С.Ф.

Леонтьева

Теоретическая фонетика английского языка
ИЗДАНИЕ ВТОРОЕ, ■ИСПРАВЛЕННОЕ И ДОПОЛНЕННОЕ Допущено Министерством просвещения СССР в качества учебника дпя студентов .вечернего и заочного отделений педвузов

МОСКВА «ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА» 1988

ВИС 81.2 Англ=923 Л 47

Рецензент: кафедра английского языка Тульского государственного педагогического института им. Л. Н. Толстого (зав. кафедрой д-р филол. наук проф. В. Я. Плоткин)

Леонтьева С. Ф. Л 47 Теоретическая фонетика английского языка: Учеб. для студентов вечер, и заоч. отд-ний педвузов.—2-е изд., испр. и доп.—М.: Высш. шк., 1988.—271 с, ил. На обл, загл.: S. F. Leontyeva. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics.

Основы теоретической фонетики изложены в учебнике кратко и в доступной форме. Вопросы к каждому разделу, упражнения, контрольные задания, ключ дают возможность овладеть материалом самостоятельно. Таблицы, схемы, рисунки обеспечивают наглядность учебного материала. В конце учебника дан словарь фонетических терминов. Учебник написан ка английском языке.

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БВК 81.2 Англ-923 4И (Англ)

© Издательство «Высшая школа», 1Ш © Издательство «Высшая школа»,

■ ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Учебник является вторым изданием теоретического курса фонетики английского языка для студентов вечернего к. заочного отделений педагогических институтов, опубликованного в 1980 году. В переработанном и дополненном тексте -учебника учтены замечания, сделанные в адрес первого издания, использованы новые материалы по теоретической и практической фонетике, выпущенные в последние годы. Цель учебника — помочь студентам — будущим учителям общеобразовательных школ овладеть основами теории фонетики для улучшения навыков владения речью, для более качественной их подготовки к практической работе в школе в качестве учителей английского языка. При составлении учебника автор руководствовался требованиями, изложенными в программе по теоретическому курсу фонетики английского языка: 1. Ознакомить студентов с современным состоянием науки о фонети ческом строе английского языка, обобщить и углубить знания по фонетике, полученные студентами при изучении нормативного курса, развить у них способность делать самостоятельные практические выводы из наблюдений «ад теоретическим материалом. 2. Научить студентов применять теоретические положения курса в преподавании английского языка. Это касается, например, таких вопросов, как выбор учебной нормы произношения, транскрибирование, типы произ носительных ошибок, применение результатов фонологического анализа при обучении произношению и др. Задача учебника — систематизировать элементы фонетической теории и дать на этой основе более полные знания о всех компонентах фонетического строя современного английского языка в их системе и в сопоставлении с фонетическим строем родного языка. Учебник включает в себя десять разделов. Объем каждого раздела определяется спецификой материала. Особое внимание уделяется описанию звуков речи: разделы И, I I I , IV, V. Каждый из десяти разделов состоит из четырех частей: 1) теоретической части; 2) вопросов; 3) упражнений; 4) контрольных заданий. Материал учебника иллюстрируется рисунками, схемами и таблицами, которые объясняют механизм артикуляции и способствуют лучшему пониманию и усвоению английского произношенияВ учебнике имеется словарь фонетических терминов и ключ к наиболее трудным упражнениям (они помечены звездочкой), что необходимо для самостоятельного изучения предмета.

М етоди ческие реко м ендации
Теоретический материал дан в учебнике в минимальном объеме. При подготовке к подробному обсуждению отдельных тем следует рекомендовать дополнительную литературу, указанную в библиографическом списке. Так как учебник предназначен специально для студентов вечернего и заочного отделений, звуки речи описаны в нем и как артикуляционные « как функциональные единицы. Это дает возможность студентам повторить нормативный курс, связать теорию с практикой живой речи. Большое внимание уделено в пособии описанию артикуляторно-дистрибутивных свойств 'фонем, что способствует пониманию роли их реально звучащих в речи звуковых вариантов — аллофонов. В учебнике широко используется транскрибирование. Это имеет немаловажное значение для создания прочной произносительной базы и дальнейшего сохранения нормативного произношения, что особенно необходимо учителю иностранного языка. 3

Вопросы по теоретическому материалу учебника являются основой для контроля усвоения изученного материала. Регулярная работа с упражнениями помогает овладеть теоретическим материалом. Контрольные задания дают возможность проверить знания студентов. Упражнения на тренировку наиболее трудных звуковых переходов ъ системе английского вокализма и консонантизма в сравнении с русским языком помогут учащимся улучшить произношение и сознательно подойти к исправлению ошибок. Работа над упражнениями, связанными с определением различий в минимальных парах, основанных на принципах классификации фонем, способствует более глубокому пониманию смыслоразличительных функций звуковых единиц, учит студентов самостоятельно проводить фонетикофонологический анализ. В упражнениях раздела «Фонемы и орфография» следует обратить внимание на тренировку чтения и письма имен собственных и географических названий — наиболее сложного материала при овладении произношением английского языка. Упражнения на понимание структуры слога, роли сонорности и напряженности артикуляции в слогообразовании, на соотношение произносительного, морфологического и орфографического слога рассчитаны на сознательное овладение слоговой структурой английской речи. Упражнения на овладение акцентным компонентом фонетического строя неразрывно связаны с задачами обучения произношению в единстве всех его компонентов. Раздел «Интонация» содержит упражнения, рассчитанные на понимание структурных особенностей интонации, ее роли в овладении английской речью. Для интенсификации учебного процесса на вечернем и заочном отделениях рекомендуется выносить часть материала на обсуждение в научноисследовательских студенческих кружках по теоретической и практической фонетике. Можно также рекомендовать: а) обсуждение докладов по отдельным проблемам теоретической фонетики; б) отчеты о работе кружков (под руководством членов секций теоретической фонетики) в школе во время педагогической практики студентов; в) анализ фонетической части школьных учебников на материале, собранном студентами во время педагогической практики. Большую роль в изучении теоретической фонетики на вечернем и заочном отделениях играет изготовление студентами наглядных пособий: таблиц, схем, рисунков строения органов речи и артикуляции звуков. В связи со спецификой работы на вечернем и заочном отделениях рекомендации автора к изучению теоретической фонетики носят общий характер. Преподаватель в каждом конкретном случае может творчески адаптировать материал в соответствии с особенностями аудитории и уровнем подготовки групп. Структура учебника дает возможность варьировать методические приемы для выполнения требований программы. Автор

CONTENTS

I. THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF PHONETICS ................................. Q u estio n s .................................................................................................... E x e r i s e s.................................................................................................... c C o n t r o l T a s ......................................................................................... ks

8 14 14 17

II. SO U N D S O F S PE E C H A S A C O U ST IC A N D A R T IC U L A T O R Y U N I T ...................................................................................................... S 19 A c o u s t i c A s p e c t o f S p1 eS o u n d........................................................ . ech s 19 A r t i c u l a t o r y a n d P h y s i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t o f S p e e c. h . S o u .n d. s . . 21 Questions.................................................................................................. 25 Exercises............................................................................................... . 25 Control Tasks ......................................................................................... 25 Articulatory and Physiological Classification of English Consonants 25 Differences in the Articulation Bases of English and Russian Consonants and Their Peculiarities........................................................................... . 31 Q u estio n s ...........................-..................................................................... 33 E xe rc ises .................................................................................................. 33 C o n t r o l T a s......................................................................................... ks 35 A r t i c u l a t o r y a n d P h y s i o l o g i c a il f i claatsi s n o f E n g l i s h V o w e.l s . C o . 35 D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e A r t i c u l a t i o n B a s e s o f E n g l i s h a n d R u s s i a n 2V o w e l s 4 Questions.................................................................................................. 43 Exercises................................................................................................... 44 Control Tasks ........................................................................................... 47 III. FUNCTIONAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS ............................... Q u e s t .i o n . s . , « ..................................................................... > ■ < Exercises.................................................................................................. C o n t r o l T a s.......................................................................................... ks E n gl i s h C o n s o n a n t s a s U n i t s o f t h e P h o n o l o g i c........................... al System Q u e stio n s .................................................................................................. E x e r c i s e s ..................•...................................................•....................... C o n t r o l T a s........................................................................................... ks E n g l i s h V o w e l s a s U n i t s o f t h e P h o n o l o g i c a l . S .y s. t e. m. . . . . . Questions.................................................................................................. Exercises............................................................................................... . Control Tasks ........................................................................................... Consonant Phonemes. Description of Principal Variants .............................. Occlusive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Plosives) /p, b, t, d, k, g/ Questions.................................................................................................. Exercises................................................................................................... Occlusive Nasal Sonorants /m, n, n/ ................................................ Questions.................................................................................................. Exercises.................................................................................................. Constrictive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Fricatives) /s, z, f, v Э, h, , Ö, 48 5 4 54 57 57 61 62 63 63 67 67 68 68 69 74 74 75 77 77

Questions.................................................................................................. 83 Exercises.........................................................................,......................... 83 Constrictive Sonorants (Approximants) /r, j,1, w/....................... 85 Q u e s t i .................................................................................................. ons 39 E x e r c i .................................................................................................. ses 90 O cclu siv e-C o n strictiv e N o i s e P h o n / et m ,а e з/s . . ( .A f f r 9i 1 a t e s ) f c Questions.................................................................................................. 93 Exercises.................................................................................................. 93 Subsidiary Variantsof English Consonant Phonemes ............................. 93 5

L l .......................................................................... z

l\

........................................... 185 Exercises....................................................................... a) Monophthongs..................................................................... STRONG AND WEAK FORMS................... Questions....... UNSTRESSED VOCALISM 190 Questions.......................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 'Subsidiary Variants of English Vowel Phonemes... Exercises...................... ENGLISH PHONEMES IN WRITING........................................................ Questions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Assimilation.......................................................................... SYLLABLE................................................................................................. Control Tasks............................................. Exercises............................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................. Graphic Characteristics of the Syllable.................................... 188 VIII................................................ Control Tas!is....... |03 10 « 105 105 105 Uf П5 18 19 119 123 125 125 ^ 134 136 {37 I42 И2 343 И5 145 150 51 152 154 157 Questions.................................................................................................................................................................................................... ARTICULATORY TRANSITIONS OF VOWEL AND CONSO NANT PHONEMES........................................................................................................................................................................ Questions........................ Control Task...................................................................... 186 Control Tasks.................................. Quecsions.............................. Centring Diphthongs...................... ........................................................................................................................................• • Emtises.................................. Control Tasks......................................................................... 170 174 175 176 176 178 VII........................................................................................................................................................................................................Questions........................................................................................ IV...................163 Control Tasks.... 179 Questions........................................................................................... Vowel Phonemes.... 196 Exercises............. STRESS............................................................................................................ 196 Control Tasks................................................................. Control Tasks.............................................. 164 VI....................... or Simple Vowels................................. 167 Theories of Syllable Formation and Syllable Divisjon.................. Functional Characteristics of the Syllable........................................................................................................................................ Exercises.............................................................................................. or Complex Vowels.............................................. 162 Exercises. Exercises.............. Description of Principal Variants................ Jb) Diphthongs...................................... Closing Diphthongs............................................................ 197 ..................... Л) Diphthongs....... Questions...................... Elision........................................... a) Unchecked and Checked Vowels........................................................ Control Task.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. V................................................................... Exercises.....

