3 Focusing difficulty on 4. words a mother-tonque from 4. their senses practice glve incontrastive To guided translation. within start frame. within start writinq fiame.

9 Onthe walls Beginner to elementary Elementary to advanced.nakedtruth Intermediate to advanced Elementary to advanced 10-20 To show corpora concordance 71 how and (and software help can teachers students) classroom materials. 10-15 Upper-intermediate to advanced 4.5 Barefacts. parts asdifferent ofspeech.8 Two-facingwords Beginner to elementary way students practical of 58 toa Tointroduce quickly ontheir learning vocabulary own. 5.7 learning by associating 4. practise 61 To skimming scanning and for of target-language equivalents texts mother-tong ue expressions. and 68 40-60 5. at butamusing looking homonyms. of and present practise language 67 and the To patterns words associated particular with and Phrases.Activity Level Aims Time (minutes) 15-20 Page 4. 59 Toexplorelexical ambiguityinafocused way. the To work a corpus discover wlth to patterns with language associated particularwords phrases. can most theplayeiwho translate has chance of accuratelythebest wtnntnq. 15 4. 5 Using corpora and concordances verb phrases 5. studentslearn words 78 to how To encourage phrases used searching are by the and lnternet examDle tor texts. and words can used that be homophones.3 More on a corpusand softwarein class 30-40 Upper-intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced 3G40 can 65 To show corpus how analysis highlight patternsgrammar meaning.1 Reciprocal 5. to oreoare 20-40 73 Touseacorpustofindoutwhichoftwoor toa more apparent synonyms isappropriate context.7 Quarrying lnternet for words Intermediate to advanced 30-60 x I Contents .10 Translationreversi 20-30 62 Touseasimpleboardandsomepieceso inwhich card avocabulary as exercise.2 'Tend to': using with concordances students 'tend to': using 5. Darticular software To show concordance can 76 how own to beused thestudents' texts with of discover orhighlight featuresvocabulary and style.6 Workingwith student texts 2C-4:5 the 5.4 Whichword are we after? Elementary to advanced 5.

Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) Page 6 Words and the senses 5.3 Machines and scenes 6. T o b r e a k u p t h e o r d e r a n d v i s u a l9 3 monotony asanaid memory.12 Filling landscape a Elementary to advanced 15 Upper-intermediate 10-20 to advanced Beginnerto advanced Beginner to intermediate Beginner to advanced Intermediate to advanced 10-15 10-15 3. anaid as to memory. through movement. oflists to practise words the To saying using full vocal range.2 Notionpictures 6. visualization 99 To detailed. use creative to words associate theEnglish the with students learninq. and learn get towrite that texts other 2 To students students want read.14 Objectsroundthecircle Beginnerto 10-12 upper-intermediate Toencouragestudentstoexpress 98 meaning way suits inany that them (visually.8 Listeningincolour 6. To ina creative.89 vocabulary situations. meet head-on challenge the oflinking 91 To ofwords their with visual themeanings and auditory representations. use.83 provide and visual kinaesthetic of 84 ways To presenting learning vocabulary. innew known) to vocabulary each from other. most strongly Toreviewandrecallvocabulary. people. will to T o l e a r n v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h s p9 0 i f l c ec visual associations.5 Exploring vocabulary kinaesthetically 5.10 5.9 Getas muchwrongas you can 5. new and 85 Toencouragepeer-teachingbothof subject-matter lexis. To encourage todiscover students forthemselvestoteach and it vocabulary toothers.13 Fishy adjectives 30-40 96 5.7 Picturegallery 35-50 5. and of vocabularythrough movement 87 To learn Toexplorethespatial andhierarchical88 associations ofwords. memorable way.4 Elephants 6. and the then ask and to for learn specific they vocabularyneed. understanding and (or get 1 To studentsuse to known half. that adjectives describe 94 95 5. are Contents xi 6.1 Wordsandoutsenses Lower-intermediate 25-40 to advanced Tomakestudentsawareoftheirown 82 preferences the through words sensory they they choose the and texts respond to.15 Picturing wordsand phrases Elementary to advanced 20-30 .10 OHPlists 5. etc).11 Words roundthe circle 5.6 Coinsspeak Beginnerto intermediate Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced 20-30 30-40 40-50 15-30 15-25 6.

1 Intelligencetest Beginnerto intermediate Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Intermediate to advanced 10 Toexploretheideaofa'wordset'and 102 different inwhich themanv wavs one can categorize vocabuiary.3 Chains 7. provide To a simple 110 research for tool students studying English-speaking inan environment and living host in families. a personal.1 Yougivemytalk 8. Collecting collocations 7. 20-30 Post-beginner 15-20 to advanced 20-35 7. 112 7. such as'How strongly this does word belong to itsset?'. relevant xii I Contents .4. 7.and 113 learn each therefore from. Toencouragestudentstogroupwordsi 103 imaglnative memorable and ways. To differentiate ina'word items field'. or 107 Upper-intermediate 20-30 toadvanced Beginner to intermediate Beginner . Tousepractical.9 Wotdsfrom the homestay family 7. memorable way.7 Theegg exercise 7.day-to-dayvocabular 115 personally conversations. 111 which easily confused each may be with in other. 30-'45 2540 20-35 Tomotivatestudentstolistento.5 Diagonalopposites 10 20 5. word.11 A hierarchy association Intermediate of to advanced I Personal Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to upperintermediate 5-10.8 Prototypes 20 20-30 Togetstudentstoconsiderhowword108 sets built byasking questions are up.10 Mapping one'smood Beginnerto advanced 2-3. to advanced Beginnerto advanced 10 7.2 lifekeywords 8. word as To organize sets a hierarchy.30-40 To expand students'understanding and 104 ofabove-the-word acquisition vocabulary. insodoing consider and to how for effectivethem categorizations such are inorganizingremembering and vocabulary. thus new and fix vocabulary To explore various the meanings and associations ofaword phrase. 8.5 How strongis the collocation? 7. To expand students' understanding 105 and acquisition ofabove-the-wordvocabulary. To encourage studentsgroup to words 102 in unusual.2 Unusual word families 7.3 Turnoutyourpockets Topractiseandsharevocabularywhich 114 personally important. get To studentslook to closelythe at 107 semantic situational and associations ofa firmly. memorable categories.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) Page 7 Word sets 7. other.

especially preparing examination foran forstudents such FCE as orT0EFL.3 Definitions 9.5 Pivotwords 9.5 Aletterfromtheteacher 8.5 Wordsmy neighbour knows 8.8 Storyboard 20-30 Lower-intermediate to advanced 10-20 Lower-intermediate to advanced Intermediate toadvanced Elementary to advanced 10-20 20-30 and 131 semantic To explore different the grammatical ofwords. practise relating tocontext. 118 Theprivateconnotationsawordor phrase have bevery strong may can 'definition'.1 Circlegames Beginnerto advanced Intermediate to advanced 10-1 5 T o p r o v i d e a b a n k o f g a m e s w i t1 2 1 a r i e t y hav purposes can played in that be oflearning players. orsurrounding words the identifying with Topractise help ofdefinitions. uses 'buried' other in words 132 words To discover text.9 Whathaveyougottenof? Beginnerto lower-intermediate 9 Word games 9.5 Hidingwords 9. game using 125 Touse guessing topractise a definitions studentsEnglishto Tointroduce ways crosswordsshow in and language and which can adapted made they be more creative. as a to strong enoughexpress to a wider 119 studentsacquire To encourage choice expressions.'l-Thou'context. each students toteach To encourage and from other.Activity Level Aims Time (minutes) 40-60 Page 8.4 SCarS Elementary to upperintermediate Intermediate to advanced lack to To motivate studentsovercome of 115 when vocabulary narrattng.7 Treasure hunt 9.4 Crosswords Intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced 20-30 20-30 9. to circlesthree seven of negative and 123 on various To work the prefixes pejorative inEnglish. 10-15 117 Topresentvocabularytostudentsina direct. of 120 Togetstudentstodiscoverandusenew things are words express that important to tothem now 8.2 Theprefix game 30-40 dictation 9.8 Phrases like I 15-25 Lower-intermediate to advanced 15-20 8. 126 9.7 Thesecretdictionary 20 Post-beginner 10-15 to advanced Elementary to advanced 15. words To 133 135 LOnlents I x||l . other learn each 116 8. l .

a 154 Togetstudentsto'draw'wordsas but way simple creative ofremembering vocabulary visually.5 Leapingwords 10-15 11.6 Findthe word a picture 20-40 xiv I Contents . comparing attention 152 To concentrate thestudents' under revision byfocusing onthe words own. used definitions language inthe elementto Toaddastrongpersonal dictionary Practice.1Word dip 10. ontheir 153 by To vocabulary fix inmemoryvisualizing with obiects and connections familiar olaces. 149 149 Togetthestudentstoforminteresting and memorable groups. 11.3 Wordson a scale Intermediate to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto advanced Beginner to advanced 15-20 furniture 11. 143 Toshowhowwordsmaybegroupedby to and meaning context. subjective reactions.8Thesauri 11 Revision exercises 11. 142 recent on with emphasismore the c0lnages.1 Opencategorization 11. can to show howwords be incidentally. 140 Toshowhowwordscanchangeform across and meaning languages.6 Commemorativewords Upper-intermediate to advanced 10. 138 in 10.Activity Level Aims Time (minutes) Page lO Dictionary exercises and word history 10.4 Lexical 15-20 11.5 Borrowedwords 20-30 10. get and To studentslink to words visual 155 imaqes.4 Whatdolmean? 10-1 5 1G-l5 Lower-intermediate to advanced Intermediate to advanced 20 139 Tointroduceandpractisewordsand phrases indefining explaining used and meanrngs. uses.2 Fromword to word Elementary to advanced Intermediate to advanced Elementary to advanced 15-25 15-25 135 Tofamiliarizestudentswiththestru and ofdictionaries.7 Datingwords 15-30 Upper-intermediate to advanced 30-45 Upper-intermediate to advanced 10.theemphasis given. to word and ofwords deepen understanding by their categorizations. meaning. using and. Toexplorewordswithahistory 141 more with To explore words a history.2 Guidedcategorization to Beginner advanced Beginnerto advanced 15-20 15-20 students tocategorize To allow inany they vocabulary way want. introduce and practise a thesaurus. limitations give practice use 137 inthe of To further with onthe dictionaries. to and used disguise distort 10.3 Writeyourself 10.

inan To way non-wordy 161 t1.15 30-40 practise vocabulary review 160 To the under contexts.15 Comparing random words f 1-f 6 Multi-sensory revision a somewhat way surreal of 162 Toprovide words reviewing'hard-to-remember' get whether to 162 To studentschoose to kinaesthetically. review 159 ff.7 Rhyming review Elementary to advanced Beginnerto advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto adJanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Beginnerto intermediate Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced Elementary to advanced 156 Toprovideasimpleauditoryreviewof on vocabularv.f 2 Question and answer ll.f 1 Forced choice I f . ll.l0 Drawtheword Matchingwords Giftwords 156 5.9 fl.15-20 Togetstudentstovisualizewordsasa means remembering of them. generate To conversationfast bya and energetic ofwords. also which focuses pronunciation and spelling. reviewwords energetic.l3 It. interactivelyinnew and 151 Touseoral storytellingtoreviewwords. auditorily 164 Toencouragestudentstoextractas much meaningthey from as can words they bylimiting number are the allowed use. orvisually.17 Writingto rule 30-40 lrnotated Her bibl iography Contentsxv I .focusingonmeaning and context. 15-30 20 157 Toreviewwords. to 155 158 11.l4 Wordstostory Wordrush 15-25 15-25 20-30 10 5.Activity Level Time Aims (minutes) 20-30 Page ll. 158 Toreviewvocabularyandatthesame orimprove rapport time establish to a within group. revise linguistically.8 ll.

Sounds Learning in Variationson a Theme. series. Mario Rinvolucri is founder member of the Pilgrims netvvork and e dits IIum anisingLanguageTe aching. and from 1999 to zoo3 he was Director of the Graduate Programme at Assumption University.Sounds Interesting. Mario's most recent publications arc Ilumanising your Coursebook (both with ETp-Delta. He has been associated with Pilgrims English Language courses since rgZS. Moulding). teacher trainer.and Shortand Sweet.inthis Intnguing.htt p ://www. UsingtheMother Tongue zooz).tttj o u r n a l. and as Regional Representative in South India (Madras). Learning to Listen and Poeminto Poem (with Sandra Teacher's Voice. Cambridge. OUP. Italy.as well as Challenge Thinklwith Berer and Frank.r98z). coursebook and resource book writer. Words. Ghana.co. In addition to this title. Alan Maley worked for the British Council from 196z to 1988.as well as contributing to many Pilgrims publications. From 1988 to r99g he was Director-General of the Bell Educational Trust. France. TheLanguage Theauthors and series editor | 1 . TheMind's Eye(with Franqoise Grellet and Alan Duff ). Bangkok. and lexicographer.and Drama Techniques Language (all with Alan Duff). u k. At present he divides his time between teacher training and setting crosswords.T h ea u t h o r s n ds e r i e e d i t o r a s John Morgan has worked in EFLsince 1966. with Sheelagh Deller.co. A frequent to acherTrainer. contributor t o TheTe and. u k. h tt p ://www. From 1993to 1998he was Senior Fellow in the Department of English Language and Literature of the National University of Singapore.as a teacher. and China. He has writtenLiterature. a webzine for teachers. With Mario Rinvolucri he has written )nceupon aTime and TheQBook. Mario has co-authored Letters andVideo in the ResourceBooks for Teachersseries. BeyondWords. He is currently a fieelance consultant.serving as English Language Officer in Yugoslavia. h It m a g .

have different preferred modes of learning. AlanMaley Foreword| 3 . multiple intelligences. Current thinking. It is a measure of the successof the book that these ideas have now entered 'way the mainstream. Altogether we are now better placed to understand the nature and functions of vocabulary what it means to know a word. and neurolinguistic progrumming (NLP). this has tended to reinforce the beliefs of the authors tfrat learning takes place through the personal associations formed by learners. and have again challenged teachers to renew themselves. This new edition builds on its former strengths by incorporating activities based on the ideas outlined above. If anything. Lexico-grammar-the zone where syntax and lexis cooperate to forge meaning-has become a key consideration in the way vocabulary is taught. Bilingual associations in vocabulary in particular clearly have a part to play. and how best to acquire vocabulary. based in large parl on the analysis of computer corpora. and therefore the fact that vocabulary is largely phrasal. Words hang together in typical clusters rather than exist in splendid isolation. What was then considered out' now forms part ofaccepted practice. This new edition should be at least as influential as the old one was. The authors have retained their freshness and originality of approach.Foreword 'vVhen the first edition ofVocabulary appeared in 1986. Perhaps the other single most important development has been the recognition of learner differences.Learners apprehend the world differently. some of the ideas it presented seemed outlandish to many teachers. The activities included here all seek to promote the key quality of engagement. Another trend has been the revival of interest in the role of the mother tongue in the acquisition of a second language. It is 'depth of processing' that matters most. has emphasized the importance of collocation. as evidenced through work in learning styles. Vocabularyhasplayed its part in the more general movement towards giving greater prominence to the teaching of vocabulary that has taken place since its initial publication. and therefore need learning materials which take account of these differences.

the invitation to revise and update this book. new practices. which means that several million students will have experienced actMties from its pages. and will have brought its approaches into their own teaching of vocabulary. t986 is a long time ago. and teachers have bought the 1986 edition of this book since publication.Attention must be paid not to a generalized view of learning but to the variety of the individual process of learning. which is influenced increasinglyby new thoughts. as Encountering and when we meet people.Many students. There seemed to be an assumption that it was enough for teachers to specify which words wete to be learnt-the when and the how was up to the students.Introd uction Forty thousand schools. 'vVhyshould this be so?Whenwe 'do' a reading passageor a listening comprehension with our students. in many classrooms this is not the case. If teachers have not always recognized the need to devote time to the teaching of vocabulary students themselves feel a very real need to devote time and effort to the process.Teachers seemed keen to teach grammar and pronunciation. especially in a fast-changing field such as language teaching and learning. methodologies for making words stick. what was our thinking behind the first edition of Vocabulary?When we asked students back in the r98os about their feelings on learningvocabulary two-thirds of them said theywere not taught enough words in class.rrn is that of listening to successivenews broadcasts on television or keeping words in matchboxes-examples we cited in the introduction to the first edition of this book-students intuitively bring to bear the commonsense understanding that for something to be effective it must be effective for them. We greatly welcomed. Introduction 5 | . \Mhether it develop their or. This book has grown out of our attempts to work with that process. indeed. too. institutions.and this second edition seeksto incorporate new understanding of the factors that influence it. But first. 'understanding' a word are seldom enough. surely we are teaching vocabulary? Sadly. however. but learning words-particular words that they needed in everyday life-came a very poor third. therefore. Many teachers will have used it. depth and interaction are necessary if the encounter is to be meaningful and memorable. and new disciplines.

will be refuseda placein their mind?Just asa look.Making new Howhave things changed. a tone of voice. at leastfrom elementarylevel up.Many new theoriesand insights have emergedwhich have direct impact on what it is to 'know' a word. A relationship with words Another principle that underpins this book is the realization that Iearning process. aswe did twentyyears ago.ed' in the real world.then. a movement.then the languageclassroom beginsto be an interesting place. and still hold to our view that vocabularylearning is best carried out interactively within the classroom.that a good secondlanguageexercisewill offer the student an experience that is to someextent new that they have never found themselves doingin their Lr. tongue. in the two decades that separate the editions of this book?We still seea need for practical activities of the kind offered here. and someof the new chaptersin the book continue to stem from this newthinking.the kinetic sensationofthe lungs. When this kind of freshness and element of surprisecropsup in lessonafter lesson. To stick with a nautical metaphor.its tune .we havein the past sailedbefore the wind of many new trends and ideas.This is why you should put this book in the handsof the teachersof tJe mother tongue in your staflroom. It is much more than that. a chanceremark.We alsofeel that a good Lz activity. do not sub scrib e to the view that a word is merely a 'signifier' that actsasa label for a 'signif.You words a relational is could describethe process as making We friendswith thewordsof thet argetlanguage. and nose when sayingthe word . throat.its pitch .or somethingin the setting can influence our flrst impressionsof a person.its speedof enunciation . is one that would alsowork adequatelyand maintain a reasonable level of interest among studentsif done in their mother tongue.its sound .while another word. Onereasonwhy somestudentsexperiencelanguagelearning asa chore is because they find themselvesaskedto do againand again what they are alreadyable to do with their eyesshut in their mother tongue. for example: . mouth. met at the sametime and place.so our perception of a word can be affectedby. we no but longer feel tlat we are mapping uncharted waters.the other word companyit keeps(collocatingability and breadth) 5 | Introduction .We strongly maintain. whywill secondlanguagelearnerspick up and remember one word apparently effortlessly. If a word is simply a label.

the fact that back in the r98os computers had yet to have a major influence on our thinking. of coming to terms with a complex. but associatively. If you take them all into account. then meeting a word is a process of befriending. neurolinguistic programming (NLP).its shape on the page or screen . The computer explosion and the Internet have transformed the environment in which language is used and learning takes place. We would like to round offthese opening paragraphs with a paraphrase of part ofAlan Maley's foreword to the 1986 edition: The acquisition ofvocabulary is: o a branching process rather than a linear one.The associationsand vibrations depend on our own past and present felt experience. a social process.its spelling .too. . All these factors play a part in'learning' a word. or not take account of. but an experiential hands-on process too. It is easy. rather than to be incorporated within the subject-the learner. . These are some of the factors that have informed the updating of this book. not a purely intellectual. an intensely personal process. We will conclude this introduction by summarizing under three headings how they have advanced our understanding ofthe teaching ofwords.the circumstances of meeting the word.the associations the word has for the individual learner . We expand our understanding of word meanings by interchanging and sharing them with others: . New trends In the years between the flrst edition of this book and today. there has been-as we have already suggested-signiflcant work done which impacts upon the lexical component of language. An over-intellectual approach causesthe language to be seen as an object. to forget. This has fed into curricula and coursebooks.conventional associations: semantic and syntactic categories to which the word appears to belong . Introduction 7 | . self-standing reality. effortful process..literary associations ('pail of water' in the context ofJack andJill) . while mainstream teaching has been influenced by work on a host of theories: multiple intelligences.and so on. learning styles. Words are not learnt mechanically. as little packets of meaning. rather than a solitary one.

the mother tongue is the launch pad for the and secondlanguage. our view this revolt is common sense. Interestingly.cient. ritishcouncil. There is a growing revolt againstthe belief. (ELTeCS-L Digeston the British Council website http ://www. the one hand you haveinfluential writers like On Professor Guy Cook from ReadingUniversity writing articleswith titles like 'Is there Direct Method in our Madness?'( ELGazefi. held by proponentsof the Direct Method.e. that the mother tongue shouldbe excludedfrom the secondlanguage classroom. the caseof In In adolescents adults. and linguistically effi.) 8 | Introduction .(See Annotated Bibliographyat the end of this the book. Theselearnersnaturally referencenewwords in Lz via the mother tongue.sinceevis for him a brilliant.againespeciallyat beginner level. writingwhat follows: I can't seethe problemwith judicioususeofthe students' mother tongue-especially at lower levels.We paid little attention to our own natural. inevitable...the UK EFLvoiceswho haverecently advocated sensibleuse of the mother tongue include university academics and practisingteachers.org) b 'Bilingual texts and activities'. particularly in the UK. celebratethe lifting of the Direct Method ban on the mother tongue by offering you some exercises that we hope will pleasethose of your studentswith strong linguistic intelligences. and ignore the many rich and valuablepoints of comparisonthere maybe with their own. zipped-up synthesisof all his thoughts and feelingssurrounding the conceptof house.19gqand on the other Andrew Morris.When we look back. hastalked increasinglyof the major importance of the mother tongue in the learning of a secondlanguage. consult the large vocabularysectionin Deller and Rinvolucri zooz. we are amazedthat we only included a coupleof exercises the first edition of this book in which included the use of the student'smother tongue. a teacherin Bangladesh.we In Chapter4. you flnd the exercises this chapter useful and would If in like somemore.he will go fiom the conceptand feeling to the Tirrkish word evand from there make an equivalence with house.It is absurdto operateall the time in a new secondlanguage. contrastiveway of learning other languages. from the sightsand soundsof his home tohouse..To take an example:a rz-year-old Turk meeting the Englishwordhouse will not go direct fiom his feelings about his home.Isste 239.asa learner of other languages myself I find it necessary times to clarify a point of at vocabularyor grammar in English.The relationship of the mother tongue to the foreign language Overthe pastten yearsthe EFLcommunity. This is natural.

of course.in which of thesecolumnswould you get your first representation? And the word mother? Somepeople hear their mother. This awarenessleadsto a slew of emotionally apt activitiesin the courseofwhich studentsdiscovera whole new area of themselvesand their relationship to words.as they discoverthat their friend's sensoryprocessis different from theirs. a Wasyour flrst or sound?What sort ofwindowwas it?\ /hat sort of house?Wherein the world did it happen?Did you get a feeling of the light.hearing. (Herewe chosean auditory representationof the classroom process. others know her through bodily feeling. dictate a set ofwords tfrat the students have alreadv studied and ask them to classify them into four columns: eye ear feeling bodily taste/smell With the word sock.while othersget a mental picture of her. 'representation'of the man. what was outlike? As Were you inside the 'space'of the scene. point. orfeeling through the body.To expressourselves language.categorization the words dictated of and the room is fllled with animated. the temperature that da12Or was it night? Were there backgroundnoises. Takethis sentence: The manwenttothewindow andlooked out. the weather. If you want to expressthe idea that you got angryyou might say: I suwred.sounds? he looked out.Thesensorybasis and ofboth experience vocabulary Work with the technology offered by neurolinguistic programming hasmadeus much more awarethan we were before of the fact that it is through the flve senses that we experiencethe external world and the internalworld ofwords.from the Latin word situsmeaningplace) the cuffent meaning has cometo mean but Introduction |9 . (auditory) I reached screarrnng All the abovephrasescar4rthe intended meaning. in we haveno choicebut to make continuous sensorychoicesaslarge areas ofthe languagesystemare basedon seeing.for example. a feeling. At a later stagein this exercise studentscomparetheir sensory.for example. a picture. Iflew offthehandle.but they do soin sensorilyvery different ways.for example.or did you seeit asan external picture? As we use our mother tongue we are continually making unconscious lexical choicesbasedon sensorypreferences that come from our deepprogramming.plenty of abstractwords in the languagethat are only etymologicallysensory$ituation. (visual) (kinaesthetic) Ilostmy rag.sometimesamazedvoices.) There are. So.

for analogues or illustrations ofabstract concepts.)Accordingto the British National Corpus.the verb consign association: massivelynegativethrough collocational dustbin(6% alloccurrences. 'It is almost impossibleto flnd a singlecontext in appearsin a positive light'.ned insights. The discoveries made by corpus linguists The growth of corpuslinguistics over the pasttwenty-five yearshas led us to new waysof understandingwords.(In zoozit decidedto go back to calling itself 'The Royal is Mail'.uk.After the first shock of being askedto studentsfind they can easilyvisualize visualizea word llke integritry.of which half were the of consigtrtothe dustbinofhistory) (5%) consign oblivion to the consignto scrap-heap $%) amuseum(3%) consignto Rundellwrites.given by Ron Carter.this time fiom Michael Rundell:his article zoozlshows onlytheyd askeda linguist' (http://www. PostOff.hltmag.lt coloursand changes turns out that this is not the neutral unbiasedword you might think. But around).We can now study them in their collocationalenvironment.Let us take the verb to cause.which in turn originally meant something similar to ciramntance.To flnd out more. and we can do this on a massive realize how this hectaresof text. Neurolinguistic programming has a great dealto sayabout languageand words that goeswell beyond the sensorysystembut in ourselves this small areaof NLP's to this bookwe have confi. of native-speaking 'If Another example.It is in this way that we 'domesticate'what is abstractinto our own personal reality. if you go to 6.ninety per cent ofthe things caused negative: to cause embarrassment havoc to cause to cause chaos to cause distress pain to cause to When we first heard thesefactsduring a presentationin 1999. are Accordingto one large corpus. Indeedthe LK PostOfflce which consign 10 | Introduction .co.cewas to re-nameitself 'Consignia'some how wrong the UK yearsago. He went on to add that corpusstudy had led him to doubt the accuracy introspection about words. We consciously scaleand across their meaning.we were assurprisedashe saidhe had been at flrst. seeO'Connorand Seymour1990.15you will flnd an activity in whatstands which the teacher dictatesabstractwords and the studentsdo a quick drawing for each.

The development of the Internet has led to the inclusion of some net-related activities and to a number ofvariations and additions to (unrs) have been provided for software others. And one other thing .to be found at http://www.shouldhave consulteda linguist before renaming themselves with one of the most negativelycollocatingwords in the language! In Chapter5 we offer two types of exercise: one where students work with evidencefrom corpora.co m/e lVg Io ba l/teacherscIu b/. competitions. transformed. our readers. and the like. The inclusion of Aims for each activity should 'old favourites'have been further facilitate this process. downloadable worksheets. All the materials in this book are offered as suggestions for exploration and modiflcation by the teachers and students who might use them. This has enabled us to present the activities in a clearer way and we recommend a close study of the table of contents as a way of flnding what you want. John Morgan Mario Rinvolucri I n t r o d u c t i o|n1 1 . and we welcome your feedback.co m/e lVteacherlrbt..This chapterinvites you into the vast new thinking spacethat corpus linguists havebeen creating over the pasttwentyyears. The Internet also provides us with an opportunity to establish a dialogue with you. If you would like to share your ideas and experiences..oup. o u p. nor to specifywhat to teach. o u p. Web addresses sources and sites relating to dictionaries.Some of the updated with new texts and examples. We hope on the other hand to provide a rich sourcebook of ideas to be dipped into. Other changesto this edition Readers of the flrst edition will notice that the book is now considerably longer. author articles. There you will find. and added to. and the otherwhere the studentslearn to use concordancing programssothey can make their own discoveries from raw data. too.set out on the pagein front of them. though we cannot of course guarantee that all these unrs will remain valid. We aim neither to present a method to be rigorously followed. corpora.com/elVteacher/rbt. This book is among the first to be supported by a website devoted to the Resource Books for Teachersseries. please contact us via http ://www. And there is more still at the OUP Teachers' Club at http ://www. etc. extra activities. and is divided into eleven chapters instead of seven.

and that an actMty that is powerful enough to enable the students to learn language from a dull text may also interfere with or swamp the reading ofa rich text. they cannot address the huge variety 'at of individual student needs. not on furthering good reading habits. Preparation Choose and make copiesof a text and from it selectflve to eight items the of vocabularyfor presentationasa 'word rose'. Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. Such texts have the advantage that they can be speciallywritten or adapted to suit curriculum needs. It should be remembered that they concentrate onvocabularyuse and acquisition. 1 .Pre-text activities Although vocabulary may be learnt flom many sources. to present a steady progression of grammar and vocabulary to be learnt. they will learn vocabulary from the text placed in fiont of them. The activities in this chapter have two principal aims: to motivate the students to read the text. Learners differ in their experience of life. in their attitude to themselves and others. On the other hand. and to get them to review and organize their thoughts and language resources before reading. etc. to form the basis for student assessment and grading.)Thevocabularyitems shouldbe neither 'contextfree' (for example. for the 'reading passage'found majority of students the in the coursebook or supplied by the teacher is the most usual. in their'learning style'. even among those who are the same level'. and in countless other ways. neutral or very general adjectives).structurewords. in their aspirations.(See sampletext below for the kind of text that would be appropriateat upperintermediate level. in their beliefs. Many of these differences will be reflected in how and to what extent. 1 What'sin the text? Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30minutes Aims To motivate studentsto reada text by getting them to speculate beforehandabout its content. 'keywords' that would closelytypify the main nor Pre-text activities 13 | .

This a phraseis straight out of the era of coaches and horseswith an If undercurrent of gentle submission.Americansthink it is asquaint aswe think their turnpikes are quaint.no one givesway unlessthey absolutelyhaveto. Punctuation can also drift past its sell-by date. forget or simply ignore. that you can go fast.meaning of the text: the airn should be to allowthe studentsa reasonable chanceof coming closeto the text without restricting their imagination.the one thingyou can never. ron Gop' s sAI(E. One of the most common all-purpose signs is the exclamation mark. Dousrn IANE or src noao?The AHEAD clearlycHANcETo is metatextof ouer cARRTAGEwAv oVERTAKE SuNney DRIVER AHEADoI FASTLANEAHEADoT END oF AHEAD. This is clearly the 14 | Pre-text activities . Duer cannrAcEwAyis anotherdesignaiion straightout of the r8th century. Maybe we could have them in sequence:srART BRAKTNG Now. pretend not to know. a bit oxymoronically. and for a sign that is a fate worse than death. Even nnrucE spEEDNow is suspect. or even imply. of based thesample below: on text srgns polite ignore writing updated driver carriageway oermrssron Sample text Thelanguage road-signs of Signsare a greatway of telling peoplethings they don't know. Procedure 1 Put up the word roseon the blackboard. 3 Ask them. BRAKENow. Example An example a wordrose. However. in groups of four. Telling people to ! slow down because there's something in their way is getting perilously close to teaching them to suck eggs. ever do FRUSTRATIoN with a road sign is give permission.and that is that most of them havebeen around for so long that we're beginning not to notice them. 2 Tell the sflldentsthat they are going to read a text in which these in words appear(not necessarily the order presented).and sounds like a driving instructor's instruction. language Signswith writing on are particularly at risk because changes lot fasterthan pictures. This should be updated to slow DowN Now or. We all know what one is.Orjust No.For example.there is a problem with signs. this sign were at a polite cocktail party it would sayswooN.cult to think of what elseit couldbe called. to speculate the content of the text. This sign shouldtherefore be updated to No wAY. srow DowN quICKry.Sadly. Thesedays. BRAr(E. on 4 Give out copiesof the text for comparisonand discussion. BRAI(E It's an unnecessarysign. but it's very diff.crvE wev.

Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.ndsitself with a small foreign exchangesurplusand rudimentary armed forcesand police force.spelling.before checking with you or their dictionary. What is needed is . 2 Tell the classthat you have selected words fiom a text that they the are about to read and give them a briefoutline ofits content. 1 .same as cosH ! It implies that something moderately interesting **! Or could happen ifyou're easilyinterested. Tell them that by by the words they write can be suggested sound. Ask the students. TheGuardianWeekend. Ask them to take a sheetof paper and rule it into two columns. g (Guy Browning. twenty more words on the board. Procedure 1 Put up the unfamiliar words on the blackboard. then ask the classto shout out anywords suggested by the words you have written up.encoutagethem to work out from the contextwhat the unfamiliarwords mean. June zoor) Variation Followr and z above. rv\Ihenyou have written. Magwetafi.possible meaning. add them to the words already on the blackboard.#@&! Becausethat's what we something flom Captain Haddock like all say when we round a bend at 7o miles an hour and flnd a modern art installation in the middle of the road. Sample text Magweta After World War II. Preparation Selectfiom the text that you have choseneight to ten words that you think will not be familiar to your students. or in any other way. Giveout the text.They shouldwrite dovrn eachof the words on the blackboardin the lefthand column.The sampletext below is an example of the kind of textyou might choose. and then in the right-hand column write three or four other words that are suggested eachleft-handword. Pre-text activities 15 | . 'You talking to me?'. 2 Predicting meanings Level Elementary advanced to Time 10-20minutes of Aims Toencourage students work out from contextthe meanings to unfamiliar words.in groups of three or four. As the studentsread. carry on with 3 and 4 above. to comparewhat they havewritten. say. When you hear words that are in the text.

a steadydeclinein the price of cashcrop exports. relative to manufacturedimports.This the government reluctantly accedes to.radios.are bought up by a few individuals and fi. Campaign Against the Arms Trade. that new itemsin theseareas so canmore easilybe'slottedin'and remembered. the most vigorousyoung peopleleavethe and land to move into the urban areaswhere most of the wealth is Rural societydeclinesand shantytowns grow in the concentrated. someof which were previouslyfarmed under the traditional system. The result of this policyis the destructionof embryonic local industry aslarge foreign concerns. Materials 16 | Pre-text activities . restrictions are placedon imports in order to stimulate local Selective productionbut arms imports continue to increase.relying heavily on advertisingand the lure ofWestern image.3 Predicting words Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-25minutes Aims To review areasof vocabularywith which the studentsalready havesomefamiliarity. To transform the country the ruling group startsto import large quantities of machinery including small amounts of arms.flood the market. ffier a fewyears the foreign exchangeposition has seriously deterioratedand a loan is obtainedfrom the IMF.Exportsare and a major effort is madeto expandthe production of encouraged cashcropsthrough the use of improved agricultural techniques. shadowof the westernisedcities. but alsoincluding a few large estates primarily producing cashcropsfor export. (Bombs Breakfast. This is granted on condition that the currencyis devaluedand import restrictionsremoved. although the cost of the latter is reducedby a grant of military aid from a Westernpower.r98r) for 1. predominantly small farms run by one family. stimulateinterestin to a dulltext.The politicians make patriotic which justify the expansionand re-equippingof the speeches military.The country's economyis basedon agriculture. A civilian political grouping hasrecently cometo power with a policy of rapid industrial development. Although there is a short-termimprovement helped by somedirect foreign investment. Employment in traditional agriculture stagnates. Severallarge tracts of land. results in a secondapplication for a loan.Many of the ruling group havebeen educatedin the West and have acquireda Westernlifestyle. One copy of the text for eachstudent. they set the paceby purchasingcars.basingits appealon nationalistic sentiment amongst the people.rmsand converted to producemore cropsfor export.and similar luxuries which others in the higher echelonsthen seekto acquire.

and not being arrogantbut humble. a of virtue of its content and/orstyle. Tell them to producea list of eight to ten when asked.being open and light-hearted. but I can alsoseethat my family needsmore They find it probably more difficult to copewith my reassurance. Nasreddinstories) o instructions.I would expectfrom my companymore flexibility but alsomore trust. commuter Sampletexts Theinternational 'Euro flyer' who commutesbetweenthe UK and An interview with a This manager the continent everyweek showsthe specialchallenges. 'My careerexpectationshavecompletely changedasI now think much more globally.Preparation by Choose text with a fairly narrow and predictableset of vocabulary.to predict someof the vocabularythey might encounterin the text.Givethem a very rough idea of below tell what the piecewill be about:for example. earthquakes.I think nothing of picking up the phone and arranging a meeting in another country or on another continent.I would have expectedmore support. work are the following personality characteristics: cultural sensitivity. recipes. I have alwaysbeen ableto work strangehours and to juggle a lot of balls in the air.in the samples of them they are going to read a short article about the stresses working for an international companyihearan Ametican cowboy songabout whisky. sportsreports) o fairy storiesand folk talesknown to the students(for example.They do not realize the effect of short-terminternational travel. frantic life. Procedure Tell the studentsthat later in the lessontheywill be readinga text/listening to a tapeihearinga story. Cinderella. 'What helped me personallyto adaptto short-term internationaindependence. gavethe following account: 'I feel l can copewith the demandsofbeing in different placesall the time.being assertive. popular songs The sampletexts below provide examples. selFdiscipline.product descriptions . news items with a well-known therne (armstalks. items. 4 Giveout the texts/playthe recording/tell the story.in pairs.Ideally. Pre-text activities| 17 q . Ask the students.Examples suitabletexts might be: o advertisements flom coursebooks . In terms of the company.Washington and the cherrytree. despitebeing an international company. being positive. I would expectthe companyto treat me asa mature individual.Allow dictionariesand give assistance 3 Ask the studentsto form larger groups (eight to twelve) and explain their lists to one another. passages .