................................................................................................... X.............................. Melody........ Exercises..... Glossary of Phonetic Terms.......................................................................................................... RECEIVED AND GENERAL AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION The S ys te m o f A me ri can En gl is h C onsona nt s....... The A cce nt ua l S tr uc tu re of Wo rds i n Ame ri can Engl ish.... Stylistic Use of Intonation.................... Key to Exercises...... •. ..................................................................... INTONATION............................................. Questions.... P a u s a t i o n a n d T a m be r..IX........................................................................................................................................... Bibliography ........ The S ys te m o f A me ri can En gl is h Vowel s........ 198 19a 2011 202 203 204 205 205 20a 2"1# 213' 21/" 2211 22SP 22^ 224 227 244* 270 ........................................................................................................................ Control Tasks.............................................. Exercises....................................................................................... Sentence Stress.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Intonation in American English....................................................................................... Questions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Rhythm and Tempo..................................................................................................................................................................... or Accent....................................

Friedrich.I." "First labour. Written documents and evidences from ancient civilizations point to an awareness of speech. It stated phonetic symbols for sounds of many existing languages. after it and then with it. The results. 359-360. Karl and Engels. speech—these were the two most essential stimuli under the influence of which the brain of the ape gradually changed into that of man . embodied in a series of Sanskrit texts. 1877 gramophone was invented. . were first introduced to the West only some 80 years ago.. and written documents show that voice and speech always fascinated men. 1970. higher and higher aims. Here are some data connected with the history of phonetic development: 1829 laryngoscope was invented. 356-357. 8 ." "By the combined functioning of hands. Necessity created the organ. Selected Works. . IPA started publications of a special phonetic magazine "Le Mattre Phonetique". arrived at the point where they had something to say to each other.—M. 1852 first observations of the vocal cords were made. speech organs and brain. . men ." г Ancient objects.—P. its origin and abnormalities a long time ago. . THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF PHONETICS The significance of language and speech becomes quite clear from the works of the classics of Marxism-Leninism who defined language as the most important means of human intercourse. men became capable of executing more and more complicated operations. . the undeveloped larynx of the ape was slowly but surely transformed by modulation to produce constantly more developed modulation. In India more than 2000 years ago there flourished a science of phonetics more advanced than any that has since been known until very recent times. Given below is a table of vowel symbols used in various systems of transcription: 1 Marx. . and the organs of the mouth gradually learned to pronounce one articulate sound after another. not only in each individual but also in society. drawings. and achieve. and stated that language and consciousness arouse in order to satisfy the human need for communication. and were able to set themselves. ". 1886 International Phonetic Association (IPA) was founded.

Some shapes of the transcription symbols demand special attention. EPD — English Pronouncing Dictionary (Jones.Windsor Lewis (1972) 1977) . It is not necessary to show any punctuation. /5/ is like a reversed 6 with a cross-stroke. e. Don't confuse orthography and phonemic representation. GIM —Gimson (1980) KR — Kruisinga (1975) DJ — Jones (1962) LAD . /B/ is like /b/ without an ascending stroke. Slant brackets are used to mark off phonemic transcription. inverted commas.g. Note that the stress always falls on the last item. /0/ is written as capital 0 with a cross-stroke. /bit/ not bit. e. etc. USSR /lju: <es *es V.Ladefoged (1975) JWL . Abbreviations and numbers should be transcribed in their full spoken form. Don't use any capital letters. full stops. /bed/ not bed. If necessary question marks and exclamation marks (?!) may be used to give an indication of intonation. I i: I i i 8 I I 8 9 10 12 13 14 17 18 19 И 15 16 20 bad bard rod caii wood root dug hurt about late rode tide loud boy pierce fares tours e е ж D е а 0 ю D: ее ш е U! u л з: э ei а « и» л а: э ei ai ъ э U а а ж U Л 9 se а D Э CD е эе а 0 D 0 л 3 9 № Л и et Л 9 и э: ei э 9 э: et ai 91) ei эи at 01 1Э эи аи ои au ао 01 1Э ai ou 01 au ai ow ai Di aco иэ 01 аи еэ «а га еэ иэ еэ иэ еэ иэ is 1Э И еэ еэ иэ Writing transcription symbols one should use the form of print rather than handwriting. Ill does not descend below the line.g. square brackets are used for allophones (see below). hyphens. should be excluded since they can be confused with intonation or stress markings.№ Example EPD GIM КК i I DJ LAD 1 2 3 5 6 7 4 Beed bid bed i: I 1.Commas. /tip/ not tip.

its aspects and functions. the past tense forms and past participles of English regular verbs. Vowel interchange is connected with the tense forms of irregular vverbs. house-houses /s—z/. waited /iweitid/. naked /ineikid/. libl—here. for instance: sing—sang—sung] write—wrote—written.g. etc. that we can pronounce the words books. /d/ is pronounced after voiced consonants (beg— begged). Some adjectives have a form with /id/. especially on the initial stage of studying. Phonetics is connected with linguistic and non-linguistic sciences: acoustics. It!—after voiceless consonants (wish—wished). are pronounced not only as we name the letters corresponding to them: the letter a as /ei/. Through the system of rules of reading phonetics is connected with grammar and helps to pronounce correctly singular and plural forms of nouns.g. Vowel interchange can also help to distinguish between 10 . Thus. the letter i as /ai/. folded /ifauldid/. goose — •geese /gu:s—gi:z/. the letter e as i'v. which in its turn is very closely connected with phonetics. for instance. logic. /a/ — car. physiology. 7sa/—care-. Vowel interchange helps to distinguish the singular and the plural of such words as: basis—bases /'beisis—<beisi:z/. The ending -ed is pronounced /id/ following /t/ or /d/. e can be pronounced as: Id—them. vowel sounds. Phonetics formulates the rules of pronunciation for separate sounds and sound combinations. e. etc. father Мадэ/. Primary stress is indicated by ['] before the stressed syllable. mouse—mice /maus—mais/. foot—feet /fut—fi:t/. the interchange of It—v/. It studies the sound matter. /a—z/. written /ritn/. One of the most important phonetic phenomena—sound interchange—is another manifestation of the connection of phonetics with grammar. boxes correctly. analysis—analyses /ainaelaaia —ainaateshz/ . Phonetics is an independent branch of linguistics like lexicology. etc. ragged /'rsegid/. /z/ after voiced and /iz/ after sibilants. Secondary stress is shown by [j] before the syllable. psychology. this connection can be observed in the category of number. examination /igizsemi'nei/эп/. e. [з:1—fern.Syllabic consonants are indicated by l\] placed beneath the symbol. /id/—after It! (want—wanted). the letter о as /эй/.g. lexicology and stylistics is exercised first of all via orthography. The rules of reading are based on the relation of sounds to orthography and present certain difficulties in learning the English language.and also: man—men /man—men/. e. leaf—leaves II—v/. /Ö—Э/ helps to differentiate singular and plural forms of such nouns as: calf—calves II—v/. the letter u as i{j)n:l.g. It~is only if we know that /s/ is pronounced after voiceless consonants. grammar and stylistics. jnq a can be pronounced as: /ae/— can.g.l.g. For instance. The connection of phonetics with grammar. e. crisis — crises /ikraisis—'kraisi:z/. e. crooked /'krukid/. the letter у as /wai/. bags. e. Thus.

He is at home. It is only due to thepresence of stress. Phonetics is also connected with lexicology.a) nouns and verbs.g. If we compare two similar sentences pronounced with different places of the pause. that we can diti guish certain nouns from verbs (formed by conversion). He 'came home. c) verbs and adjectives. e. in the right place. I abstract реферат—to abstract извлекать 'object предмет—to ob'ject не одобрять 'transfer перенос—to transfer переносить. d) nouns and nouns.g. we are interested in what the poet is doing in. e. шлепнуть hip—hop подпрыгивать при ходьбе Consonants can interchange in different parts of speech for example in nouns and verbs: extent—extend /t—d/ mouth—mouth /9—Ö/ relief—relieve /f—v/ Phonetics is also connected with grammar through its intonation component. e. Pausation may also perform a differentiator у function. shade—shadow /ei—se/. or accent. Vowel interchange can also be observed in onomatopoeitic compounds: jiggle—joggle толчок.g\ baih—bathe /a:—ei/. Sometimes intonation alone can serve to single out the logical predicate of the sentence.home.: He 'came thome.g. So you can see him now. general. what book or article the poet is writing. Compare:x *He came home. He came 'home. штыковать flap—flop шлепать. ing we want to know. Not Mary or John. u . type—typical /ai—j/. e) nouns and adjectives. покачивание flip— flop легкий удар.g.g. e. e. e. Intonation compensates for the fixed word-order of English sentence. If the pause is made after the word writ*. we shall see that their meaning will be different. шлепок chip—chop рубить топором. and you said he was going to the club. moderate—moderate /ei—1/. He I came . •What Iwriting 'poet is (doing is »interesting. hot—keet /v—i:/. Cf. b) adjectives and nouns. In affirmative sentences the rising nuclear tone may serve to show that it is a question. If we make a pause after the word what.

because they are identical ш spelling. e. Why wouldn't you?" A pause. Regular recurrence of accented elements. Gradgrind as a narrow-minded person unable to see anything behind bare facts. You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts.: Phonetics is also connected with stylistics through repetition of words. hopefully. For example: "Now let me ask you girls and boys. in the extract given below the repetition of the word fact helps Ch. "Now. a short pause. sirl"—as the custom is in these examinations. "Yes. Repetition of this kind serves the basis of rhythm. seeing in the gentleman's face that "Yes" was wrong. but in prose as well. 'blackbird дрозд—'black 4bird черная птица Phonetics is also connected with stylistics. what I want is Facts. "No. etc. to distinguish between different attitudes on the part of the author and speaker. or rhythm. gently.g. Mr. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. he uses graphical expressive means. sirl" Upon which the other half. incredulously. nothing else will ever be of any service to them.g. (Ch. Plant nothing else and root out everything else. For example. "Of course. Hard Times) If the author wants to make a word or a sentence specially prominent or logically accented.) 12 . cried out in chorus. phrases and sounds. may be used as a special device not only in poetry. no. Very often the writer helps the reader to interpret his ideas through special words and remarks such as: a pause. utterance stress. pausation and voice tamber which serve to express emotions. e. Facts alone are wanted in life. Dickens to characterize his hero." (Ibid.g. bow /bau/ лук—bow /bau/ поклон lead /li:d/ руководство—lead /led/ свинец row /гэи/ ряд—row /rau/ шум sewer /зэиэ/ швея—sewer /sjus/ сточная труба tear /tea/ разрыв—tear /иэ/ слеза wind /wind/ ветер—wind /wamd/ виток Due to the position of word accent we can distinguish between homonymous words and word groups. rhythm. rhyme and alliteration.Homographs can be differentiated only due to pronunciation. Dickens. angrily. first of all through intonation and its components: speech melody. e. one half of the children cried in chorus. would you paper a room with representations of horses?" After a pause.

babble.g. sociolinguistics. Articulatory and perceptive investigation of speech sounds is done on the basis of a good knowledge of the voice and sound producing mechanisms. the repetition of the sonant /m/ in the lines of the ballad. helps. information theory. a combination of sounds which imitate sounds produced in nature. graphical representations of sounds. dialectology. chirrup. The study of phonetic phenomena from the stylistic point of view is phonostylistics. laryngoscope. artificial palate. There are twelve months in all the year. intensity. ting. A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and "two are four. 13 . psychology. given below (together with the other stylistic devices). which gradually develop and help to achieve the ■climax of significance. jingle. psycholinguistics. Acoustic properties of sounds.) The repetition of identical or similar sounds. aesthetics. pitch. sir. chatter. cheep. photographs and X-ray photographs. and who is not to be talked into allowing for anything over.: tinkle. TV classes and special films are also very helpful for the investigation and study of the articulatory aspect of speech. It is connected with a number of linguistic and nonlinguistic disciplines. clap. clatter. together with the words to which they belong. 3) functional (linguistic). Thus." (Ibid. bang. etc. helps to produce the effect of merriment. or length. "Thoraas Gradgrind. gramophone records and magnetic tape recorder. sir — peremptorily Thomas—Thomas Gradgrind.In the description of Gradgrind's "mental introduction" rhythm is'achieved through the repetition of parallel constructions. Phonetics has the following branches: 1) articulatory (physiological) and perceptive (auditory). which is called alliteration. A man of realities. clink. work and perceptive (auditory) effects. E. A man of facts and calculations. Onomatopoeia. smack. their structure. chirp. to impart a melodic effect to the utterance and to express certain emotions. chink. 2) acoustic. jabber. But the merriest month in all the year Is the merry month of May. that is. sociology. tamber. Thomas Gradgrind. quantity. As I hear many men say. such as: paralinguistics. beginning with the word man. temporal factor are investigated by the acoustic and auditory branch of phonetics. is one more stylistic device which can serve as an example of the connection between phonetics and stylistics. The repetition of the words year. say and May produces the effect of rhyme. dab. that is—physiology and psychology. twitter. literary criticism. crash. Articulatory phonetics makes use of such instruments and devices as: a hand mirror. and nothing over.

spectrograph. 3) in digits (while estimating the limits of the recorded area along the screen of the electronray tube). such as kymograph. witch glass fox gas 14 judge crash calf elf half knife leaf life loaf self sheaf thief wife wolf actress hostess mistress sculptress waitress lioness . of phonetic investigation? 7. The results are recorded: 1) visually upon the screen of the electron-ray tube. Write the plural forms of these words and transcribe them. accent and intonation are investigated by means of special linguistic methods. Prove thai. which help to interpret them as socially significant elements.. the diachronic description of successive changes in the phonetic system of a language or different languages. 2) on paper or film with the continuous reproduction by tape recorder. 3) the duration or length of speech (pausation). oscillograph and Monograph help to obtain the necessary data about prosodic properties of speech sounds. An oscillograph records oscillograms of sound vibrations of any frequency.._* A kymograph records qualitative variations of sounds in the form of kymographic tracings. The phonological or functional properties of phonemes.': phonetics is connected with grammar.. . An intonograph measures automatically: 1) the fundamental tone of the vocal cords. Practical significance of phonetics is connected with teaching foreign languages. What rules for writing transcription symbols do you know? 4. What is the significance of speech according to the classics of Marxism-Leninism? 2. teaching deaf-mutes. 2) the average sound pressure. transliteration. Practical phonetics is applied in methods of speech correction. the comparative analysis and description of different languages and the study of the correspondences between them. What is the practical and theoretical significance of phonetics? Exercises *1. film doubling. What are the methods and devices.Special laboratory equipment. What are the branches of phonetics? 6. A spectrograph produces sound spectrograms which help to list the frequencies of a given sound and its relative amplitudes". What are the vowel and consonant transcription symbols? 3. syllables. Questions 1. How is phonetics connected with other sciences? 5. Automatically recorded oscillograms can be observed upon the screen. Theoretical significance of phonetics is connected with the further development of the problem or the synchronic study and description of the phonetic system of a national language. radio and telephone.

Single out the sounds that differentiate the meaning of the words.*2. nation—national grave—gravity provoke—provocative zeal—zealous supreme—supremacy occur—'occurrence advice—to advise use—to use a house—to house an excuse—to excuse a device—to devise loose—to lose close—to close I break-1 promise—'break 'promise 'heavy-weight—'heavy 'weight 'red-book—'red 'book 'blue-stocking—'blue 'stocking 'blue-nose—'blue 'nose 'blue-coat—'blue 'coat 'blue-bonnet—'blue 'bonnet 'black-hole—'black 'hole 'black mass—'black 'mass *4. Single out the sounds that interchange. read and translate these pairs of words. Translate them into Russian. Translate the words into Russian. Prove that phonetics is connected with lexicology through accent. Read these pairs of words. antique—antiquity coal—collier mead—meadow nature—natural beast—bestial brass—brazen know—knowledge please—pleasure perceive—perception describe — description abound—abundance mode—modify IS . Read these words and word combinations. beg compel live recognize open arrive travel " rain cancel inform stop wrap help ask discuss work pass ship pack look nod permit wait expect invent rest load depend ■*3. Transcribe these words. Underline the interchanging vowels and consonants in the corresponding parts of speech. State to what parts of speech they belong. Write the three forms of these verbs and transcribe them. Prove that phonetics is connected with grammar. sell—sale model—modal saw—so Polish—polish guard—guide worth—worse truth—truce but—bath breath—breadth diary—dairy suit—suite patrol—petrol mayor—major rout—route 6. Transcribe. 'redbreast — fred 'breast 'bluebell—'blue 'bell 'bluestone—'blue 'stone 'blue-lines—'blue 'lines 'bluebottle—'blue 'bottle 'blackshirt—'black 'shirt 'black-face—'black 'face tbird's-eye—'bird's 'eye 'bread-and-butter—'bread 'butter still—steel poo!—pull ship—sheep sit—seat fill—feel live—leave ill—eel slip—sleep deep — depth brief—brevity sagacious—sagacity strong—strength precise—precision broad — breadth and *5.

Single out the sounds that interchange. (b) Swan swam over the sea — Swim. Note what traffic is in sight. Mew. knick-knack mingle-mangle mish—mash prittle—prattle rickety—rackety r iff_ r aff rip—rap shilly-shally tick—tack wiggle—waggle wig—wag zig-zag clip—clop ping—pong sing—song slip—slop tip—top wish—wash wishy-washy *8. to market. says the cat. I'm sure. •*e. home again. Bow-wow. grunt. Swan swam back againWell swum swan. The shells she sells are sea-shells. keep from dangerous play And THINK before you cross today. mew. too. which light can be seen: The Red. Read the rhyme. State what sounds are used to produce the effect of alliteration and for what purpose. *11. or the Green-Children. Translate the compounds into Russian. *10. To market. to buy a fat hog. Transcribe the words ased to imitate the sounds made by different animals. market is done. So if she sells sea-shells on the sea-shore. Home again. Note. swan. goes the hog. Then I'm sure she sells sea-shore shells. State what stylistic effect is achieved through repetition. Why is the word "think" singled out? Look to left and look to right. home again. to buy a fat pig. To market.Slower—-flourish admit—admission assume—assumption correct—correction presume—presumption conclude —conclusion confess—confession divide—division depress—depression collide—collision deceive—deception intent—intention pretend—pretention precise—precision object—objection neglect—negligent compete—competition rector—rectorial '7. Home again. to buy a plum bun. 16 . swim. (a) She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore. Grunt. Read the rhyme. State the stylistic device formed by this phonetic means.' to market. jiggety jog. says the dog. the Amber. Home again. jiggety jig.. Read the rhyme. to market. Read these compounds. Read these rhymes. home again. To market.

tigress. очередь. 14. sheaf. says the owl. Read the poem by an anonymous writer and state what phonetic expressive means the author ases to make it more^impress!ve. says the duck. Single out pairs of sounds the interchange of which makes the words different parts of speech. says the crow. требовать. ухо. class. S. Cive examples to prove the significance of phonetics. Silvery songsters sweetly singing Summer's soothing serenade. hostess. костюм. half. терпеть. Sunset's slowly spreading shade. пиво. 12. бунт. мужество. 10. патруль. *8. Quack. clothe v—cloth n glaze v—glass n loathe v—loath ft lose v—loss n insult—to insult object—to object outgo—to outgo produce—to produce subject—to subject halve v—half n live v—life n prove v—proof n serve v—serf n outgrowth—to outgrow outlay—to outlay out throw—to outthrow present—to present protest—to protest torment—to torment *7. наследник. 3. wolf. And moo. Tu-whu. focus *6. mouse. Accent and transcribe these words. goes the rat. life. вход. Caw. выносить. calf. man. меняться. 1. влиять. сквозняк. thief. Susan Simpson Sudden swallows swiftly skimming. How do you prove that phonetics is an independent science? 2. thesis. бедный. личный. Give the plural form of these words and then transcribe both^forms. says the cow. свита. caw. phenomenon. заяц. inch. wife. knife. dish. засуха. вагон: 16. Translate these words and then transcribe them. elf. 2. набережная. 11. 9. мэр. волосы. персонал. 8. доступ. наливать. допускать. leaf. майор. basis. *4. очень. echo. crisis. лапа. 15. house. quack. год. self. 6. Control Tasks 1. изменяться. маршрут. goose. бензин. 7. Translate them into Russian. potato. 17 . приобретать *5. bath. 4. foot. личный состав. box. loaf. Give examples to prove that phonetics is connected with other sciences.And squeak. analysis. разгром. 13. 5. путь. эффект.