Jacko' diamonds. Mymoney'smyown. I knowyou of old. MalgorzataSzwaj. whiskey. Oh. of 'Another areathat I need guard to for my own developmentis the private life/professionallife distinction. Rye whtskey. you've hurt meBut I love you for all. You'vekicked me. And religion when I die. Beefsteak when I'm hungry Redliquorwhen I'm dry Greenbacks when I'm hard up.and then askingthe classto suggest ways of completing it. This is obviouslya risk in terms of long-term stressbut it also puts a certain pressureon my personalrelationships. I believeI have developeda deeperand better understanding people. Variation A Polishcolleague. On the other hand. and what their suggested titles might refer to. I now find it quite hard to slow down in my personallife and I want to pack in all the socialactivities in a very short spaceof time. Because have a highly I stressfulinternational job. I find it difficult to switch offand therefore my lifestyle hasbecomeextremely paceyand adrenalindriven. rye Ryewhiskey. you villain You'vebeen my downfall.lcry. Isurelywilldie. There is definitely not enoughbalancein terms of relaxation in my life. The only negativeeffect of my frantic lifestyle is that I havebecomemuch more aggressive lesspatient and peoplehavein fact commented and on this. I At other times none. I do believeI havebecomelesstolerant of peoplewho want to wastetime and in such situationsmytemper hasbecomeshorter. (TraditionalUScowboy song) 18 | Pre+extactivities .Jacko' diamonds. If the hard times don't kill me.1999) Ryewhiskey I'11 when I'm hungry eat I'll drinkwhen I'm dry. whiskey. They sayI drink whiskey.whereasbefore this itwould never have occurredto me. If youdon'tgwemeryewhtskey.' (Elisabeth Marx. Br eakLng ough thr Culnre Sho London: Nicholas ck BrealeyPublishing. All them that don't like me Canleaveme alone. I'11lay down and die. You'verobbed my poor pockets Of silverand gold.suggests putting up the first part of the title of the piece. Sometimes drink brandy. I I Sometimes drink rum. Sometimes drink whiskey.

and especially the positiveand negative on words havefor them.1. they might like to consider whether they have changed their minds about any of the words after reading them in context. investment stealing. Preparation Choose keywords from a text. connotations Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.badfood Pre-textactivities | 19 . and give a fairly concreteexamplein column 3: 1 2 J Name John Smith Place of residence 3 PackerStreet. safe money. For the intermediate text overleaf this could be: land value belong rent market commodity Ask the students to make out'criminal words you have written up. kidnapping heart disease troline<< Write up on the blackboard the list ofwords fiom the textyou have chosen.4 Criminal records Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40minutes Aims Tofocusthe students'attention the waysthey associate words on by meaningor context. produced following Examples In one group. 8 As a follow-up. 7 Ask the classto read the text. cheating commodity shop sell.West Croydon Iftrown associates PeterTackson. 3 Point out that words could alsobe saidto havecriminal records. Arthur Baines Crfuninal record fat body carbolrydrates. the Procedure a Write up on the blackboard skeleton'criminalrecordcard'of the type shown below (column r only) 2 Fill in an example 'criminal record' asin column z.buy greed rent Cambridge landlady dirtyroom. record cards' for each of the Ask the students to form small groups (three to flve) and tell each other what they have written and why.students the threeexamples: Name Placeof residence Known associates Criminal record value jewellery. cholesterol robbery terrorism.

ownfeelings 20 | Pre-text activities .According to this system.and in doing so automaticallyto raisethe market value of mine. he had no other right to it. 2 Ask the students. it is completelywrong. Then I could come down from the moon and demandthat 'my' thesefools pay me through their nosesfor the high value of land-a value which they themselves had createdfor me while I was enjoying myself on the moon! Sucha systemis not only foreign to us.a personcould claim a pieceof land ashis own private propertywhether he intended to use it or not.The foreigner introduced a completely different concept-the conceptof land asa marketablecommodity.Sample text Land To us in Africa land was alwaysrecognizedasbelonging to the community. because otherwisehe could not earn his living and one cannot havethe right to life without alsohaving the right to some meansof sustaininglife. call them 'mine'.so that their moredirected and critical. I could take a few squaremiles of land. AII I had to do to gain a living from 'my' land was to chargea rent to the peoplewho wanted to useit. But the African's right to land was simply the right to use it. 1968) gender 1. Oxford University Press.5 Ungrammatical Level Intermediateto advanced Time 3G40 minutes Aims Toencourage students exploretheir preconceptions to about particular words beforemeetingthem in a context.Tell them that this has nothing to do with ideasof grammaticalgender or'dictionary meaning' but should expresstheir about the words. Nyerere. Eachindividual within our societyhad a right to the use of the land. If this pieceof land was in an urban areaI had no needto developit at all. (JuliusK. In the following exampletext thesecould be.from eachother. I could leaveit to the fools who were preparedto developall the other piecesof land surrounding 'my' piece. for intermediate learners : rush-hour performing crowded s i tu p a n d b e g carchases display trafficlanes ploughing oavement equation alleyways Jam Procedure 1 Put up your list on the blackboardand askthe studentsto check (with dictionaries.working individually.Ujamaa. or by askingyou) that they understand all the words. readingbecomes Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent Preparation Choosea text and list ro-rz words and phrasesin it that the classare likely to flnd hard. nor did it occurto him to try and claim one. and then go offto the moon. to divide the words into male and female.

genderloaded. or just possibly through it. for some of us at least. on a Friday night.. His car can jump. On the way they sit in more traffic jams. clear across a city at eighty miles an hour. 5 Ask them to discuss in pairs if the context has led them to change their minds about any of the words and phrases. He goes on the pavement. he drives round it. Then they sit in a dark cinema and watch a man drive a car through rush-hour traffi. If you offered it a biscuit it would probably sit up and beg. or maybe over it. The fact that Moses may have been able to part the Red Seabut could not do more than ten miles an hour in London. Sometimes.Invite the students to discuss in pairs why they sexed the words as they did. everybody goes and sits in a jam again. (Ben Elton. Nothing can stop the hero in his car. was shot at 5. it is more like a performing dog than a ton and a half of lifeless metal.' But quite aparr from the grammar. doesn't matter. Movie car chasesremind us of how much we love cars. The fact that if you actually tried any of that stufffor real you would not get twenty yards before ploughing into a bus queue and killing thirry innocent pedestrians. If the man had turned into a six-foot banana we would say it was a stupid movie. The fact that this display . \Mhen the movie is over. f 4 Give out the text for the class to read. is not part of the equation. they go to the movies.c jams. Pre-text activities 21 | . r99r) Comments Many teachers might be horrified at the idea of encouraging students to associate English words with gender-it's hard enough to stop Gaston saylng'When I picked up the cup. manywords are.m. he hurtles down empty alleyways. he crossesinto opposing traffic lanes. on four successive Sunday mornings. she broke. If he meets another car.c. they miss the first part of the movie because they can't flnd a parking place. Macdonald. his car can roll over. Gridlock. but a man driving a car through a crowded city at eighty miles an hour we not only accept but remark to each other how brilliantly done the car chaseswere.3oa. means nothing. Example Hereiswhat one studentproduced: Male rusn-nour carchases sit up and beg equation performing display ploughing Female pavemenr trafficlanes crowded alleyways jam text Movie chase Sample All week people sit in traffi..

and one copyof the'word jumble'for each student. Ask the studentsto discuss pairs the words they havewritten in down.1. selectz5-3o of thosevocabularyitems which for you bestreflect the mood and action of the passage. Materials Onecopyof the text. (or 2 Tell the classthat theywill haver5 seconds more if you have chosena long list) to look at the jumbles. out the words you have chosenas Set a word jumble like the one below. and prepare sufflcient copiesfor eachpersonin the group. then tell them to turn over their sheetsand read. Procedure 1 Give out the word jumbles facedown to eachmember of the group. Give out copiesof the text. and the text they imagine containsthem.and on how contextmight influence their memory.5 Look. \Mhenthe time limit is up.remember. tell the classto turn the jumbles face down again. and completethe set Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40 minutes Aims Tofocusthe students'attention on how they try to remember words. Preparation From a narrative or descriptivetext which you wish the classto read. to write out all the words they can remember. Then ask them to wdte down any more words they think might fit the sceneor action suggested the words they haveremembered. by They could use a different colouredpen for this. 22 I Pre-text activities .Then askthem. which is taken from the sample text. working individually.

or from one room to another. and her tail wagging. Pausing only to collide with the settee that I had forgotten had been put in the middle of the living room.\Mhen the students have flnished reading the text. it seemed. Pre-text activities23 I . Emmq andI. In next to no time. There was no one there. Gollancz. where Don was patiently waiting. Emma and I collapsed into bed at about two in the morning.This may sound odd. But around the house itwas different. in fact. I heard someone knocking outside (it was. and coming back again to the fltted wardrobe. I knew when we were passing another dog. Sample text Moving house It took the upheaval of moving house to bring home to me again that I could not see. a blind person is always mentally planning. I got to the front door. 7 Wordson a map Level Intermediate advanced to Time 20-30minutes Aims To motivate and focusthe students'readingof a text by first exploringthe personal connections someof the words and of phrases used. you have to start all over again. And moving to a new house. After trying another wall. It took me a long time to become accustomed to all the different doors. and one copyof a mapor drawing. after being used to my flat with its one entrance and fewer rooms. (Sheila Hocken. Materials Onecopyof the text. obviously. Moving in a room. Don) and I quickly got out of bed. andwhy. Then I remembered there was a back door as well. I finally found the right door. But having Emma I could see: not in a visual sense. ask them to discuss in groups of three to flve a)which words they found hard to remember in step 3. while I carried on the endless business of unpacking. and we had a hectic time: he put up curtain rails and changed electric plugs. All her feelings and moods transmitted themselves through the harness. because I could feel her looking. 1 . I could always tell if there was an obstacle ahead because of the way she slowed up and hesitated ever so slightly. Then I realized I could not remember exactlywhere the door was. and b)which words they think theywill now remember. for eachstudent. I felt I was in a fitted wardrobe. but I knew what was going around me as she reacted to her surroundings. Don helped me move in. tg77l Acknowledgements This idea was suggested by a picture recall exetcise presented byAlan Maley at the IATEFL Conference in Decembet 7979.

that they can have somecontrol over life.rooks. I decidedthat if one presentsyoung children with the componentsof games.Preparation from it to and wordsand phrases Choose passage pick out 10-12 a given below we suggest these: focuson.for example: Procedure Showthe classthe image and give them the list of words. For the passage variations componenr to runrnto mobility +^ nanarrfo daring change to justifications expenment rules in one's ownvoice standard an Choose image (amap of a well-known country picture of a wellknown person. 3 Give out copiesof the text.Ask them to decideindividually which words apply in someway to the image.Making games. The knights jumped two squares a time. Creatinga gameis much like discoveringhow to write in one's own voice. text Children play at Sample Watching children play.though the king was given the mobility 24 | Pre-text activities .The queen. building are all waysyoung peoplecan discoverthat they can put things into the world.a symbol)and be readyto show it to the students. Alternatively.writing. since they gallopedlike horses. Children experiment with different ways of doing things. The other day I ran into somechildren who were playing their own at version of chess.theywill generategamesthemselves.give out copiesof the image and askthem to write the words on it in appropriatepositions. 2 Ask them to comparenoteswith their neighbours. whereas adults get accustomed believing there is one right and one wrong to way to do things. pawnsand bishops moved in their regular ways.

The new game was interesting but the student teacher insisted it wasn't a game and forced the kids to play by the standard rules. 8 Cards the table on to Level Intermediate advanced Time 20-30minutes to Aims Toget the students clarifytheir ideasabout a topic or attitude one beforereadinga text. I disagree. he claimed that the only justiflcation for letting children play games in school was to accustom them to learning to play by the rules. From the text below we have selected these: Pre-text activities 25 | .one set of 24 word cardsfor eachgroup of sixto eight students.R. (H. Preparation preparea set ofz4 cards. each bearing a different word or phrase.eachbearing a different For the first class: word.of a queen. \vVhenI came upon the game a young student was telling the kids how wrong they were in daring to change the rules of the 'real' chess players if they didn't play game. Prepare a set ofz4 cards. Wnting. Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. or point ofview. Maths and Games. \Mhen I mentioned to him that there were dozens of variations of chess played throughout the world. 1977) 1 . that theywould never be the rules.Kohl. Choose words from a fairlywell-defi.cd Sscialconcerns and ideas -ome -atron scnool neighbourhood NCSI f riends garoen nouse land flat wife socrety language estate conversatron properry country :ceech hospital institution 2 belongings f a m i l y corrage locality preferably one expressing a strong For later classes: choose a passage. especially that will be usedasthe basis or for discussion essay-writing. Methuen. and pick out z4words and/or phrases from it theme which typify its content. One of the kids said she didn't want to be a real chess player but was curious about what happened when you changed the rules.nedareaof human the concern.for example: Things and ideasclose the individual to d t I animal soul stomach enemy family group boy baby head mind friend woman father heart girl child per morner blood )3:'l daughter adult :. for every six to eight students in the class.

3 Ask the group(s)to arrangethe cardsin groupsof three (or four.you could dictatethe list to your studentsand get them to preparetheir own cards.although once she shedonions and carrotsasshewalked.afterwards. 'Youmustn't do that sort of thing. Next cameillegal entry.During the hours of darknessmy mother. Sample text My mother her About fi. fell over a wall betweentwo houses.sufferedappalling lacerations.threat home refuge scnoor perpetrated magistrate psychiatrist police suicide community iil mentally ACCUSCO nursed teenager snop vandalism neighbour mother theft anorexta services hospital statistics social Alternatively.now being She chased by the police and the socialservices. It must have I been a sweetmoment when a shopassistant had onceflned in the magistrate'scourt for shoplifting asked:"vVhatare you going to do aboutyour mother's shoplifting?' The local shopsfrisked my mother's pocketsand shoppingbag. was now in deep up at ofstealing. unanimously and b) all the cards Invite the group(s)tojustifytheir card affangement. The studentsmay read the text beforeworking on the cards. 2 Layout a set ofcards faceup in random order on the table(s).It lifted the depression shewas quite a h"ppy shoplifter. Procedure Lesson 1 Arrangethe classroomsothat the group(s)ofstudents can stand round a tableor tables.veyearsbefore her death my mother ceased threats of suicideand embarkedon a life of persistenttheft. get them to circulate and seewhat other groupshave done. then 83. Shewould go into housesand take anything portable. and left a trail of blood back to her home. The exercisecan thus be usedasa lead-into a text and/or asa way of passingcomment on it and stimulating criticism and discussion.or both.but never bargainedfor the capacityof directoire knickers with strong So elastics.' saidthe psychiatrist. or that a)the group must agree six) accordingto meaning. shestill got awaywith a great deal. and the only place shewas safein was the bank.but usecardsbearingwords derivedfrom a text. 26 | Pre-text activities .If there is more than one group.Stress must be used. Lesson 2 Follow the sameprocedureasabove. and he took her into hospital depression being accused and for a courseof electro-convulsive therapy.

bought a huge Alsatian. The following morning I was told by the ward sister that she was much improved. and my mother's neighbour. The police visited schools. some time after that. With great resilience she became as active as ever. Lacerated and shocked. A little old thief'.19 December 1983) Comments The activity can also be used after reading a text. and eating her breakfast as if she had not seen food for a month. 'Now Pre-text activities27 I . and the community was beset by teenage vandalism. She had joined the statistics of those mentally ill who are successfully maintained withinthe community. A frustrated policeman told me: And to cap it all. (Clarice Maizel. the ruddy dog was helping her!' 'This time she will be taken in. Her last refuge was anorexia neryosa. he assured me. after several bouts of damage.' said the psychiatrist.With a suitcase in the boot I drove her to the clinic. as a way of expressing the reader's understanding or reaction. 'It is time you had some relief. 'You have made a mess ofyourself.and nursed her for six weeks.they will be obliged to take her in!' said the GP.' the psychiatrist told me. went into the house for an instrument. witnessed the car vandalism. Before that time came she had another fall. My mother had choked to death. which. she was taken into the local general hospital. and perpetrated the damage. Watchers. My mother selected the car. TheGuardian. He proposed taking her into the psycho-geriatric ward for three weeks. I drove her home-my home.' said both GP and social workers. A few minutes later she rang back. would tear to pieces anyone who touched the car. but she was not.

shouldbe a simple matter to substitutea task basedon the actualtext you are using.For that reason.r4.'Besomeone the studentsto connectthe words and phrasesthey meet in the text with what they alreadyknow and with their own experienceof life (for and language example. 'sampletexts'. 2 To encourage them to look closelyat words and phrasesin context. 2. we havetried to make activitiesthat are both interactive and memorablein themselves. 28 | Working with texts .we are concernedhere with the useof texts asa sourceof vocabularyand asan aid to learning vocabulary: for we are not offering strategies effi. we concentrateon shorter texts.For this reason.2. 'Email language':'4 Ask them to make a list of all the two. and in those few cases to specificfeaturesof a sampletext (for example. canbe usedwith oral texts (for example.mood and soon) in which the text is To read/heardand discussed.2. The emphasis throughoutis on getting and 2.'). which can be worked through and have alsoincluded activities that during a single classsession.'Correct the teacher'.we have avoideddesigningactivities where instructions relate round specifictexts. This appliesalsoto the 'context of situation'-the setting (place. ratherthan simplytellingthem to readthe text.people.9.in another forgotten. or getting the studentsto choosethem. The context in which one meetsa word or phraseis important in establishingits exactmeaning and connotation. but it is alsoimportant in terms of memorability-an item met in one context maybe remembered.and three-part it verbs. and due attention is paid to this throughout.1 Customizing text a Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-30minutes Aims 1 Tofocusthe students'attention givingthem a specific by task.2.r3. will almost alwaysbe preferable.Choosingyour own texts.to make the instructions more package concreteand to give the teacherand studentsa ready-made with which to try out the coreideas. These Many of the activitiesin this chapter include are intended purely asexamples.Workingwith texts As in the previouschapter.cientreading. this end.'Thewordsin your past'). else').3.

I believethat for moments my mother actually 'It's distrustedme.My mother retreatedbehind the closeddoor of her bedroom. 2 Slowly saythe words and phrasesyou have chosenwhile the students underline them in the passage. Preparation you From the next readingpassage proposeto usewith your class.' When I protested. The first night in my own apartment. only in order to withdraw them. Only when I'd carried out the last box and was really leaving did she emerge. I sawthat. But my mother wasn't angry. 5 In pairs the studentslook at and discuss Sample text Separation year of university and was determined I was about to start my second to be on my own.My effiortsto free myself had createda deeperharm. and one copyof the'Alternativewords' sheet. defectionhad given them a new intimacy.the moment that plasticbag passed flom her hand to mine.(See examplebelow. though my parentscontinued in their separate my silences.for eachstudent. at intermediate level.Then preparea sheetof z5-4o different words and phrases(not only fiom which alternativesto thosein the text canbe synonyms) the chosen. a fact my mother had refusedto acceptall summer. Shewas afraid. eachother's choices. I nothing that would interest you. irrevocably. to stop hunger for a second-was handedto me at the threshold at the end of eachvisit. I lay in bed only a few miles across town and let my mother's phone callsring into the dark.Fugitiv Pieces. Shewould begin a story and then fall silent.) Procedure to 1 Givethe studentsthe readingpassage look through. e BloomsburyPublishing. When I flnally did visit. a new scar. 4 Ask the studentsto selectsubstitutesfrom the sheetfor the words underlined. Overthe years. At flrst I thought shewas punishing me for her needof me. and somethingwas lost betweenus. 3 Giveout the sheetof alternativewords and phrases. I didn't call for a week.997) with Working texts| 29 . One sun-wornAugust morning I carried my boxesof books down to the damp coolness the cement parking garageand loadedup the of car. Write thesedovrn. (AnneMichaels.the absurdpackage-enough for a singlemeal.My mother still bent towards me but with confidences.Materials Onecopyof the text. then weeksat a time. Until it hurt lessand lessand to the bag was simply like the roll of candymy mother passed me from the front seaton our Sundaydrives. selectro-r5 words and phrasesto focuson.shesuggested go into the living room andjoin my father.Grimly sheprepareda parcel of food. though I knew it made them ill with worry.

Ask them for their leasons:it is the students'own preferences. inESlTeachers' Exchange. phrases 2.perhaps. that not determine how deeplythey can extract meaning from a text. an Adult Migrant Educationteacherin Melbourne.This givesthem more freedom. Repeat process the with ro-r5 students.2 Favourite Level Beginner advanced to Time 15-30minutes Aims Togive students chance sharetheir feelingsabout vocabulary a to personal and. December 1983. Acknowledgements This derivesfrom an idea proposedby Gail Moraro.ofcourse. Materials Coursebook. Ask studentsto read out a phrasethey like and then explain their reasons(in a beginners'classthis will happenin the mother tongue).but may alsorestrict their choiceto what they already'know they know'.I Words and phrasesfor dictation (in the order they appearin the text): wasdetermined worry on myown Inilmacy retreated freemyself emerge created deeper harm a protested irrevocably absurd Alternativewords sheet Alternative words and phrases(in random order): without changing rejection hadmade mymind hurthermore up alone come out caused more serious damage uselessbreak away showherself familiarity for ever attachment ridiculoushid refused develop withdrew haddecided escape permanently independentanxiety closeness objected fear understanding Variation In step4 aboveyou can.and then askthe studentsto work on their own and underline three or four phrasesor words in the text that they speciallylike. overcome dislikes. allow the studentsto substitute items not on the sheet. insteadof leadingthem to explore other possibilities. yours. Ask if anybodyelseunderlined the samephrase. 30 | Working with texts . Procedure Dealwith the coursebook unit text in your normal ways.

Working texts| 31 with . The Sampletext providesan exampleanecdoteincorporating paraphrases. 2 . substituting the word on their cardfor yours. Substituteyour paraphrases the words in the text. soifyou havepicked out ten words and your classis thirty strong.but that this time they should stopyou assoonasthey hear a paraphrase a word of they have on their cards. Lonny. Procedure Lesson 1 1 Readthe story oncethrough sothe studentsget the outline of it.Givethem a chanceto checkthat they know the meaning of the words on them. 3 Correct teacher the Level Time Aims 1 2 Elementary advanced to 25-35minutesin the first lesson and 45-60minutesin the second. Materials One copy of the text and one word cardfor eachstudent. while the others underline onesthev do like.After stoppingyou they are to repeatyour sentence. then for write out the original words on cardsto be given out to the class. with illiterate adult immigrants.Variation Ask half the classto underline phrasesand words they do not like. 2 Give out the cardsto the students.and have usedit with grumpy teenagers. put eachword on three cards.ask them to produceanecdotes oftheir own: Put the studentsin groupsofthree and ask eachgroup to write an anecdoteof their own. Preparation Write out an anecdotein short sentences. Pick ro-r5 words fiom it that you want the studentsto focuson and write paraphrases of them. Lesson 2 like the one Onceyour studentshave done two or three exercises above. Readthrough the story again. Toencourage students build up a wider set of vocabulary to choices. with English for teacherscourses. haven't had it failyet! We Thankyou. Acknowledgements We learnt this simplestof techniquesfiom Lonny Gold. give a task-based To focusto listening. You will need one card for eachstudent. Tell the classthat you are going to read the story again.

country road. bottom. he sawa bridge over Oneday.ask one member of group A to read her/his group anecdoteslowly to the membersof group B.' saidthe other.' The original words are put on cardsfor the students: in Originalwords on cards Paraphrases text paunch sromach rrucK lorry twisting bendy stgn notice pulled uP stopped got out of climbed downfrom pensivelY thoughtfully policeman cop trouble oroblem uP re-inflated PumPed again carefullY attentively ponderously weightily Variation With beginnersand very elementarystudents. the road aheadof and He stopped got out. as the 5 Repeat activity. Acknowledgements We owe this activity to Lou Spaventa.' 'No for The driver thought about this attentively severalminutes. 'Can't get through. 'Maximum height: r4ft' he read onthenohce.In a later class. scratching his head thoughtfully 'My lorry's t4feettinch.t of 2 Ask the groupsto prepare6-rz paraphrases interesting words in their texts and to put theseon cardsor slips ofpaper.' roaredup and asked fust at tfiat moment a motor-bikepohceman whatthe oroblemwas.' he thought to himself.The cards shouldthen be given out to the members of B and the activity proceeds in the flrst class(above). 'Easy.He had a large stomqchwhich lookedjust right behind the wheel of his 3o-tonlorry.'he saidweighnly. 'never get through there. using group B's anecdote. Sampletext He was a hefty man in his mid-fifties. 3 Ask eachgroup of three to join with another group. 4 Within eachpair of groups. with texts 32 | Working . not at the use.give out copiesof the text.He looked from his lorry to the bridge.driving alongabendy him. then simply dictate somewords extractedfrom it: they should mix in a few underline the words they hear. Just letyour tyres down an inch or two and on havethem re-inflated the other side. . 'it's at the top it won't get through. paraphrases ofwords or phrasesin the passage.' the trucker told him.

Materials Coursebook.StudentA deletesall the unnecessary words in B'swork and vice versa. 4 2 . Procedure fi:om the coursebook two or Ask the studentsto re-reada passage three units back. and so on. Group the studentsin sixesto read their reducedversion ofthe passage. Procedure Ask the studentsto form groupsof four members.They then pair offand swapcompositions. Aims To get studentsto look closelyat vocabularyin context.They comeback together to discuss the deletions. to Give one copy ofthe flrst text to group A. one copy ofthe secondtext to group B. Make copiesof eachtext: one for eachmember of the group plus one additional copy.You will need a different text for eachgroup of students. Ask them to underline ro-u words in the passage that that they feel can usefully go. Sharewith the classthe words you think are best left out and briefly with you. noting any grammatical changes The might alsobe necessary. studentswrite a short composition.4 DeletingWords Level Post-beginner advanced to Time 15-20minutes or Aims Tofocus on whether a word is necessary not as a way of exploringits meaningin context.Make sure each group has access at leastone dictionary. explain why. 5 Marginalia Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-45 minutes. studentswork on this task in pairs. Tell them that texts are often improved and given more impact by cutting words out. with Working texts| 33 .2. Givethem an opportunity to (dis)agree Variation Working individually.dependingon the texts chosen. Preparation Choosea number of short but completetexts: poemsare ideal. Materials A different text for eachgroup of students:five copiesof eachtext.and to meanings and of express their own understandings specific connotations.

I their text within the group. on their own copies. Explain that this can take any form they like: a paraphrase. Say Tell the studentsto read and discuss but you are availableto answersimple questionsabout language. to make a comment on it. a better alternative.and then. Not everyword or phrasein the text needbe chosen. response Tell the studentsto circulate their texts around the group and to read eachother's'marginalia'.a to an or criticism. 2. Materials One copy of the original text and one copy of the doctoredtext for eachstudent. Follow-up 'Publication' is an excellentway to encouragestudentsto respectand enjoyboth their own work and that of others: Put all the marginalia for eachtext on a sheetof paper together with the original text and make enoughcopiesfor the whole classto read. Ask the studentsto underline. After ten minutes.6 Huntthe misfits Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20-35minutes in of awareness meanings contextin a Aims Todevelopstudents'critical light-heartedway. with texts 34 | Working . in the margin. example sentence show how it can be used. sothat eachstudent has hisiher own copy. Give out the remaining copiesof the texts. you would prefer them to flnd out from eachother or from the dictionary. Preparation you a Choose short passage think will be easyfor your students.evena picture. Variation The sameactivity works well with texts generatedby the students themselves.make a simple websitefor each text: the original text should be on one page(or asthe main frame of word or phrasemadeinto a link and the a page)with eachselected page(or frame) to be displayed commentsto it placedin a separate when the link is clicked. and have access computersand browser software. someof the words in it sothat it no longer makesproper Change sense.the word or phrasetheyhave chosen. ask eachgroup to divide up thefutext sothat each a member chooses different word or phrasefrom it. If you and your studentsare familiar with. to.

Londonis capital England. the needto make your own doctoredversion. the studentsmust know enoughto feel the text is within their grasp. me There's money no inthebank.In classyou will need copiesof both the original passage the and you will doctoredone. Give out the undoctoredpassage.) for a fairly advanced Variation Put up the following sentenceon the blackboardand invite the class to correct it: Ma:no notholybad. is Now put up this sentenceand invite them to introduce a similar.) Procedure Givethe studentsa copy eachofthe doctoredtext and askthem to read it. Follow-up like the \Mhenthe studentshavedone two or three editing exercises one above.give them an undoctoredtext and invite them to doctor it: somestudentstake evenmore pleasurein constructingthe texts than in'correcting' them. (See Sampletexts below. Eventuallyone or more studentswill point out there is somethingwrong. l[ Working texts| 35 with . Aboveall. Don't tell them what you have done to the text-let it dawn on them. Ask them. the of EJena asked tofeedthecats. in smallgroups. and you can askthem to make corrections. 'vVhen they havecorrectedasmuch asthey can. for few comprehension Choose this purposea text that presents problems and make surethat the studentshave dictionariesto hand.(Thetext 'Viaduct Rescue' below would be appropriate group. for example.to deform other simplesentences. creativemistake: Peter ismybestfriend.askthem to check eachother's work.For the second.