Montezuma— And the puma Equally delighted. F. stately She stopped. "sweetest sigher. Say. seeming somewhat shyer. Susan's satin sofa shelters Six small Slocums side by side. Six September Susan swelters. *9. Seeing Stephen Slocum. Say how the effect of rhythm and rhyme is achieved by phonetic expressive means in the poem by D. suppressing sighs. Six sharp seasons snow supplies. shall Stephen spouseless stay?" Susan. Alderson." said Stephen. Acceptation Of the nation One and all invited. Lines on Montezuma (an extract) Montezuma Met a puma Coming through the rye: Montezuma made the puma Into apple-pie. Stifling sobs. . Summer's season slowly stretches. "Say. Susan Simpson Slocum she— So she signed some simple sketches — Soul sought soul successfully. Showed submissiveness straightaway. Montezuma And the puma Give a kettledrum.Susan Simpson strolled sedately. Invitation To the nation Everyone to come. showing some surprise.

The complex range of frequencies which make up the quality of a sound is known as the acoustic spectrum. Intensity is measured in decibels (dbs). (3) functional. A male voice may have an average pitch level of about 150 cps.000 cps. length and tension. ACOUSTIC ASPECT OP SPEECH SOUNDS Speech sounds have a number of physical properties. When tone prevails over noise sonorants are produced. The frequency of sound depends on certain physical properties of the vibrator. When noise prevails over tone voiced consonants are produced. The greater the amplitude of vibration. Any sound has duration. the louder the sound. or harmonics. the higher the pitch level. the greater the intensity of a sound. the number of vibrations per second. The total range of a speaking voice varies from 80 to 350 cps. and along the varying portions of their length. either noise or tone prevails. Bands of energy which are characteristic of a particular sound are called the sound's formants. the greater the pressure on the ear-drums.1 and a female voice—a level of about 240 cps. the same pattern of vibration. it is its length or quantity of time during which the same vibratory motion. * Cycles per second« . The higher the pitch of vibrations. When the vibrations produced by the vocal cords are regular they produce the acoustic impression of voice or musical tone. SOUNDS OF SPEECH AS ACOUSTIC AND ARTICULATORY UNITS Speech sounds can be analysed from the viewpoint of three aspects: (1) acoustic.. producing fundamental frequency. The analysis of a sound frequency and intensity at a definite period of time can be presented graphically with the help of a sound spectrograph. 1). (2) physiological and articulatory. i. Changes in intensity are perceived as variation in the loudness of a sound. maintained. producing overtones. The vocal cords vibrate along the whole of their length.' . are.e. Acoustic characteristics of speech sounds are represented by spectrograms: linear or dynamic and intensity or instant. The duration of speech sounds is usually measured im milliseconds (msecs).II. When they are irregular noise is produced. the firsf of them is frequency. When there is a combination of tone and noise. Perception of the pitch of a speech sound depends upon the frequency of vibration of the vocal cords. In instant spectrograms intensity is represented by vertical dimensions.frequency—by horizontal dimension (Fig. to about 20.' The second physical property of sound is intensity. such as mass. but the human ear perceives frequencies from 15 cps..

but their great mdfft ч$ the possibility to record not only the exact quality. the blacker is the spot. G.In linear representations of intensity spectrograms the strength o! harmonics is adequate to the blackness of spots: the stronger the harmonic. Halle. but also the changes of sounds of speech at a particular moment of time. This classification is not only phonoacoustic but also phonemic Although acoustic descriptions. The intensity representations of instant spectrograms cannot be read off with any exactness. i cult to compare their exact quality. _ Both types of spectrograms have certain limitations: _ in linear spectrograms a succession of sounds can be measured but it is diffi- Fig. definitions and classifications of speech sounds are considered to be more precise than articulatory ones. because 20 . One of such classifications was suggested byjR. they are practically inapplicable in language teaching. However. they reveal a lot of information about the sound changes in time. Jacobson. Fant and M. Spectrographic analysis gives basis for acoustic definitions and classification of speech sounds.

. Acoustic phonetics: A Course of Basic Readings. Gleasori mentions three sounds in the English language that are produced by the vocal cords /h. the bronchi (3). the teaching of languages.. the glottis (5)." * ARTICULATORY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS To analyse a speech sound physiologically and articulatorily some clataonthearticulatory mechanism and its work should be introduced. a Gleason H.. the sound produced at separating the glottal stop position. It sounds like a soft cough.' H. voice box. f[. lexical and phonological levels. they are jn. /h/ is the glottal voiceless fricative and /fj/ is its voiced allophone. Speech is impossible without the following four mechanisms: (1) the power mechanism. the lungs (2). is called the glottal stop /?/. the larynx (6). fy ?/ the mouth may be in position for almost any sound."3 When both parts of the glottis are firmly closed. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. A. A. The future work in acoustic phonetics will be connected with brain functioning and artificial intelligence. 1976___P. (3) the resonator mechanism. B. 2) consists of the diaphragm (1). syntactical.—P. the windpipe (or trachea) (4). The power mechanism (Fig. He states that "during the pronunciation of /h. 16. the mouth cavity (7). or. can be applied in the fields of technical acoustics. and the nasal cavity (8). Voice produced by the vocal cords ^vibration is modified by the shape and volume of the air passage. (4) the obstructor mechanism. "Experimentation will involve the whole of -speech programming and processing. The vocal ■cords are two horizontal folds" off elastic tissue.the acoustic features of speech sounds cannot be seen directly or felt by the language learner. 2) the design of speech recognizing machines. Y. including the relations between the acoustic level of speech and operations at the grammatical. Thorough acoustic investigations show that besides the vocal cords there are two more sources that participate in the production * Fry D.— Cambridge. They are also of great theoretical value. Acoustic descriptions.— N. the larynx. however. 21 . The research work made in acoustic phonetics is connected with 1) the methods of speech synthesis and perceptual experiment for the study of cues of phonemic distinctions and for the exploration of differences in tone and stress.'They may be opened or closed (completely or incompletely}. The vibrator mechanism (the voice producing mechanism) consists of the vocal cords. ?/. 1961. (2) the vibrator mechanism. The pitch of the voice is controlled mostly by the ten&on of the vocal cords. the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions involving speech and language. 241.

the larynx (4). The resonator mechanism (Fig. which results from some constriction in the flow of air and (b) the impulse wave. (2) the turbulent noise helps to produce voiceless constrictive consonants. For example: (1) the vocal cords produce vibrations in the articulation of vowel sounds. the alveolar ridge (6).blade with the tip. the teeth (3). k/. (3) the impulse source helps to produce voiceless plosiye consonants „ such as /p. The two sources—vocal and turbulent participate in the production of voiced constrictive consonants. the lips '(2).R_~Z back or dorsum).s F igi thP^iK? \t ° * mechanisms (the power. and the nasal cavity (3). the hard palate (5). t. These sources of speech sounds may work separately or simultaneously. The obstructor mechanism (Fig. d. s. 22 ш.of speech sounds: (a) the turbulent noise. such as /b. 4) consists of the tongue (1: a —i. g/. which is formed when the complete obstruction to the flow of air in the mouth cavity is suddenly broken. J7. the mouth cavity (1). the resonator and the obstructor mechanisms) work si- F b rne In mind that the four . b—Pnil. the vocal and impulse sources participate in the production of voiced plosive consonants. such as /f. 3) consists o{ the pharynx (2). the soft palate with the uvula (4). such as /v. z. 5/. the vibrator.