FebruarY 23 l5 | Workingwith texts .I texts Sample Gharlie ( T h e i m e s1 8F e b r u a r1 9 8 0 ) y T . Gharlie Gairoli dies aged 70 (TheTimes. FebruarY 1980) 18 rescue 1980) (TheGuardian.

and then to find words to suit the remaining deflnitions.In Novembert963. in safety. 2 Give out the text. sixteenRoyal Marineson a route march from Hest Bank to Barrow-in-Furness nearly got themselvesinto serioustrouble before I rushed out and put them back on to a safecourse. 7 Ghostdefinitions to Level Elementary intermediate Time 20 minutes Aims Tofocus on the exact meaningsof lexicalitems.SandPilotofMorecambeBay.) Procedure 1 Explain howyou preparedthe deflnitions. MorecambeBay Sampletext Crossing There is no route or path which can be taken regularly. a Then.write deflnitions of thesewords. David (CedricRobinson.over the sandsof MorecambeBay. below. solid way takenfrom one place to another of natural stream water longjourneyon foot made in by soldiers training direction movingin a particular of changes Position the intervals at evenly-spaced known in advance 4 with texts| 37 Workino . but related to the overall context. Preparation Choose text.and along the coast. Eachtide shillg the sandin "t" one direction or another. Changes to dirr"tr" and sofrequent.r98o) the half-way across water man a young kinds of different often from keptaway lumps thick. Make one copy of (See Sampletext the the annotatedtext for eachstudent in the class.They had startedout one hour and before I had suggested.suchconditions are not alwayseasilypredicted. Then there was a lad who tried to crossthe bay on a bicycle. at the foot of the page. 3 Ask them to look at the work of two or three other studentsin the class. and underline eight to ten words and phrasesin it. in no particular order. sowere headingstraight for deepwater.2 . experience. by Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.but soon it found how hopeless waswhen he had to be rescuedin mid-channel. & Charles. and askthe studentsto match the definitions to the underlined words.togetherwith deflnitions of two to four otherwords not in the text.and how they can be expressed definitions or paraphrases.quite large chunks of with Evento someone rock can be moved great distances.

the student is not only decidingon its meaning in a particular context.singly or in groupsof two to four.com ). You or your studentscould usea searchengine suchas Googleto flnd sources favourite authors or themes. readers.pattern sentences. but is included here because dependscrucially on the way we it recognize. Preparation None. and respondto speciflcwords and phrases.handouts. In choosinga fragment of text. Procedure Ask the students.we hope. etc.newspaper cuttings. Comments This is both a readingand a writing (or at leastan editing) exercise.I 2. by 38 | Working with texts . Variation 3 The activity alsoworks using texts written by the students themselves.In assemblingthe 'patchwork text'. including poetry now availableon the Internet. to riffIe through the sourcetexts and selectlines or shorter fragmentsof text. Variation 1 More advancedstudentscan constructtheir texts from poetry anthologies. From thesethey should constructthe opening paragraphof a novel or short story.8 Patchwork text Level Elementary advanced to Time 2040 minutes Aims To scanand re-contextualize text fragments. Acknowledgements This activity was suggested a competition in the NewStatesman.). Materials A collectionof 'sourcetexts'(see below).interpret. but is reviewing its potential meaningsin other contexts. course handouts. etc.or go directly of to one of the anthology sites(for example. the student is re-contextualizingthe fragmentsin new and. anthologies. creativeways. Variation 2 There is a vast body of text.beginnersto lower-intermediatestudentscould use fragmentsof coursebooks.exceptto ensurethat you have sufficient copiesof the 'source texts'to be used(coursebooks.the University ofvirginia's http://wwwbartleby.

always me did. the Sampletext.Or they might out like eachother too much. Sampletext Daddy Prue.Perhapssheprefersthe boys.It's bad enoughwhen Gavin'sfriends come round. in Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent.They both love me: that's enough. It's extraordinaryhow quickly Daddy'sforgiven me. Gavinwon't put up with my nonsense. or for which they would be usefully descriptive.I don't really needthem to love eachother as well. or maybeshejust accepts asanother grown-up woman. Amazing. when I remember how angry he was. but I don't. Or victimize him even. simply doesn'tappealto him.969) ofBarbedWire.9 Thewordsin your past Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30minutes memorable linkingit to important by Aims To makenew vocabulary memories the students'ownlives. And if they did it might somehowdiminish their love for me. They might seeme too clearly. to myself. (AndreaNewman.and I alwaysam. But of. I know. DaddyI can take advantage evenmore than I usedto. thought: I exploithim. He can't even mention his name. Preparation Chooseand make copiesof an emotionally chargedtext. Procedure Give out copiesof the text. Gavinwon't.in pairs.when they're alone.whatever they are. like the Sampletext below. I knowl do.puttingthe phone down. I shouldwant tlem to like eachother.2. Not at all. not if I'm really honest. Then askthe studentsto explain to one another. to what length of selFindulgence will allow me to It sink. and where would I be then? Squeezed by all thosethings men like to talk about.ABouquet Triton Books.That's wrong of me. I simply can't avoid it: an irresistible impulse to playthe little girl. Only do this exercisein a group where there is plenty of mutual trust.I'm rather glad. He'stough. with texts| 39 Workino r .r. and askthe studentsto pick out six or In sevenemotionally strongwords and phrases.Now Mummy's different: hearing her voicejust nowthere was no tug-of-war.But he hasn't forgiven Gavin. to seehow he far I can go. how onecan far Ask them to think back to a period of their lives in which thesewords might flt.how the words they havechosenflt or describethe period they havebeen thinking of. I might not be quite sucha specialpersonfor either of them if they drew together over me. ask to describethe way Prue them to look at all thosethe writer uses advantage I play thelitrlegirl I see of treats her father: exploit victimize talce I I goI indulge.

not intervene if mistakesgo up on the board. Alternatively. Bring a student to the board to write out the whole text fiom memory helpedby the Do rest of the class. askthem to draw a life line. then with the words they have chosenfrom the passage. they write the secondword. 40 | Working with texts . words and Ask all the Bsto copy out the text but leaving out the even in the oddwords. they leavea blank for the third and write the fourth.Tell them that one is A and the other B. and to label it first with datesand events. 3. Aims To encourage studentsto remembercontextsas well as single words and phrases. 5. Example lifeline 1949 1955 1962 1966 1974 met Mario etc. choosea suitablesection from their coursebook. Tell everyoneto put awaywhat they havewritten. r. tell them to turn face-downor put away the original text and to exchangewhat they have written with their partners and. went to live started 'big withGrandma school' hitch-hiked got married in Denmar& k Germany 2. still sitting apart.Tell them to include any punctuation and to leaveblanks ofroughly the right length for each word left out. on Time 1540 minutes.rstword. Make sure that everyonehas a copy of the text to be worked on. then askthem to changeplacessothat no one is sitting next to their partner.asin the example below. Preparation and preparecopiesof a short text that you would like your Choose studentsto learn by heart. Procedure Pair the students.I Variation Insteadof askingthe classsimply to think back. Materials One copy for the text for eachstudent. Ask all the As to copy out the text in this manner: they leavea blank for the fi.At the end ofthe exerciseget one student to read out the original text while the 'secretary'coffectswhat is on the board. etc. to flll in the blanks. etc.1O Towardslearninga text by heart (a) Level Beginner advanced to depending the lengthof the text. writing lVhen they havefinished writing.

Sometexts (proseaswell aspoetry and song)have a music and sonority that make tJem a pleasureto recite. learning text by heart(b) a 2.while others.NBAn overhead projector or flip-chart will not work for this activity. Rub out three or four words or phraseson different lines. Procedure Silently Ask a student to read the text on the board aloud to class.can constitute a valuableinner resourcefor 'lexical grammar'. underline any bits shemispronouncedand askher to re-readthem. including tJrewords that are no longer there. Beforethe lessonstarts. vocabularylearning. Ask a secondstudent to read the paragraphaloud.Ask another student to read out the whole text. Continue until there are onlv a few isolatedwords left onthe board. Recentwork in the areasof 'above-the-word lexis'.this canbe a happy and rewarding activity. collocations.etc.Comments 4 the Current EFLmethodologyrarely encourages student to learn text by heart. Preparation a Choose short text that you would like your studentsto learn by heart. Materials A blackboardor whiteboard is essential.11 Towards Level Beginner advanced to Time 15-30minutes Aims Toencouragestudentsto remembercontextsas well assingle words and phrases.choosea suitablesectionfrom their coursebook. Working withtexts| 41 .suitably chosen. Alternatively.esingleword. and yet. Rub out another three or four words and againask for a readingof the whole text. for somelearners. Comments Rub out first the words and phrasesyou want the studentsto concentrateon most.hasunderlined the needfor learnersto remember and recall much larger'chunks' of language than tJ.put the text up on the board.

any way they wish. An examplewill be found Choose below. Procedure Ask the studentsto read through the text and note down any words which they don't know or which interest them. chosen 4 Invite them in pairs to explain to eachother their associations. lost in the creation of a remembered town. lessons) paddock squatting horizon farmer butcher (connection with cattle) thesepeople electrician (fromthe position joiner often haveto work in) you politician (because can't seewhat isoverthe horizon. Materials One copy Preparation and make copiesof a short text. beach. I always built in this same place. In my mind's eye the houses were all painted dazzling white. uses. The other things were mines and slag heaps and pitheads. Ask them to find out etc. and you don't know the f uture is you will get if a politician elected) Sampletext Goblins I never had clean beach sand to play on when I was a kid' In fact never saw the seabefore I was nine. and the big hotel on the corner was red brick with a cast iron balcony and corrugated iron roof. so I used to build things out of mud.I 2. by was list following of professions produced onegroup: Example The joiner accountant bus-driver baker electrician apprentice teacher butcher clergyman foreman fisherman politician businessmansocialworker farmer associations: formed following the the Afterreading textbelowthegroup place for is the teacher (because beach thebest sea sand. on 2 Ask the group to build up a list of professions the blackboard.12 Cross-associations to Level Elementary advanced Time 15-25minutes as Aims To usecreativeword-association an aid to memory' of the text for eachstudent. doors and roofs ofbark. the words they have with the professions. small and thin and brown in my patched khaki pants and shirt. and all around among untidy lumps of mud I made tower things flom sticks above holes in the ground. and stretching away from them 42 | Workinqwith texts . in 3 The studentsassociate. shapingwalls of mud. meanings. I can see myself now squatting in a corner of the big paddock.ofthe words.

wardrobe. valley. 2 . Ask eachstudent to selectfor her/himself a historical role (for example.table.One student should then read out his/her list of words one by one to the partner. .famouspeople. Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. field. (ColinJohnson. Preparation Choose and make copiesof a short text that is fairlyrich in modern vocabularyand dealswith a contemporarysubject.furniture features(hill.peoplein the group itself.his/her 'tlinking into' own grandmother/father)and to spenda few minutes the role.an r8th-century peasant.I would seethe sparedesertscrub shimmering to a flat horizon and the whole land panting with heat under a bleachedblue sky.... WiId CatFalling.an EgyptianPharaoh. When the other kids found me they usedto laugh and break up my mining town. 1 3 Besomeone else Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-40 minutes Aims Toget students in thinking about words and phrases their cultural/historical context. Variation for may be usedto build the list of associations. settee. river. Working withtexts| 43 . The studentsthen reverseroles and repeatthe exercise. who free-associates After with the words asif s/hewere the historical personchosen.landscape example.asin the example below Procedure Ask the studentsto read through the text and note down words that they would considerparticularly relevant to today'sworld.. Ask the studentsto form pairs.). Then I beganbuilding towns full of white goblins and I stampedthem into the ground in a rage. 1965) Angus and Robertson.wood. Other categories (chair. . this the student then explainswhythese things cameto mind.).

Detectives are investigating the suspected arson attack. There is no point in losing a life trying to save a building. 'We could see the flames spreading into the restaurant and as we pulled the men out the roof fell down. corporate affairs manager for McDonald's. The area has been taped offand forensic experts and flre investigators were examining the scene on MondaY. 'The fire went up the walls into the eaves and whistled through the roofvoid. 44 | Workingwith texts . student apparatus breathing firemen drive-thru restaurant car corporate manager off forensic detectives taped peasant. March zooz) 15 Variation You can also use this activity with audio recordings or live storytelling. followino firemen drive-thru restaurant car fires? menwhostart kindof gate? some an Inn no toea apparatus breathing detectives tapedoff forensic corporare manager Sample text so? lungs. whysay but clearly no idea ropedoff to something do with the law body perhaps bailiff? a somekindof official.' Mr Dabson said that the restaurant was smoke-logged when firemen arrived and within zo minutes the building was ablaze. produced the himself a 16th-century as seeing Hispartner. Nearly 3o flremen from Canterbury Sturry Whitstable and Faversham were called to the scene shortly after 3 am and battled to get the blaze under control. 'If we hadn't pulled them out at that moment they could have been cut offand injured. Drive-thru destroyed by inferno TWo flremen narrowly escaped injury while tackling a blaze that gutted the McDonald's drive-thru restaurant on the Sturry Road in Canterbury on Monday. It is believed that a car parked in the drive-thru section was set alight and the fire spread to the building via a canopy.'he said. destroying the centre ofthe building. Robert Parker.produced list: the one the Example From textbelow. necessary once its construction manager had assessed (KentMessenger.' he said. said the company would have a better idea of how much rebuilding was the damage. associations. We are trained to look for flashovers. Flames quickly spread through the roofvoid. Leading fireman Keith Dabson said two firemen who had gone into the buitding with breathing apparatus came out seconds before the roofcollaPsed.

Alternatively. my trusty Rough Guide meant I knoewwhich one to go to and she didn't!) Workingwithtexts 145 . Tell them you will be available to help with unknown words and expressions. And watching NellyFurtado onMTV That was Wednesday. Ask them to copy out all the features of the text that indicate the age and gender of the writer. uncorrected nativespeaker texts. and their lists. and I fell asleep. Tell the students to underline all the features that make this piece of writing feel like an oral text. (my aunt) to the bus station ( hooray. Procedure Give out the text below and ask the students to read it through quickly and then to write a three-sentence reaction to it. as did my grarnmar.14 Email Level U pper-intermediate to advanced Time 40-50 minutes Aims To get students to learn from 'informal'. Thursday morning I waved everyone offto school and went offwith Ximena. But everybody in Santiago seemed very well and jolly and I had a funtime tryingto followthe latest going on in 'Market of Love' (or something ). After a couple of hours my invention sadly gave out. 7 Round offthe lessonwithvour above.em to underline (in a 'writing' frame different colour) all the features that come from the ofmind. and thought my Spanish was going brilliantly until I realised so far everything I d said had been practised to myself on the plane. And trying to help my cousion Daniel with his biology revision.language 2. own comments on the hardertasks email text Well. exclaimed several times how strange it was to be here. Preparation Make a copy for each student of the email text below. Materials A copy for each student of the email text below. Group tfie students in fours to share their first impressions (as expressed in the three sentences they wrote in Step r).and three-part verbs. their later impressions. the smash-hit soap opera. Then ask tJ. choose and make copies of an email you have received. managed to recognise my aunt and cousin very happily.. and make any necessary changes or additions to Steps 3 and 4. Here's the travelogue Was firll of merrybable when I arrived. 4 Ask them to make a list of all the two. 5 Ask them to list flve to six phrases or stretches of language that they would feel happyusing in their ownway of speaking/writing English.

. there are many public newsgroups and special-interest'lists' accessible through the Internet. rich enough to make travelling massively enjoyable. you can either 'newsreader' (usuallypart ofyour email software) to connect use a with a news server-many Internet Service Providers (Isrs) run their own news servers. though: rnanaged to leave my cash card in the machine until some very angry bleeping called us back.. which students can learn from as they can learn from overheard 'email conversations. and went on to study at Oxford University. In addition to personally addressed emails. and send messageswith your 'Lists' are private web browservia http://wmv.to get to Coquimbo.liszt. Just.)in suitably casual comfortably complicitous Spanish failed miserably due to poverty of Spanish vocabulary. shows just one of her manywriting styles..net ... the aim ofwhich is to exchange news andviews with others. even a plastic-style nugget tastesjust like a good roast chicken smells. Acknowledgements Thanks to Daniela Cammack for the email text. uncorrected style. Ximena not very impressed at all and my desperate attempts to laugh it off/ claim it had never happened before ( er. 'poor' The bus was absolutely fantastic. 46 | Workingwith texts . and many can be seen as valuable records of native speakers'informal. Managed not to ask her not to tell my mum. each with grade A. Comments Emails (even more than handwritten letters) share characteristics of both written and spoken language.. groups to which one subscribes by sending an email request to an automatic list-server or to the human who runs the list: a very good 'list of lists' can be found on the web at http://www.and just when I was thinking perhaps only bringing water with me was a bit stupid. the conductor turned up with my lunch. and oh my word. Daniela passed five A-level exams. rice and huge chicken nugget.. To receive and send messagesvia a newsgroup. Committed an abominable error on the way. nad the several miles of legroom provided for a mere 5 quid. Chile is a brilliant country: enough to be cheap. The email above. about six horus north of Santiago. read. hoiw tasty is the chicken here?. TWo rolls. from which you can download a list of available newsgroups-or you can search.google.. It must be stressed that there is no particular -emails varyfrom the formal office memorandum to the style' electronic equivalent ofa note stuck on the fridge. My six hour journey largely consisted of me chuckling to myself at the bed-like qualities of my chair and the enornous footrest in front.. I think I impressed her with my diziness though.com/groups . writtenwhen she was zo.com or by sending a blank email to liszter@bluemarble. I so nearlylaughed out loud.

Ask them to choose words that are widely separated the text.2.they should write thesewords. Tell the studentsto look at their sheetof paper and to imagine that they have alreadywritten a text on it of about roo words.'The oracle'.'Expandinga sentence'. and to draw a rectanglearound it. while thosewho are stronglykinaesthetic (seeChapter6) may beneflt from the simple physicalprocess. Visually oriented studentsmay needthe written shapeof a word beforethey can learn it. description.Writingactivities Short writing tasksform part of many of the activities in this book.1 Invisible Level Elementary advanced to Time 10-20minutes Aims To get studentsto reflecton and use'known'vocabulary.where writing is simply a convenientway of gathering the questionsto be used. especiallywhenaskedto make wall-chartsor take notesat the blackboard.through 3. which aims to widen vocabularyby looking at certain rhetorical featuresof written English. 'Invisible writing'. and so on. Procedure Ask the studentsto sit in pairs. and only thesewords.and to learn from eachother by readingand discussing what others have written.-or you can specifya particular kind oftext. The activitiesin this chapter show a spectrumof writing tasks.letter. and asthesebecomeclear.Eachstudent should havea pen and a blank sheetofpaper. in Tell them to stopwhen they havewritten six or sevenwords.r. writing 3. Writing is not only a useful skill in itselfl it canbe usedin the classroomfor a number of purposes: focusthought. Ask the studentsto begin by picturing the whole text on the page. They shouldthen try to make out individual words in the text. etc.4. Writing activities | 47 1 2 3 4 .You may say that this can be any kind of text-essay. to provide an to interval of privary. in exactlythe positionsthey occupyon the page. from 3. to shareideasquickly.to more creativewriting in 3.

and different ways of selectingthe initial six or sevenwords. and though the mechanicsare then completesthe text. Variation 2 This type ofexercisecan alsobe done by individual students:each student imaginestheir own text. experimentingwith different partners.can be highly demotivating' 48 | Writingactivities . and the ending. Variation 1 Randomlypairyour studentsand make surethe paired studentsare not sitting next to eachother.the characterof the exerciseis very different: most importantly.) Givethe studentsa further five to ten minutes to exchangetheir what their partner haswritten papersagainand to read and discuss for them.for particular students who 'can't flnd anything to write' or who genuinely suffer from writer's block. the 'say' the letter to middle. almost the same. Tell them they haveten minutes to do this. Follow-up and indeed studentsmaybenefit from The exerciseis repeatable. write with no expectationof being read. lacks a motivated reader. Somestudentswill want to themselvesinternally. working alone. however. They then take a cleanpieceof paper and write down six to ten key words on the blank page. The partners meet up and comparewhat they havewritten.Get the membersof eachpair to exchangetheir piecesof paper and.different types oftext (see Variation r below). oncewritten. then go back to their seats to and write the letter addressed themselves.to write out the whole text asthey imagine their partner would havewritten it. Comments studentsto write in the knowledgethat they This activity encourages To haveat leastone interestedreader. writes in six or sevenwords. In this case.other than by the teacher. the text. (It may help somestudentsempathizewith their partner if they alsoattempt to imitate their handwriting.placing them where they would comein the text. They exchangepaperswith their partner. They think about tfie beginning of the letter. letter to Eachpersontakesa moment to mentally preparea one-page their partner.We havefound this soloversion useful.

and to write it on their second theseand put them in Container z. telling the studentsto close the their eyesand take one slip at random from eachcontainer.waste-paperbins.usethe lower-intermediate sentences. Materials Make sureyou have plenty of slipsof paper(approximately4cm x in you will needat leasttwice as manyasthereare students 12cm): in Also makesureyou havetwo empty containers classthe class. Alternatively.for example.if.(If they happento take their own slips. 2 Theoracle to Level Lower-intermediate advanced Time 15-20minutes Aims To practisenewly learnt vocabularyin a wide range of contextsand situations. 3. soon?'Collectup the completedslips and put them in Containerr. answeras Comments This is a writing exercisein the sensethat t}le studentsput their of questionsin written form. Procedure 1 Give out two blank slips of paper to eachstudent.ifyou stop smoking'.) In groups offour to eight. Now tell the studentsto think of an Englishword that they have blank slip. makeup. 2 Tell the studentsto think of a question. Pass two containersround the group.to how the word might be interpreted asan answer. 'Yes. to the question 'globalwarming'. believethat activities suchasthis We canbe a great help in overcomingmany students'fearsof committing themselvesto paper. but not perhapsin the sense 'composingwritten discourse'. Collect recently learned.either personalor more 'Shall general. eachstudent in turn should read out first their question slip and then the word on the other slip.even large hats will do.it doesn'tmatter. cardboardboxes. the the question.and to write it on one of their blank slips. a very short story and write it out asfour to eight examplebelow.by the 'Shall I be rich?'.3 .For example.3 Adding words to a story Level Elementary intermediate to Time 30-40 minutes Aims Togive the studentsan opportunity to start writing creatively frame. within a safe. Writingactivities 49 | . 'Will there be a war in the Middle Eastagain I get married this year?'. the questionermight interpret the oraclereplies. and discuss 'oracle'.controlled Preparation or Choose.

etc.4 Expanding sentence to Level Lower-intermediate advanced Time 10-1 minutesfor eachworksheet.She Tell the studentsto end the story in not more than three words.. and to addthe caption: She Dictate: on The nextdaythelittlegtfl wentto the[srac r ] mosque herowntopr ay grandfather's umbrella.And norainfell. Ask the studentsto add two or more words in the spaceleft. S0 | writingactivities . norainfell.An exampleis provided below.. Ask studentsto copyinto their notebooksthe newwords theytake a likingto. Put up walls. on the board. mosque.In turn they read their storiesto each other. with two or more words. tookher for rain. Materials One copy Preparation Prepareand make copiesof a worksheet. d needed The villagers desperately lsytcnl. roofs. nelittlegirl stayed And athome.controlled for eachstudent of the Worksheet+ Exampleanswers. and [snecE] avillagewith Thiswas [sracn] walls Ask the studentsto add a few words in eachof the spaces. Ask the studentsto completethe sentence Dictate: to Themenofthevillagewentto the[srec n] mosEue pr ayfor r ain. 4 Dictate: of Thewomen thevillagewentto theIsra c r . It hadnot r aine for marry. I a 3. oonthew ells ouldrun dry. Get the studentsto comeup and write the words they usedto qualify thesenouns on the board under eachheading.but you may find it more useful to write your own.+threewords.add the same words as t O s last timel mo quetopr ayf or ther ain cloudso come.Procedure Dictate: roofs. or use drawn from your coursebookor createdby you or your sentences students. Group the studentsin threes. 5 Aims To give the studentsan opportunity to start writing creatively frame. within a safe. Dictate: S w manymonths. Ask the studentsto draw a quick sketch of the little girl they imagine was.

and bay. Hegot up. 2 He leanedover. o Yeah. a Wewentto a restaurant. clutched side.and deadon thefloor. up o The isdeep sky blue.ondthrew over.really cold. I feel o Cutuothetomatoes.opened curtains. .a a scribbler. stretched. o Notreally. Hewas writer.or 4 Hewasa writer. manof words. Heleaned itonthefire. looked outocrossthe the Hegotup. Exampleanswers 1 Hegot up. Worksheet 1 Hegot up.smallplace. to startedto Hesmiled. r The treeisnotwhatyouthink. in 5 We went to a restaurant GreekStreet. if necessarytlat there answersheets. and insertedcomments.yawned.ortriedsmile. pen-pusher. Group the studentsin sixesto comparetheirwork. had Hewas.awriter. in Ask your studentsto expandthesesentences a similar way: o Hepicked hishat.and 2 He leanedover. restatements(the sameor similar in otherwords). 3 H es m i l e d . of expansionin the examples:sequences action. Ask eachgroup to up put two or three oftheir best sentences on the board. D'you could? thinkyoupossibly . a manofdeeds.orsaidtohave in We went to a restaurant GreekStreet.Procedure Give out copiesof the worksheet and the Exampleanswersand ask on the studentsto notice the expansionofthe original sentences the are three kinds of Explain. a a is been.or been. 5 four Greek Street.a not Hewas writer. fell his over.picked Heleaned 3 H es m i l e d . of smilebutthoughtbetterit. 4 Hewasa writer.iust tables.in Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress Writing activities51 | . upthebook. Thelight faded.

B i l i n g u a le x t sa n d a c t i v i t i e s t

Translation is a special skill, and one that many otherwise competent users of a second language, includingbilinguals, flnd difficult. It has been attacked as a teaching tool for many decades,not least for producing generations of students who may know a great deal about a language, but who cannot useit effectively. To extend this criticism to any :useof the mother tongue in class, however, seems to us both unjustified and unrealistic. No amount of urgmg students to leave their mother tongue outside the classroom door will prevent them, in the privacy of their own thoughts, from comparing, contrasting, and translating languages, or, despite our best efforts, fiom making target-language errors in the process. A far better approach, we think, is to accept that for most students the 'natural'language of expression, and to design mother tongue is the exercises that draw on the wealth of experience of life and language that has come to them through the language theywere born into. This does not mean a return to endless. unmotivated translation. The activities in this chapter include reflective and interactive exercises that aim to turn mother-tongue experience into targetlanguage competence. Most of the activities that follow are best suited to classesthat share a common mother tongue. Those that can be used or adapted for use in polyglot groups are so marked.

vocabularychoices 4,1 Sensory
Level Lower-intermediate advanced to Time 40-50 minutes words more memorable evoking by Aims To maketarget-language associations throughthe mothertongue.The strongpersonal to in studentsareencouraged useall their senses this. Procedure Ask the studentsto think of a placethey really like, be it their home, house,or a placeoutdoors, and the season, time of the someone else's day,the weather, etc.in which they like it best.

52 | Bilingual textsand activities

Ask them to write a list of ten mother-tonguewords or phrasesthat of of describethe smells the place;ten to describethesounds the place; ten to describethe way the placelook; and ten to evoke t}l'e feelingthe placegivesthem. Group the studentsin fours, with dictionaries,to translatethe words into English.They help eachother and you help them. Ask eachstudent to write a free descriptionof this placein English impressions. mixing sensory Group the learnersin sixes:t1ey read their piecesto eachother.

4.2 Changingthe order of the words
to Level Elementary upper-intermediate Time 15-20minutes Aims To give studentsguided practicein contrastivetranslation. Materials One worksheetfor eachstudent. Preparation from a unit later in your coursebook Choosesix to eight sentences Commentsbelow.)Translatethe than the pointyou are at now. (See into the students'mother tongue.Write eachof the sentences as English sentences jumbled strings of words. Example sehr Wir milssenmorgen frilh aufstehen. veryto weget have earlyup tomorrow Copythe pageofjumbled strings so eachpair of studentscan have a under eachline ofjumbledwords. sheet.Leaveplenty of space Procedure 1 Give out the sheetofjumbled words to eachpair of students. 2 Tell the studentsthat you are going to readthe first sentencein their mother tongue and they are to write it under the first English string with correct word order. ofwords asa coherentEnglish sentence Explain that they needto useall the words in the string. 3 Continue this way until they havetranslatedall the sentences. 4 Ask different studentsto read out their translations.Givefeedback. Comments using text from a coursebook In this and other activitieswe suggest that the studentswill not be working on until laterin the course. unit for There at leasttwo good reasons this: 'stretch'the studentswhile still remainingwithin you to It enables the overall curriculum for the year. are It givesthe studentsan idea of where they are going: coursebooks linear, but learning a languageis not. necessarily
textsand activities 53 Bilingual |

I

4,3 Focusing difficulty on
Level lntermediateto advanced Time 40-50minutes Aims To provokecontrastiveawareness vocabularyin two languages. of Materials One copy of the text for eachstudent. Preparation Choose make copiesof a short text. The Sample and text is an example level. ofwhat would be appropriateat an upper-intermediate Procedure 1 Put the studentsin pairs,then give one copy ofthe text you have chosento eachpair. (Thisencourages co-operation.) them to work Tell with their partner and decidewhich words, phrases, sense-groups or in the Englishtext are hard to render into their mother tongue. 2 Ask different pairsto tell the whole group which phrases they have chosenand the solutionsthey havecomeup with. Shareyour own solutionswith the class, not beforethe studentshavehad their say. but 3 The pairs now translatethe text into their mother tongue. 4 The pairs form sixes.They read out and discuss their translations. in Sample text The Elephant the Room There'san elephantin the room. It is large and squatting,soit's hard to get around it. Yetwe squeeze with 'How are you' and 'I'm flne', by And a thousandother forms of trivial chatter. We talk about the weather. We talk aboutwork. We talk about everything-except the elephantin the room. There'san elephantin the room. We all know it is there. We are thinking about the elephant aswe talk together. It is constantlyon our minds. For you see,it is a very big elephant. It hashurt us all. But we do not talk about the elephantin the room. Oh please,sayher name agarn. say'Barbara' agarn. Oh please, Oh please, let's talk about the elephantin the room. For ifwe talk about her death, Perhaps can talk about her life? we CanI say'Barbara'to you and not haveyou look awal2 For ifl cannot, then you are leaving Me Alone... In a room ... With an elephant... Sa I gilinoual andactivities texts

and Bilingualtexts activities 55 | .a fairly detailedparaphrase done from memory. kirei (clean) (ye arning-longing-nostalgial Japan.resignaci6n (resignahon) southern Spain. them to standback and seethe text asa whole. 5 Ask the studentsto work in new gtoups.4 Culturalkeywords Level Lower-intermediatetoadvanced Time 40-50 minutes and the ways in of Aims To explorethe cultural resonance vocabulary. They with the original and decidewhat then comparetheir paraphrases changes they needto make to producea more accuratetranslation.variation @ differencesof Another way of getting studentsto focus on specific is languages to get them to produce.individuality for the USA'hyltocrisy studiedor been to for the UK. 5 Givethem four minutes to organizetheir statues. for example. 3 Eachgroup then presents 'staflle' Let position for r5-zo seconds. holdingthe their'statue'to the class. the other studentsaskthe questionsabout their representation. Comments the Focusingfirst on the problem areasin a text discourages students paradoxically. 4 Allow five minutes' quiet for studentsto write themselvesnotes about their reactionsto the statues. can-do forAustralia). This is best language. 2 Tell them they have four minutes to representthe most important 'living statue':a static word they have chosenasa tableau or illustration or symbolicrepresentationmadeby the bodiesof someor all of the group members.saudade for for northern Portugal.if they want to. from simply plunging into a translation and. of vocabularyitems can representimportant aspects which specific a culture. using whatever languagecomesto mind. Bereavement 4.e989. by Eileyhant theRoom. encourages Acknowledgements Maganne. Terry Kett ering.after hearing the text read to them rather than reading it.in the other vocabularyacross ofthe text flrst. and to comeup with one or countriesthey have two cultural keywordsabout English-speaking (for example. Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto work in small groups(4-6) and chooseone or two words that pithily sum up major valuesin their home culture (for for example. 7 Eachgroup presentstheir statueto the whole group. Bereavement in The Publishing.

a after participant had explainedit. example. We presentedour statues Portuguese and sheanalysedfor us how closewe seemed havegot to a genuine. . Variation An indirect way of exploring culture through vocabularyis to askthe studentswhich of a suitably chosenset of Englishwords and phrases haveone-wordequivalentsin their language(s). . . . feeling for the word. . Portuguese of learning cultural awareness. Roundoff with feedbackabout the statue-making. . .the two English in wordsin the exampleare childanddream\. . 4 Pairthe studentsand ask them to flll in the missingletters. . multicultural groupsasa way of sharingtheir cultures aswell asapproachingthe culture(s)of the target language.followed by the number of letters in the word. Procedure 1 Explain to the studentsthat they should write the words you are going to dictate in a vertical list that will look like this: c .asan to the aid to memoryand spelling. . . Preparation Bereadyto dictatero-r5 words from the bilingual list at the end of your coursebook unit. It was a thrilling classin terms full. . .5 How many lettersin the word? Level Beginner intermediate to Time 10-20minutes Aims Toget students visualize look of a word on the page. y u m e . 2 Tell the studentsto write down only thefrsf letter of the word you dictate. . 4. and a mothertongue translation (Japanese the exampleabove. .k o d o m o 5 d . . . . .5 . This activity can be usedin polyglot. . . . . . 3 Dictate all the words you have chosenfrom the vocabularylist in the unit.I Allow five minutes for writing up reactionsto the ideaspresentedin the statues. . S6| eilingualtexts activities and . . They then checkwith the coursebook. For airing cupboard bungalow croft aufaitwith (= standard ordinary) cream tea savoury semi-detached cosy pflvacy daddy limo (of myoldman Speaker the House Commons) of Comments In one of our classes whole group made statuesaround the the Portuguese keyword saudade(yearning-longing-nostalgia).

seebelow for a text that assumes are a beginner in Modern Greek. Time 15 minutesper session over several class words from a motherAims Todeduce meaningof target-language the tongue context. From the other endtisgramisthe journalist. For obviousreasons cannot provide materialsfor your students: we you instead. told me in a trembling voice: GeorgePapachristophilou 'There'sbeen a coup-there are tanks everywhereand they're surrounding everything-leave your spiti!' 'Areyou serious?' r6tisal:Lim. Acknowledgements We cameacross idea of counting letters inwords in Swanand the ridgeEnglish our e. Then I begandialling arittmrts.including phrasesaswell assinglewords. I can seerifles. something the me unusual is happening. Materials Copies the two-languagetext for eachstudent.Comments This can be ofparticular importance to peoplewhose mother tongue is not written in the Romanalphabet.After the they may feel a need studentshaveworked through severalsessions. Walter. of Preparation Takean Englishtext your studentswill find gripping and translateit into their mother tongue.Leaveone word or soper sentencein fairly accuratelyfrom the English:choosewords that canbe guessed words that are repeatedin the text.Leave the text in English. in Sample text TheBarbarians comein the night. Camb C s 4. soldiers. 1984.Book r. sentencecontext. been cut off. Choose Pick a fairly long text that the studentscan work on for a few progressively more of minutes per session over severalweeks.get Nd. for discussion their mother tongue. Bilingual andactivities57 texts | ..or the reading willbecome heavy. out while you canl-I put down thetil1fonoand stayedsilent for some Nlgramdsto the centre had seconds. In class or as homework Hand out the day'sinstalment and let the studentsread.. machine-guns.I tellyou.Justsuchatilefonimawoke up at dawn on the zrst ofApril 1967. but do not be tempted to put too much in Englishtoo soon. I helmets. rvVhen telephonekudunistinthe middle of the night.6 Tvvo-language texts Level All meetings.

sustained Fischer DearDoosie. mixes Germanand English is Werner Lansburgh's Verlag.Dimos.who was in her second *. by 4. shn 4o Comments sharingthe samemother This exercisetype is designedfor classes tongue.You mrstn'tniizese about us-look after yourself and be careful ..and Iro who still went to nipiagogio.7 Learning associating to Level Beginner elementarY Time 15-20minutes way of quicklylearning to students a practical Aims To introduce vocabulary their own.) A good..1979.You must filefonisis me after lunch to let me knowyou're OK. By now myln€kahadwoken up.and particularlyfor thosewho are aiming at a reading knowledgeof English.z3 Meres Paranomia.turn it landscape-wise rule or fold four vertical columns.the languageofBhutan. examplethat I http ://www. As shegot my clothestogether sherotfseme: 'But who's behind the coup?Is it going to go on a long time? again.I managedto speakto a very few of my fllus and tell them the terrible news. on PreParation Let us show you the procedureby teachingyou two or three words of Zonka.Here are the column headings: ASSOCIATIOIV ASSOCIATION / BRIDGE TL I WORD / MT texts SSI eilingual andactivities .Eva.And let me know how I can ""#Jllt tvvodaughters. Glaros. thought they had to go to schoolearlier.We havefound it an excellentway of getting beginnersgraduallyto assimilatenew vocabularyby setting it in a context that has not been denatured.in Somehl€fona the suburbswere still answering.Thank Godyou You'veonly just comeback and nowyou fdvgts managedto comeback home from prison . Acknowledgements The idea of using bilingual texts in the way describedcameto us from aftet Orange: 196znovelAC'lockwork readingAnthony Burgess's readingthe book you will find that you have absorbedaround roo slangBurgess words and phrasesof the (mainly Russian-based) (Fora glossary see invented for his characters.com.. xipnrsemy They year at primary school.asin somany target-Ianguage beginners'readers.1977) (T.I explainedto them that it wasn't yet 5ra andthat I was going to haveto be awayfrom spttifor quite sometime.. and 1 Takea pieceof paper.cockworkorange.