It is raised against the upper teeth ridge in the articulation of the English It. The tip of the tongue is against the back slope of the teeth ridge (a depression is ■formed in the blade of the tongue) in the articulation of the English . The mouth and the nasal cavities are separated by the hard palate and the soft palate with the uvula. ж/ — apical position. Н\ С. The air. Most speech sounds are pronounced with the soft palate raised. The tip of the tongue vibrates. it is part of the articulation of all oral consonants. 1/ and the Russian /л. It consists of the pharynx. з\ ч'. л'. Consequently voices of men are much deeper in pitch than those of women. The lungs take in air rapidly and let it out slowly. Т\ Д. ^ . When the soft palate is raised and forms a closure against the pharynx wall./r/—cacuminal position. is pushed out of the lungs. The soft palate. Most speech sounds are made by using the air which is pushed out of the lungs. gl have both—a velic and a velar closure. e. Variations in the speed (frequency) of the vibrations of the vocal cords produce changes of pitch: the higher the frequency. 3. tapping against the alveolar ridge in the articulation of the Russian If I.e. From the lungs the air gets into the bronchial tubes and then into the trochea. The uvula is at the back of the soft palate. S. the entrance to the nasal cavity is shut off. or velum. J1. the higher the pitch of the sound produced. neither English. which is necessary for the production of the speech sounds. It is passive and lowered in the articulation of the Russian /т. z. i. and back part with the root (see above). s. Some phoneticians call the whole upper surface •of the tongue "dorsum". The larynx of a man is larger than that of a woman and <can be easily seen as a projecting lump. it is pronounced with the velar closure.g. /p7. t In the production of English and Russian forelingual consonants -the tip of the tongue may occupy a number of positions. dg. С\ з.tnultaneously and that each speech sound is the result of the simultaneous work of all of them. When the soft palate is pressed against the back part of the tongue 3t is a velar closure. n. middle part. nor Russian have uvular articulation. Д\ Н. lower frequency and lower pitch. at the top of which there is the larynx with the vocal cords. б. the velic closure does not take place in its production. the blade of the tongue takes part in their articulation. can move to the pharynx wall and block off the nasal cavity—velic closure. The area above the glottis is called the supra-glottal vocal tract. The space between the vocal folds is called the glottis. The vocal folds vibrate about 130 times for a man's voice and about 230 times for a woman's voice each second. The bujk of the tongue can be approximately divided into front part with the blade and the tip. f. Longer and larger vocal cords produce slower vibrations. ц/ — dorsal position. /rj/ is a nasal sound. ш. Ik. 23 . d. the mouth and the nasal cavities. ш'.

n/. "When the soft palate is lowered the air passes out through the nasal cavity. g/. g. The alveolar ridge can be felt with the tip of the tongue as a corrugated ridge just behind the upper front teeth. Sonorants are sounds intermediate between noise consonants and vowels because they have features common to both. spread. g. it happens when normal breathing takes place and when nasal sounds are produced. w. r. English'/j/. English /m. as for /i:/. It.g. e. as for /w/. They can be rounded. (2) the concentrated or diffused character of muscular tension. Muscular tensionis concentrated in the place of obstruction! but the exhaling force is. Ы. /s. n. intermittent). (c) the exhaling: force is rather strong. The oral cavity begins with the lips: upper and lower hp.g.— the blade of the tongue is against the upper teeth. e. (3) the force of exhalation. The ability to detect the movements made by the tongue dimin ishes towards the back of the tongue. In the articulation of the sound /j/ the tongue makes a movement towards the hard palate. s. it is pressed against the velum.g. but not narrow enough to produce noise. They are: (1) the presence or absence of an articuiatory obstruction to the air stream in the larynx or in the supra-glottal cavities. The teeth act as obstacles to the air stream. incomplete. (b) muscular tension is diffused more or less evenly throughout the supra-glottal part of the speech apparatus. e. The lower lip may move close to the upper teeth. as for /f.g. it is behind the alveolar ridge. Vowels may be defined as sounds in the production of which (a) there is no articuiatory obstruction to the air stream. as for the Russian /y/. z. The hard palate can be felt with the tip of the tongue. (b) muscular tension is concentrated in the place of obstruction. n. 1. labiodental hi. M\ H. or dorsal. The back of the tongue can be raised to the velum.they are called oral. rather weak. . the Rus sian /x/. e. b. ml. Articuiatory differences between vowels. Russian /M. On the basis of these criteria consonants may be defined as sounds. (c) the exhaling force is rather weak. raised. v/. in the production of which (a) there is an articuiatory obstruction to the air stream (complete. There is an -ob struction. the sides. e. H7. protruded. The upper teeth are the most important for the articulation of dental. interdental /9. as for bilabial /p. English sonorants are: /m. The two lips can close to block the air stream. r/. the Russian / г/ and! к. alveolar d. consonants and sonorants depend on the three articuiatory criteria. The centre of the tongue can be grooved along mid-line. the English /k. z/. j/. The front of the tongue can be raised to the hard palate. I.

d) the difference in the position of the back part of the tongue in the articu lation of English ja I and Russian /x/. Voiceless consonants are: /p. c) the difference in the position of the lips in the articulation of /w. What are articulatory differences between vowels. d. According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation consonants are subdivided into voiced and voiceless. 2. s. z. g. 9. 1. J\ tj/. m. The force of exhalation and the degree of muscular tension are greater in the production of voiceless consonants therefore they are called by the Latin word "fortis". because the force 25 . ds/. ARTICULATORY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS Soviet phoneticians classify consonants according to the following principles: I. vibrator. v/. r. What physical properties of speech sounds. c) the resonator mechanism. Show on the diagrams: a) the difference in the position of the soft palate in the production of ora! and nasal consonants. which means "strong. IV. Manner of noise production and the type of obstruction. "soft. f. Voiced consonants are called "lenis". Ъ. (3) shape of the narrowing. energetic". Voiced consonants are: /b. g. resonator. Work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation. III. j> w. Speak on the work of the four sotmd producing mechanisms. t.do you know? 3. How doesthe power. illustrate your speech by the diagrams you have drawn. d) the ob structor mechanism. v. Position of the soft palate. consonants and sonorants? Exercises 1. (2) number of noise producing foci. k. b) the difference In the position of the tip and the blade of the tongue in the production of dorsal and apical consonants. obstructor mechanism work? 4. g.Questions 1. II. n. Draw the diagrams of the sound producing mechanisms: a) the power mecha nism. h. weak". Within this principle of consonant classification there are the following subdivisions according to: (1) voice or noise prevalence. Control Tasks 1. the Russian /y/. b) the vibrator mechanism. Active organs of speech and the place of obstruction. I. From what points of view can speech sounds be analysed? 2.

p. e. Post-alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the back part of the teeth ridge.consonants are articulated with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth. (2) lingual. Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue. в7. According to the position of the tip of the tongue they may be: a) dorsal. In Russian it does not play assignificant a role. According to the position of the active organ of speech against the point of articulation (the place of articulation) consonants are classified into (Table 1. dg. They are the English II. The energy contrast in English operatesthroughout the system of consonants.g. MV. the English /tf. л. /j/. b. Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth ridge. It. л'/.g. b) apical and c) cacuminal. s. Interdental consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth. m. (4) post-alveolar.g. rj. м. ф'. v/and theRussian/ф. б'. According to the place of obstruction forelingual consonants may be: (1) interdental. з. d. w. Labiodental consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth. I/. ш\ ж. e. (2) dental.g. Lingual consonants are subdivided into: a) forelingual. the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate—two places of articulation. r/ do not enter into fortis-lenis oppositions. the Russian h.■ e. Palato-alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge. /Э.g. e. z. m. п'. ц. 29—30): (1) labial. Fortts /p/ pipe /t/ tight /k/ cake /tJ7 church /f/ five /6/ three /s/ soup III pressure Lenis /b/ Bible /d/ died /g/ gag /аз/ judge /v/ vibrant /Ö/ thee /z/ zoo /3/ pleasure The English consonants /h. e. They are-the English /p. т\ д. д\ с. j. 3/. (5) palato-alveolar. Bilabial consonants are produced with both lips. J\ 5/ and the Russian /ш.of exhalation and the degree of muscular tension in their articulation are weaker. 1. w/ and the Russian /n. (3) glottalLabial consonants are subdivided into: a) bilabial and b) labiodental. Palatal consonants are articulated with the front part of the tongue raised high to the hard palate. б. n. 26 . з'. or foci. b) medialingual and c) backlingual. n. Dental. с'. e. ч'Д Mediolingtsal consonants are produced with the front part of thetongue.g. /r/. e. (3) alveolar. They are always palatal. II.g. в.

5. Shcherba's terminology the front part of the tongue is subdivided into apical (a). m. s. в\ с\ з . B. It may be: (1) complete closure. C. the only difference is that V. к'. 6). х7. dorsal (b). III. r/. г. Dikushina. dorsum is the whole upper area of the tongue. cacuminal (c) and а о d Fig. the Russian /к. Torsuyev. х. g. ф1. the English /k. д. The glottal consonant /h/ is articulated in the glottis. 1. back. and back (3). 6. S. 5 Fig. H. ж. к'. 6. к. Soviet phoneticians divide the tongue into the following parts (Fig. (3) the combination of the two closures. n'. /n. then constrictive consonants are produced. rj/. First of all they suggest a classification of consonants according to ihe manner of noise production from the viewpoint of the closure. frontal is equivalent to mediolingual. /ф. A. ч/. V. g. or plosive) and nasal consonants are produced: /p. P. Gleason's terms in respect to the parts of the bulk of the tongue are: apex—the part of the tongue that lies at rest opposite the alveolae. t. P. /f. O. Thus. n. ш. Following L. в. Vassilyev. middle (2). с. 5): front with the tip (1). 3. d. Q. r\ M \ H \ M . х. logically and thoroughly. r. b. however. are produced: /tf. front—the part of the tongue that lies at rest opposite Ihe fore part of the palate. then occlusive (stop. w. There is. G. they are produce** with the back part of the tongue raised towards the soft palate "velum". L. or affricates. Träger and others. . C. A.Backlingual consonants are also called velar. 27 . Trakhterov. A. Gimson's terms differ from those used by Soviet phoneticians: apical is equivalent to forelingual. then occlusive-constriciive. dg/.g. G. h. T . V. v. Ö. T ' ( д'. or dorsum—the part of the tongue that lies at rest opposite the velum or the back part of the palate. 6 retroflexed (d) according to the position of the tip and the blade of the tongue in relation to the teethridge (Figs. Gleason. A. г. Vassilyev and other Soviet phoneticians consider the principle of consonant classification according to the manner of noise production and the type of obstruc tion to be one of the most important and classify consonants accord ing to this principle very accurately. /ц. •which is formed m their articulation (Table 1). H /. г'. г/. I. This principle of consonant classification is rather universal. . Gimson give more detailed and precise enumerations of active organs of speech than H. Bloch. (2) incomplete closure. j. A. 6'. з. k. Torsuyev. e. A. A. controversy about terming the active organs of speech.

round narrowing. (3) According to the shape of the narrowing constrictive conso nants and affricates are subdivided into sounds with flat narrowing" and round narrowing. This sub division is not included into the classifications of foreign phoneti cians. ч. semivowels—subgroups of consonants r which do not belong to a single class. according: to the number of noise producing centres. Noise occlusive sonorants are also called nasals. Gleason. gives separate groups of nasals /m. n.A. H. Ö. tr. Gimson. A. theIm. ц/ are pronounced with the Is. or foci (Table 1). H. v. p7. The group of rolled or trilled is represented by two Russian sonorants /p. H. for example. then rolled. Ward): /tf. trills hi} B. There is no such su bdivision in the classifications suggested by D. constrictiye. Gleason and A.. tf. dS/. or even eight (I. C. J1. (1) According to the principle of voice or noise prevalence. but D. (2) Soviet phoneticians subdivide the rolled. The most extreme are the views expressed by B. Jones and I. The group of occlusive-constrictive consonants consists of noise sounds /tf. t9. A. These authors do not single out the groups of sonorants. dg. ц/. A. Trager give separate groups of nasals n. is. Träger and A. There are different opinions on the nature of English affricates. Träger who deny the existence of affricates as monophonemic entities and! state that they are biphonemic sequences. 6. the latг/. w. Gimson. friction!esscontinuants. 5. 3/ to be grooved frica tives. do/ are pronounced with the flat narrowing. Jones. rj/. as such. the consonants z. A. or glides (semi-vowels) /w. or trilled consonants. B. eral III. C. Г/ у/. Soviet phoneticians consider affricates as units which are articula1 We include here only the symbols of the sounds which are Familiar to Russian students. Soviet phoneticians suggest a subdivision of the group of occlusives and the group of constrictives into noise sounds and sonor ants (Table 1). Jones. pV.(4) intermittent closure. and other foreign phone ticians include in the manner of noise production classification groups of lateral.. The consonants If. 28 . Jones). n. C. D. Gleason gives separate groups of nasals /m. . nasals. rj/. G. dr. the lateral /1/. Bloch. H. Bloch and G. Jones. semi-vowelsЫ. G. Gimsön include in their classifi cations of consonants a number of allophones. Bloch. The other extreme point of view is that expressed by D. dg. j/. dz. are pro duced: Russian /p. lateral IV. Ward who state that thereare six affricates in the system of English consonants (D. occlusive. occlusive-constrictive consonants into unicentral (pronounced with one focus) and bicentral (pronounced with two foci). Gleason considers /J. r.

ш. г к'. Lingual According to the position of the tip of the tongue t ü veolar Postat Cacuminal Bilabial cd Alveolar Dental ■о Dental "(0 6u "« Я Noise consoOcclusive consonants nants (plosives) Sonorants (nasal) Uni central Bicentral front secondary focus Unf centrat seconBicentral Iront focus dary P. ж I 1 1 . 6 П. ш:. Ь n. 6 T. z ( X Constrlctive consonants Noise consonants (fricatives) Unicentral seconBicentral front focus dary Unicentral front seconBicentral dary facus back secondary focus round narrowing f. 3 Alveolar According f o! noise 1 о Dorsal Apical 'S Velar II n Glottal (Pharyngal) t s. Ö flat narrowing ф'. v Ф. в . г n n ■ According to the place of obstruction о the manner of tbe productEon ^ч and tbe type of obstruction N^ Labia! . в' .ж. д t.Table 1 Table of English and Russian Consonant Phonemes Backllngual к. д к. c\ зр 9. Д m и н я* C. d T.

Medirants a! Lateral Medial Lateral Unicentral secon Bicentral from focus dary back secon dary focus round narrowing Ц л' w a 1 J Ocelusive-constrictive (noise) conso nants {affricates) Uni central Bicentral front secon dary focus round narrowing flat narrowing ц У . ич з P PP Rolled consonants Sonorants Uni central Biccnfral front secon dary focus Alveolar Accordin g of nois Postalveolar Dorsal Apical Cacuminal Palatal Glottal (Pharyngat) П ро д олж ен и е .According to the place of obstruction to the manner of the produc tion ^^^^^^ e and ttie type of obstruction ^"-• >v-^ Mediollngual Labial Lingual According to the position of the tip of the tongue nя Velar ä Palato-alveolar Bilabial о ca Dental Alveolar Dental Coibtrictive consonants Sono.

When thesoft palate is lowered and the air on its way out passes through thenasal cavity. in theway they move and hold their lips and the tongue both in speech and in silence. no morpheme-.g. When the soft palate is raised and theair from the lungs gets into the pharynx and then into the mouth cavity. 1970. The Russian forelin gual consonants are mainly dorsal: in their articulation the tip of thetongue is passive and lowered. nasal consonants are produced: /m. and /ц. (2) In the production of the Russian consonants the bulk of thetongue is mainly in the front-mid part of the mouth resonator. in the way they effect CV. с. d5/ do not comply with these requirements). 117. ш'. n." * The peculiarities of the articulation bases which give rise to thedifferences in the system of consonants in English and in Russian arethe following: (1) The English forelingual consonants are articulated with the' apico-alveolar position of the tip of the tongue. and morphologically unique. A. If we compare classifications of consonants suggested by Soviet and some foreign authors.— P. to. 31 . accurate and detailed classifications which servethe teaching purposes much better than other classifications. /p. e. etc. з\ ч\ ц/.. they are the only occlusive-constrictive or affricated sounds. * Vassituev V. and /dz/. for example: bed—beds /bed—bed-z/. k. v/. н'. f. Since only the sounds /tj\ <%/ in the system of English consonants. oral consonants are produced. English Phonetics: A Theoretical Course. we can state that Soviet phoneticians propose more logical. when the soft backlingual consonants are produced the muscular tension is concen trated in the middle part of the tongue. т'. fr> dr. л'. з. The Russian forelingual apical consonantsare only: /л. t.. According to the position of the soft palate all consonants aresubdivided into oral and nasal. boundary can pass within /tj1. ж/. ш. When Russian soft forelinguals are produced the muscular tension is concen trated in the "bunched up" front-mid part of the tongue. in the way they coordinate the work of the obstructor and 1 vibrator mechanisms (lenis and fortis articulations). д. ч/ in the system of Russian consonants are articulatorily and acoustically indivisible and morphologically unique (the combinations /tf. IV. с'. for example: eight—eighth /eit—eit-6/. DIFFERENCES IN THE ARTICULATION BASES OF THE ENGLISH AND RUSSJAN CONSONANTS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES The differences in the articulation bases between the two languagesare "in the general tendencies their native speakers have. d. д\ н. rj/.3/ which is not the case that can be> found in /t9/. dg. The Russian forelingual dorsal consonants are: /т. VC and CC transitions (close and loose transitions). the blade is placed against the upper teeth.torily and acoustically indivisible (this can beproved by instrumental techniques). For instance.—M.

р'. the voiced bicentral affricate /«13/. e. g. The soft colouring of the English //. 5. tf. Palatalization is a phonemes feature in Rus sian (see below). /'big ^eibl/. the dental (interdental) fricative consonants Ö/. k. The English /J\ 5/ are short. м'. 3. nasal sonorant /ri/. 5/. They are /J\ 3. 2. г7 are also pronounced with the front secondary focus. s. tf/ and the "soft" /1/. constrictive median son orant /w/. the glottal fricative /h/. ч. <%. н'. к'. t. dfc. ф\ в'. The Eng lish "soft" consonants are pronounced with the front secondary focus. The Russian /п\ б'. л'. (3) The English /w/ andU] are pronounced with the back secon dary focus. (5) Consonant phonemes in English which have no counterparts an Russian are the following: 1. k/ ar aspirated. the bilabial. The front secon / dary focus is formed by the middle part of the tongue which produces "secondary" articulation simultaneously with the primary focus. J". f. which is raised to the soft palate simultaneously with the formation of the primary iocus. 87). d. ж':/ are long. which enlarges the size of the front resonator and lowers the tone of the apical consonants. 6. There is no opposition between palatalyzed —поп-palatalyzed consonants in English. English voiceless plosives /p. The bilabial /w/ which is pronounced with a round narrowing is very often mispronounced by the Russian learners. as it happens when the Russian /y/ is pronounced. 5/ is non-phonemic. tf/ are pronounced more energetically than similar Russian consonants. The English voiced consonants /b. the similar Russian consonants ш':. the backlingual. the post-alveolar constrictive median sonorant /r/. which are rounded but not protruded. They use the labio-dentalв/ or /v/ which are pronounced / with a flat narrowing instead of the English /w/. z. /Э. It results in the -de pression in the front part of the tongue. (4) The English voiceless iortis /p. 4. In the articulation of /w/ the primary focus is formed by the lips. з'. 1. or primary articulation (see p. replaced by the corresponding voiceless sounds in word-final posi tions and before voiceless consonants. The primary focus in the articulation of "dark" is formed by [I] the tip of the tongue pressed against the teethridge. т\ д\ с'.In the production of the English forelingual consonants the tip of the tongue and the front edges are very tense. d§/ are not 3. but the middle of the tongue in their production is raised higher to the hard palate. v.g. Russian students often use the hard ш. when followed by e a stressed vowel and not preceded by /s/. formed by the back part of the tongue. ж/ phonemes instead / of the soft English/J. Consonant phonemes in Russian which have no counterparts in English are the following: 32 . 5. than during the secondary articulation in the production of the English soft consonants.

the backlingual fricative voiceless /x/. г1. How are the consonants subdivided according to the noise producing foci and the shape of the narrowing? 7. р7. the voiceless unicentral affricate /ц/. — devoicing of voiced /b. the rolled post alveolar sonorant /p/. 3. What are the differences in the second principle of consonant clas sification according to Soviet and foreign linguists? 4. fricative /h/. д'. 4. — the use of the Russian /x/ instead of the English glottal. q/ from the viewpoint of the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation. — mispronunciation of the English interdental /0. з'. — weak pronunciation of voiceless fortis /p. t s >5 / . — the use of the forelingual /n/ instead of the backlingual velar /n/. djj/ in the terminal position. 2. J". 5/: the use of /s. — the use of the Russian dark /ш. What are the four main principles of consonant classification? 3. What are the subgroups of the noise consonants and sonorants within the groups of the occlusive and constrictive consonants and what is the contro versy about them? 6. м\ н'. k/ when they occur initially. v. What are the principal differences in the articulation bases of the English and Russian consonants? 9. ф'. The most common mistakes that may result from the differences in the articulation bases of the English and Russian languages are the following: — dorsal articulation of the English forelingual apical /t. в'. Questions 1. t. 33 . 2. s. к1. d. g. f. tf/. — absence of aspiration in /p. f/ for /e/ and /d. Explain the work of the four mechanisms in the production of speech sounds. б'. т*. *3. What do you know about the groups of the affricates and rolled consonants? 8. tF k. ~ the use of the Russian rolled /p/ instead of the English postalveolar constrictive hi. С. — the use of the labio-dental /v. How are the consonants subdivided according to the third principle? 5. d/. k/ and /b. What mistakes result from the differences in the articulation bases of the English and Russian con sonants? Exercises 1. ж/ instead of the soft English 1. Draw diagrams of_the four speech producing mechanisms. Explain the articulation of /p. z/ for /Ö/. t. g. z. d.the palatalized consonants /п'. What are the mechanisms fort ha production of speech sounds? 2. 3. b/ instead of the bilabial /w/.