The bricks are the words. Since this activity is largely individual.(If you know little of the here is a chanceto learn somemore!)The words students'language.2 Write down the word dumrain the first column (TL= translation). shown to be effective(for somelearners)in the short-term acquisitionof one-to-one word pairings. has PaulMeara.of the University of Walesat Swansea.8.8 Two-facingwords advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 10-15minutes way. Now write the translation of dumrain Column 3 (mother-tongue): garden. better. and is particularly useful in preparing studentsfor quizzesand examinations. devices 6.of course. Bilingual textsand activities 59 | .it can be easily of monitor the association usedin polyglot groups.will havethe right mindset for this. are 'Leapingwords'. Comments Not all students.ro. probablybe from a coursebook listening or reading. which hasbeen This is aversionof tlle so-called'keyword'technique. 'Draw the word'. Comparethe meaningyou now know.5. chosenwill the Work on the listening or readingpassage words were taken from. garden. He suggests that with rooo words you will begin to be able to get someof the gist of normal targetMeara1997.with the association 'bridge association'. pointed out to us that to build the languagehouseyou needplenty of bricks before you start.'OHPlists'. the The more fanciful the association. As an example.thus creating a person'sassociations with in Column 4. can be a word association a picture.6. which goes that you had before. 4. and the teacherhasno need to processes the students.It may alsobe helpful in laying a temporary foundation for deeperlanguage learning. different parts of speech.) language texts. and t.rS.(See Other activitiesin this book which employ similar visual mnemonic 'Picturingwordsand phrases'. with the soundand shapeof the word in 3 Now write your association or It Column z (word association). tt.here are one a newword: bha 'exclamationof surprise' cow 'I seea cow in my bedroom and goBHA!!' Procedure Follow the proceduredescribedabovewith around zo words of Englishyou needto teachyour beginners. looking ambiguityin a focusedbut amusing Aims Toexplorelexical words that canbe usedas homophones and at homonyms.

with one or more no common mother tongue. 'international groups' for thosewho have tongue. Roundoffby checkingthat everybodysawall the ambiguities. notesin (brackets) The Dictate sentences the possibilities and referto the ambiguities.(crack the earth/crack drug) (is lsthebookdated? it out of date?/doesit have a date of publication?) (l'll him Oh.it's Johnisit?I'lltake upstairs.Materials One copy of the Dictationsheet(below) for your own usein class. which they are to take downintheir mother fiom the Dictation sheet. when pairs get sentences stuck. and one copyfor eachstudentto be givenout after the lesson.aren'tyou nearest closeness) up-hang onl(your voice is becomingunclearon You're cracking are the phone/you are burstinginto laughter/you startingto breakdown) wood. Madcowdiseasewosformerly/formally (relating relating people. talk to him on the phone/lead him upstairs) upstairs Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress 50 I Bilinoualtexts and activities . itto experience Ikeep and lhad thisamazing canmeantelling or connecting) cocaine.If you have an pair the studentsaccordingto their mother international class. (cometo supperas a night? make suppertomorrow Canyou guest/prepare supper) (relationalor geographical her relative? Well. Dictationsheet printedin italics. Procedure to Tell the studentsyou are going to dictate someEnglish sentences tongue.slowly. the Ithinka lot of ltalianmen. them. the in in Crackfound lceland. As you move round the classassurethe studentsthat all the original were ambiguous. is This desk madeof cypress/Cyprus potatoes pees/peas the in cookwho does and Didyouhearaboutthe pot? knownas BSE.Givehelp here and there. 2 Dictate the sentences 3 Pair the studentsto comparetheir translations. thusto the different of translation.(l appreciate men/they are often in 'Who camehere my mind/asan answerto the question: yesterday?') This wastheonethingI did right/writein theworkshop.

Follow-up As homework ask eachstudent to hand in betweenthree and six Use ambiguousmother-tonguesentences. but evenmore fascinating sentences: Janus-like youbecause I workwithyou. are grammatical on lexical ambiguity.Above.Tell the studentsthat 'somewhereon the walls'.) (Are DomensellbetterthanwomenTthe men sellingsomethingor being sold?) 4. texts.maps. Comments This very simple activity can becomean on-going. determiningmeaning. to find vocabularyfor remote from an English-using 'fed'. using cluesand contexts.9 On the walls to Level Beginners elementary Time 15 minutes textsfor target-language skimmingand scanning Aims lio practise equivalentsof mother-tongueexpressions.other target-language Materials Posters. (I dislike you because I don'thke that makes you're a colleague.and other textual realia. or sowords containedin the texts on the walls and preparea list of their translationsinto the students'mother tongue. from tfre mother tongue into English. and Bilingualtexts activities 61 | .especiallythose It feature of the classroom.aswell as giving a practicaldemonstration how important contextis in of in students particularshouldbeneflt.MoreGrarnmar we 1995. the of This activity stresses fun aspect linguistic ambiguity. Procedure Put the list of translationson the blackboard. work CambridgeUniversityPress. encourages environment. Comments providing the studentsare This activity is suitablefor polyglot classes appropriatelygrouped./It isn't just your being a colleague me like you. Preparation Get together a collection of posters.ever-changing students. maps. Games. Then chooseten and pin them up round the walls of the classroom. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique fromJean Cureau.pageazz.Over-serious You will find more ambiguous material in Davis et a\. their English equivalentsare to be found and askthem to look for them.rather than waiting to be themselves. theseto do the same exercisethe other way round.

A chessboard ideal. other'Mother Tongue'. The winner is the player with the most pieceson the page65.(See Translation Reversi This is playedin exactlythe sameway asthe traditional game. is Countersare white on one sideand black on the other.s/he loses that turn. thereafter. which the playerwho cantranslatemostaccurately of the bestchance winning. 62 | Bilingual textsand activities .Insteadof '\Mhite' and 'Black'. Seebelow.the player must be ableto translatethe word on it before completing the move. are eachmove must be a capture. 1 0 Translation Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30minutes Aims To usea simpleboardand somepieces cardas a vocabulary of in has exercise.but with a few extra rules: Smallpieces cardareusedinsteadof counters: one sideof each of on card is written a word or phrasein English.) boardat the end ofthe game.reversi 4 . asin normal Reversi. Materials Board.A captureis madewhen one has placeda pieceat eachend of a line of opposingpieces(row column or diagonal):the capturedpiecesremain in placebut are turned over to reversetheir colours.on the other an appropriatetranslation into the mother tongue. then at Sources the words and phrasesusedin the gamecould include for current topic or text material. Procedure Straight Reversi The traditional gameis playedbytwo players('vVhite and Black)with 64 counterson an 8 x 8 squared board. Eachplayer in turn placesa counter on the board.s/hemust translateat leasttwo words in the capture stringbefore moving.with her/his own colour uppermost.one playeris 'English'. In the flrst four movesthe four centre squares filled. revision material. and problems thrown up by students'work.counters. Variation 1 The gamemay be shortenedby using a 6 x 6 board (36cards)or a 7 x Tboard(49cards). In capturing longer lines of pieces.If a player cannot make a capture. player who successfully The translateshis/her opponent'spieceor pieces places pieces the end of the line. the Beforebeing allowed to capturea single opposingpiece. translationcardsetc. The gameendswhen neither player has a legal move and/orthe board is full.

o o a) o equal. by Mario Rinvolucri and IsobelFletcherde Tellez.it may be simpler to use materialsproducedby the teacher.other paired items canbe used:synonyms.the activity hasgreatereffect or when the studentsproducematerialsfor themselves for eachother. when introducing the game.etc. Comments This is the old gameof Reversi-or Othello-which is now alsoan computer game.com. Position White response s textsand activities 63 Bilingual | .Variation 2 Insteadof translations. orthographic/phonemicspelling. availableat htt p ://www.canbe found on the cD RoMMindGame. o a) o Theopeningmoves o aa a) o s Blackfirstcapture.hk . established and other languagegames.cIarity.A computer version of TrarslanonReversi.word + definition. Variation 3 Eventhough.publishedby Clarity. I oO - n a) O a o o a) a) ^ o t C o r) a) o o o a) a) a) a) (. antonyms.

a) C o o o C r) a) o o o C o r-\ a) a) rf l t o a o a) a) a) a) a o o o o a) o a) aoo n oo C f-) a) - a) a) ^ a\ ooooooo a) a) a) o a) a) o a) o a) ( a) a) o a) o a) a) n o a) o a) o o a) a) o a\ -) l r) C r) a) a) a) a) a) a a) a) : ) a) a\ C I Whitecloses I in W h i t ew i n s4 7 : 1 7 . 64 I Bilingualtexts activities and .

5. 5.and searchand analysistools (concordancers. and concordances65 corpora Using | .the biggestcorpusof all'. show how the insights ofcorpus lexicographycan influence both 'More on fendt0'.s.and an increasingnumber of 'Tendto'. Somefurther guidanceand referencesare provided in the Commentson this final activity' Corpuslexicographyis a rapidly developingfield. selected discoveryoffacts explicit principles. 'Barefacts.+.1 Reciprocal advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 30-40 minutes can analysis highlightpatternsof grammar Aims Toshow how corpus and meaning. 5. and 5.we try to show how corporaand their associated Most Blitish learnersand teachers.At the sametime.to/corpo ra gives annotatedlist of corporaand the softwareneeded a comprehensive to work with them.3.S. 'Working with student help in producing classroommaterials.the completecorpusof Otd Englishtexts). verb Phrases 5.are now dictionaries. 'Reciprocal and verb phrases'.6. show how corpuswork can after?'.but in many other fields.and concordances corpora Using accordingto Put simply. and new methodsand applicationsare appearingall the time. and organizedto facilitate the were usedfor biblical Early corpora(or corpuses) about language.r. a languagecorpusis a body of texts.not only among linguists. . David Lee's frequently updated corpuswebsite at htt p://devoted.and 5.7. In this chapter. the computer explosionhas both madepossiblethe creation of very large corpora (5oomillion words and more) and generatedthe need for ever more complex indexers. illustrates someof the what and how we teach.2. so on) to dealwith the sheervolume of information flowing around the planet. looks at written work.parsers. givesideasfor applylng concordancing the students'own 'Quarryrngthe Internet for words'. and literary studiesand in philological research(for example. basicsearchand displaytechniquesthat teachersand studentscan '\Mhich word are we to apply directly if they have access a corpus.but over the past 25years their usehas grown enormously.5.naked truth'. and corpus-derived. softwarecan benefit langUage grammar books. to texts'.

for for makeyour own example sentences each. groups or things do the same thing to each other. As the studentswork.If you and your classsharethe samemother tongue. using dictionariesand any other referencematerial they have. Preparation Readthe Commentsbelow and make copiesof the Worksheet. or are linked because they are participating jointly in an action or an event'. that basically 5 Write down all the phrases 6 Lookat theseexamples: Wemadecontact. meantotalkwith. Choose of them and ten All the phrases abovecanbe usedin thesetwo patterns. lmadecontactwithhim.Tell them to complete the worksheet in groupsof four. phrases have do with repairing relationship. lost Aftershemovedto London. have a relationship.Tell them to call you over when they need further help. offering translationsand contextsfor the phrases.tochatwith. They Helosttouch losttouch. go round helping to clarify meaning.addingcontextand details.be readyto help them find good translationsfor the phrases. example: Peter touchwith her. withher.'reciprocal verbs' are defined as those that Verbs actions and processesin which tvvo or more people. 'describe (t998). Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress Comments In Chapter 6 of Collins Cobuild's corpus-derived GrammarPatternsl. They are used with either a plural subject and no object (WemadecontacLIk 66 | Using corpora and concordances . to a that 3 Writedown all the negative feelingbetween two 4 Writedown allthe phrases whichinvolve individuals.for of Materials Copies the Worksheet eachstudent. Procedure Givethe studentscopiesof the Worksheet. Worksheet 1 Lookthroughthisphrase list: notes swords compare cross battleit out chewthefat fall in love do business burythehatchet do battle gotowar gohandinhand shakehands changeplaces havewords settle accounts haveit off haveit out joinforces linkarms holdhands hititoff losetouch makecontact lockhorns losecontact mendfences makepeace makelove makefriends part company passthetimeof day see to eye eye do 2 Writedown all the phrasesyou nof knowthe meaningsof.

ofa Procedure Explain to your studentsthattendto is extremely frequent in spoken English. and how this output can search in class. The deflnition combinesmeaning and grammar in a way that makesvocabularylearning hrghly effective.make your own to concordance word or phraseyou or your studentshave chosen. Yeah. particular words and printouts for the word(s)or Materials Copies one or more concordance of phrase(s) chosen.2 'Tendto': usingconcordances Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-40 minutes with Aims To presentand practisethe languagepatternsassociated phrases. we In the next activity (5. innit? s: That's right.the shopstend to open about eleveno'clock.It is a typical product ofcorpus lexicography.)or with a subjectfollowed by with + object (Imade contart wrthhim.and that second-language who useit tend to sound speakers more English than they really are!Tell them that this verb tends to expresshabit and regular occurrence. corpora and concordances67 Using | . Givehelp where required. Pair the studentsand askthem to chooseone utterancethey like and to producea four-line dialoguethat it could be part of.blutfhe patterns with it. and what their relationship is.ifyou Make copiesof the Exampleconcordance have access a corpusand appropriate software.qndlbattledfi out. They turn their books over and bring the dialoguesto life for the rest ofthe class.which usescomputersto extract from examplesof natural languagenot associated simply a meaning for a word or phrase. maybe used 4 with students 5.).They made friendswith her.2) showwhat the output of a corpus (often calleda concordqnce) look like. a: Bit late really. and to decide where the speakers are. Preparation below.and enablesus language teachersto introduce them asa memorableand learnablegrouping to our students.how they are standingor sitting. s: We're never up before eleven. and askthem to read Give out copiesof the Exampleconcordance through and seehow many of the excerptsthey can make senseof.Alternatively. Ask the pairs to learn by heart what they havewritten. Givethem this example: e: Shoppingpretty good down your way.

To getyou started. is Cambridge.5 Get them to createanother dialoguewith a new excerpt and act this out. using the cD-RoMSof the British National Corpus (nllc) and query soft\^/are.In later sessions. Wherever possible. Linguishcs.3 More on 'tend to': using a corpusand software in class Level Intermediateto advanced Time Aims Materials Preparation If this is the first time you have useda corpus. we have prepared the Example concordance below. themselvesto formulate the queriesat eachstage.and the students the to suggest words and phrasesto work on. and 68 1 Usingcorpora concordances .encourage very little preparationwill be needed. sARA-32. Example concordance tend to ch Erm yeah but we don't quite far away Mmbut I The thing is I the drift tend not to use names I nhl.tn l-rcd Yceh i^lhat I Yeah the shops s right Ily i f I do buy bacon we six grood glasses but we couple of times and you that a bit down or that tend to go very often because I mea tend to like to save my money and sp tend to borrow things off Tim and he names very IitLLe tend to use direct tend to do is read or watch tefevisi tend to open about eleven o'clock tend to have ir for a funch you know She was sayin tend not to use them tend to find that a lot of the Londo tends to go back I don't quite know Acknowledgements abovewas edited down from a cANcoDE The Exampleconcordance andApplied output cited in Michael McCarthy.work through Procedure byyourselfto get usedto the technique. of transcriptsof spokenEnglish.SpokenLanguage prepared (cANcoDE a specially corpus 1998.) 5.

presenttense>.) corpora concordances and Using I o9 .and so on. concordance Divide the classinto groups accordingto the number of computer workstations available: the optimum group sizewould be two to four studentsat eachworkstation. or '5o random hits'. followed by to. etc. context.the query may take one of severalforms: a searchontend:this will produceeveryinstanceof tend(but not where tendis not etc.by askingfor'the first 5o hits' the software. (see Ask the studentsto chooseone of the groupsof examplesthey have decidedon.including all the cases tends. number ofwords betweenthe elementstend d specifya maximum and to: this could be used.while 'ls I wouldtendnotto may prompt the question tendnotto usedmore in (Fromthe evidenceof the BNC. they can usethe softwareto increasethe Expandedoutput below).tending. and/orby limiting the searchto texts ofa particular type.). meaning.i but will include tends. For example. alsotendency.tender. Tell the studentsto look at the results oftheir query and to consider ways in which the examples can be grouped by grarnmar. and to make a further searchto obtain more examplesof a may this group. alsoShe tendthevlawnbrfi as examples They a special'wild card' symbol (usuallythe asterisk):tend* c searchusing etc.to pick up instancesof tend notto: as e if the words in the corpusare marked ('tagged') <noun>. b searchon the phrasetendto:this will excludenot only such to tends worry. sothat everyonehas at leastone other personto talk to but is still ableto seethe screen.we written than in spokenlanguage?' cannot saythat there is a signiflcant differencehere.tending.the item is tendingtoincrease suggest searchfor more examplesof tendtousedin a continuoustense. If any of the listed examplesis hard to understandfrom the limited context given.tended. amount of text shown.Dependingon the corpusand softwarebeing used. searchfor tend <verb + <infinitive marker>: f if the word or phrasebeing queried is fairly common.il Procedure to Make surethat the corpusto be usedis accessible eachworkstation (this maybe through a local network or the Internet. Ask the groupsto searchthe corpusfor instancesof the phrasetend to. it will to alsobe necessary restrict the number of instancesoutput by for example.One member of eachgroup shouldbe responsiblefor operatingthe keyboard.for example. or asa copy installed on eachmachine)and that the appropriatequery or softwareis up and running.

(Examples arefreedom: prime:premier. it tends to be men. 1s tending to increase aff the time inhs in thc indrrstri:l are: and fheru wiff tend tO be offiee iohs This is how they er. yeah.they shouldget a list of examples(no more than ten) of eachfrom the corpus. who are invisibfe <pause> because very often development programmes tend to iqnore <pause> er therr needs. Welf it stops the top Transport.Hopefully. reform tended to be uneven.and then try to work out a deflnition or paraphrase from the lists.) them to usethe Iiberr.be andhave atendency cometo mind).triple:treble. Tell corpusto discoverhow closein meaning the words in eachpair are. referencegrammars. Here are somemore suggestions for using a corpusasa referencetool: Ask the studentsto think of other expressions suggested or similar by proneto.we tend to say (See civillibertrybrtfreedom thought. of course.thesauri. they can check tfieir answersin the dictionary. Variations Onceyou and your studentshavegained someexpedencein working with a colpus and its associated soffware.) 70 | Using corpora and concordances . however. T wou-Id tend not to until the scheme was actually in management It. In many of the ruraf areas. of also5. this can alsobe seenascheckingthe dictionary againstthe corpus evidencethey haveobtained. and they tend to be larger cars.(Sincedictionariesare not infallible.y.one or more pairs of words that havevery similar meanings. tendencyof words the to associate with particular otherwords: for example. it' s more men very often development programmes tend to ignore er therr and you tend to sort of say welf what do you really want Eo tal-k Expanded output for the tenth linein the example I want us to think for a moment about the rights and needs of aff those miffions of chifdren who do not qo to school.5 'Barefacts. tend to compromise with it.naked truth'.\vVhen they've flnished. or ask the studentsto choose. to and then to explore them in the sameway.Tell them that they will be ableto look theseup in a dictionary but that first. to tendto(be inclinedto. and whether there are any 'rules' for decidingwhich word to usein a given situation or context. in small groups.and so on.) Write on the board.you can add them to the classreferencelibrary alongwith the dictionaries. Give out a text and askthe studentsto selectthree to five words and phrasesthat are unfamiliar. their work will give you an opportunity to introduce the idea of collocation. or usedin unfamiliar ways.Example concordance the whole of global warming does tend to come to mind when you see tend to get too too friendly and not keep it on a on a business Yes. choice:option.

access computers. Acknowledgements The Example concordance was produced ftom TheBritish National Corpus(WorldEdthon). among other things. anyone by Guy Aston and Lou Burnard. and each textbegins with a header that includes. (and students)to prepareclassroom to for Materials Worksheets eachstudent. and. is expected to appear in late zoo4. Alternatively.the permit.4 Whichword are we after? to Level Elementary advanced Time 10-20minutes software can help teachers Aims To show how corporaand concordance materials. you could askyour students to list words that they think are more commonly used in speech by women than by men. details of authorship. h cu. science.ox. and rather more context).htm | (upto 50hits.rst for instances in utterances tagged <male> and then in those tagged <female>. commerce.available on two cD-RoMS from the Humanitres Computing Unit.you can get your examplesfrom one of the siteson the suchas to web which allow limited free access a text database. as circumstances Preparation Choosea word or collocationthat you would like the classto look at in detail. and so on). details of the participants' gender and age. consists of text files 'marked up' or 'tagged' to give a great deal of information that are aboutthe text and its constituent parts.co'uk 4o hits returned) and the Bdtish National Corpusat ra. (upto at CollinsCobuild http://titania.(The SARA-32 learning to use sARA-32is advised to look atTheBNCHandbook. Oxford University (htt p //www. in common with many other corpora.The BNC. http ://sa natcorp.etc. and same cD-RoIr. to to Ifyou have access a corpus. Edinburgh University Press1998. for spoken texts.ac. Each word is marked as <verb>. for example.cobuild. a copy of which is on the help flle/manual is rather sparse. which includes an excellent sARA-32tutorial' The second edition of this. publication or composition.software.uk/lookup.u k/B NC) using the program sARA-32byTony Dodd. and the situation in which a conversation took place.rs. Internet. <adjective> and so on.) 5. text domain (imaginative. and concordances71 corpora Using | .collins. updated to take account ofrecent revisions ofboth the corpus and the software. ox.use a concordancer extract ten examplescontaining the word or phraseyou have chosen. and to test their predictions by searching the spoken dialogues ofthe corpus fi. ac. So. leisure.

^ Th:nLe .h o "e - and found Gordie' s T-shirt the river.asin Example worksheet r below. Example worksheet2 Lr nnl r : .9 i d ^ ---^^ i na f arrn pfastic in pants.1 . .^^ Pfaysu ^r^hrl-il lhinlze -sensurround sn^rf rarmc q n l nrrcc sounds.v9eLr-L_ r.l u u ! . che my rTaF:h^irf - thanks.fr i hr La!1r r behind.r u s a^ r : ra ^l -. lLLorry ^Li ulrfrruJL business in this . Now that's . ^ ^ .Lished himself friend r! h _ L rc l-ia Ti:f as the nis f h^ Lrrs \/ t ha nerqnn:l rcn:rdc Covernment.c nr r l i ti ani na fni r . . . L." thi < .. . ywu! L ^ ^ ua\j I ^ Lr ! L ^ Lrrs _ Ywu ^ _ rl _ f \ / uh 72 | Using corpora concordances and .leaving a gap. (whites q P l r n vn l l l-\ai nd iar n a a w Sometimes Lhey woulo need three months now. . thA a a ! !r f \ 7 L r r rrhnf c nhi ql nnad rarn t h_E Lr a fari c l a lv .^ Yours sincerely. wlry .Il eVer hr^eha-l Wear ^T ! r Mr Ma'nr For whatever or 1 .Timm\/ Don Eduardo. They or for . a\/ar\z^na t^ ( ^ f A . Procedure I 2 Divide the classinto groups of three to flve students.3 Import the examplesinto a word processorand deletethe chosen word/phrasefrom eachexample.n r am ^ \ 7a l !r !au: _ t j l \/ tL^ u u Y rhr 11^ ..^ JU ni nk rrn enrl nerr yu fnr i r f r _ hL U ^ rrnrrr I ha Lrrc +F. 4 Print and make copiesfor eachgroup ofthree to five students. r .iFtarnanj-q ^l^ne country leave is l . I hanLc l^^ l.l Lr r oL r-l-na tha inhhnz . .4 -facifities are on che premises.!rrv . : nr l r i r .( Crr'l f ^ . of those k ^ ^ who were.q r r r e u l:r arnr^^f LrhFn . A ^ n r ir J y e n u ! hr aoz^ ^1r f ^r r ^h f L^ dr-r ' th A rh-^ ij-'z'n Ha air the urill lerrza rznrr has now estab. Give one exampleworksheet to eachgroup and tell them to work out which word or phraseshould appearin the examples.(Exampler is laundry and exampleziswarmest.^ I o D ^ ^ ^ l sst. f ^r l-hF f:mi seeing women kneading -at lr.r hr . I've used my -service for - the other.anar r l a. for adopted covered bur Europeans.. .timi tharr He sends yol n^. Afso ideal and coloureds) r r u MgT | i n ho " ^| na | -9 To help you conceal your da I i rzar . rn ni ck ^rrr ^f f ha shampoo" to -basket. . ^ ! ^ ^ ] I r L ^ 9 y snoke reason ro Mps in you give. ^rrr I ^^at har Pu-.^ ! l D l ^ J.) Example worksheet1 --r^m Fh^ ^^11^^^ uuffsgs.rOU' fha .

Point out that in eachcase in this showsthe word which actually appears the corpus.Variation Ifyour studentshaveaccess a corpusand can useit for simple to (see them searches the previousactivity for hints on this). give out the Worksheetand askthem to wdte the most likelyword in eachgap. frequent collocates.to usea corpusto prepare classroom materials. give out the list of Frequentcollocates. 2 After a minute or two.similarto the examples Preparation \Mhenpreparing your own materials: two or more words with very Select. encourage to make worksheetsfor eachother: flnding and selectingthe examplesis at leastasuseful as.for the worksheet. Giveout copiesof the Exampleconcordance working alone or in pairs. and key for eachstudent. and a worksheet Materials One copy of a concordance.and that there are severalcases where eitherbareornakedmight havebeen used. provided.with gapsreplacingthe headwords.)Selecttwo or three examplesof eachof the common the collocationsand deleteeverything else. Procedure and askthe students. and concordances73 Using corpora | .rstaccordingto the words searched and then accordingto the words that appearbefore or after. 'vVhen they haveflnished.to seeif they can seeany pattern in the way the headwordhasbeen chosen. and use the 'sort' option to group the for examplesfi. facts.(Somecorpussoffwarecan do this automatically. or similar meanings.) Allow time for discussion. as Make a mixed Import the savedtext flle into your word processor. give out the Key.nakedtruth 5 . solvingthe przzle. selection. Print theseout. 5 Bare Level Intermediateto advanced Time 20-40 minutes Aims To usea corpus find out which of two or moreapparent to synonymsis appropriateto a particularcontext.Save resulting'thinned' concordance a text file.Make a note of the commonestcollocations. and a second selectionof zo or soitems for the exampleconcordance. Get a concordance the words you are investigating(on screenof there is no needto print it out). get your studentsto suggest.and much more creativethan. 3 After another minute.

d L.barebones). l remembered .. excepU body/bodies.aggression. eye.They write a short paragtaphto illustrate how eachmay be used. ll stand/ing/stoodnakedll caught.truth. bones. . mudguards properties chassis and car re-made.completely. a naked naked. ll lay/laid.. tha of tire damage but' thaL Lhere was a bare possibillty 'naked racism and exploitation ronl:cinc with subtle naked save for a collar. r/r t^ l cfF^c .dh Ah.walls.u. she had her sleeves rolled a n d naked.i ih t6lt:e t:nLe th^ T1. floor. right -r:r i-r. ' . earth. naked. the under where chick manoeuvres itself inside up naked a sheet. a hospital.c. necessities skin.flesh bulb.chest.strip/ped.5 - urri9 9urr5 t t s naked bayonets bones eye.ice fnrrno that < . naked bare alt.found. H Y a r ^. to hit Dietrich! I I a^l .Follow-up (Thiscan be set for homework. ambition. The -oom was quiLe bare like body were stripped L o bare metal. branch/es.. and woodwork often examlnation t h e w i n g s a p D e a r t o b e naked.l arru r h e tr^^n.. .hands. linoleum. ln probably of and wood.leg/s. Example concordance bare/naked I afr hi c nrri:mac hohi nri :nn omorced srark naked.^q. ^ r n i < : r i n n .. ll afterl minimum. f a a - The floors were of the . r h o c r r i n P < o : e v L u !r v .stark.d th:f R i . .essentials. 74 | Using corpora and concordances .l drawer that are invisible to t h e naked arnare-r_rcq of his of Puddephat's LoreLLa Peered at the bare facts of these o u r naked intuitions Lo some extent.h r T r! ' each carrying I L blind . desk. has differences aa.running.vr ha nqr r y : !t h:r'i wref the nf v haon larder rho ef thi was bare che and took fh^. some bare. + r A a 'l m a some covered sword and dirk. strip/stripped bare llfooUfeet. s h o w i n g bare ll Frequent collocates lbefore . Borh men were armed. half. microscopical in most ilsects.)Tell the classto look againat the and to mark thosewhere the frequent collocatesof bareandnaked shouldthen meaning is metaphorical (for example. h a r r e n n l v o i r r c organisation's life..gun..^ .l ^ lytrrg Though sti slle tldu Ilcve 5eerl L ^ r . there -h6 Fha fr^m are lots o f bare people on the beach. room. of crowd into a football LnLrodLCed and qurIire structure Willian are Huqh ^ .l ri.hough noc seriously a snap declsion like out were the Marfene and hair and pushed harmed.af^rmc urara h iPJ ' n< r r y w r : -r u 5 u nuu d- d^\r6ynmant.l ^ n ^ o I vr c.a ! ! y same wood. even'er a r m s .' -Lo r econstruct i on wlch a bare m'n lmum of equ ipmenL yer maintai ned A I^lact T^r fha?F/ c a -ower there and lt'S bare of trees.

motherdied a move. 9 Theremaining shellisthen cut up andsentoff to itsgravein the industry's meltingpot. her two weeksafter Pat's graspfor powerthat mustnot be allowed. the surface that shows.]Mm. covered him out the front of the house. when But do you dustbehindand underneath. | 1 Everyone somewith spades. 8 lt shouldbe visible the eyeasafuzzy patch(withouta tail) two to to threetimesthe sizeof the Moon.[.. 19 Verysadly. government the pastforty years 14 No British with in and more hasbeenelected evena majorityof the votescast. Manywere forcedto eke out a existence misery. commissioner thisyear's of on the cover a magazine.. exiles wandering and Deciduous shrub. and others 12 Achille Biennale appeared also BonitoOliva. four feet tall. 20 StickthecardinanenvelopethatwillYes..Cxample worksheet bare/naked Herneckand shoulders are Shelooksso pretty.. 15 Likea childshewantedto explore.fitit. a beautiful lt's dress. Patrice wouldassoon leavethe houseaswithoutmake-up.were stark. and locked . 5 7 Hellenistic a device suggesting Greekkingswere frequentlyportrayed superhuman status.. of 13 TheystrippedPatsy him all overwith shoepolish. and ascoldand draughtyas wind tunnels. 2 KenLivingstone madea had I 3 4 5 and coldlooking. in and manyothers became beggars. though. on erectbranches.. [. starts diggingfrantically. with their hands.with f lowers -. my against coldconcretefoughtwith the thing till the chest my eyespoppedand my breathgaveout 17 Children soon will exertinfluence of proportion their and out to power. 18 lt will simplify muchof the discussion will helplayand the inner workingsof the market. I 16 Lying flat.] Thecorridors beyond.Ohyesitwouldn'tgo throughthe postwould it? Using corpora and concordances75 | . just people the l0 Some minimum. were smoothbeneathher Coolstonesteps feet. otherswith pick-axes.