тир Тедди Антей Тима течь тик тост take tent time talk tell town Tim ton ties two tear Teddy take team teach ticket toast — rise rates read /red/ rhyme rock Wren round rim run — — — — — — — — room rear ready rake real reach ricket roast .*4. *S. k/.. Transcribe these words and read them. j. Draw figures to show the position of the tongue in the production of front secondary and back secondary foci. v. Read these words. f/ and the Russian /p/ from the point of view of the manner of noise production. Observe the apical and cacuminal positions of the tip of the tongue in pronouncing the English it. Explain the articulation of/s/ and lit from the viewpoint of noise producing foci. 9. English /t. Draw figures of the position of the tip of the tongue in the articulation of the Russian hi. r/ and the dorsal in pronouncing the Russian hi. people paper purpose possibl e put pence Pity poor pieces port penny И. h/ from the viewpoint of the active organ of speech. *6. 7. Explain the articulation of /w. t. State the difference in the articulation of /b. *10. n/ from the point of view of the position of the soft palate.. Observe the aspiration of the" initial /p. r/ and the Russian /p/7 *8. take time town ties tennis took taxis till teacher s turned total toss tin tons courts cold careful car cook covered kissed campus curtly cottage current s colour cost так тент тайм ток тел Том Тим тон тай (от таять) туу. Explain the articulation of /mt n.

Jones. 4. 8. 3 — s. The basis of the system is physiological. 7 — o. T his po sition ien is higher than for the R ussian accented in the w ord и/ / пили. 1. 5 and 8 were copied from . 3 . N o. Draw the following table: classification of English and Russian consonants according to the manner of the production of noise and the type of obstruc tion. '' N o. 5. according to the voice or noise prevalence. T he IPA sym bols for the ardinal 8C Vowels are: \ \ ------ g g o f t h e p ri m a ry c a rd in a l v o w e l q u a l it ie s. Д \ 5 _ a . These positions for cardi nal vowels No. Draw the following table: classification of English and Russian consonants according to the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction. \ л q d t t p i t f N 2.. The gradual lowering of the tongue to the back lowest position gives another point for cardinal vowel No. T he low est front position of the tongue gives the point for cardinal N o. N o . 6. 7 w e re o "~ A. 2 is pronounced w ith the position of the tongue narrow er than for the Russian _/e/ in the w ord ь тест . 1 is th e eq uiva lent of the G erm a n ieBin e. He devised the system of 8 Cardinal Vowels. ARTICULATORY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOWELS The first linguist w ho tried to describe and classify vow el sounds for all languages was D. T h e t o n g u e p o s i t i o nиs X betw een these points w ere X -rayed*and the JV V~ e q u i-d ist a n t p o in ts fo r N 2 . _ a a using for com parison French. 6 . sym bols for the C ardinal 8 * ------s v — 1 — i. G erm an and Fts Russian languages. 2 — e. 1 corresponds to the position of the front part of the tongue raised as close as possible to the palate. 4 — а. 7 found. 2. e. Avoid palatalization of English initial consonants before the front vowels /h. Draw the following table: classification of English and Russian consonants 3. 4. ' \-----\ B e low w e g iv e som e ro u gh ind ic a tio ns \ flip nrimarv narrti'nni vowel dualities.r a y p h o t o g r a p h s . C ardinal vowel N o.12. n 35 . t. 3. ei/. п е й— p a y П и т— pit к и т— kit ■ гей — gay т и к— t i k тел — tell дел — dell C ontrol T asks бил — bill сил — sill зил — zeal сел — sell м и л— m e a l мел — m ell Н и л— n il Вил — veal Ф или— feeling бел — bell ти п — tip бед — bed л ет — le t сед — said лес — less бег — beg нет — n e t В е н а— w h e n рек — reck 1. 6 — o. T he upper back lim it for the tongue position gives the point for cardinal No. 3 i s sim i la r to th e R u s sia э/ /in th e w o rdэ т а. Read these Russian and English words. 8 — u.

7 is similar to the French sound of /o/ in Rose. -" Close (hieh) vowels Midopen (mid) vowels Open (low) vowels \ •• ~ ~ J_ . in purely scientific work. 5 is nearly what is obtained by taking away the lip rounding from the English sound h! in hot. Ac. In language teaching this system can be learned only by oral instruction from a teacher who knows how to pronounce the Cardinal Vowels. No.o. No. 4 is similar to the French sound /a/ in la. ы. No. so. 8 is.N. /и."г In spite of the theoretical significance of the Cardinal Vowel System its practical application is limited to the field where no comparison is needed. given for coraparison. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. Table 2 English and Russian Vowel Phonemes According to the height of the raised part of the tongue N. "Those who have access nei* Glmson A. а.N cord. N v^ N. 36 . у.C. 36.' 6 is. See Fig.-P. 1964. similar to the German sound of /u/ in gut. similar to the German sound of /o/ in Sonne. ofthe t0 Ny N. 7. The system of Cardinal Vowels is an international standard. No. э/ are Russian vowels. о. \\ " Л \—T ч-^ —\K^ — V \ vrVfvQr V \TV?n * "The Cardinal Vowel scale is a Sine and independent system needed on the auditory and articulatory levels.\ According to tionof the bulk' Front vowels FrontCentral retracted vowels vowels Backadvanced vowels Back vowels ing to the va- \ natron in the height of the raised part of the tongue Narrow variation Broad variation Narrow variation Broad variation Narrow variation Broad variation 4 Nt N. • Ldn.

each vowel is characterized by its own formants (that is concentrations of energy in certain frequency regions on the spectrogram). V. III. Degree of tenseness and the character of the end. the Russian rounded and protruded vowels are: /о. Position of the lips. then a voiceless vowel is produced. The main effects of lip rounding on the shape of the mouth are: a) to enlarge the oral cavity. хлеб. у/. . it can be pronounced without voice. it is usually the back part of the tongue which is raised highest towards the soft palate. /com. IV. (a) When the bulk of the tongue moves backwards. Vowels produced with the tongue in this position are called back. и — о:/. When people pronounce vowels in whisper. According to the position of the tongue jt is the bulk of the tongue which conditions most of all the production of different vow els. considering such subdivision to be conventional (Fig.g. E. II. cit-J>. According to the position of the lips vowels are classified into: (a) rounded. . Soviet phoneticians suggest a classification of vowels according to the following principles: I. I. Both of these deepen the pitch and increase the reso nance of the front oral cavity according to the position of the lips. The Eng lish rounded vowels are: /u — u:. Such voiceless vowels exist in all languages as a "schwa" in a terminal position after voiceless (especially occlusive) consonants.ther to a qualified teacher. in the Russian language /ъ/ is heard in the words: суд. The Russian rounded vowels are pronounced with more lip protrusion than the English rounded vowels." * Acoustically vowels are musical tones (not noises): the word "vowel" is a derivative of "voice". they also articulate "voiceless vowels". They are subdivided into: i Vassttyev V. Position of the tongue. 8). record cannot expect to learn the values of these or any other cardinal vowels with accuracy. breathing the air out through the mouth cavity. убит. II. Op. кит. 92. Acoustically vowels differ due to their tembral colouring. nor to a . Zinder states that if the organs of speech are adjusted for the articulation of a vowel. Prof. etc. The general pattern is that the front and open vowels are articulated with spread to neutral lip position while back vowels have rounded lips.R. It can move forward and backward. (b) unrounded. Soviet scientists divide vowels according to the (a) horizontal and (b) vertical movements of the tongue (Table 2). The rounding tends to be more worked with closer tongue height.A. Stability of articulation. L. L. 37 . Length. V. b) to diminish the size of the opening of the oral cavity. But vowels are not necessarily connected with voice. it may be raised and low ered in the mouth cavity. Shcherba did not separate vowels according to the vertical and horizontal movements of the tongue with definite lines.

u/ narrow variation: /e. u)/. Sweet. a(i.. e(u)/. ai/. у/. half-open /e. he considers the vowels of the lul type and the English /з:. э 3 (В8 Some phoneticians considered л а X that /з:. When the bulk of the tongue moves forward.L.ordJne i0 the degree56 tenseness traditionally long vowof L ь и i S Ч" ^ short as Iax . аD Trakhterov. еэ/ and the Russian /u. э/ are mixed not central vowels (G. i ^cfc. з:. . /o/ is on the borderline between "mid-open" and "open".acn ot the a /.. 9/. Its central part is raised towards the juncture Mixed F ro n t B a between the hard and soft palbl У| ш ate.T he te "n "tense" was ind by H. at. u:/. a/. Central vowels are /з:. who stated that the tongue is tense when vow38 . e. Russian /и. Torsuyev. э:. A. 8 .P. subclasses is subdivided into vowels of narrow variation and vowels of broad variation: narrow variation: /i:.V. (b) According to the vertical movements of the tongue vowels are subdivided into: high: /i:. у/ broad variation: /i. . In the production of central vowels the tongue is almost flat. H. mention central vowels at all. o(i)/ broad variation: / tt| v. ы/. mid-. э/. back-advanced: /u. Russian /o/ narrow variation: /л.fully back: h. the nuclei of the diphthongs /ei. u:/. Sweet). э. G. ы. R u s s i a n /t. Russian /и. the nucleus of the diphthong hi!. е(э). L. Russian /э. Russian /э/ ■ broad variation: /ф). з/ mixed. г. л/ VI and the nucleus of the diphthong ъV V0 /au/. Torsuyev referred to the group of central vowels the Russian /a/ Indefinit and /ы/. front-retracted: /i/ and the nuclei of the diphthongs /au. у. a(u). о/. and the Russian /о. They are subdivided into: fully front: /i:. n I ° ?: ^/ A\ * ? ' a k u > ' c ü' v > ° W / . э:. u:/. it is usually the front part of the tongue which is raised highest towards the hard palate.P. зе/. Shcherba does not e Fig. эе. Vowels produced with this position of the tongue are called front. i. Russian /a/ The Russian /э/ is on the borderline between "narrow" and "broad" mid vowels. u.