'.tholugl:' they may give two separateusesof the phrase ('flrstly . o in this use the phrase alrnost always appears at the end of the sentence. you can see. how words may be linked to other words in only a narrow tange of structures. a BNC search 'hits'. inthe nght place. almost at a placeof.taketheplaceoJ and so on. or will be given without some of the useful information that the corpus search can reveal: time and place does not appear in the dictionaries we looked at. they almost never cany on with the second place'. but is commonly used (theright time and place. entries for inthe first place. even when people start a sentence or utterance with 'in place . glance. This is best done Build up a small corpusof student-generated over a period. and then sort the results so that four-word sequences containingplace appear together.. Ifyou download a random onplace throws up nearly48.or to type fair copies zO I Using and corpora concordances . . or own textsto discover highlightfeatures vocabulary form.this is not the time andplace for . Preparation text. in the courseof normal classwork. 5 .. For example. how meaning changes in context. Many of these will appear in recent dictionaries. but manywill not.' and'as things are/were at the start ofa process'). Again.fail to show that o the second of these uses is eight to ten times more common than the flrst.by askingthe class on to do their written assignments a computer. the most frequent sequences:in (the) aII overtheplace.).ooo selection of these. . and so on.or 'In the first . concordance students' texts in machine-readable Materials Computers.. 6 Working with studenttexts to Level Elementary advanced Time 20-45 minutes software can be usedwith the studentt' Aims Toshow how concordance of and style.Key 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 bare naked naked bare bare bare naked 8 naked 9 bare 10 bare 1"1 bare 12 naked 13 naked 14 bare 15 16 17 18 19 20 bare bare naked bare bare naked Comments Looking at the co-occurrences of words in a corpus is a very profitable way of finding out how words are actually used.. software as needed.

s%) that veryniceappeats 7oo times in the ca. for example.and to suggest Variation 1 If the texts were collectedover a long period of time.ro-million-word spokendialoguesectionof the sNc (i. they may decideto look round for a few alternative expressions. concordance the necessary Procedure wordlists. you can askthe studentsto comparethe relative frequenciesof words and phrasesin their own texts and in the larger corpus.feelslke.for example.and In groupsof three to four they should comparethe lists. and concordances77 corpora Using | . to contexts.it might be instructive to comparethe relative A andyoulyour. and to comparethe two.a ro that they haveusedthe phraseveryrnce times in student discovers and their own zooowords of text (i. askthem to make two wordlists.oo7%).may show cleardifferences peoplewho are primarilyvisual. Asking them to keep a (=web log) on computer is alsoa goodway to collect texts. but which they now don't seemto be using at all? Variation 2 In a mixed gtoup.soundshke.suchasthe sNc.(WordsmithTools a'keywords' function which will comparetwo frequencylists and list the anomaliesautomatically. Variation 3 Dependingon the type and content ofthe texts.and askthe studentsto compareword-listsmade from the earliestwith wordlists from the Iatest. look at the usein descriptivetexts frequencyof Ilmelmy of or at suchaslookslike. and pick out words which occur much more. one fiom the texts written by males. saya year or more.e. auditory or kinaesthetic. whole corpus. studentscanlook at In speciflcword typesor semanticareas.and Organizethe texts in directories(folders). organizethem by date of composition.sound.If.and to seeif there are interesting differencesin frequency. Variation 4 to Ifyou have access a large generalcorpus.'public diary' or 'blog' of handwritten work.in their own texts than has in all the texts taken together.e.) Encourage studentsto look at thesewords in their original the possiblechanges the languageused.and movement. one for eachstudent. a collectionof personalletters or emails.o. adjectives of phrases between colour. flrst of the Ask the studentsto make fi:equency-ordered then of only their own texts.o.Are there words or phraseswhich they onceuseda lot.Seepager7o. them and has classroomcomputer can access make surethat each soffware. or much less.and the other from thosewritten by females.

this stagedon't download any of the texts themselves.(Thesoftwarewill probablybe ableto do this automatically. Aims To encourage studentsto learn how words and phrases usedby are searching Internetfor example the texts. Preparation Oneor two lessons beforeyou intend to do the activity.will be ample.Edit the word lists to excludewords that occurvery frequently in the language.and eachstudentwill need one copyof one of the individual word lists and one copy of the combinedword list. Get them to reducetheir list to fi. You should alsohavea few extra copiesofeach text for the students to readat home.Wordlist inWordSmith Tools)to preparewordlists for eachtext.5 .veor six key items. Print out and make copiesof the original texts and the word lists. the Readthrough your lists of addresses: the context information (the use strings oftext that contain the searchwords)to selectrz-t5 texts. 7 Quarryingthe Internetfor words Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-50minutesin class.together with the textual context that is usually also given.)You may alsolike to re-edit and/orre-format the lists in a word processor. Save lists if you need to intermpt the work. Togive practice usingcomputers in and softwarewithout losing sightof moreimmediate language learningneeds. the See Commentsbelow for waysof making the variousprocesses involved more efficient.suchasarticlesand pronouns. Downloadthem and savethem to disk. Openyour browser and use a searchengine suchasGoogleor AltaVistato find on the web texts containing the words and phrases just chosen. (Dependingon the availability of computersand Internet access. At (unrs). Materials Computers. get the class to selecta topic areathat intereststhem and to brainstorm words and phrases which they expectto flnd in texts on the topic. and a combinedword list for all the texts: thesewill show the words usedin the texts togetherwith the number of times they appear. Internet access.You will needone copy or more of eachtext to put up on the walls or spreadout on the tables. concordance software as needed (seebelow). and on the students'familiaritywith the equipment and soffware.some or all of the abovecan be done by the studentsthemselves.) Za I Using corpora concordances and . spread out over several sessions as necessary. Usesuitablesoffware(for example. the lists ofweb addresses The first ro-zo addresses each for word or phrase.

orwhich theywould like more information about. wait to and receivea page(or more often pageupon page)of web addresses.In larger classes. asin Preparation. Tell the studentsto look through their word list for a minute or two. small groups.and don't needto read it as 'Saveto flle' or 'Saveto disk' it arrivesat your computer. students. not pretty pictures.If the listing is basedon a number of different texts. or on flat surfaces you they can easilybe seenand read. asa or they had when they first chosethe whole. get them to form pairs or threesto discuss whether (a)they were sutprisedby the Ianguage content ofthe text they found. If you're fetching material for later study. As more and more studentsfinish stepsz and 3.\Mhenthey have done this. However. Tell them to usethe lists to help them producea list of newwords or phrasesto searchfor. and then expandit to checktheir predictions. Ask the studentsto form groupsoffour to six and give eachstudent a copy of the combinedword list.step1. How can you maximize your chancesof quickly it flnding what you want.5. Comments one To searchthe web. asin the concordance and 5. and how canyou process most efficiently onceyou've got it? Here are a few pointers: If you are only interestedin text.can look at a concordance about the wider context (vocabularysituation. and then to walk round and try to find the original text from which it was prepared.above. Variation I Insteadof producingword lists.you may as haveproblemswith the sheerquantity of information you haveto wade through.3.in listing directly on screen.choosethe and Using corpora concordances I zS . print out the words and phrasesin extractsin activities contextualizedformat. etc. making it very easyfor the studentsto access whole text that intereststhem and print it out for later reading. and (b)the texts. Give eachstudent one copy of tle word list for one of the texts.)of each speculate extract.4. In eachstudent should have a different word list. useyour browser to access of the many search enginesavailable. met the expectations searchwords or phrasesthat yielded them. 5. the filenamesand line numbers a can alsobe shown.type in the terms you wish to searchfor.Procedure where Put up one copy of eachtext on the walls. may needto put up more than one copy of eachtext. then click to access many papersasyou wish.2. smaller classes. they should sit dovrn and underline on their list all the words or phrasesthat they don't know. Variation 2 the If you have computersavailablein the classroom. switch offyour browser's'fetch imagesautomatically' option.

but a lot of other stuffas well: advertisements.Word-processor (. a check-box. suchpagesmay give a falseimpressionby showing repeatedoccurrences goto top.and David givesextensiveguidanceon the (zooo) Eastmententitled Thelnternet useofthe Internet for languageteachers. 80 | Using and concordances corpora . David Hardisty. When concordanced. a lot of time can be wastedwaiting for the text to appearon the screen.htm display..and combine the resultsbefore sendingthem back to you.and so on. If you're using an on-line searchengine.) Not all searchenginesusethe samesearchmethods:what one fails to find maywell be listed by another.Usedifferent searchengines. may needto be loadedinto the appropriateapplication flrst and savedasplain text. or'Export' function to fiirn the file into plain text. aswill PortableDocument Format (. or to a range of dates(for example.htm). and soon) flles . words' option.doc.txt) to process word-listing concordance presentfew problems.to a particular language and/or country. edit out all the unwanted material.which take your query passit on to severalsearchengines. Many web pagescontain the text you want. ('Science'. which canpresentsearch http://webcorp. One site of interest to us is l. checkthe options it offers: you may be able to restrict your searchto a particular topic area 'On-lineNewspapers'.and most concordancers will dealwith normal (.rtf web pages. and so on). and not all are easy in software. make sureyou usethe 'exact \Mhen searchingfor specificphrases. navigationlinks and so on.buynow. (Thismay be a button.org. in a word processor. If you haveto of you will haveto useyour browser's'Save As' work with thesepages. resultseither asa normal listing or asa concordance Text is found on the Internet in different forms.or try one of the 'metasearch'sites.ppt)documents.pdf)and Powerpoint (.uk/wcadvanced.only files updated in the last year).htmt. The book in this seriesby ScottWindeat. require you to or enclosethe phrasein quotation marks. and then.Plain text files (.option.

but still influential on how we expressourselves. In the sameway. have 'multiple intelligences' gone further.the channelsthrough which it is processed.and learnt procedures. account. our memories. (See Annotated Bibliography sectionat the end of this book for works by Gardnerand others in this area.imagination.In this chapter.We can accept.whether of sensoryimpressions.andthe senses Words is and classrooms mainly on The sensoryemphasisin coursebooks wall-charts. the sensorysignalsthat we receivefrom. For many years. and memory. illustrations.thathow material and information are presentedto and worked on by our studentswill have a profound effect on their learning. for any particular learner. the product of training and habit. arguing for the existenceof within us to explain differencesof perception. for example.behaviour. and that this has marked effectson how we learn. dependon the settingsin which it is and encountered.thought.if not at presentvery clear. Nor is perception itself assimple asit might appear:at the neurologicallevel. and that in vocabulary learning.however. such as Howard Gardnerat Harvard. a perceiveit are largely what we perceiveand how we concretesense.and other researchers the human sciences 'preferred channels' of observedthat we vary widely in our perception. have in neurologists. which draws heavily on the work of the psychologistGregoryBatesonand the psychotherapist Milton Erickson. for example.the retina in our eye. and printed texts combine to produce a feastfor the learners'eyes.storedpatterns.Blackboards.book the visual channel of perception. procedures.seeBandler and Grinder rgzs. and (Foran early. the must be into which it type of intelligence (in Gardner'ssense) integrated.the memorability of a word or collocationwill.will in turn be affectedby the ways in which we have learnt to processreality.therefore. Wordsand the senses 81 | .and which allow the student to process the and practiselanguagein waysappropriateto their perceptualand Theseinclude not onlyvisual and auditory cognitive preferences.psychologists.but at the expenseof those other channelswhich mediate experience.make up lessthan a quarter of the information that our brain 'visual image'-the rest is processes when presentingus with a In composedof memories.)Others.) The implications of this for us asteachersare far-reaching. we offer activities that range across sensoryspectrum.or 'facts'. the and creativity.

6. Screeching.Wet air rushing throughthe in Back to the motorwaysurface-grinding. Normal tyre roarandthud. Preparation Make copiesof the Samplesheetbelow. sheet Sample An accident 1 Swooping down to the right. sensory Procedure 1 Readthe three descriptionsaloud to your classand askthem what differencesthey notice betweenthem. 2 | seethe phoneasit goes.We aretipping? sway hours.eachwritten from a different perspective. Now I canseeeverything clearly. down on four wheels and amazingly Oomph. Thenthereisa blank. windscreen. I am in controlagain.until I seecars barrier. Everything lookstipped over-we are on two wheels. the In pullingup behind.Themuffledshattering 3 A sharpcrack.back scratching.high. Veeroveron to the hardshoulder and glass find I havestopped. We for ooomph. stillness wet on four wheels. And now likesilence. which consistsof three descriptionsof the samecar accident. fog in my head the hascleared and I steerusoverto the hardshoulder. logical exercises. 2 Readagainand repeatyour question. Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress 82 | Words and the senses . Overon two wheels. and m a i ra r o u n d e . tinglingof fine windscreen A undermy top skin.1 Wordsand our senses Level Lower-intermediatetoadvanced Time 25-40minutes through Aims To makestudentsaware of their own sensorypreferences the words they chooseand the texts they respondmost stronglyto. Materials A copy of the text for eachstudent. thud-we are backon the motorway. Bangbang. as well as more abstract. How mustallthat have mirrorI seecars looked the people to followingus? Metalon metal. but also those that involve space and movement (kinaesthesia).likel'm not comingthe other way close. I am high. of the windscreen thud. on shuddering alongthe central barrier. powdering. overthe there.activities. scraping alongthe steelbarrier.

'vVhen finished with one partner.askthem to label their drawings.dictionaries. Ask the studentsto draw asmany things and people that join asthey can.and not before. 4 Ask the students. Preparation Takea large or Choose notion srcf:'asjoining.Similarly. Comments The languagethat we useoften reflectsthe way in which particular senses dominate our perceptionsand thoughts: those of us who are primarily auditory for example. 6.especiallyif Englishis not your mother tongue.Stopthe exercisewhen each personhasworked with about five partners. say. Ask the studentsto standup and work in pairs.rather than cluster in larger and larger groups. counsellorsoften usethis to encourage and to use studentsare led to becomeawareof their preferences them creatively.working on their own. to weavethe bits they like from eachtext into a new one.They can use eachother's knowledge. and a priest marrying two people.waterthings.) In this activity. Oncethe studentshavegot a good number of drawings down on paper.2 Notion pictures Level Beginner intermediate to Time 20-30minutes Aims To review and recallvocabulary. peopleto talk.andyou asan informant.may usea high proportion of sound words and metaphors. protection a dictionary with you to class. they should move on to another. Procedure Exemplify the conceptchosenby drawing: for joiningthismight be. showingtheir they have drawingsand teachingtheir words to other people. and to go round and readwhat the others havewritten. addingwhatever they want themselves.we may respondbetter to language (Skilledinterviewers and that matchesour own sensorypreferences. Tell them to circulatewhat they havewritten or to put it up on the walls. Materials Dictionaries.Let them work either on their own or in pairs.3 Givethem copiesof the texts to read for themselves. Words thesenses83 and | .a hinge.

Exampfe When we havedone this exercise wilh joiningasthe conceptword.It is highly repeatable. This activity is mainly visual. haveproduced drawings the following: of students crowd audience ring engagement cocktail ofloge river apex breadand butter border comma dividing line shelf plug electric handcuffs students haveproduced drawings the following of With waterthings. in Threeways of doing this are suggested the detailedExamples that follow. or your students. sprinkler ocropus hosepipe ry esrua gumboots goggles level spirit starfish whale irrigation umbrella water meter rap well nver spnn9 bathtub pool swimming Comments especiallyif you. 'notions'.you should only supply a word when askedto: i. Tell the studentsto copythe board drawing into their notebooksand than to write the words in on the drawings:this makesmore sense writing lists ofwords. act asinforr. The words now needto be usedin a context beyondthe picture.e. Materials Dictionary. As teacher. Oncethe drawing hasbegun to take shapeget someonein the group with clear handwriting to come out and start labelling what hasbeen drawn. Preparation Make surebeforeyou start that you are fully conversantwith the words that may be calledfor by the students. Procedure Find someonein the group who likes drawing and askthem to draw on or diagram a given scene/machine/situation/process the blackboard.sothat you can supply them if asked.Tell the artist to usethe whole of the board. 84 | Wordsandthe senses .nant only.3 Machines to Level Elementary advanced Time 3040 minutes ways of presenting ahd learning Aims To providevisualand kinaesthetic new vocabulary. This should be done with the help of the group.Havea dictionarv handv in class.arewilling to chooselessobvious and scenes 6.

while you sit besidethem and play the part of a and slow pupil: show nervousness.ffier doing steps1. As a follow-up activity. You part in this organization. Wordsand the senses| 85 .etc. z and 3 housesat different plasterer workonthe above.as seen from the back seat.Examples Some word areas that lend themselves to this activity 1 Tell the artist to draw abicycle. with Tell the artist to draw the peopleworking onabuildingsife.ask the studentsa question such asCanthe Then tell them to organizethemselvesinto a thebricklayer? housebefore in the line across classroomrepresentingthe time sequence which work on a house. Ask the students to form pairs and compare the differences they have found-this willbring oral production of the words being learnt. sideby side. Then askthe whole classto act out the learner-instructor scenesimultaneouslyin pairs. qnd of TeIl the ar[ist to visualizethe dashboard controls a car.Eachstudent (or pair of students building workers the is in a large class) to assume role of one type of worker. askthe instructor what each control is and what it is for.put two chairs out in front of them. After the group hasfollowed steps1. Then ask the students to look at the illustration below and to jot down all the differences they can see between the two bikes there.Then invite one student to sit on one chair and play the part of a driving instructor.exceptto keep them shouldtake no speakingin English.maps.askthe pairs to continue the of sceneinto the first stages a driving lesson:moving offand coming to a stop. and 3 above in order to familiarize students with the necessaryvocabulary. Comments outlined here maybe usedin any situation involving The exercises the drawing and labelling of pictures. z and 3 above.Follow steps 1' z.plans.diagrams. of stages completion. in a later class.and to draw them.

cat. Example Onestudent printing who worked photolithographic produced in this elephant: Comments This exercisemay at first sight seemstrange.They should in turn give minilectureson their chosensubjects.easyto draw. asit uses the principle of 'making strange'what is familiar. Form the studentsinto small groups. 2 Ask the studentsto draw a picture of an animal.Soit should. and which hasrecognizablydistinct parts (for example.Looking at and listening to another persondoing the samemakeswhat theyhave to say.and the words theyuse to sayit. Having to placethe words from your list on the elephant forcesyou to look at them from a new angle. machine. using their labelledpicture asa visual aid. Ask eachstudent to label the picture with the terms on their list from step1:where to put the words on the picture is up to the student. memorable.6. 85 | Words thesenses and . etc.elephant. Procedure 1 Ask eachstudent to write down a list of 8 to rz words that are central to their profession. bicycle).or to a hobby or interest.All the studentsshould draw the samesubject:choosesomethingwhich is clear.4 Elephants Level Elementary advanced to Time 40-50 minutes Aims To encouragepeer-teaching both of subject-matter and of lexis.

shallowness.(Youor the dictionary give the version. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wordsandthe senses 87 | . producesmuch more revealingmimes than trees. sincerity. Variations At beginner level you can have studentsdealwith a word fleld such as words(fot lower-intermediatestudentscan dealwith weather an:rmals.) target-language round the group like this. Goback to the flrst student. The student next round the circle mimes a tree they have in mind' Everybodymirrors them. And so on round the circle. Havea student at the board Proceed until all the tree names writing down the words in both languages. depending class on Time 15-30minutes. 'frost'?).if they are fixed. This must be a particular kind of tree.round part ofthe circle.5 Exploring Level Beginnertoadvanced size.who mimes their tree againand saysthe word for it in the target languageif they can. and the student shouldtlen mime the way thattreewould be: the student mimes silently and everybodyround the circle mirrors the mime. area. The studentsreturn to their seatsand copythe words into their notebooks. example. a quick drawing.) Ask one of the studentsto bring to mind a tree. (Thismay haveto be in among the desks. gale. In multiple intelligence terms (see beginning ofthis chapter).for example. Aims To learnvocabulary Procedure With an upper-intermediateclassyou mlght chooseto teachthe namesoftrees: Bring the studentstogether in a big standingcircle. if they wish.It getsthe studentsout oftheir seatsand for allows them to move. or if your class is large. frost-how would you mime being studentscanwork with abstractwords in a given Advanced-level (This distrust.deception.truth.it simultaneouslyactivatesthe kinaesthetic/spatial and linguistic intelligences. are up on the board.) Comments the This technique harnesses kinaestheticand the visual abilities ofthe learners.breeze. otherwise in their mother tongue. through movement. somethingthatis essenhal a minority of the them.kinaesthetically vocabulary 6.adding the mother-tongueword and.mist.

and Materials A collection identical of smallobjects. 2 Givethem your list of spatiafhierarchicalwords.Youwill needaroundten per student. buttons. Ask one student in eachgroup to selecta word from the list and then without sayingwhich word they have chosen. suchascounters. When the flrst student has done this. Make surethey checkwith dictionariesor by askingthat they understandthem all. After eachmember of the group has selectedand representedone word from the introductory list. for example. for example. Give eachgroup a pile ofr5-25 countersor coins.6. the others in the group should try to guess which word was selected.5 Coins speak Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-25minutes Aims Toexplorethe spatialand hierarchical associations words.and a sheetofplain white paper to affange them on.as an of aid to understanding memory.Youwill alsoneed one sheetof white paperfor eachpair of students. airpoft beach village field forest school qaraqe or c/ass crowd regiment queue party club junta Preparea list or lists ofwords youwould like the studentsto work on: theseshouldbe words with a strong emotional or controversial content. Preparation Preparean introductorylist ofwords with a strong spatialor hierarchical sensefor the studentsto practiseon. coins. 88 | Wordsandthe senses . introduce the secondset of emotional words and asktfiem to continue working on them.to representthe word by meansof an arrangementof countersor coins on the paper. Stop the exerciseafter two or three more rounds. guilt independence innocence revenge contradiction ingratitude age stability sadness hostility death Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto form groups ofthree to four.

(seePreparation). gallery 6 . or Procedure Split the classinto two equalgroups.C O^ V CU^ UCO() c gggg ^L/ r ) OC co ^o.one at eachend of the room. Make a varied selection:don't chooseonly pictures thatyou like. someother meansof fixing the picturesto the walls.? UV \J L) v' !2 u^cc U L / J U N T Ap n a l a n x : o o o MISERY: ONC IS S A D N E S ST E A T S : by surrounded MASSCS from excluded the group from eye falling Variation 1 After the introductory stage. Take Blu-Tack.-.. and to work in pairs on these.This exercisecan be repeatedmany times during a coursewithwhatevervocabularyhappens to be under consideration:evenabstractwords can havepowerful spatial for associations many people. It then hasthe doublevalue of exploring vocabularyfrom the text. Variation 2 The exercisecan equallywell be usedasa pre-readingexercise. visually uncluttered-portions are often more useful thanwhole pictures. situations. Selectenough picturesfor eachmember of the classto havetwo.Examples q .askthe studentsto write their own lists of words that are important or exciting or disturbing for them. and to learnvocabulary 2 To get studentsto write texts that other studentswillwant to read. Words thesenses 89 and | . Spreadout halfthe pictures for one group and halffor the other group. 7 Picture Level Elementary advanced to Time 35-50minutes Aims 1 To get studentsto use known (or half-known)vocabularyin new from eachother. pictures of Materials A collection magazine Preparation Collectmagazinepictureswith a strong direct impact. and getting the readersto think through their own ideas/prejudices before reading.

take awayeachstudent'spicture and ask everyoneto lay out their sheetsofwords at their end of the room. cansee You her stomach she and wasplaying a chain youcanalso hernails with and see your which reflect eyes.'Invisible writing'. Comments This is a mainlyvisual activity. Ask them to read their word lists and then to write a short paragraph describingthe picture they imagine behind the words. Materials A posteror other large. fine the a goldchain her wrote listof words encircles stomach. in 6.Prepareto describe the picture without mentioning any colour. Preparation Choosea brightly colouredpainting or posterin which there is plenty of action. Ask the studentsto write clearly on a piece of paper twelve words suggested the picture they havechosen.Banadjectives. Example A student onegroup in chose picture a detail froma magazine a of cut glistening beads the on with advertisement:skin a woman's stomach of her moisture.8 Listening colour Level Elementary advanced to Time 15minutes Aims To learnvocabulary through specific visualassociations. put up the pictures around the walls. but not to show it to anyonein the other group. and askthe studentsto look round for the picture that best corresponds to the list they haveworked from and to put up their paragraphand the word list next to it. has was in She smooth skin. student The this suggested thepicture: by fingersmooth skinbath rednails womanchain waterplayhair navel stomach group fromtheother A student wrote paragraph. Ask the studentsto changeendsand chooseone list from those written by the other group. well-manicured ison herstomach. 90 | Words thesenses and .Ask eachstudent to choosea picture.1. this suggested the by wordlist: A woman lying thebath. \Mhenthey have done this. See3. Removeany unchosenpictures.colourful picture. 8 Invite the studentsto go round and look at the pictures and read the compositions. by When everyonehasfinished. hand above navel.It should not be too complicated.

and eventhoseof us who are 'highlyvisual' may differ markedly in howwe visualize.but that theywill have to Then describethe picture in full imagine the coloursfor themselves. for example.may be vitally important for some. Showthe classthe picture. shape. Pointssuch asthesemay comeup in generaldiscussion: painted it felt o howthepainter whens/he painter was/is s/he r whatkindof o whatkindof roomit wouldsuit you it house? e would like inyour Variation Insteadofusing a picture.Colour. spatialdetail..or proporlion may dominate. Comments Our visual perception is very complicated. Acknowledgements This idea appearedin an article by MalgorzataSzwajinModernEnglish Teacherintg84. you can tell a story taking carenot to use Then askthe studentsto any referenceto colour in your descriptions. Materials A copy of the text for eachstudent.for others line. Tell them that the picture is highly coloured. Make copiesof the short passage Procedure Explain to the classthat you going to give them a dictation and that everytime they hear lherea homophonethey areto wntelright down the written version that is wrong for the context. Words thesenses91 and | .The coav.for example. onherblue dark-eyedgirlput re-tell the story in colour..Procedure Put the picture or poster up somewherethe classcan't seeit. 6.9 Getasmuchwrong asyou can to Level Upper-intermediate advanced Time 10-20minutes of the of Aims To meet head-on challenge linkingthe meanings words with their visualand auditoryrepresentations..They shouldbe as specificaspossible. but without mentioning any colour. Ask peopleto tell the classwhich coloursthey saw. Preparation included at step4 below.

the ability see.to be ableto shutout unwanted Group the students in fours to share homophones theywere aware of. Give out the homophonic text below for them to compare their own with.Sow/Sew beeableto shut out the unwanted (a net.We tendto exclude right lf you did not do this. serne is Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress Variation For homework.which include plenty of homophonicwords. write up a few on the board: l'll sort freeze or isle aisle sought* frees frieze ore oar Cs seas sees awe* serze (Words marked " are homophonic only in those dialects where end'r' is not sounded.having to learn the spokenand written forms of a languageat the sametime makesthings doubly difficult not leastbecause this involvesthe simultaneousexerciseof auditory and visual skills.Weetend to exclude meaning write. or the River Seine) meanings part of beingseine.or the actof quoting.whichcanmean the Homophones an odd phenomenon. The principle of treating effors asinteresting rather than wicked is teachins.A good site for this homework is peak.sothat eachgroup takes a homophonic dictation from one of the students. canmeana plaice. fundamental to non-behaviourist 92 | Wordsand the senses .you would go meaning that is not contextually meanings partof beingsane. I http://www. witch ore site/sight/cite. such as British RP.orgl-jeremy/dictiona htm rylhomophones. is barmy So.oar that is the the act of quoting. Take whirred are the Homophones a nod phenomenon. If four studentshave done this homework. divide the classup into four groups. the abilityto sea. Comments For many classroomlearners.To make the idea of homophone clear.) of-syllable 'mistakes'. Offer a small prize for the student with the most Give this dictation and do it slowly: Take word site. lf yew did knot do this ewe wood go knot contextually to balmy*. askthree or four of your more linguisticallyinterestedstudentsto go to homophone siteson the web and then to produceshort texts like the one above. are the or to a location. in either or both of which they may be deficient.

using the same phrasesbut writing them differently on eachsheet. as Preparethree more ffansparencies in step 3.Flashup all five transparencies turn.from memory or by guesswork.and make your selectionfrom them. Write someof the words at an angle.Acknowledgements cents We learnt th e idea of unedictdesans fautesoar unedicl6. If the words are new to them. dansle pddagogiquesLeFranEais in fiches 6 .or around the circumferenceof a circle. and Words thesenses93 I . Ask the studentsto jot down any words they remember and for each to add abrief explanation or mother-tongueequivalent. one-hrmdred-mistqke or (diclationwithout Februaryzooo. different sizes and stylesof lettering. Materials Overheadprojectorand transparencies.in groupsof three to five. Preparation words or phrasesthat you want Make a list of ro-r5 target-language your studentsto learn or revise. this time scatter them all over the sheet. eachfor ro-r5 seconds. you may want to join in at this stageto give explanationsand examples. in two neat columns. Monde. words or Beadventurous.e fautes fiom the dictahon) mistakes. Write the words on an overheadtransparencyin black.or ask them to glve you short lists of words or phrasesthey are having difficulty in remembering.or backwards. Procedure Put up the first transparency(the neat one in black lettering)' then switch it off. Allow the studentsto look at it for ro-r5 seconds. Tell the studentsto put awaytheir written notesand to in concentrateon the screen. 1 0 OHPlists to Level Beginner advanced Time 10-15minutes Aims To breakup the orderand visualmonotonyof listsas an aid to memory. to recall eachword or phraseand to discuss which visual representationof it was the most memorable.Usedifferent colouredinks. Ask the students. but Write the words againon another transparency. the Givethe classfive minutes to compareand discuss words they havejotted down.

the unexpected. Thus 94 | Words thesenses and . Oncethe studentshave you can get them to preparethe OP understoodthe process.words presentedin neat lists can be memorable.or to usewith studentsin other for classes. All2sto call loudly. could evenadd a soundtrack!) Follow-up This is a highly repeatableactMty.11 Wordsroundthe circle Level Beginner intermediate to Time 10-15minutes Aims To practise sayingwords usingthe fullvocal range. etc.Variation Insteadof an overheadprojector. 4 Explain that you are going to take one of the collocationschosenin your handsand then both sayit andhandittothe personon your right. 6.. then turns to the personon the right and givesit into their handsad saysit in the way suggested above. however. Comments For somepeople. transparencies their own use.Scatteringwords on a pageor blackboardor overheadprojector transparencycan be very helpful in gving studentssignposts their memories. This personholds out their handsand takesthe collocation.. Preparation ro-rz useful collocationsfrom your coursebookor elsewhereChoose Procedure 1 Get the studentsstandingin a large circle right round the classroom2 Numberthemoff 1 2 3 4 5 6 T 8.. All6sto sing. out All3sto speak slowly. to This technique is particularlyuseful in preparing studentsfor exams.. 7 2 3 4 etc. 3 Ontheboardwrite: All 1sto whisoer.. these you cases. All7sto soeak a shrill in voice.the very neatness makesit difficult to bring back a picture of what they haveread:our visual mernory often dependson the unusual. All8sto speak theirmother in tongue. All4sto soeak fast All 5sto mouth without sound.you could use a computer + video projector and presentyour lists using one of the many software 'presentationpackages' (In suchasPowerPointor Shockwave.whispering.For many. singing.

but to choose for themselves the best or most interesting way (shouting. 2 Ask them to work as in the activity above. and has proved very useful in teaching adult immigrants without literacy skills. In the second class Put the studentsin fours to comparethe words they havefound: a lot of peer teachingwill follow. Do the exercise round the circle. Any student unsure ofthe pronunciation ofthe phrase can cross the circle and grve you the phrase.suchasa Breughel a snowscape. 10 vocabulary themselves for and Aims Toencourage students discover to to teach it to others.Make a copy for eachstudent. 6 . You give it back and say it to the person. walk over to the person'downstream' of them (to their right). etc. who then again gives it to the mistake-maker. of Preparation Choose picture with strong contrasts. picture anywords it suggests.the collocation goes right round the circle as an'object' and as an ever-changing sequence of sounds. 1 Get the students to work in circles of 6-'tz. Variation This can also be done as a follow-up.) of saying each item. 1 2 Filling landscape a Level Beginner advanceo to Time 3 minutesin the first class. Thesemaybe labellings of featuresthat by are there or they may be words suggested the feel and mood of the picture. whispering. that will photocopyclearly. and give the phrase back to the person on the mistake-maker's left. Materials Photocopies a picturefor eachstudent. In the first class Ask the studentsfor homework to write on the Giveout the copies. Wordsand the senses 95 | . minutesin the second. If any student makes a mess of pronouncing the phrase. This allows the person with the problem to hear the sounds twice again before re-pronouncing them. who then goes back to their place in the circle to continue th-e chain. Comments This activity is both highly auditory and kinaesthetic. Encourage studentsto use dictionariesto flnd the words they want. Tell them they must be willing to teachany new words they haveused.

get them to speculate what they cannot see:things which on maybe hidden behind other things. things or peoplewhich were there before the picflrre was painted.in a creative. Variation 2 Insteadof askingthe studentsto focus on what they can seein the picture.) Procedure Ask the studentsto follow the instructions of whichever worksheet yougive them. of (Seepages98-9. orwhich the artist decidedto leaveout. Acknowledgements We learnt this exercisefrom Lou Spaventa. 6.13 Fishy adjectives to Level Intermediate advanced Time 30-40 minutes that describe Aims To use.but this often hasthe effect of lesseningthe peer teaching aspect: one may be more interestedin the different way in which picture. than in their reactionsto a someoneelsehas seenthe same completely different picture. 95 | Words thesenses and . Comments Peerteachingis an excellentway of learning. things which are outsidethe frame of the picture.memorableway.The activity is primarily visual.Variation I The sameexercisecan of coursebe donewith the students'own pictures. Materials Copies either Worksheet1 or Worksheet2 for eachstudent. adjectives people.

which one would you be?Puta tick by it. Work in pairswith several differentpeoplein the group to find how and why they chose their adjectives. Talkto your partnerabout anyoneyou know who is likethe fish outside the shoal. 2 What threethingsmight you sayto the restof the fish in the shoalaboutthe fish in the bottom left-handcorner? Write your answers: Pick10-15adjectives phrases and from the listbelow or from your head.Worksheet1 paranoid reflective depth selective deluded outof her/his ostracized redundant self-centred experienced condescending gullible hostile creative easily influenced diffident marginal antisocial different out-of-place troubled ill-at-ease discriminating victimized deviant edgy intolerant unemployed questioning confused sentto Coventry proud confused delinquent responsive too big for his/her boots iil in a dilemma irresponsible disruptive divided subversive 1 lf you were one of the f ishin the shoal.Lookup anywordsfrom the listyou the don't know or askyour neighbour. and abouthow theyshowit.to describe fishthat isout of the shoal. Wordsand the senses 97 | .

A.)Thestudent with the object in their handsshould feel its weigfr. a golf tee. however. (Youmay. sincethe purposeis to work on the students'own areasof interest. youranswers with your neighbours'. 98 | Wordsand the senses . etc.Worksheet2 "l Give these fishnicknames writethem down.find yourself doing quite a lot of follotuup work. a fishing ro4 etc. a football. Ask one student. and temperature.(It could be a baseballbat. texture. Compare Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress roundthe circle 6. especiallyif their interestsdiffer widely from yoursl) Procedure Get the studentsinto a big standingcircle.). withoru sayrnganything. to B. Preparation None.Ask them to think of a piece of sporting equipment and imagine they are holding it in their hands. to showtheir object and then to hand it. and all 2 Whichfishwould you mostliketo be? 3 Whichfishwouldyou mosthateto be? the the 4 Jot down ten adjectives describe fishyou mostlike and ten to describe to oneyou likeleast. them learn the specificvocabularythey need.14 Objects Level Beginner upper-intermediate to Time 10-12 minutes meaningin any way that suits students express to Aims Toencourage (visually.and then to askfor and through movement. their right-hand neighbour.

4 Continue on round the circle. questionsyou ask: you Howbigwasthe picture got? was to Howclose the picture you? looking in? you or Were inside picture. (Thefi.Ask the studentsto make picnrresin their mind's eyeasthey hear eachword or phrase.guesses on to C. If A doesn'tknow the word in English. wordsandphrases 5. And so on round the circle. 5 Havea secretaryat the board and askAwhat they gaveto B. 3 Bring the studentsback from their reverie. Alternatively B may change the object receivedinto someother sporting object before passingit on to C. leavinga ro. The secretaryputs either or both words up on the board.it what it is.sometimesstopthe studentwho is speakingand ask them about the weight.then they sayit in their mother tongue and you or a dictionary translatesit. size. who is one awayto their right.creativevisualizationto associate are wordsthe students learning. The others copy down the words and the sketches.sayagainone of the words and phrases. what they receivedand then what they passed C does B now says the same.and colour of what they were receiving and passing. The studentssit down and an artistic one comesto the board and of drawsquick sketches eachitem.) be 2 Saythe words and phrasesyou have chosenaloud. and passes silently the 3 StudentB receives object. on.and ask a student of your choiceall or someof the Tell the other studentsto note down the following questions.15 Picturing to Level Elementary advanced Time 20-30minutes with the English Aims To usedetailed.Ask them to imagine that they arebreathing stressand anxiet]a and energyin.rsttime you do this with teenage out classes readyfor giggling and noise. Preparation eight to twelve words and phrasesyou want the studentsto Choose gointo more deeply. outside the or Was in black white in colour? it and Words thesenses99 and | . Procedure 1 (optional)Askthe studentsto shut tfieir eyesand notice their breathing.To get the studentsmore into the reality of the objects.to zosecondpauseafter each.

yousee? did During this stage. another word from the list and put the samequestionsto Choose with a third person.Wasit moving still? or What.exactly. another student.Repeat Pair the studentsand askthem to explore the pictures they got for tJ'ewords.studentswho did not understandsomeof the dictatedwords will havean opportunity to find out or askabout them. using the questionsyou askedin step 3. 100 | Words thesenses and .

more 'word or often. Word sets| 101 .We do not alwaysagreeabout the categories set up: we divide up the world.things work out rather less we efficiently. words (for example. not only grammatical categories. and do not fi.A supermarketwithout shelf labelswould be a nightmare to navigate. ready-made sets(for example.'animate' near-synonyms).ro. mood').and build to Someoffer newways of handling vocabularysetsfor themselves. ideasof 'concrete' 'inanimate'.and so on.'Diagonal 7.unorthodox ways. sets.and our personalexperiences that we useto describethings.9. however. homestayfamily'. 'Prototypes').'Wordsfrom the collocations'. or to find Moreover.6. our upbringing. memorablefeatures thereby.therefore. what the words refer to) into categories. in quite different ways.and it is a great help to the curriculum designerand the writer to split up the vocabularythe student is expected coursebook Linguistsalsolike to work with word sets. meaning groups (synoqrmsor but and and'abstract'. tongue.the categories things in supermarketsand referencebooks.7.+.8. personal.7. and the words we useto describeit. suggest waysin which the studentscan learn from of their own observations language.do not necessarily correspondto the needsof learning and memory: very often we remember things because they are unusual. 'Intelligencetest'. 'Collecting ar'd7. to learn into 'topic areas'. In relation to learning.r. and 7. words of a particular origin or register.compare.accordingto our culture.or fields'. our mother and thought processes.Word sets for There are manypractical reasons organizingwords (or. In this chapter.even surrealwaysofgrouping others suggest 'Mappingone's opposites'.tinto a category and we forget things or muddle them up preciselybecause they doflt into a category and lose distinctive.while z. we have collecteda dozenor so exercises which dealwith word setsin challenging.in which the studentsare encouraged question.

the work alone.a discussion on the validity of suchtestsmightwell ensue. \Mhenthey have done this.explaining or illustrating where necessary. to memorable categories.because is the only one it with two legs. 102 | Wordsets . pliers Examples allmetal: hammer nail pliers aggressive/active: sawhammer pliers nailset: hammer nail grammatically hammer saw nail could beverbs/are singular: hammer saw fools: oliers onesyllable: saw nail -er (agent form): merpliers ending ham hammer nail Germanicoriqin: saw word families 7. List the differencesbetweenyour car/biryde and theirs. 1 Intelligence test Level Beg innerto intermediate Time 10 minutes Aims Toexplorethe idea of a 'word set'and the many different ways in which one cancategorize vocabulary. askfor their suggestions. c Work with a parlner. nuil. hammer. pliers harrnner nail saw Ask the studentsto write down the odd man out and give their reason(s). the how canyou tell your father and b Besides sexdifferences. 3 Now askthe group to make asmany setsaspossibleusing two or more of the items in the list pliers. Procedure Useonly one of thesestudent-directed suggestions any given in lesson: a Work in pairs and list things found in an office but not in a home.3 7 .then explainyour list to a partner you trust. mother apart?List the most salient physicaland emotional Do differences.2 Unusual Level Elementary advanced to Time 10 minutesfor mostof the suggestions below. Procedure Put up the following items on the blackboard.saw.If there are many'incorrect' answers. Aims Toencourage students group words in unusual. Then tell them that the 'right answer' is pliers.

For example. who should againwrite a word before or after the two words now on sweater. The others shouldthen try and guessthe place.Give each student a word card. Ask the studentsto look at the word on their card and to write either the name of somethingtfiat went into the making of the object in front of the word. building.sweater.if the word was sweater. or room. Eachstudent shouldthen passthe card to their left-handneighbour.. book. and tell the others three things that would be found there.. e Work together in fours. sheep the card. Preparation Preparea card for eachstudent.For example: clean: typical: laundryman/painter/dentist atypical:tramp Compareyour lists witfi thoseof other pairs. memorable Materials One word cardfor eachstudent. Procedure Divide the classinto small circles(four to five members). man-madeobject (for example. 3 Chains to Level Elementary advanced Time 20 minutes and students group words in imaginative to Aims Toencourage ways.For example: alibrary):shelf sunblind catalogue sruDENr e (thinkingof sruDENTr:A lawyer'soffice? sruDENTc: A supermarket? . sruDENTn: Here'san extraword:book 7 .grass Wordsets| 103 . it might write sheepbefore or paper after it. Oneperson should think of a place. or the name of somethingthat the object might orre becomeafter the word. for example.d Hereis a list of commonverbs: push tap open heat tastesqueeze cleanlLsten Work in pairs and think of three typical doersof eachaction and one atypical one.On eachcardwrite the name of one sewing-machine).

Suppose studentvolunteersa combination such a asFORTHCOMIIVG EVENT-the columns might well look like this: adjective noun noun noun noun noun noun noun event sale marriage issue publicationstrike? debn forthcoming If a personin the group comesup with a dubiouscompanionfor FORTHCOMING strike. or elsetheir juxtaposition is.3 Variation Insteadof arranging the chain in a linear fashion. Ask them for homework to pick out adjective-nouncombinationswhere at least one item is new to them. Stress that they must be ableto teach their collocationsclearly and briefly. Ask them to flnd six such combinationseachand to prepareto teach their meaningsto the rest of the class.: '\ *\ cotton . 104 | Wordsets . Procedure Lesson 1 Give eachstudent a newspaperor half a newspaper. Then askthe group to produceother nouns that combine well with that adjective.a tree could be built.letthe studentsthrash it out asfar as llke possibleamong themselves-do not make a ruling for them.until the board is full. Invite different studentsto volunteer and teach one oftheir six combinations. Materials EnoughEnglish-language newspapers magazines and (old oneswill do) to be ableto give at leasthalf of one to each student.A page or two is not enough for this activity. 30-40minutesin the second./t'^" sheep sweater paper book parcel dishcloth compost 7. This may well mean bringing in the context in which they found them.4 Collecting collocations Level Intermediate advanced to Time 5 minutesin the first lesson. Aims Toexpandstudents' understanding acquisition above-theand of word vocabulary. with eachstudent in turn adding a link. ex cathedra. Lesson 2 Divide the board into eight columns and invite a student to put one of their combinationsin the first two columns and to teach it to the class. for example.

and make a grid like the examplebelow Procedure 1 Put this collocationalgrid on the board and askthe studentsto copy it out into their books.the key. sets| 105 Word . Preparation a Choose number of words closelyrelated in meaning and/or context.you can usethis to check out the combinations.5 How strong is the collocation? advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 20-30 minutes of and Aims Toexpandstudents'understanding acquisition above-theword vocabularY.Write it up without the +/-/? marks you have on the next page:they give you. 7. the teacher.Variation Many other combinationscan be worked on.you can use a good Internet search for engine (suchasGoogte) the occulrenceof particular combinations 'exactwords' when you in web pages:make surethat you specify enter the searchphrase(for example. using the samemethod' Here are someof them: taxburden noun-noun: danangmaster ading misle adverb-adjective: unforttntately vastlycomplicated greatlytoberegreLted adverb-verb inevitably flowedfrom varygreatlY verb-adverb: repliedhuffiIy 2 Put a list of twenty nouns and ten verbs on the board.Alternatively.The students copy down the lists and supply eachnoun with a typical adjectiveand eachverb with a typical adverb. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from Mike Lavery.for example: an eccentricmilkonure to kisslovinglY Comments program to Ifyou have access a corpusofEnglish and a concordance frequenry of word (seeChapter5).by enclosingthe phrase between double quotation marks).

though in the latter casethere may not be concordance sufficient data to cometo film conclusions.In Other Words.They mark (+)for a strong collocation.from an original ideain Rudska. Variation 1 This activity can be supplementedwith web searches and look-ups.weakly. aCowsebookonTranslation Routledge. 5 Put the pairs together in sixesto comparetheir findings.(?)for a weak one.asaway of generatingmore imaginative. and lessclich6-ridden.unblemished spotless performance argument complexion behaviour kitchen recoro reputatron taste order credentials flawless T T immaculate T imoeccable T 7 ) ? T T ? T T T T T ? T T ) T T T ? ? ) T Ask the studentsto look the adjectivesaboveup in their dictionaries.text. 105 | Wordsets . et Macmillan. or not at all with the nouns down the left hand side.asmany of the items will be of comparativelylow frequencyin the corpusused. 1992. Ask them to put someof definitions/translations on the board.TheWordsYouNeed. aI. and (-) for zero collocation. Variation 2 Advancedstudentsmay benefit from deliberatelyexperimenting with atypical collocations. 5 Giveyour book to a student to put the key up on the board. Acknowledgements We owe this exerciseto a brilliant book by Mona Baker.1982. up Pair the studentsand explain that: spotless collocatesstrongly with kitchenand with record(+) (?l spotless collocates weakly with complexion spotless not collocatevnth order(-) does Pair the studentsand askthem to decidewhich of the adjectives along the top collocatestrongly.

6 Diagonal to Level Beginner intermediate Time 10 minutes and situational to at Aims Toget students look closely the semantic associations a word.The secondplayer shouts out an 'opposite'. Add two or three words that do not have clear opposites.typewriter. to completethe following sentencestemsasvariedly and in asmanyways asthey can: at least sevencompletionsfor eachsentence: An egg Eggs eggs Its hard to The 2 Havea student cometo the board and act asgroup secretary.opposites 7. shoutsout a word. Wordsets| 107 . of Materials A soft ball. rise.Fill the board with the students'lexis. cold.Give eachgroup a ball. that by using the Suggest for example. The first player takesthe ball.working on their own. 'opposites' personalassociations ofwords one cangive these both are cats' are too.the other alive. and throws the ball to a third player.Let the game continue until twenty words have beendealtwith. Acknowledgements version from an internal publication brought We learnt the ball-game outbyVolkshochschuleteachersof Frenchin Lower Saxony. oppositesfor them.then a new word. Germanv. then throws the ball to another member of the circle. and thus fix new vocabularyvery firmly.Wednesday.ball. for example. studentsshout out aII the nouns and verbsthey have usedin their completions. Procedure 1 Ask the students. Ask the classto form circlesof six to ten people.Ask the classto suggest sad. For example. 7.7 The egg exercise Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 20 minutes of and associations a Aims Toexplorethe variousmeanings word or phrase. Procedure Put up on the blackboardthree or fourwords with clear opposites.ballfmouse oppositesbecause playthings-the one dead.

and in so doing to consider how effective them such for categorizations in organizing are and remembering vocabulary.It'shardto[oppose] [is grandmothers. Procedure 1 Ask eachstudent to take a clean sheetof paper and to writeweather right in the middle of it. they put them in the outer areas. 2 They then draw flve or six concentriccirclesround the word. 108 | Word sets . 7. to Follow-up This activity can be usedover and over againto explore or fix the meaningsof newvocabulary.If they regardthem asperipheral weather words. Agrandmother a child'sbestfriend]. asin the examplesbelow.If studentsregardtheseasvery centrally the weather words. Group the studentsin fours to sharetheir placing of the vocabulary.The words at the very centre of their circlescould be called 'prototypes'the membersmost typical of their set.Simplyreplaceeggbythe newitem. Preparation Find or construct setsofwords. Hereis a list: to rain blustery showers ro Snow bright intervals temperature dawn ory unsettled ro pour sunshine drought storm overcast bright to blow forecast damp sandstorm sky barometer outlook lull fog breeze force-eight wind scorching hurricane moon to clear up lowpressure earthquake rain shine or flood downpour t h es u n cloud Checkthat all the words vou dictatedare known to at leastsomeof the students. by asking suchquestions as'How stronglydoesthis word belongto its set?'. they put them in the inner circles.3 In fours the studentsread out their sentences eachother.8 Prototypes Level Beginnertoadvanced (Theexample below isfor lower-intermediate. for example. the outer one reachingthe edgeofthe paper. 3 Tell the studentsyou are going to dictate a number of words to them to do with weather.) set Time 20-30minutes Aims Toget studentsto considerhow word setsare built up. in terms of how centrally'weatherish' they feel the words are.

Try out different kinds oftext: newspaper article. they might begin am a falcon. George was more than a mentor to me.e. another pigeon. to read the apparent in a text. etc. And now that I have the leisure to remember. They should then read and re-read the text aloud. they certainly have no right to teach. followed by three or four other words that might belong to the same set. r99r) fohn le Carr6. carnivores. Though not always present. There were times when I thought of him as some kind of father to replace the one I never knew. lfbirds were the set chosen. The students then falcon. AII the same.houses. replacing each ofthe underlined words in turn by a different member of the set.or get the students to choose. so that you can share my voyage and ask yourself the same questions. andveryfast. TheSecretPilgrim. member of the set and be prepared to speak on its behalf. in which they try to convince the rest that their choice is prototypical of the whole set. If that is so. I am light. Hodder & Stoughton.a set ofwords such Each student should then choose a different asbirds. each give a one-minute talk about the set member they have chosen. and discuss the effect of their substitutions. Sample text 1 Frightened people never learn. more than a fiiend. Using the technique with poems can also bring unexpected insights into the perceptions ofboth poet and reader: Wordsets| 109 . in following extract and underline flve to eight nouns in it. I'm not a frightened man-or no more frightened than any other man who has looked at death and knows it is for him. George's visit to Sarratt gave back the dangerous edge to my memory. Ask your students. A falcon is light.a third chicken. coursebook passage. I have read. The students may also like to work with texts they have written themselves. For example. experience and a little pain had made me a mite too wary of the truth. they should then write each underlined word down and next to it the name of a set to which the word might belong. powerful. This is done most effectively when the students give 'I their talks inrole. and very fast' rather than chosen the falcon. one student might choose and so on.for example: 1 Youcan do this 'prototype' exercise Which malesin the following list are most male? bull ogre dog stag tomcat drake boar ram billygoat cock man elephant stallion gander cockerel 'vVhichare the most'foody' of thesefoods?'Whichthe least? tapioca cheese rice potatoes lamb snake burger cucumbertrout chips artichokebanana flour A roleplay: choose.' 'prototypicality' (Advanced)The degree of of words may also become groups ofthree. that's what I mean to do for you. he presided over my life.business letter. Working together. George Smiley put that right. 'I've powerful.Variations with anyword set. even towards myself. i.

include and exclude members according to criteria that are far from cleat Apear is obviously a fruit. Lesson 2 1 Get the studentsto fill the board with their cooking words. Long fallen wide. Thatvase. it withers so. in Acknowledgements 'prototype' We learnt the idea of fromAitchison (1994). 7. 20-30minutesin the second lesson. Having no heart to put aside the theft And turn again to what it started as. along with an apple. potatoes. You can see how it was: Look at the pictures and the cutlery The music in the piano stool.an orange. Even conventional word sets.Sample text 2 Homeis so Sad Home is so sad. bereft Of anyone to please. Aims To providea simpleresearch for students tool studyingin an English-speaking environment and living in host families. It stays as it was left. Instead. the sets or categories we construct are far less precise.and cabbage. For the botanist.9 Wordsfrom the homestayfamily Level Beginnertoadvanced (The vocabulary the example givenisintermediate. but the seats one flnds in airports and concert-halls. are just as mtchfurniture as the armchairs and dining-chairs our homes. askthe studentsto get their hoststo take them into the kitchen and teachthem the namesof all the utensils and the variousverbs connectedwith cooking.) in Time 2-3 minutesin the first lesson. Shaped to the comfort of the last to go As if to win them back.Eachstudent should come to the next lessonwith a substantiallist. For them. screwed to the floor and often to each other. Becauseit is immovable? Perhaps. A joyous shot at how things ought to be. 2 Get studentsto explain any of the words the others don't know 110 | Word sets . cupboardis definite$ A a piece of furniture. sets are deflned precisely in terms of the common properties of their members. such asfurniture andfruit. In the real world. along with p eqs. Lesson 1 For homework. (Philip Larkin. Faber & Faber.and abanana. ThelNhitsunWeddings. it is a vegetable. blttabuilt-in cupboardis definitely not. though few tomato-eaters would agree. so is a tomato. 1964) Comments In logic and mathematics.

memorable with eachothen in a personal. Procedure 1 Ask one student to act assecretaryat the board and askthe group to brainstorm all the animal words they know.a given student might decideshehasbeen a goat.1O Mappingone'smood Level Post-beginnertoadvanced Time 15-20minutes itemsin a'word field'.employeesof British orAmerican companiesabroad.havebeen like during the lessonso far. Shealsochooses flt the three chosenstudents. 7. in an English-speaking (for example.and a squirrel.Showthe studentshow many of the kitchen verbshave strong : metaphorical meanings with Hewassimmering rage. Heranger boiled in Tostew yourownjuice. over.The examplechosenhereis animak. for example: the words thewords around car prv gardening words Variation 2 of the vocabulary home-buying environment Peopleworking. Cool a cucumber.which may easilybe Aims Todifferentiate way.for example. 5 Roundoffthe exerciseby having half a dozenpeopletelling the group the animal they have chosenfor you and why. a dog. tasks'with their colleagues. 3 Ask eachstudent to write down which animafanimals you.for an elementarygroup. as Variation 1 There are many other areasin which the studentscan quarry vocabularyfiom the host family. but not living. the teacherhasbeen a boa constrictor. Word sets| 111 . and which animal three animalsto the student herself hasbeen like. havebeen a cat. confused Preparation Choose lexical field appropriateto your students'level and a cultural background. 2 Ask the studentsto work individuallv and write down the namesof of three classmates their choice. and her three classmates 4 Group the studentsin fours to sharethe animals theyhave chosenfor themselvesand for the teacher.or country whosehome life is immigrants to an English-speaking in their mother tongue)can do very similar'research conducted etc. Add a few more you think they might want to learn. the teacher.

a hierarchy often emerges.may appearhigh for in the order in contextssuchasClrurch andState. paddy moraine. In a different part of your blackboardspace. 7 . flute. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from Christine Frank at Pilgrims. harp. is opytosite BaptistchapeL the Beforethe studentsread the text put the first key word you have chosenon the board. sky. for example: grey lightning. get them to brainstorm 1o-2owords they connectwith the key word. stream. forest. and which of a higher level. hill. much lower in Thc but Catholic church onthecorner. This canbe an excellentlead-into work on registerand style. Allow time for the whole class give feedback how thinking about to on the key wordsbeforereadingmay haveinfluencedtheir readingof the worship faith evil building religious property chapel mosque temple community arch font crypt roof church text. when words are organizedin sets. Ask the classwhich words brainstormed are of a lower level of generality.With a student secretaryat the board. example. monsoon. Materials Copies a text you or the class of havechosen. marsh. sharp frost.Variation You can do this exercisewith many setsof words. Church. snow first plain. triangle. waterfall. bassoon. violin. write up the key word on the left-hand sidehalfway down from the top. If the key word were church. heath. 1 1A hierarchy association of Level Intermediateto advanced Time 20-35minutes Aims To organizeword setsas a hierarchy. field piano. showers. 112 | Word sets . representinglevelsof generalityin the variouscontexB in which the words may appear. here is how this board work might look: Do the same with the other kev words and then havethe students readthe text. sunshine. piccolo cymbals. Preparation five to six key words from a text that you want them to reaC Choose Procedure Explainto the class that. Acknowledgements We receivedthe sparkfor this exercisefrom Linda Orr.which of the samelevel.

Persona I

are The best conversations thosein which the participants are motivated not only to talk but alsoto listen, and the best time to learn vocabularyis when the needto expressor understand is at its height. the The nine activitiesin this chapterencourage studentsto personalexperiences and thoughts, including exchangemore 'Life keSrwords', 8.4,'Scars', focus and thoughts about language.8.2, 'Phrases like', is more directly about I while 8.8, on experiences, language.8.r, 'Yougive my talk', createsa more interactive frame for listening. 8.6, A letter from the teacher',introducesthe vocabulary you want the classto learn in a more personal,involving way.There 'Mapping are other activities elsewherein the book, suchas7.1o, 'Lexicalfurniture', which coverthe samekind one'smood', andu.4, ofground.

8.1 Yougive my talk
to Level Elementary advanced and 3G45 minutesin the second. Time 5-10 minutesin the first class Aims To motivate studentsto listento, and therefore learn from, eachother. Procedure Lesson 1 1 Ask the studentsindividually to list five topics they would like to hear a short talk on, and then in pairs to exchangelists. 2 Ask eachstudent to chooseand mark one item on their partner's list that they would be willing to talk on. 3 Studentsshouldgive back the lists to their partners. 4 For homework, tell the studentsto preparea vocabularylist for the topic their partner has electedto speakon. Lesson 2 1 Havethe studentspair up asin the previousclassand give their vocabularylists to their partners.

Personal | 113

2 Eachstudent should nowwork individually on preparing their talk; they may usethe words on their partner's list or not, asthey choose, but the list will provide someidea of their future listener's knowledgeof and attitude towards the subject. 3 Ask one member of eachpair to give their talk to the other. 4 Ask the listener in eachpair to explain how they cameto construct the vocabularylist, and what theywould have saidin giving the same talk. 5 Repeat activitywith eachlistener now giving their talk. the Comments 'vVhilespeakers often impose subjectmatter on listeners,listeners seldomhavethe sameprivilege. Here the listener suggests topic the and guidesits content by proposinga set of keywords.The words chosenby the listener will alsogive the speakersomeidea of the listener'slevel of knowledgeof the topic: for example,given the topic 'Computers',the word-list keyboard, screen, Microsofi, word processor, spellingwottld conveya very different impressionfrom instruction cycle, nm-time, optimize, kernel, hardware abstractionlayer.

8.2 Life keywords
Level Elementary advanced to Time 25-40minutes Aims To practise and sharevocabulary which is personally important. Procedure 1 Ask the studentswhat dateit is today.Write it on the board.Ask them what the datewas sevenyearsago-put that on the board.Ask three or four peoplehow old they were on that date, sevenyearsago2 Now askthe studentsto write down ten key emotional or ideawords and phrasesthat sum up their lives now and a further ten to sum up their lives then. 3 Ask the studentsto pair offand explain the words and their significanceto their partners.Havethem changepartners three or four times, not more, asthis kind of talking is very tiring. Examples Inthisactivity. person 39 came with: one of up 'Now'words 'Past'words making new letting free conflict inside commitment unease workgroup with furure retirement death 114 | Personal change hitch-hiking shadow theatre commitment Chile break withmother

had: Another; 18-year-old, an money university family friends future engagement

marbles friends school musrc father mother

8.3 Turnout your pockets
Level Elementarytoupper-intermediate Time 20-35 minutes Aims ,Tousepractical, day-to-dayvocabularyin personallyrelevant conversations. Procedure 1 Ask eachstudent to list someor all of the objectsin their handbag/ wallet/pockets:askthem to write their lists clearly. 2 'vVhen lists are ready,ask the studentsto fold them and give the them to you. ShuffIethe lists and let eachstudent pick one at random. No student should end up with their own list. whose list they haveand to tell the 3 Ask the studentsto guess group why. Acknowledgements A We learnt this exercisefrom Lou Spaventa. similar one is found in Newbury Language Aass. G.Moskowitz.Caring Sharing theForeign and in House, 1978.

8.4 Scars
Level Elementarytoupper-intermediate Time 40-50 minutes Aims To motivate studentsto overcomelackof vocabularywhen narrating. Preparation Bring back to mind the story of a scaryou have or that a closerelative ofyours has. Procedure 1 Tell the studentsyour scarstory.If it is about a scarof yours that is showable,let them seeit. 2 Invite the group to think of how they got whatever scarsthey have. Givethem a few minutes to bring their storiesback to mind.

Personal | 115

stretcher.and will motivate the speakerto flnd ways of expressing their meaning despitedeflciencies vocabulary. Acknowledgements We learnt this exercisefrom Christine Frank.hair canproduceautobiographicalnovels. If the classis a large one.At this stage.Help with words and write any accident-related vocabularyup on the board.until everybodywho wants to has told one.remind them of the words on the board.for example.5 Wordsmy neighbourknows Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20 minutes Aims To encourage studentsto teacheachother and learn from each other. Ask three or four more peopleto tell their scarstoriesto the whole group..Sometopics are intrinsically compulsive. the teacherhas of the opportunity of teachingvocabularywhen the students'attention is at its height. andhouses. bandage.1 Other themes for anecdotes that we havetried include stairs. Variations There are many other themes that can be used. 8. stitches.In steps3 and 4. now askthem to work in threes and continue telling scarstories. 115 | Personal . and build up further vocabularyon the board. for example. operate.Eachstudent is silently to imagine a scarstory for their partner..Ask a volunteer to tell their story. vocabularyis best learnt at the moments it is needed. Discourage them from writing.though at different levelsofintensity and involvernent. Comments As we noted in the introduction. Procedure 1 Divide the classinto pairs. Eachstudent tells the partner the scarstory they have createdfor them. clothes. Onlywrite up words actually needed by the narrator.lf scars evokeshort stories.wound.(How yourhair was you when wereeight? youremember first timeyouvisited Can the a yourhair? hatrdresser's? youever Have dyed .. Pair the students.

Preparation Write a letter to your class. up Union.Ask eachstudent to write a list of ten words which their partner a shouldknow. lwoman.Having written the letter without thinking speciallyabout the languageadd in all the slmonymsyou can. Personal I tt7 . you can comment aloud on the factorsthat determined your choiceof language for them. ng ki ul/breath-ta super/wonderf it. too muchrice I hope overmucn withthe hostfamilyl homestaY Celia? Howwasyourtripto theWestCountry. b should know but probably doesn't. I 8. hills surround that side on it are around/are everY all Make a copy ofyour letter for eachstudent. Carmen. Materials A copy of your letter for eachstudent (seePreparation). Procedure 1 Givethe studentsyour letter and askthem to read it. on the UKC Students' that across hilltoP? wandered strolled orchard-covered the views Marvellous out over cityandthegentle.6 A letter from the teacher to Level Post-beginner advanced Time 10-15minutes 'l-Thou' context.either about somethingpersonalyou feel you want like telling them.in the letter abovelady lwonderful. 2 Go through those slmonymswhich presentdifferencesof register. c deflnitely doesn'tknow. about somethingfrom a previousclass them to think back to.andsuyter Ifyouwish. or about something connectedwith the class today. asin this exampletaken classat Pilgrims: from Mario's work with an advanced PeoPle. Aims To presentvocabularyto studentsin a direct. and Devon Cornwall excursion at a to we I This morning hope willbeable interview lady the woman you and there Have been campus. Morning Monday Dear not and youhada goodweekend. The partnersmust not communicateat this stage' 3 Then askthe pairs to check out the accuracyofthe predictions.for example.

n. and by the husbandfi:om the wife's point ofview. 10-15 minutesin the second lesson. Lesson 2 Ask the studentsto put their definitions up round the walls of the room. Preparation Make copiesofthe deflnitions texts below. seethe book in this seriesby Nicky Burbidgeet al. You maywrite less well than Dylan Thomasor D H Lawrencebut the fact that the text is yours and uniquelywritten for thoseparticular studentsmakesit special. Acknowledgements The (l.)Point out that these havebeenwritten by the boy from the dog'spoint of view.oncetoo often. or. Tell them to write the definitions on detachablesheets.7 The secretdictionary Level Elementary advanced to Time 15 minutesin the f irst lesson. written by and for nobody in particular. adv. Materials A copy of the definitionstexts for eachstudent. 8.9o6). Ask three or four peopleto read theirs out. (See below. use similar texts preparedby different studentsin previousclasses. n. sothe studentscometo look forward to a letter from you. There are many techniquesyou can usewith the letter but we feel it is enoughfor the studentsto simply read it. 3 It is much easierto pick up languagefrom a personalletter than from a third-persontext.88:-. a period ofthree hundred and sixty-flvedisappointments. 2 For more activitiesaround letters and letter-writing. entitled Letters (996\. better.by Ambrose Bierce(available Devil's Dictionary free online from ProjectGutenberg). year. Aims To expressprivate connotationsof a word or phrase-strong enoughto be usedas'definitions'. twice. 2 Tell them to write for homework similar deflnitions that encapsulate their understandingof another person'sor creatule'sworldview.Comments 1 This is not a one-offexercise-we suggest that you useit everylesson or everyweek. Procedure Lesson 1 1 Ask the studentsto read 'The boy's definitions for his dog' and 'The husband'sdefinitions for his wife'. 118 | Personal . containsdeflnitions such asthese: admiration. our polite recognition of another'sresemblance to ourselves.

to to home-place.Tell the studentseachto think ofthree phrasesthey like to usewhen speakingEnglish. equivalentphrases/paraphrase 4 Ask the studentsto fiIIthe board with the substitutephrasesthey havefound. of money:something to similar rain.8 Phraseslike Level Lower-intermediatetoadvanced Time 15-25minutes Aims To encouragestudentsto acquirea wider choiceof expressions. and to space be enlarged burrow:wafting spiralof scent. basket: cat car:cat-cove4 hiding-place potentialmeal dangerous. and car:a luxurythat I seeasa necessity which no one should of havebecause globalwarming that men offer to justify long absences work: a generalexcuse from the realityof homelife Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress I 8. They now rehearse insteadof anewphrase the languagefor the situation butsubstthtte their favourite phrase:help the studentswhere necessarytofind s. 3 Tell eachstudent to chooseone oftheir own phrasesand to outline three to flve situationsin which they would useit. eersonal | 119 .for The boy's definitions hisdog place bury bones place arrange. tuggingat the leash walkies: thousand a for definitions hiswife The husband's of the children: centraltaskfacinghumans-bearers one's hopes and ambitions necessary which I am the recipient. deepened lamp post/wall:doggielnternetchat room smells. Procedure 1 Group the studentsin threes.frustrating. cat:hateful.and then to explain the phrasesto their partners and tell them when they usethem' 2 Eachstudent then thinks of situationsin which they could usetheir partners' phrasesand tells their partners about them.I am not surewhereeitherof them comef rom. and to teach their phrasesto the rest ofthe class.

With advanced students. 6 Ask the 'secretary'to write on the board the mother-tonguewords usedin the exercise.the best time to teach vocabularyis when a student reallywants to saysomething. Variations you The basicquestionrNhathave got x of?may becomelimiting after a time. Tell the student to respondin English.whatthree objects wouldyouvalue most? you Whatthings eatcould mosVleast to happily without? do Comments As we have seenin previousactivities.Put the mother-tongueword on the board. 8.9 What haveyou got ten of? Level Beginnerto lower-intermediate Time 15-20minutes Aims Toget students discover to and usenew words to express things that are important to them now. StudentB answersasmuch aspossiblein English. 3 Group the studentsin threes.Comments In our mother tongue. 2 Now demonstratethe exercisethe other way round. Here are someother productive patterns: you Whatthree have gotthatI haven't? things you Whathave thrownaway week? this Whatfivethings youwishyoucould without? do do lf youwereX. 4 Roundr: StudentA asksthe questions(up to ten).but if they don't know a particular word to use their mother tongue.with its English equivalent.and at the sametime to widen the range of choicesmade. tendicttonanes. then you supplythem. 7 Get the classto try and find translations-if they can't. Procedure 1 Get a volunteer student to askyou thesequestions: you Whathave got tenof? you Whathave gotthree of? Givetruthful answers. Rub out the mother-tonguewords asthe English ones replace them. with you asking the questionsup to ten. 120 | Personal . 5 Roundsz and 3: the studentsin the threesomeschangeroles and repeatthe questioning.This activity asksthe students(andthe teacher)to extend this freedom to the target language.this is essential in 'flnding one'svoice' in the other language. StudentC notesdown any mother-tongue wordsB wasforcedto use. close three frlends.we show personalpreferencefor somephrases over others.for example.

The gamecontinuesuntil only one player is left.Word games The activitiesin this chapter servea number of purposes: they are intended to appealto the students'puzzle-solving side. PlayerB thinks of a word beginning with A's letter and saysits secondletter.. they may challengethe previousplayer to saythe word they are thinking of: if there is no suchword. that player losesa life. For example: A:d A: c B:o(+isg.say. D: c-h-r-o-m-i-u-m a Eloses life.Oncestudentshave graspedthe rules.and they promote experimentation. thinks that the combination offered so far cannot leadto a word. games 9. Aims To providea bankof gameswith a varietyof learningpurposes that can be played in circles three to sevenplayers.t1. then C a word beginning with the last letter of B'sword. D :l ( + d o l l a r ) D: o (-r chromium) E: That'sa word ! E:That notpossible: s yourword? what s D loses life. and so on round the circle until someonemakesa per mistake. B:h(-rchange) C:l(+ 4s1s1 C:r (-r 661. If a player.they can be usedto alter the mood or focus of a lesson. completesa word. in sayinga letter.B has to saya word that begins with the last letter ofA's word. C thinks of a word beginning with the tvyoletters alreadygiven and saysits third letter. (A time limit of.The personwho. otherwisethe challengeris penalized. of Letter by letter PlayerA saysa letter. most of the gamescan be playedin ro-zo minutes. a Tail to head (1) A thinks of a word and saysit aloud.five seconds player makesthis more exciting. and are repeatable.1 Circle Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 10-15minutesfor eachgame. loses and must drop out (or lose a life).ontheirturn. or cannot find a word.) Word games | 121 . and so on round the circle.

Wrong! There's 'S'in 'it's'.). an Sets Find all the professions you can startingwith Sand endingwith R (sailor.. CaNada) and maths (rapid). place.in turn. for example:contain. fat.and so on round the circle.pretend. We're ina circle.. Swapped syllables Aproposesa polysyllabicword. and so on round the circle.Find all the verbsof soundcontaining the .rst in someway. eachplayer must make a word containing one or more of the notesofthe tonic solfa. for example: edgejoin noisyevil Iook catchcheese. prepare. contend..At any point a player may challengethe connectionof another player. Tailto head (2) A thinks of a word and saysit. must B saya second word that connectswith the f.comic.sing. Within a strict time limit (saythree seconds). schoolteacher. Try exploring other areas-symbols from chemistry (reFer.prefer.isolate.compare. and so on round the circle. for example: table LEmon ONly LYmph PHarmacy..BisforBank. for example. syllable-ing-(ring. . all B:lt mayrain tomorrow. and namesone member beginning a with A. A: 'S'.institution.Then C offers a third word to connectwith B's word. must make similar'lipograms'. for example.initials and abbreviations(sTUCk.For example: games 122 | Word . Theme alphabets A chooses category statesit. ('Hard' letters suchasQand X can be omitted if wished.Iitre. Tennis elbow foot A saysa word..lingle. B hasto find a word beginning with the last soundofA's word.such as dortbt. D.). Tonicsolfa (do re mi fa so la ti do) Roundthe circle. C:lt'snotraining now. The other players. raCIAl)accordingto the backgroundand interestsofthe group.buildings: isfor Acropohs.) Lipograms A chooses letter of the alphabetand givesa short sentence a which must not contain that letter..More difficult: B hasto flnd a word beginning with the last two letters ofA's word... B must changeone of the syllablesto make a new word. must fi nd a building A B beginningwith B.

or Preparation Preparea list of words and put them on the board or make a poster. and then to do the sameagain.A: tennis B: elbow is ftenniselbowan illness) (elbowandfoot arepartsof the body) C:foot D:baII foot+ball =football) E:fall fallrhymeswithbal/) F'.relax and shut their eyes.lad dad). Ask them to notice their breathing. the others must then tly to guess phrase. seniorpoliceman(topcop).autwnn fqil isUSsynonym or autumn\ f (thelast-nof hymnandautumn silent) A:hymn is group. (Youmay alsochooseto play calm. 9. whether they know their meaning or not. tell them you are going to read them some words.) 2 With their eyesstill shut.TelI them to put their fingers on one nostril while breathing in and out with the other. in especially for studentspreparing an examination for suchas FCE TOEFL. Readthesewords slowly and gently: irrational immoral clockwise incapable to misappropriate to misbehave serviceman irresponsible inaudible incautious illogical disapproving inconceivable to apply ex-serviceman to function inappropriate intuitive legal unhappy impossible non-violent caoable audible logical responsible conceivable unattractive to behave to misapply to appropriate to malfunction at ease illegal immortal counter-intuitive ill-at-ease mortal rational games 123 Word | .large hog (bigpig).for happy father (g. Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto push their booksaway.but swappingnostrils.We learnt this from Eugene Raudsepp 1977.falsepain (fake example. ache). the membersdecideon 'acceptable' In each connections. low-volume music in the background.Tell them to just let the words flow over them. Rhyming definitions Eachplayer in turn must think of a rhyming phraseand give a brief the definition of it.2 The prefix game Level lntermediateto advanced Time 30-40 minutes Aims Towork on the variousnegativeprefixes English.