This problem can be solved accurately only with the help of electromyography. An Outline of English Phonetics. This statement is a confusion of two problems: acoustic and articulatory because "tenseness" is an acoustic notion and should be treated in terms of acoustic data. Checked vowels are those which occur in stressed closed syllables.els of narrow variety are articulated. or are followed by a lenis voiced consonant.weed — wheat tie — tied — tight Jones D.— 9th ed. Unchecked vowels are those which occur terminally. la.P. There are no checked vowels in Russian.. this phenomenon is connected with the articulation of vowels in unaccented syllables (unstressed vocal ism). When the muscles of the lips. The Russian vowels are not differentiated according to their tenseness but one and the same vowel is tense in a stressed syllable compared with its tenseness in an unstressed one. 1960. 3 Length is marked with a macron (—). cheeks and the back walls of the pharynx are tense.l in /bi:/. Torsuyev ä defines all long English vowels as tense as well as /ae/. shortness with a breve (~). It must be regarded outside the free/checked classes. /e/ in /bet/. /'leb/. 84—102. (5) sonority. /Jeep/. (3) the number of syllables in a word. lax vowels are produced. English vowels can be checked and unchecked. the vowels produced can be characterized as "tense". The English vowel /э/ does not occur in a stressed context. ending in a fortis voiceless consonant. D. e. (4) the character of the syllabic structure.1 in /ka:d/. e. 39 1 . П.» Vowel length may depend on a number of linguistic factors: (1) position of the vowel in a word. All of them are unchecked. They are abruptly interrupted by the following voiceless consonant. The checked vowels are pronounced without any lessening in the force of utterance towards their end. However. When these organs are relatively relaxed. I'v.g.— Cambridge. IV.—С.g. Jones * considers only the long /i:/ and /u:/ to be tense. that is in an unstressed position they may lose their qualitative characteristics. Строение слога и аллофоны в английском языке — AI. The decrease of tenseness results in the reduction of vowels. (1) Positional dependence of length can be illustrated by the following example: be — bead — beat we ~. tongue. There are different opinions in referring English vowels to the first or to the second group. a Торсуев Г. all short vowels are considered by him as lax. (2) word stress./ in /kat/. According to the length English vowels are subdivided into: (historically) long and (historically) short. fa. 1975. Q.

The Phonetics of English. etc. For example. e. CVC.ikast/ предсказывать погоду In the verb /o:/ is shorter than in the noun. 76. Thus in the word verse /з:/ is longer than in university. because the speaker unconsciously makes more effort to produce greater auditory effect while pronouncing vowels of lower sonority. Length is a non-pnonemic feature in English but it may serve to differentiate the meaning of a word. о:. Jones O. /i/ is longer than hi. beat /bi:t/ бить—bit /on/ кусочек deed /di:d/ дело (деяние)— /did/ делал. cit. though it may be pronounced with /o:/ equally long. CV. For example. Jones % treats quantity independently of the vowel sounds themselves. x (4) In words with V. Torsuyev considers/ае/tobea long vowel. л. Thus he treats i/ as positional allophones of one pho Гг.—P. u. It is so. The English short vowels are /i. ) 2 V is the Initial letter of the word "vowel". In fact. сделал did The English long'vowels are /i:. 70. it is the shortest before a voiceless consonant. English pho neticians state that it is a short one. as. CCVC type of syllable. l\:i is longer than /a*/. (3) If we compare a one-syllable word and a word consisting of more than one syllable. u:. than inearn (VC type). neme. it is the principle of the stability of the shape. Op. 40 . than induty (CVCV type). 8 Ward I. volume and the size of the mouth resonator. (2) A vowel is longer in a stressed syllable than in an unstressed one: forecast n /ifo:kast/ прогноз—forecast v /b. e. 1948.P. D. С is the Initial letter of the word consonant". (5) Vowels of low sonority are longer than vowels of greater sonor ity.g. The stability of articulation is the principle of vowel classi fication which is not singled out by Britisn and American phoneti cians.— P. VC. V. V. though in som e words it 3 may be long. Besides vowel length depends on the tempo of speech: the higher the rate of speech the shorter the vowels. а. but he admits that in certain positions /se/ can be a short phoneme. G. it shortens before t a voiced consonant. э/. /ju:/ is longer in dew (CV type).. This can be proved by minimal pairs. we may observe that similar vowels are short er in a polysyllabic word.— Cambridge. э:/. h\l is longer in err (V type). CCV are open types of syllables. ю. CCVC are гclosed types of syllables.In the terminal position a vowel ishe longest. CVC. thus making them longer. CV. CCV type of syllable the vowel length is greater than in words with VC.

e. ой/ in чай. э:. L. еэ. иэ/. a diph thong is a single sound. Trubetskoy states that a diphthong should be (a) unisyllabic.We can speak only of relative stability of the organs of speech. . ей. сто-to. Фонетика современного оусского языка. /'hK/ / ' / 41 . i. ой/ phonetic diphthongs and English inseparable units like /ai. 1 Вуланин JI. 1970. u:. э:. иэ/ are called centring. Another definition of a diphthong as a single sound is based on the instability of the second element. English diphthongs are falling with the glide toward: i—/ei. 85. that is the parts of a diphthong cannot belong to two syllables.g.а D. а. The third group of scientists define a diphthong from the accentual point of view: since only one element is accented and the other is unaccented./-^ phonemic diphthongs. or simple vowels. . diphthongs /еэ» . N. and rising — when the glide is stronger than the nucleus. эй. a —/19. E. (b) Diphthongs are defined differently by different authors. oi/. One definition is based on the ability of a vowel to form a syllable.13. Jones treats the diphthongs /ia.x The first element of a diphthong is the nucleus.8 Diphthongs /ei. because pronunciation of a sound is a process.R. ei. the second is the glide. and its stability should be treated conventionally. ai. tongue and mouth walls position. according to the articulatory char? acter of the second element. D. u. au. л. u —/au. (b) diphthongs.JI. ю.S. . эй/. Bulanin calls combinations like Russian /аи. A diphthong can be falling — when the nucleus is stronger than the glide. or complex vowels.— M.— С. э/. Jones defines diphthongs as unisyllabic gliding sounds in the articulation of which the organs of speech start from one position and then glide to another position.. (b) monophonemic with gliding articulation. When both elements are equal such diphthongs are called level. They are: /i:.g. стой can be separated: ча-ю. vx. ua/£in some positions as rising. e. According to this principle vowels are subdivided into: (a) monophthongs.. Zinder adds that phonemically diphthongs are sounds that cannot be divided morphologically.. a diphthong is a single sound. the Russian /аи. (c) its length should not exceed the length of a single phoneme. (a) English monophthongs are pronounced with more or less stable lip. ai/ are called closing. L. Since in the diphthong only one element serves as a syllabic nucleus. ae. L.

There are two vowels in English /i:. (2) The bulk of the tongue.g. In the articulation of the / similar English h. o:/. DIFFERENCES IN THE^ARTICULATION BASES OF ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN jVOWELS Articulation bases of English and Russian vowels are different. In allophonic transcription they can be represented as J[iiuuw]. which resembles a smile. ы. у/. When the bulk of the tongue moves in the horizontal direction it may occupy a fully front and a frontretracted. a/ and back — о.g. e. о/ are diphthongoids of / the widening type. э.g. Before fortis consonants it is more usual to hear steady-state /i:. (3) The principle of the degree of tenseness in vowel classification is inseparably connected with the free or unchecked and checked char acter of the vowels./ э/. It reflects more exactly distinctively relevant differences between the English^ vowel pho nemes. 42 . we may state that the classification of vowels s uggested by Soviet authors is more exact from the articulatory point of view and more simple for teaching purposes. low) in English is subdivided into a narrow and broad variety. / According to the horizontal movement of the bulk of the tongue Russian vowels may be subdivided into: front —и. /bi:t. e. bu:t/. / If we compare classifications of vowels suggested by Soviet and foreign authors. u:/—that may have a — diphthongal glide where they have full length. u:/. (1) The lips. mid — /э. Each of the three vertical positions of the tongue (high. u:/ considerable protrusion does not take place. Thus. The articulatory peculiarities in the pro / nunciation of English vowels constitute the basis for the formation of diphthongs when the position of the tongue changes within the articulation of one and the same vowel. When clas sified according to the vertical movement of the tongue they may be divided into. Englishmen have the so called "flat-type" position of the lips. which are of mixed type. у/. bi:d. high — и. and the corners of the lips are raised. du:ra/. сядь /c'äY/. In the articulation of the English vow els the bulk of the tongue occupies more positions than in the pro duction of the Russian yowels. bi:n/. six groups of vowel sounds are formed in the system of English vowels. it begins and ends withи/. . Horizontal move ments of the tongue condition the articulation of the / э:/ vowels. Russian /a/ between soft consonants is a diphH thongoid. their lips are more tense than the lips of the Russian. Russian vowels э. о/ and low — /a/. a fully back and a back-advanced position. mid. /du:. central — /ьг. Such broad va riety of the bulk of the tongue positions is not ob served in the production of the Russian vowel sounds. у/. In the production of Russian vowels the lips are con siderably protruded and rounded о. in open syl lables and before lenis or nasal consonants: /bi:. e. /ä/ = [*a I. /u.

/o:~--D/. иэ. (3) vowels articulated with the "flat" position of the lips in the /i:. There are no long vowels which can be opposed phoneraically to short vowels in the Russian language. i. s:/. э/. (5) front-retracted /i/ and back-advanced /u. Length in the Russian vowel system is an irrelevant feature. a/. (7) checked and free vowels. у. IS: — a/. о/. (3) they replace the English vowels /i:. What are Shcherba's principles of vowel classification? 4. ei/ without the "flat position" of the lips. (5) The stability of articulation. (8) they do not observe the positional length of vowels. /и:—и/. (9) they make both elements of the diphthongs equally distinct. e. аи. (4) they pronounce /i:. such as /se. (6) central or mixed /э. эй/. se. Long vowels in English are consid ered to be tense. (2) slightly rounded. but not protruded vowels /u:. u:. ю 7 еэ. /э:—1>/. There are