They shouldtl producenew'words'..moral to pack fit 3 4 anticlockw verbal to unpack Read the words again twic. Bringtwo students to the I teams. Variation 3 Insteadofprefixes and suf nouns.indivic own containing the brains words exist. asl the board in their noteboo monolingual class check sr Variation 1 1 Put up the following on th UN 2 Ask the classto suggest wc to brainstorm other preflx 3 Invite the students. sc as 1 Put up the following list ol commonly usedin noun + head house wot money chair tow market clothes car 124 | Wordgames . mistakeswith adjective+ r noun + noun phrases. one ofthe secretarie the other writes down the Give teamB awordto matr Back to team A etc. 5 6 At the end of the game.This is particularly regularly puts adjectivesal Eventhough thes Spanish. . Variation 2 ffier the studentshavewc someor allof theprefixes a all the roots.whi< dictionaries.. and appoint one stt team A a word that they hi Give them ten seconds' co: right.

as. dictation 9. A they made ditting Thestudents write: The final step. Tell them now to checktJ'e new words and phrasesin a dictionary.for example:townhall. hints. insteadof sayingthe words for them to write. boards sxx tnches shorter games 125 Word | . The word ends iny. The first word in the phrase Here it's plural and meansyianks. Start a new line of the poem: Half a dozen. \4lhen you walk you take many of these. 2 Dictate as follows: You say: The definite article. In the singular. 'and lodging'. about 2. you will give them deflnitions and clues. It ends with iing. Comments The relaxation exerciseat the beginning can be usedasan introduction to any activity demandingspeedand concentration. That was the title of the poem.Encourage and secondelement in the combination. Procedure 1 Explain to the studentsthat you are going to give them a dictation. Anglo-American units of measurement. Third person plural pronoun.3 Definitions Level Intermediateto advanced Time 20-30minutes gameto practise usingdefinitions. Past tense of a verb with a meaning very like do. Going head flrst into water. The word begins withf and means the same as last.5 centimetres long.Ask the studentsto make newwords and phrasesby combining pairs of words on the list or byusing one word from the list and one word them to use everyword asboth the first of their choice. The comparative form of the opposite oflong. and cluesfor eachof the words in it. but that.toy town. Aims Tousea guessing Preparation Choosea very short text (r5-zo words) and preparedeflnitions. now for line one: A two-letter word that expresses doubt and ends inf. asin the upper-intermediate examplebelow.Ask them to work in pairs with only one person wTltrng.

or later' Start a new line: Second person pronoun. (Peter Hein. A two-letter word. ) think how much sooner you . whose idea is quoted by PaulRogerson an article in the AISLImagazine.The two examples here are designedto make the teacher's. Comments Crosswords not everyone'scup of tea.for homework. Ask one of pairs to read out the title and the poem: The final step If they made diving boards six inches shorterthinkhowmuch sooner you'd be in the water. This word is wet and rhymes with shorter. The flrst word in the phrase '. More Grool<s. The word for many thatyolJtrse with uncountable nouns.Marchzooo.to a fifth of the class: five the 'dictators' working simultaneously.task a little easier. askfi. Aims To introduce students English-language to crosswords show and ways in which they can be adaptedand made more creative.Start a new line: This is the verb that describes the main action of philosophers.4 Crosswords Level Intermediateto advanced Time No morethan 20-30 minutesin any one session.EuropaVicina in N.and the students'.A be ln the waver Follow-up Onceyou haveusedthis technique three or four times. Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from Mitzi Powles. The second letter is n.ve students. Contract it and link it to the word before with an apostrophe. Hamlet was worried about this inflnitive. Blackrvell and Mott. Then think of a modal verb with the same sound. Eachof them dictatestheir deflnitions etc. Thinkwhat trees are made of.6. and they can be laborious are and time-consumingto compose. Definite article. asin the exampleabove. They should keep their texts short. AnanagramofWHO. particularly if one has to restrict oneselftocommonor'useful'words. to preparethis type of dictation. 9. 126 | Word games .

is diagram. 8 10 11 I t4 t5 l7 t8 t9 Across Clues 1 T H E NS C R E A M 7 GAS 8 BUSH IB R 9 MEET EX R 11 LAL 12 LIL 1 4 GR I S S E T 1 6 I N D YG U N 18 OPT 19 PENNY EDED C Photocopiable@John Morgan Down Clues 1 M T O R YI S S U E 2 THING V 3 RASH ET 4 BSO 5 TAVIE 6 H O L YP I S H O P 1 0 E G GD A N E 13 DELLA 15A TEEN 17 CEI Wordgames 127 | . Procedure A Anagram crosswords Published crosswords. AnagramCrossword write in the Each of clueisan anagram the word you should woman. the deflnitions maybe allusive. such as those in newspapers. and the cultural references maybe impenetrable. city.Materials for Copiesof the crosswords eachstudent. can pose all sorts of problems to the non-native speaker: the words used are often obscure. One wayto use them is to rewrite the definitions. Here is an example to getyou started: addyour own deflnitions ifyou wish. Oneanswer the nameof a well-known Anotherisan English now dead. or to add anagrams of the solutions as an extra help.

the groups should exchangethe blank diagramsand cluesand try to solvethe puzzles.\Mhenthey have flnished. Here are four completeddiagramsand fourblank diagramsto start with: 128 | Wordgames . Divide the classinto groupsof three or four and give each group one blank diagram and one completeddiagram and one or more dictionaries. under the blank diagram.AnagramCrossword solution M Y A N I A G c H A R E s o B T E v R P 5 H s E U B I x L T R E M E A t L I L T I G R E s o c 5 16 U 17 N D L Y I N G E T E E N P H Y s D c P E N E D Photocopiable@John Morgan Write your own clues Many studentsfind it much more fun to write the cluesthan to solve them.Tell the groupsto choosea secretaryand to which the secretaryshouldwrite composecluesfor the crossword.

downloadable free from I ha es/uti ity. or make games 129 Word | . http ://home.neUd rrison/puzzl programs to assistin finding words to fit into your There are also diagram: you can chooseyour own words.htm.F E W E w o E R A s P E T I E A V E A L E R E B 5 E A B R L E o v v Y 10 u D N D W A R D t E c A T T T I L E N I E D s I M N T o P A c T u T E L I B A D A M T o A N N s w A ta s I H E R W t3 A N s o H U o R o I N E s T Y L E Y N s T P o N D D E M A L N o P E R u c L T R E A 1 G E T A c R o T R s s E A N N D T H I M A E P I s N G E A A c K R s E c T A E D D G T A c H o u U D L o R G A s N A R G E P T I P o t 11 E R o W 10 U R A I o U T U M E o N c o R E c Y N T H W E 5 lhotocopiable @John Morgan C Software aids to crosswordsetting and solving There are severalprograms available to assistin designing and printing diagrams. or ask the program to searcha word list for words that will fit.and you can write your own lists.Our favourite is Henry Casson's Crossword Utihty.f reeuk. More than one word list (or phraselist) can be used.

(See Chapter5.com. e-ma Finally.5 8 t 10 n t1 l2 3 tz 2 I I 9 t0 I 9 1'l to Photocopiable @John Morgan one from a corpusoftexts usingconcordancesoftware. co 130 | Wordgames .crossword-puzzl ker. m.)GoodexamplesareTlEA& Symytatlry from htt p://bryson. students(andteachers) interestedin looking at how 'cryptic' puzzleswork will get a lot help from of the surprisingly effective crossword-solvingprogram Crossword Maestro. ftom g htt p://vrrvr. uk and Crossw d Compiler ft om or 6 http://www.weni us2000.ltd.

Preparation 'double sentences' (see below) at a level Collecttogether 1o-2o type them out. : Dictatetheseten'double sentences' you? would steps.They are to take down your words and underline the pivot word. are to are speeches hard make. games 131 Word | . wonthegame isreally Ourteam 3 Pairthe studentssothey can comparetheir answers. 4 Ask studentsround the classto read out the 20 sentences.) Time 20-30 minutes usesof words. and grammatical Aims Toexplorethe differentsemantic Materials One copy of a worksheetfor eachstudent (optional). Procedure Write this exampleup on the board: lMhois thePrimeMinisterof thiscountryhotels niceto stayin. dren'tthey? 'double' Explain that you are going to give the studentsa dictation of like sentences the one above. sentences. appropriateforyour class. 5 For homework askthem to cometo classwith six double sentences each. are aren'tthey? Showthe studentstrow countryis a pivot word. the to They decided shear ewereally of can Husbands oftenlatehusbands bea matter regret. back andtwo make to to is Home theolace come pie delictous. up have house lived anexpensive in Theoldwoman four. off-the-cuff Hetookhisclothes for today lamb stewison themenu lunch Mary a little had prices gone recently. group the studentsin fours to work on eachother's In the next class.9. in are driers useful winter.5 Pivot words to Level Lower-intermediate advanced (Theexample hereis upper-intermediate. quite lotof help downthese me a need Oldpeople keep you watchmen theneighbourhood at Babies keep awake nrght can safe. and make copies. It is the last word of the flrst sentenceand the fi. and a Small love rough tumble kids a need haircut.rstword of the secondsentence: tNhois thePrimeMinisterof thiscountry? to are Countryhotels nice stayin. Point out that in two of the examplesthe 'pivot word'will havetwo different spellings.

reaml (ForUSspeakers.three to flve words. or askthe studentsto select.for example: Nev gweup themountaintheywent. one or more to a sentence. and someUK speakers.6 Hidingwords Level Lower-intermediate advanced to Time 10-20minutes Aims Todiscover words'buried'in other words or surrounding text. Procedure Put up the following words on the board: CENT Explain that many words can be found hidden inside other words: oTHEr reCENTly and eveninside phrases: I took the BUSHome. (thrye) and or on featuresof pronunciation. Do you knoW HERE-mailaddress? Put on the board. er I'm afraidyouletme downthe roadqndthenright andthenyou're there. or on differencesof spelling.Variation 1 You canusethis technique to focuson phrasalverbs. for example.sream comes many a I (ice in Jlavours. Ask the studentsto hide them. Acknowledgements This idea comesfrom Milton Erickson'swork with hypnotic language Patterns. but appealsto a przzle mentality. 9. in the as examplesyou gave.liaison in If I see mouse.Tell them they can use dictionariesto find the words for their sentences. Materials Dictionaries.for example: Addsome rosemary time travelisimpossible. This is more difficult. they should discardit and move on to another. there is alsoa differencein stress here. not to spendtoo long on this: if they but cannot easilyfind a way to 'hide' a word.) Variation 2 A developmentof the aboveis to presentthe 'double sentences'with the pivot words omitted. THE 132 | Wordgames . Get the studentsto exchangetheir sentences flnd their partner's and hidden words.

but strong in puzzle-solving.As a help to thosewho cannot spot brief definition. add a vice versa. Procedure 1 Write on the board the following string of letters: YENING CHIE ENTERRIBIEA OARD IC PRACT ALENDARTB Wordgames 133 | . Preparation 'word chain' like that shown below. give the first three letters of the first word. as in the example below.for example: PIGEON + my speedkept sliPplnGbElOw Ninety kilometres an hour. and Studentsmay be weak in English.orashomework.7 Treasure Level lntermediateto advanced Time 10-20minutes. the hidden word. Aims To practiseidentifying words with the help of definitions. Variation 2 Hide the words backurards: KNIT + sTINKingfish Variation 3 Useeachlefter of the word asthe first letters of the words of a phrase: TEACH + TakeEverythingAnd ComeHome Comments Gameslike this appealto loversof logical puzzles. Many studentswill prefer constructing the contexts to finding the hidden words. You will flnd some more example wordchains at the end of this activity' write a simple definition for eachword in the chain and put the definitions and the number of letters in eachword on a worksheet. in which eachword Make a overlaps its neighbours by exactly three letters.and so on.Variation 1 Hide the words aseveryother letter of the newword or phrase. To get the students started. hunt 9.intelligence tests' crosswordpuzzles.

veryold . Key E X A M P L E A S A N T IE A S Y L U ME R E F T QU B Photocopiable @ Oxford UniversityPress _ _ (6) Suggested wordchains Here are somemore word chainsfrom which you (or your students) can prepareyour own worksheets: BLTRDE}IAIISMANAGERMAAD4{OI4IEVERDrcTIONARY ARO LATDERNEATHE]VYGNPOS TEOPATTIYROID TIPSYCHIATRI CKSHAWTHORNAMENTIRETYMOLO GY ARMCTI/IRBRUSHERMITTEATIACTE\4RBATIMIDRIFFY INGOTHICCWBOARDOTJ"RSEIVESTRYING (Thelast one is a word necklace!) 134 | Word games . wood for building _ _ (6) 7 adj. show that this is a wordchain in which eachword overlapsits neighboursby exactly three letters: PRACTI CAI EN DARTBO ARDEN TERRI BLEACH I EYENING Give out the worksheet and let the studentsget on with it... Studentsshould alsobe encouraged prepareworksheetsfor each to other. timber. The exercisecan be done individually.enjoyable ----(8) 3 adj.This can be frustrating for somepeople! Example worksheet 1 n.(7) adj.or by underlining. eachquestionhasto be answeredbefore the next canbe attempted. in pairs or small groups. in hopeor support esp. Comments As in a treasurehunt. or ashomework. representative a group or category of EXA____(7) 2 adj.Using colouredchalk or markers.lacking. protection -_(6) 5 n.feelingsick(inthe stomach) _ _ _ _ _ (6) _ givenby a stateto a politicalrefugee 5 n.

From chancebeginnings.one word at a time. Acknowledgements Wida Software. Preparation a Choose short text. cm. with a little preparationby the teacher.the text will graduallyappear.then you can of course with the cardson the blackboard. so that eachword is clearly visible to the On whole class. Materials Word cards(seePreParation).works evenbetter on the blackboard. Variation If you can memorize a short text exactly. Ask them to shout out any words that come to mind: if you hear any of the words in the text' reversethe correspondingcard immediately.especially dispense oneswith clear rhyme and rhythm. Tell the classthat there is a text on the blackboardwhich they will haveto uncover. are ideal for this' Comments This was originally devisedasa computer game. the back of eachcardwrite the sameword very small' Procedure Stick the cardsto the wall or blackboardin the coffect text sequence. preferably containing not too much new lexical write it out clearly on cardsmeasuring20 x 15 material for the class.asmore and more context becomesavailableto the students. with the large-print sidehidden.9. one word to a card.l98z' John Higgins and GrahamDavies'Storyboard.using the smallprint words asa rerninder.but. word games 135 | .8 Storyboard to Level Elementary advanced Time 20-30 minutes Aims To practiserelatingwords to context.Short poems.

The gamegoeslike this: a PlayerA opensthe dictionary at random.and limitationsof dictionaries.using.then ask the groupsto play one completeround. 1 Word dip Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-25minutes Aims Tofamiliarizestudentswith the structure.uses. 1 0 .5.1o.New dictionariesare also constantlyappearing. ro.1(D Diction exercises ary and word history The first three activitiesin this chapter aim to familiarize students with dictionariesand show how to usethem in enjoyable.4. Materials Sufficient monolingual dictionaries haveone for eachgroup of to two to four students. Explain or demonstratethe game. 'Borrowedwords'. in containsa number of Jon Wright's Dictionaries. The choiceof which dictionary to use dependsvery much on the students'level.interestsand learning style.Make sureeach group hasa dictionary. and the two activitiesthat follow cater for studentswho are interestedin the history of words. or a known word which has a lesswell-known meaning. this series(1998). though for moreadvanced students variouslearners'dictionaries the may be lessstimulating. 136 | Oictionary exercises wordhistory and . b A chooses word defined on the pagesopen and tells the other a playerswhat it is: this maybe awordA thinks the other playersdo not know. showshow a thesauruscan be usedto stimulate thought and discussion.creative ways.which makesit hard to give concrete recommendations.'\Mhat do I mean?'. veryuseful suggestions choosing.looks at the languagewe needto explainand commenton howwe usewords.8. Pocket dictionaries not be adequate. 'Thesauri'. will Procedure Ask the studentsto form groupsof 3-5 playerseach. Any monolingual dictionary will do. and flndingyourway for round dictionaries.and to.

say. produced list: plant. Two or three rounds shouldbe tfie maximum to sustaininterest. A may only answer/esor n0.as as stsch fomtd(= establish. say.a dozenwords. Ask the studentsto look up in the dictionary the word you have put on the board and to read through the definition(s). If the studentswish to continue. Procedure Ask the studentsto work individually. well asbeing the past tenseof find)' It may be helpful to insist that A both pronouncesthe word and spellsit out. not meaning.At eachstagethey shouldwrite down the word they look up. 10. given. 4 Ask the studentsto continue in this way until they havelooked up. ' + + plant-r grow) increase rise+ swell wqves hair+ thread cotton -r understand and exercises wordhistory 137 Dictionary | . monolingual Materials Sufficient if you provide a selectionof different It will be more interesting dictionaries. usedin the definitions on the language to dictionaries haveone for eachstudent. A may alsogive other information. suchaspart of speech.Otherwisethe flrst personto guessthe meaning getsthe point. Write up a word on the blackboard.Chooseone which will produce a rich set of paraphrases/synonyms. then repeatthe gameon a later occasron.2 Fromword to word Level lntermediateto advanced Time 15-25minutes with the emphasis in Aims Togive further practice the useof dictionaries. zo questions. person this one fromthe headword Example Starting a -r vegetable organism structure framework skeleton bone + + 1 + plant -t + + + + bobbin reel cylinder tubular chamber andanother. the a d A scores point if no one guesses meaning within. Give eachstudent a dictionary or make surethey havebrought one to class. 5 Ask them to form pairs and comparetheir lists. but c The other playersthen questionA on the meaning (or the specific meaning chosenbyA) of the word.Then askthem to chooseone of the words in the deflnition and to look that up. ).

moving back and forth between English and mother-tongueentries. the of 138 | Dictionary exercises wordhistory and . Preparation Select6-rz words from a text or other sourceofvocabularv.'vVhen they have read the entry selected given. Follow-up 1 After working through steps1-4 above. Variation This exercisecan easilybe adaptedasa pair exerciseby asking the pairs to write sentences that apply to both members. 1 0 .@ Variation who sharethe samemother tongue can do the exercise Students using a good bilingual dictionary. Materials Dictionaries.words neededin writing a description. if a studentwere to look tsptakeone's So.working individually. my might write English In small groups. takes they the exampleHqrdworkalways classestake mind offwork. Follow-up 2 Ask the studentsto usethe technique aboveto 'quarry'words relating to a particular subjector theme (for example.askthe studentsto link the words in their list into a paragraphor short story.for example: veal:Weareboth opposedto production whiteveal.rretheir examplesentences. to look up eachof the words in their dictionary. or a referenceto mindof and flnd themselves.words usedby policemen).the studentscomp. 3 Writeyourself in Level Elementary advanced to Time 10-15minutes Aims To add a strong personalelementto dictionarypractice. they should construct an example and any example sentences sentencefor that word including their own name. yourmindoffdomestic problems. Procedure Ask the students.

favounte Ask the studentsto form pairs and to put questionsback and forth to eachother in the wayyou have shown. After five minutes. Tell the students to rewrite a short text by picking out as many words and phrases from it as they want and adding to each a comment introduced by one of the phrases in the above list.working individually.by Lesson 2 Remind the classofthe previousactivitybywritingyour original example sentenceon the board. colour Ivty colour. Seethe exarnple below Example text Country people have a different attitude to the road from town people. and other drivers. in the senseof technically more comPetent. have a different attitude to the road from town people. isblue.4 What do I mean? Level Lower-intermediate advanced to 10-20minutesin laterclasses.10. By this I mean they actually consider what they. that is people who both live and work in the rewritten countryside.pick out a word or phrasefrom their questionand put a questionback to them. Student: rNhat\ yourfavouritecolour? 'favourite Teacher: Whatdoyoumeanby colour'? youliketo wear. Teacher: Inthat case. but they are more considerate. of answeringimmediately. but they are more considerate.or instead ofby wlnchI mecm. are doing while they drive along. They are not better. drivers. The colour Student: my colour isblue. example: lliketowear.by whichlmeonthe favourite get the classto brainstorm. They are not better drivers. including They should then write their answersassingle sentences for the phrasebywhichlmean.for example: in other words or rather that is (to say) meaninq in the sense of t. exercises wordhistory 139 and Dictionary | . to recall two or three of the questionsthey were asked.e. Time 10-15minutesin the first class. for example. whichlmeorrthe colour MyfavourLte colortr.underlining the phrase bywhichlmean: Ikke to wear. other phrasesthat can be used Teach. used in defining and Aims To introduceand practisewords and phrases explaining meaningsProcedure Lesson 1 Instead Invite one student to askyou a questionin front of the class. tell them to take a pieceof paper and.isblue. Example text Country people.

Here the student is encouraged to learn someof the words we needin order to talk about words. and soforth a n ds o o n you know what I mean ina manner speaking of to an extent youknowthesortof thingI mean workit outforyourself Comments The dictionary is not the only placewhere deflnitions are found. Materials Copies the word list and key for eachstudent. 1 0 . exampleset is given below. for example s Take. in Put the whole list on a sheetof paper and make a copy for An eachmember of the class. to by match them to the words in the list. 140 | Dictionary exercises wordhistory and . b specifying: particularly in particular specifically to bespecific to name one c approximating: rna sense more less or sortof astT were for wantof a better word d abandoningan explanationor example: etc. comment on.. paraphrasing. .. Procedure Give out the word lists.and commenting on the meaning of the words we use. ..Follow-up Usethe questioningand rewrite techniquesto explore other waysin which we seekto clarify. Here are a few example setsofphrases: a clarifying by example: for instance . of Preparation Preparea set of Englishwords that derive fromwords in other languages: your classcontainsspeakers different mother if of tongues. modify. .Tell the studentswhich original languages are represented the words and askthem. .try to representeachofthese languages your set. a y. 5 Borrowed words Level lntermediateto advanced Time 20 minutes Aims To show how words canchangeform and meaningacross languages. or correct the languagewe are using.. We are constantlyexplaining. working individually.

teawasborrowed of not from Cantonese. wLry theborrowing.OED. (In the examplelist below.bwtgalow from a Hindiwordthat simply means'of Bengal'.Chcnnbers).They should pay attention to the pronunciation (which maybe very different from that in the (which maywell have changedor the original language). not to the animal itself. sherryderivesfrom an older pronunciation came of SpanishJerez.) Example ginseng pundit hippopotamus lute atom bungalow marzrpan tea typhoon siesta cattle opera canasta sherry soya decide curry orange coolie kilogram armada alcohol atmosphere torso chemist pork apron piano Key Arabic Spanish lndian languages French Italian apron pork cattle decide torso marzipan opera piano Chinese Greek typhoon tea soya ginseng atmosphere hippopotamus kilogram atom alcohol siesta bungalow lute canasta curry orange sherry pundit chemist armada coolie Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress words 10. Mandarin.and.This is their answers.Ask the studentsto checktheir answersnot only againstthe key but alsoin a dictionary. meaning(s) becomerestricted). and exercises word history| 141 Dictionary .porkrefers to the meat of the pig. The studentsmay now compareand discuss particularly useful if you haveincluded words borrowed from languages spokenby the students. example.when. if the dictionary alsogivesetymologies(for and even somethingof the how. Preparation You may alsolike to Takeseveraleqrmologicaldictionariesto class. readup a little on the peopleand eventsreferred to. and Materials Etymological otherdictionaries. Give out the key.6 Commemorative to Level Upper-intermediate advanced Time 20-30minutes Aims To explorewords with a history.

3 Ask the studentsto write next to eachword the approximateyear when it was flrst usedin English.Ask them if they can identify any of these. we recommendJohn Ayto's Twentieth-Cenhtry (t999)and Words 142 | Dictionary exercises word history and . For newer words. Ask the studentsto work in small groups and give eachgroup a dictionary. especially harder onesllke plimsoll: found in the phraseplimsollline.or an event. or usethe examplelist given below (with the years omitted). alsoa type of sportsfootwear. the safeloading line on a ship.Make enough copiesfor eachstudent or group ofstudents. 2 Give out one copy of the wordlist to eachstudent or group. Materials A copy of the wordlist for eachstudent. Ask the gloupsto lookup theirwords and flnd the person. 6 Eachgroup teachesthe whole classthe derivation of their words.7 Datingwords Level Upper-intermediate advanced to Time 15-30minutes Aims More on words and history. Get the students/groups join together to comparetheir answers. or give out the examplelist againwith the datesincluded. Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto work either alone or in groupsof two to three. Preparation Make a list of words that you are confident most of the classare familiar with.a place. 10.Include asmany recently introduced words/meanings as you can.Procedure Get a secretary cometo the board and then dictate thesewords to to them: sandwich wellingtons spa plimsoll quisling hoover mackintosh biro caesarian volcano maramon cardigan quixotic meander to meetyourWaterloo to cross Rubicon the Checkthat all the words are semanticallyknown to the students. to Ask them to checktheir answersagainstan appropriatedictionary.placeor event that lies behind each. Explain that all the words or phrasesrefer back to the name of a person.with the emphasis more recent on coinages.Assigna small group of words to eachgroup of students.

ttle OxfordEnglishDicttonary citations of almost everyword deflned.h i sf i r es s i m P l f a b . the towards blazing toes her She 1963Times. Preparation Choosea word or phrasewith strong or controversialassociations. of the Merseyside which areprettyfab I just Lampoon'.(.For older Words Dictionary New of ElizabethKnowles'Oxford (Second edition) givesdated words. and exercises word history| 143 Dictionary . Word list (1972)car bomb (1972) gr€€h= ecological poverty line(1901) ( j i n g l e( n o u n ) 1 (1940) crew-cut nappy(1927) sitcom(1964) (1959) carer(1978) think-tank (1944) genocide drop-out(1930) pylon(1923) (1956) (1941) in-house gremlin fab (1e57) (1960) cassette rockand roll (1954) doodle(1937) Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress Here is an example entry fromJohn Ayto's excellent Twentieth-CenturY Words: of SlangA shortening fabulous marvellous.it enjoyed revival the logs.when it became 'TheFabFour') pop After lying and otherMerseyside groups.to to and.incidentally.'And think it s fab!' 1988National To which we should addthatfab is now back in a period of 'dormancv'. or usethe examplebelow.You should alsomake copiesof the worksheet (which can be usedwith any item chosen)for everyone. stretched stockinged ' D a d d yt. and prepare enoughcopiesfor eachstudentto have one. show usinga thesaurus. tab adj(1957) really Theusage 1959). 1980s in a dormantfor a while. Make an extract from a thesaurusentry containing it.997).Providea variety of dictionariesand other referencebooks in class.8 Thesauri advanced Level Upper-intermediateto Time 30-45 minutes Aims To show how words may be grouped by meaningand context. until (whichis not recorded printin thissense in (sometimes to the Beatles attached took off around1963. 10. wonderful. ' Y produce groups sounds Most 1963MeettheBeatles. introduce and practise and distort meaning' to disguise how words canbe used extract and worksheet copiesof the Thesaurus Materials Dictionaries. called (see fabbo (1984)).

walk around. and that it can be a useful aid to memory and imagination.then get five to ten students(dependingon the sizeof your classand of the board)to write all the words and phrasesthey can think of that havethe same. and comparewhat they havewritten. and that to get bestvalue out of it. 1zl4| Dictionary exercises wordhistory and . but without deflnitions or examples). Stress that it is not a 'collection of synoqrms'.Tell them to scatterthe words around the board. arrangedin groups accordingto meaning. everystudent should havereadwhat at leasteight others havewritten after ten minutes. Give out copiesofthe Thesaurus extract and askthem to look through it.and to askyou and eachother questions. Tell them what a thesaurusis (acollection of words. Give everystudent a copy of the Worksheet.Procedure Write the word or phrase(in this casethe wordterronst)in the centre ofthe board. arrangingthem into groupsaccordingto meaning. Keepthem moving round: in a classof zo. Encourage them to usedictionariesand referencebooks.Tell them that they may alsoadd any other words of similar meaning that comeinto their minds. Tell the studentsto standup. meaning. Group the studentsin fours to compareand discuss what they have done. but are not on the board. not in neat rows and columns. and stopthem after two minutes. one should useit in conjunction with a dictionary. 'vVhen the studentsare back in their seats.or a similar. them to take a piece all tell of paper and copy down the words on the board.Tell them they have 15minutes to completeit.

shortstory. for sentence each: and dictionary.Whichtwo wordsor phrases for you most here: Writethem alikein meaning? are 4 Whichtwo wordsor phrases mostdifferentin meaning? to whichyou would be surprised find in the 5 Write down five wordsor phrases etc. radiotalk. article. 6 Write down five wordsor phrases to in in 7 Whichsingleword or phrase the extractisclosest meaning the one printedin bold text? from that word or phrase? 8 And which isfurthestin meaning Photocopiable @Oxford UniversityPress and exercises wordhistory 145 Dictionary | . write an example are 3 Lookthrough the extractagain. newspaper sameshorttext but which are not in the extract.) (essay. ought to be.or whichyou would liketo learnmoreabout.Worksheet you anywordsand phrases underlining extract. 1 Lookthroughthe Thesaurus havenot met before. look them up in the you five 2 Choose of the wordsor phrases haveunderlined.

being]Evildoer. tiger. vulture. de se[obs].homicide. racketeel gallows. communist. ogre. 145 | Dictionary exercises wordhistory and . fratricide. scorpion.]. hatchet man. felo hara-kiri. hitman.barbarian. hell-hound.butchel hangman. oppressol tyrant. canniba anthropophagus. matricide.l #913. anarchist.destroyeri Vandal. Eumenides. fusillade. iconoclast. hoodlum. infanticide. serpent. suffocation. judici murder. apache[obs].(arms) 727. anthropophagist.ruffian. larrikin[Aus].N.asp.incendiary.mischief-maker. Jezebel. matador. executioner (punishment) &c.thuggery Thuggism massacre. demonin humanform. manslaughte4 murde4 assassination.man-eater.hyena. gunman. hag. (ca pitaI punishment) 2. wrongdoer [Maleficent &c. hornet. deadly strangulation. bloodsucker. desperado.v. holocaust. monster.slaughtelcarnage. cobra. rough. brute.] N. cockatrice. murdere4 Cain. execution &c.devilincarnate.S. auto da fe. pug-ugly hood. rattlesnake. evildoer. suicide.hanging&c.[. blood. .ghoul. pogrom.martyrdom. assassin.]. garrotte. vipeqadder. fiend &c. 975. of Killing.bloodshed. butchery.l.Attila. firebrand. .792.949. terrorist. . Mohawk.] of .S. deathbloWfinishingstroke. Furies. coupde grace. blood-hound. firebug IU. siren. parricide. Apache[obs].hooligan. [obs].gorilla.(demon)980. vampire.cutthroat. [U. harpy. wild beast. Frankenstein's monster. thug. terrorist.@ Thesaurus extract #361. immolation. snake. pyromaniac.IDestruction life.plug-ugly. quietus. uglycustomer. caitiff [obs]. snakein the grass. weapon&c. l.violentdeath. suttee. regicide. gore.. tough IU. uxoricidelobsl. savage.].scourge the humanrace.beldam. killing&c.v. foeticidelobsl. bully. 97 al butche[ slayer.5. Hun. thief &c.

dreamandleviathanyteld: -leviathan +horror + monster dream+ ntghtrnare and exercises wordhistory 147 Dictionary | . you will needto enableJavain your browser.but 'alphabeticalthesauri' such asthat publishedby there are also and electronicversionsthat can be used Oxford University Press. If you enter two words.net.(TheThesaurus extract aboveis taken from this public-domainversion. joined to other words of similar meaning by spiderylines.) There are alsoonline versions. someate highly literary while others are basedon up-to-datespoken English.Most follow Roget'soriginal plan. asin the extract above. Now there are innumerable versionsall claiming to be and all independentlycopyrighted. The full text of the r9t edition is availablefrom the web: you can fl nd it by visiting htt p://www. When you have downloadedthe flle (aboutr.bartleby. example. a graphicsdisplayopenswith your word in the centre. and other words appearor are replaced.com is a remarkablecombination of thesaurusand mind-map.you can open it in your wordprocessor and searchforwhatyou need.To useit. it will return a seriesof words linking For the flrst to the second.A note on Roget's Thesaurus has andPlnases long been out of Roget'soriginal ThesaurusEnglishWords of copyright. thesaurusat http://wwwlexfn.visualth esaurus.com/thesa .com allows a search TheLexicalFreeNet on one word (in which caseit givesa list of synonyms)or on a pair of words. others on American English.the displaychanges make the new word central.g ute nberg. If you click to on any of these.which enableyou to type in a search word or phraseand receivean HTMLpagecontaining the appropriate One section(s) Roget. Other online thesauri Thes at Plumb Design's VizuaI aurus htt p://www. with your word-processor.\Mhenyou enter a word.5Mb).Thesediffer in Roget'sThesaurus. of thesecan be found at of uri http://www. many ways:someare basedon British.

'Lexicalfurniture'.to go beyondthe monotonouscolumn of bilingual pairs: Frau woman .all encourage use of revision exercises. A note on notebooks Many of the exercises that follow should be done in the students' vocabularynotebooks.and und Stuhl chair A ground plan of one'shome with the words you were learning written all over it is a lot more memorablethan this. for example. (See t. (pepithesis) teacher looking of thewindow.) The vocabularynotebook may well be a sort of history of the languageclass:studentscanwrite personalnotesabout the circumstances learning aswell asthe apparent'content' of the of lesson.and reflect on words many times.we might havethe following page: (phantasma) Gota goodletter ghost fromhome today. quaktyof Many activitieshere aim. A colleaguein Cambridgestarted eachmorning on her intensive courses asking studentsto close by their eyesand think back over what they learnt the previousday. and the teacher'shuman needto believethat shehas actually taughtthestudentssomething. in different contextsand settings.the curriculum. The conviction is out politics lt'sa Greek word-l gotthe English stress wrong metaphor again ! Makesme think of movinghouse. perhaps.for example. Examinations.With vocabulary studentsneedto meet.11 Kevrsron exercrses A Traditionally.In this way learnerswill have a powerful record ofthe exercises they have donewith and around new lexis.revision hasbeen much more on teachers'mapsthan other aspects ofvocabularywork. 148 I Revision exercises . before they can be saidto havetruly learnt a word or phrase.and. and use. we believethat there is a the but deeperneed:one simply doesnot 'learn' somethingby encountering it once.in different frames of mind.4.to improve the visual notebooks.in the companyof different people.From a Greekstudent.

they will usetheir mothel tongue.2 Guidedcategorization Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 15-20minutes Aims To get the studentsto form interestingand memorableword of grolps.seehis book. let categorize: them find out for themselves. Foreign 1 2 3 4 11.em.11.The way they do this is up to them: the with the words. Acknowledgements we learnt this technique from caleb Gattegno'ssilentway. to write lp oneof their nice words andone eachstudent exercises 149 Revision | .associations idea groupings. their dePendence increase Comments If you are working with beginners. and especiallyhis views on learner independence of commonsenseTeaching and the role of the teacher.1976' Languages. The EducationalSolutions. Give them time to think' Ask words. wordsand Nasty 2 Put up two headingson the board: Nice nastyword.working individually.etc.Do not tell the studentshow to of the words. and to deepentheir understanding words by comparing categorizations. to categorizethe words into more than tvvogroups. the sound look of the words on the page. Procedure A Nicewords versusnastYwords 1 Givethe studentsthe words to be reviewedand askthem eachto pick three they like and three they don't.1 Open categorization Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 15-20minutes Aims To allow studentsto categorizevocabularyin any way they want' Procedure Write the words to be reviewedon the board.and telling them that they are onYou. a Ask the studentsto give eachof their categories heading' to read out their Go round the classasking someof the students Do headingsand the words in the correspondingcategories' not and tone of reward or censurestudentsbyyour facial expression be voice for the way they have categorized: asneutral asyou can and How the studentsgroup the words is up to sayaslittle aspossible.For more about his work. 'right' or'wrong' will only th. Invite the students.

From time to time. or can't or don't want to remember. Variation The exerciseabovecan be adaptedto run over the courseof a whole term: Get a large sheetof card to hang on your classroom wall. you can askthe studentsto in work on contrastivecategories many different sorts.@ \Alheneverybodyhastlvo words on the board. jelly llike it. or that interest them.The sound right. Do not glossor comment yourself: don't give or withhold approval.or which confuseor bother them. cuttings from newspaperheadlinesor advertisements. of veryEnglish words notvery English words newworos oldwords me-connected words separate-from-me words highwords lowwords pastwords futurewords 150 | Revision exercises .for example. followed by commentsfrom others. to 'throw away' in the box anywords they don't like. Find a closed box and make a slot in the top: thesewill becomepermanent classroomfixtures. Example Inonegroup review the words were: viaduct prun9e lelly ambulance jack-knife windscreen to lower to volunteer intensive motorway hair-raising Here some thethings are of different students about said some thewords: of ambulance I used bea nurse anambulance to and comina meant more work. Try to keep in the backgroundand let the studentsrun their own session. Invite studentsto stick on the large sheetanywords they like. Other binary subjectivecategories Using the methodologysuggested A. Thesemaybe singlewords written on slips of paper. is windscreen I don't it because like I learnt lastterm can't it and remember it. Ask them etc. Tell them thev can do this whenever they like during the course.By keeping quiet youwill help the studentsto talk. hold comment sessions: the students let introduce their own words flrst. intensive I don't it because -nt-istoohardtosay like the correctly.l don'tliketheword.invite peopleto explain why they like or dislike parlicular words.

of course. the They may. 5 Ask them to explain their associations their neighbours. D Wordsand countries 1 Ask the studentsto jot down the name of a country they have enjoyedvisiting orwould like to visit. 4 Put up your list of words and askthe studentsto write them in one or other column accordingto the associations they feel betweentheir words and the countries. 3 Pair the studentsand let them explain their word-shape associations. to Example Inoneclass listof words the under review was.link a given word with more than one shape.and then to rule tle paper into columns.c Wordsand shapes 1 Put up on the board the following shapes: Ask the studentsto copy the shapes into their notebooksand then associate words to be reviewedwith the shapes. eachwith a country asheading. Havethem draw mapsof thesecountrieson the blackboard. (Inaccuracy giveslife to the exercise. shed translucent loop draughty rack pail corruqated hinge suck hefty hook drain staple lethal goat Revision exercises 151 | .) Ask them to write down the namesof the various countriesacross the top of h pieceof paper.

11. Acknowledgements We should like to thank Marilyn Spaventa.hot cold 152 | Revision exercises .oassive actrve . Explain that it shows a series of scalesbetween extremes. Ask individual students to tell the group which colours they assigned to different words and why. They should do this individually in writing.One student producedtheseassociations: Romania sneo pail SUCK Mongolia Denmark Wales USA lethal drain hefty Tanzania draughty corrugated translucent h i n g e racK goat No associations: staple/loop/hook E Words and colours 1 Ask each sflrdent to wdte down six colours in order of preference ranging from most liked to most disliked. Procedure 1 Fut the table below up on the board.deeo shallow .fast slow .dirty clean .) Put a set of words on the board and ask the students to associate the words with the colours.worthless valuable .3 Wordson a scale Level Time Aims Intermediate to advanced 15-20 minutes To concentratethe students'attention on the words under revision by focusing on their own.tense relaxed . (For this exercise black and white are colours. subjective reactions.large small . and ask the students to copv it into their notebooks: . who used this technique with classeson Pilgrims summer courses.strong weak .distasteful tasty .

Write the words to be revised on another part of the board and ask the students, working individually, to choose six words and decide where each of them should go on each scale. If one of the words to be revised were consistency, example, a student's scales might look for like this: valuqble X worthless _ deep

- fast X active _ passwe This student thinks corsistency a valuablequality that probably is indicatesdepth. Speed seemsunimportant but it takesan active stanceto be consistent. 3 Pair the studentsand askthem to explain their scales a partner. to

shallow slow

11.4 Lexical furniture
Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-20minutes with Aims Tofix vocabulary memoryby visualizing in connections familiarobjects and places. Procedure Ask eachsfi;dent to draw a ground plan of their house/flat/home/ room. 2 Put up on the blackboarda set of twenty or sowords for revision. 3 Working on their own, the studentsshouldthen placethe words in appropriatepositionsin their living place. 4 In pairs,they look at eachothers' placingsand discuss them. Example ln oneclass, girlputperplexed the garage because mother her could a in never why She outside the understand hercarwouldnotstart. putfurious house her wouldnotallowexpressionsanger of inside, because parents anddo an exoerimenf the kitchen. in Variation 1 Eachstudent drawsa clockface:the words to be reviewedare placed on the clockfaceaccordingto temporal associations. Variation 2 Ask the studentsto write down twenty times of daywhen regular things happen,for example: for 8.r5 Wifeleaves work. 8.3o Postman comes. washing the breakfast up dishes. 9.1o I finish

I

Revision exercises | 153

r

They shouldthen write the words to be reviewedagainstthe times, asthey find appropriate. Variation 3 Ask eachstudent to draw a map of their district, and to mark on it one or more of the routesthey regularly follow (for example,to work, to school,to a friend's house).On this map they shouldthen placethe words to be reviewed. Comments Placingwords or ideasto be rememberedin your houseor alongyour high streetis one of the oldestmemory techniquesknown. It was this that was usedby Shereshevskii, prodigiousmemory man studied the inA. R.Ltsria.TheMindof aMnemoni.st. Penguin, t975.

11.5 Leaping words
Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 10-15minutes Aims Toget students to'draw'words asa simplebut creative way of rememberi vocabulary visually. ng Procedure 1 Ask the studentsto chooser5 words they flnd hard to remember from the last few pagesof their vocabularynotebooks.They should checkthem through with a neighbour or you and/ora dictionary. 2 They shouldnow rewrite the words using the shapes and sizesof the letters to bring out the meanings. 3 Ask them to get up and move around the room to show their designs to asmany peopleaspossible,explaining why they seeparticular words thus. Example Inonegroup waswritten spif

J P I

/F

T

byonestudenl, andjealousya spiral another. as by

EtJ ,A g 5 Y -o
Acknowledgements We first learnt this technique from Michael Legutke,Germany.

154 | Revision exercises

11.6 Findthe word a picture
to Beginner advanced Time 20-40 minutes to Aims Toget students link words and visualimages. Materials Word cards;a collectionof magazinepictures(seePreparation). Level Preparation that Select6o words from the work done during previousclasses Selectroo pictures or card. needrevising.Put eachword on a separate (Ratherthan selectthe pictures one parts of pictures from magazines. by one, it is much more effective,aswell aslesstime-consuming,to keep a box ofunsorted pictures (or parts ofpictures) cut from etc.,and then grab a handful wheneveryou needthem. magazines Try to get your studentsto add to the box: that way your own tastes will not restrict the variety.) Procedure Give out the word cardsto the students:if you have twenty students, eachwill get three cards;if thirty, eachwill get two. round the room. Ask the Spread magazinepictures on flat surfaces get up and circulate.Their task is to find a picture that the studentsto somehowmatcheseachof their words. It is up to them to decidehow. Tell them that the picture doesn'thave to illustrate the word directly' with by but may symbolizeit, or be suggested it through association You shouldbe availableto help studentswho don't context or setting. remembertheir words. Ask the studentsto explain to eachother how they have matched their words and pictures.Eachshould talk to at leastfive other people.

@

words pictures and foundbetween of students examples links are Examples Here some gave: they andtheexplanations
Words rage awell hostility Pictures violently a policeman off carrying a smallchild u a m a nd r o w n i n g n d e r a bridge people a poorquarter in jeering t anarmed a policeman p l u s hs h i n y u s h i o n s , c on a settee a girl runningacross a street two motherholding y o u n gc h i l d r e n

Explanations 'lt makes angry.' me

forger guilt sprocket

'Because leather false.' looks the 'Because feelsguilt.' she 'Theylook as closeas a sprocket i st o a w h e e l . '

exercises 155 Revision |

3 Repeatsteps1 and z asoften asyou wish. then says:'The word on my card rhymes withguess. B: Isit sometling girl wears? a A: No. for example. Acknowledgements The ideafor this activity camefrom Hurwitz and Goddard. Procedure Lesson 1 Put the words on the board. They do this by asking questions. the StudentA might guess.then tell the studentsto draw a picture for eachword ashomework.not stress.There is no reason the why theseshould only be onesthat canbe easilydrawn.7 Rhymingreview Level Elementary advanced to Time 20-30 minutes Aims To providea simpleauditory review of vocabulary. D: Isitwhatapriest does? A: No. Suppose word on the card is mess. 1 1. 155 | Revision exercises . 15-20minutesin the second. Preparation Choose words you want the studentsto review.' A choose 2 The other studentsin the group then haveto discoverwhat the word on A's card is.ittsn't dress. r9 72. which also focuses pronunciation spelling. Preparation Choose ro-r5 words and put eachon a separate card. Procedure 1 Eachstudent is given a word card and askedto think of a word that rh5rmes with it. grring a new card to a different student eachtime.@ 11.rather than simply shouting out the words they think of.Gcnnesto Improv YourChild' English. on and Materials Word cards(seePreparation). peoyie livein cities alot? who C: Isit something feel A: No.8 Draw the word Level Beginnertoadvanced Time 5 minutesin the first class. e s Kayeand Ward.notbless. Aims Toget students visualize to words asa meansof remembering them.

crowned. working individually.opposite. focusingon meaningand context.and one by one individuals shouldtake a picture from the pool and try to guessthe words representedand tJ'e links betweenthem. or'groping definition' (see put one of theseon a card. a handing bagto another.) the cyclist's gates. observation A fire-watching of stages growthf rom infancy. at emphasize A teacher a blackboard that explained thiswas gazingat a van. A childat various todevelop Variation 1 Write the words on the blackboardin arbitrary pairs.as Studentswho they will need to find words to explain their drawings' words 11. on a separate below) and honesty dictionary definition.9 Matching to Level Elementary advanced Time 15-30minutes Aims To review words. all the pictures should be pooled. or form groupsof four to five students.showingtheir drawings to each other and explaining why they feel the drawings flt the words. exercises 157 Revision | . skill tower in a forest. Materials 30 word cardsand 30 definitions cards(seePreparation). by A house surrounded highwallsand locked exclusive on A pottermakinga vase a wheel. aboutto be Example tnterre9num Onekingdeadon the groundand anotheralive.In eachgroup. replacement One person a receiving brickfrom a helper.Put eachone card.For eachword flnd a slmonym. two underlining words. 2 Ask the students. Comments 'cannot draw' may benefit more than thosewho can.Lesson 2 Ask the studentsto work in pairs. to draw pictures linking the words in eachpair. simultaneously. sothatyou endup with thfuty cardsthat match the thirtvword cards.(Thestudent A cyclist desire for desire the van. A bricklayer to receive from the top of a high tryingto get something A person to reoch cupboard. Eitheraskthe studentsto show their picturesto one or two neighboursand explain the links shown. Preparation Selectnot more than thirtywords that needreviewing.

Heinemann. Bererand M. Why do it yourself? Simply choosethe words you want revised(or askthe studentsto choose) and aska more advanced group to provide the synonyms. Ask a student to call out one of theirwords: the personwith the matching card then callsout the matchingword or deflnition. 1 1 . Procedure Ask the studentsto pick out 20 words they feel needreviewing from recent work and to checkthey know what they mean.Theywill be delightedto know their work is being put to a directly practicaluse. Mazes. Variation The preparation outlined abovetakesquite a bit of time. 1 0Gift words Level Beginner advanced to Time 20 minutes Aims To review vocabularyand at the sametime to establishor improve rapportwithin a group. us The idea ofusing 'gfoping definitions' hasbeen usedin M. Rinvolucri. and what is on them (this reduceschaos).@ Here are examplesfor fourwords: word cards matchingcards tact oravery eregance honesty diplomacy cowardice the quality being of refined graceful or it begins ith 'h'w b u t t h e ' h ' i s n ' ts o u n d e d you cantrustsomeone who hasit-they won't lieto you (synonym) (opposite) (dictionary inition) def (groping definition) Procedure Give eachstudent one or two of the word cardsand one or two of the matching cards(dependingon classsize)and askthem to get up and mill around the room trying to find cardsto match their own. TeIl them to put the words eachon a slip of paper.oppositesand deflnitions to put on card. This goeson until all the cardshavebeen matched. 158 | Revision exercises .and to write on eachslip the name of a personin the group for whom the word would be an appropriategift. Ask them to note down who hasthe cardscorrespondingto theirs. Acknowledgements Mike Laverygave the outline of this exercise.r98r.

apy chrn s propo sed by Ted Saretsky in Aaiv eTe que and GroupPsy . Acknowledgements This exerciseis a transpositionof an activity usedin therapy and chother . 1 1 Forced to Level Elementary advanced Time 15-25minutes by Aims Togenerateconversation a fast and energeticreview of words. you might thesepairs: choose spring-well -waterfall estuary drownrng floating starfish-whale lake-river sprntkler gogg. The other half move round taking the words they feel they would like and explaining why. who to any fence-sitters chooseone end of the room. Repeat Steps z. Insist that theywork in pairs. and 3 with a newpair ofwords.you want studentsto review'water words'. Aronsotr. If. the giver should explain the meaning. for example. Oblige Now askthe peopleto talk to their neighboursin pairs and explain why they choseasthey did. and the reasonfor the gift. Variation Half the classsit with their word slips spreadout in front of them.les Procedure Get all the studentsstandingin the middle of the room.not clusters of three or more. exercises 159 Revision | .sothat there is an oppositionwithin eachpair.If the receiverof a word doesnot understandit. Ask studentsfrom one end of the room to go over and talk to the peoplewho madethe oppositechorce.a977 Jason choice 1 1 . Tell them you are going to offer them a choice:they are going to have to choose which thing they think they are most like. r.3 Everyonenow gets up and mills around giving the words away. If you are working with wateryolJmight say: Peoplewhothinktheyarelikea springmustgoto that endof ther oompeople think theyarelikea wellmustgo to theotherendof theroom. Seta time-limit of no more than one minute for eachexchange. Preparation half a dozenpairs of words from a vocabularyareato be Choose revised.

StudentA looks at the flrst word on the card and asksB a questionaimed at getting B to saythe word. A:What'sthenounforthatT B:'lnyasion'. Acknowledgements We found this technique in Byrne and Rixon (Eds. A:\Mat did theAmericans to VietnamT do B:Bombedit? A: Yes andwhathave Israelis . Values Aarifi cation. Preparation Select3o-4o words that needreviewing. Second EIT edition. They alternateuntil all the words on both cards havebeen dealt with...1982. This is howit cango: The first word on A's card is invasion. Preparecardswith ten words on each.Everystudentwill needto be given one ten-word card. 11. 150 | Revision exercises .).12 Question and answer Level Elementary advanced to Time 15-25 minutes Aims To practisethe vocabularyunder review interactivelyand in new contexts.Howe and Kirschenbaum. Simon.l979.B. Guider. NFER PublishingCo. the often done Lebcmon? to B:Attackedit? A:lNhatdoyousaywhen country one moves annyintoanother? an B:It irwades it. Commtnication Games. Materials One word cardfor eachstudent (seePreparation). Procedure Pair the students. StudentA must not show their card to student B. Hart Co.Acknowledgements We learnt this technique from S.A fires more questionsuntil B saysthe word. IfA's questiondoesnot elicit from B the word on A's card. B doesthe sameto A.Give eachpersona card and ensurethat partners have different cards.

Acknowledgements The activitycomes fromViola Spolin'sgoldmine of dramaideas. 2 Call out a member of eachteam and show them one word. The studentspair offand tell eachother their stories. Havet]'e two teams Go at assemble one end of the classroom.then explain how they chosethose particular words.not on paper) by suggested the words they have chosen. Put zo words to be reviewedeachon a separate Procedure Divide the classinto two teams. Eachstudent then makesup a story (mentally. Preparation card. I@ 11. Procedure Put up the words on tfre board or overheadprojector.or whisper! The first team that the recognizes word from the drawing and shoutsit out correctly gets a point. to the other end yourself.Ask the studentsto checkany words they don't remember the meaning of. Materials Word cards(seePreparation).14 Wordrush to Level Beginner intermediate Time 10 minutes Aims To review words in an energetic. Ask individual studentsto pick six or sevenwords from those on the board. InT rovisation theTheatre. 1 3 Wordsto story Level to Elementary advanced Time 20-30 minutes Aims To useoral storytellingto review words.1 1 . t}re 3 Eachteam member rushesback to their team and drawsor mimes word.A and B.non-wordy way. Pitman. They must not write. Preparation Choose3o-4o words that need revising. speak. for Revision exercises | 161 . 1963.

16 Multi-sensory revision Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40 minutes Aims To get studentsto choosewhether to reviselinguistically. Procedure Lesson 1 For homework. to cometo the front. Lesson 2 Checkthat the studentsdo knowthe meaningsof the words they have put on their slips of paper. Taketwo slips at random and make a comparativesentenceabout them and put it up on the board. 152 | Revision exercises . askthe studentsto go back over the last five units of the coursebook. 1 5Comparing random words Level Elementary advanced to Time 5 minutesin the first lesson. auditorilyor visually. kinaesthetically.yormight write: The camel ebfurtherawaythanbey ond.Spread the slipsfacedown over all the teacher's desk. and eachpick out ten words they find it hard to remember the meaning of. fe OI The ccnnel morerealthoLnbeyond.@ 1 1 . pick two words. Acknowledgements We learnt this activity from a Chandlerand Stonearticle we found on the Web at http ://wrruwetprof o nal. minutesin the second 15 lesson. make a comparativesentenceabout them and put the sentence on up the board. Aims To provide a somewhatsurrealway of reviewing'hard-toremember'words. Comments If studentscannot remember a word. is Ask the students.If the two words are beyond and camel.com/ essi 11. They should put eachof thesewords on a separate slip of paper and bring the slips to their next class. Stopwhen the board is full.one at a time. then the chances that either are the word or the context(s)in which it hasbeen met failed to engage their attention.

Havea secretarycometo the board:the studentsdictate their words to the secretarywho writes them here and there over the board. otter. b Think about eachword and imagine it through your body..allow time for plenary feedback. Allow the studentsro-r5 minutes to work their way through the words.in Modern Holden's exercises 163 Revision | .Do for all the words. Acknowledgements the We cameacross abovefourways of revisingwords inWilliam Teacher 7999' 812.. introduction encouragestudentsto try more than one way.and all the d's' and within thesegroupingshavethe studentswork in threesor fours to describewhat they did with the words. Comments This activity allows the student to choosewhether to revise the linguistically. etc.all the b's. Propose thesefour waysthe studentscan revisethe words: so a Write the words out in a sequence that the last letter of word I is go. -. all the c's. The first time you usethis exercise.Add extra words if really necessary. the sameasthe flrst letter of word z. or visually. sound-associated d Get a picture in your mind of the idea behind eachword to be remembered. the c Associate word to be rememberedwith a word of similar might sound. Write down the word and the association. for example egg. Fnglish article'Learning to Learn'.Write down one word to remind you of eachpicture.soif the phraseto remember isfootballpitch. whichever way they wish.Groupall the a's. Ask the studentswhich way they choseto work on the word (a' b' c' or d).auditorily. kinaesthetically.)If you usethe exercisemore than once..Jot down the words.(See to Chapter6.yott this comeup vmthfoolishwitch.Procedure Ask the studentsto go back over the pastthree units in the and eachpull out ten words they find hard to remember coursebook or have already forgotten the meaning of. for example: rain:yotfeel the wet on your skin get betrayal:you the feeling of emptinessturning to anger.

The 'mini-sagas' popularizedin Britain by theDailyTelegraph storiesof exactly 5o are words.suchas limiting the number of times speciflcwords.I.or letters may be used.repetition.not.not eventhe articles.your students as block when you ask them "v\hitethree sentences using thesewords'. with the languageproblemsthe 'no repetition' rule imposes. tell them to make the sentences exactly elevenwords long.common verbs. other restrictions. Comments Rules. 3 As theywrite. 164 | Revision exercises .11. . . or roo words too lonfl Relaxthe restriction on articles. and to sit accordingly.or banning (or insisting on) specificwords (and.etc.\.can stimulate and encourage well asrestrict a writer. Variations Experimentwith differentword counts:is 3o words too short. but may include repetition. sounds.even. If.17 Writing to rule Level Elementary advanced to Time 30-40 minutes Aims To encourage studentsto extractas much meaningasthey canfrom words by limitingthe numberthey areallowedto use. or deviation'.Doesthis make the activity more or lesscreative? Invent.etc.or perhapsespecially.helping verbs. parlour and radio The gameJust aMinuteasksplayersto speakon a theme for exactly one minute 'without hesitation. for example. 2 Now tell them that they are to writ e exactly words and that no 5o word may be repeated. Tell them to listen criticallyjust in casethere hasbeen an unwitting repetition. arbitrary ones.Ask them to decidewhether t-Ileyprefer to work alone or in pairs. Procedure 1 Tell the studentsthey are going to be writing a 5o-wordstory. help.. or get the studentsto invent. when requested. Acknowledgements We found this activity in Michael Lewis(1993). 4 Group the studentsin sixesto enjoy listening to eachother's stories.

London: HarperCollins. the human word-store or London: Ashton-Warner. crosswords and chronograms. Based on the the Cobuild corpus. Workrngwith Words. and find the ones we want. Bandler. Subtitled'Language and therapy'. Fre i re. Gairns. Pearson.r nnotatedb i b l i o g a p h y An Aitchison. ETp-Delta.Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Second edition. it defines those predictable elements that make change happen in language-based transactions. Practical. Mo na. describing their history and social context. Bateson. London: HarperCollins.Palo /Jto: Science and Behavior Books. :992. t986. Boulder. r97s. with remarkable insight into children's motivations to learn. r97z. Pau Io. Provides ideas and guidelines on when and how to use the mother tongue not just for convenience but as a real. 1994. Teacher. The cultural and political power of words. evolution and much else that goes to make up Bateson's view of the mind as a network of interactions relating the individual with his society. Sheelagh and Mario Rinvolucri.Teaching LearningThrough Second edition. Ayto. Augarde. Examines twenty-six forms of word game including Scrabble and Spoonerisms. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Addresses the need for a systematic approach to training in translation studies by exploring various areas oflanguage and relating the theoretical findings to the actual practice of translation. Experiences ofa teacher in New Zealand. remember.WordsrntheMind: Introductionto the Mental LexiconSecond edition. Delfer. Co. Secker andWarburg. Gregory. The flrst systematic theoretical treatment of vocabulary acquisition. Collected essaysin anthropology. and vital resource. Gregory. Ruth and Stuart Redman. Cultural Actionfor Freedom. Bruce Campbell. Bateson. Aunique retrospective of the twentieth century providing insight into the development ofthe English language decade by decade. t99t.London: Routledge. zooz. ASacredUnity: Further of StepstoanEcoTogt Mtnd. John. Sylvia. New York Multiple Intelligences. Grammar Patternsr Verbs. The author discussesthe structure and content of 'mental lexicon'. in the context of adult literary prograrnmes. Sheila Levy. The second edition contains 'latest intelligences'. t963.: Paladin Books. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richard and John Grinder. with around 5ooo new words and usages. 2oo1. understand. t998.Letters. Allyn and Bacon. Words andhowwe learn.StepstoanEcologrof Mind. and Dee cmd Dickinson. A second volume ofcollected essays. psychiatry. Jean. Usingthe Mother Tongue. In OtherWords: a Courseb on Translation. :998. B i b l i o g r a p h y1 6 5 | . Tony. TheStruchtreof Magic. and Ma rio Ri nvof u qi. living. :'996. ook Bake r. :999. Oxford: Blackrvell. workable ideas based on Gardner's theories. Nicky. riddles and puns. Twentteth-Cenhtry Oxford: Oxford University Press. Words. Linda.(in this series) Campbell.Oxford: Oxford University Press. Peta Gray. 7973. OxfordGuidetoWord Garnes. Burbidge. materials based on the Co| |i ns Cob u i Id.

New York: for BasicBooks. Intelligence amed: Mullryle Intelligences the 27stCentury. Silver. t977. Y ohtme z ChangingCouples. Earl. but extended this to elementary and secondary educationfiom gifted students to children with severe learning disabilities. AWay andWays.Second edition.'Towards a new approach to modelling vocabulary acquisition' in Schmitt. University Press. Ha Iey. t997. Elizabeth (ed. NewYork: Triangle Press. for London: Pitman. 1999. Methods. Memory.First published in London. Paul.Vocabulary: Desription. Stevick. McCarthy (eds. New York: Perigee Books/Putnam. A. Practises reading skills. Maine: Samuel Weiser. An introduction to and many practical examples of using a broad. (ed. Perini. of Mind: Gard ner.Irnprovisation the Theatre. memory training. Yiola. Rowley.1997.). Meara. Oxford: Oxford University Press. multiple intelligences approach to the teaching of mathematics. A synthesis of Gardner's ideas aimed at parents. Mass. TheOxford Dictionary of NewWords. Simon and Schuster. 196g. ErickonVolumes r-3. Michael.Dictionaries. Spof in. McCarthy. Wright. Rowley.:NewburyHouse.Richard W. rggga. Jay. based on tlte cANcoDE spokencorpus. R.). and Matthew J. Va. Acquisitionand Pedagogt. N.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 166| Bibliography . Earl. The book explores the larger questions ofwhat an educated person should be and how such an education can be achieved. The book's main principles are that language consists of grammaticalized lexis not lexicalized grammar. and the general public alike. Eu g e ne. Lewis. r g 8S. Volume t Changinglndniduals. Wash. Gives a central role to the spoken language in the syllabus. :1996. Math for Humans:Teaching Math Through I Intelligences. Howard. and enables the reader to learn these patterns of excellence.Spoken Langtage and Cambridge : Cambridge Applied Linguistics. Strong.Oxford: Oxford University Press. SoEachMay Learn: lntegrattng Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. rggg. 1998.Langley. M ichael. Wah f. Itbrings together a number of separate studies by the author. Harvey F. Particularly good as a survey ofviews on memory and vocabulary retention. r99o. Spolin worked with students and professionals in the theatre. rg8o.Reft Gardner. gg9. YorkBeach. educators. Nexandria. Jon. Describes what good communicators do differently.London: HarperCollins. zooo. and MJ. Discussesthe KeyWord approach. A collection of essaysfiom the long-time editor of the magazine NewAge. Mass.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. lntroducing NLP. 'new' An excellent suwey of methods in language teaching. 1998. Cre e Growth GcLrnes.). Stevick.:Newbury House.Meaningand Method. Howard. t999b. Orage. 'have fun with and encourages learners to dictionaries'.Hove: Language Teaching Publications. Volume g Changing and Childr en and Families all explore Ericks on' s contribution to therapy as various kinds of linguistic intervention to bring about change. OnLow andPsychologtrcal Exercises. A collection of 75 games to expand creativity and make you think. Mark. TheDisciplined New York: What Nl Students ShouldUnderstand. The story ofaround zooo words and phrases prominent in the media or the public eye in the r98os and r99os. : Livnlern Press. Rationales and research-based principles of learning that support integrated learning to help educators process ideas and analyse their current practices. Knowfes. Conversationswith Milt on H. TheLexical Approach. atfu Rau dsep p.. r93o. A progress report on how the theory of multiple intelligences has evolved since it was flrst set forth in Howard Gardner's 1983 bookFrcLrnes Mind. O'Conno[ Joseph and John Seymour. includes instruments for identi$ring style and intelligence proflles. materials and teacher training are discussed.(in this series) Makes learners aware of the wealth of information in most ELT dictionaries.

German. M i ke.com/elVglobal/cata logue/multi media Probably the most powerful. Tony.Oxford Oxford Phrasebuilder University Press.com http://www.oed.cobui ld.com/thesa Crosswordsoftware ailty.crosswordCrossword puzzle-maker.oup.com FreeN Lexical etThesaurus: O Dictionary nline.copern ic.u k or http://www. m/ lexf http://www. Compiler httpl lwww.co.ltd.Concordancesoftware and online resources CollinsCobuild u http://titan ia. http://www.wordreference. rjcw. ua Roget'sThesaurus. Oxford University.freeserve.genius2000. hcu. with concordances limited to ao hits.http'. Scott. World Edition.co. queryengine.colIi ns. C. http://devoted. R. Dictionariesand thesaurionline ANd CD-ROMS Collins bilingual dictionaries (Spanish. dance.com/ GenLe.ox.l lwww.htm 6. Collocationaldictionary which integrates and web browser.freeuk. Concor http://www.neVdhar risonlpuzzlesl utility. J.u k/BNC Free trial available. Humanitie s Computing Unit.Crossword Casson.vis lt hesa rus. http://home. Ross. Search software for the Bntish NationaTCorpus. David. versatile and learner-centric corpus tools available. Dodd. cD-RoM.com Coyternic Powerful. French): co http ://www. Watts. http://www. generalized search and query software.uk Text analysis and concordancing software used in a wide range ofsubject areas. SAM-32.com Crossword Maestro. Utility. with your word processor g Thes Pfumb Desi n. Henry. Will give you 5o hits fi:om the roo million-word British National Corpus. k 'Bank Offers a free trial use of a section of the of English'corpus. ou p. B i b l i o g r a p h y1 6 7 | . uri http://www bartl eby. Italian. n. Beresfo rd.ac.co. [ee. Oxford English htto://www.TEA& Symp uk http://bryson. Visual aurus. Wordsmith Tools. u com htt p://www.to/corpora Frequently updated corpus website reporting on new developments in corpora and concordance software.

6. r3 lexico-grammar 3 memory 81 mother tongue 3.2.7. 7. 7.8 multi-sensory4.8.ro. Languageindexes in appear more than oneindex.3.11.8.76 opposite meanings 7.4.4. 4. Howard 81.2 thesaurus ro.9.15.8.8 conceptwords 6. 7.L.7.t5.tt. 6.10.t3 categoriesof words 11.17. 6. t:. 6.6 parts ofspeech 4.63. r:.a-4o.9.65 Erickson.7.2.165 association 7 Bateson.5.2.8...z.7.8. General index Aitchison. ::l.Gregory 8r.11.. 4.7.9.6.9.7.t4. 9.9. 71.8 gender r.7 6.6.9.15.7o colour 6.2.9.77. 6.j.6.9.5 8.4.5.Caleb r+9 Intemet 11.6.8.8 prototypes 7.8. 6.2.2.s concordances S. 6. 2. r1.71r storytelling 2.Index are In the generalindexreferences to pagenumbers. preflxes 9.2 sensorypreferences 6.4. 2.4. 9.6 visual 4.3 email z.8. 8. 2.ra also memory (see association) t.Z.S.9 male words r.t relaxation 6.6.6.42.8.9.16 11.5. 1. 8r neurolinguistic programming (NLP) 3.5 aL4. a1.4.t6 168| Index .:il^.10.3 weather vocabulary 5.1.L. history ofwords 2.5. 9. context a.7 learning by heart 2.9 femalewords r.5. 70.2.4.8.9.ro 5.5.8.5..r.4.4. corpora 5.2.t5 ambiguous words 4. 7. ro perception 6.5 11.3.7.2. 82 Shereshevskiie54 wordflelds 7o1.3.2 word order 4.5 foodvocabulary 7.6.2 synonyms 5.in the Topicsand Sometermsmay ate references to activity numbers.6.9. prototypes 1o8.12.6. 52 multiple intelligences 3. perception 6.5 Topics also association(see memory) r.5 adjectives 6.4. Language abstractvocabulary 6.13 animals 6.r2.7.r auditory 61 6. 2.3.7 peer teaching 6. 6.81.14.8 homophones 4.r prediction L1. 11.7r.6. homonyms 4. t55 collocation 3.6.2. 71.s.5 spatial 6.8 verb phrases 5. Jean 11o.7. 6.78 learning styles 3.L0.2.9. 6.77. e3z Gardner.5 translation 4.2 definitions 2. 6.165 sensorypreferences 9. Milton 8r.r4 ro. 5.6.166 Gategno.5.7.8 collocation s.15. 70.1. 7.65 context 28 corpora3..4 dictation 4. 7.9. 1.2.6.s.S.7 crosswords 9.5.6.2-5.8.11o.3.5.5 concordances 3.t2.a2 2..6.t4 kinaesthesic 5. 7.9. trees 5. 8.ao.11.5.8 word hierarchy 7.5.

materials. preparation. and The activitiesareclearlypresented.RESOURCE B @ K SF O R TEACHERS series editor Alan Maley givesteachers. follow-up and activities. Eachbookincludes an introduction and up to roo classroom ideas. variations. time.4 8 ililillti .19 . techniques.4 4 2 1 6 . monitoring. materials. and ofFer teachers all the information they needaboutappropriate level. This series trainers. classroom management. OXFORD ENGLISH r s B N0 . practical and trainee teachers guidance keyaspects in oflanguage teaching.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful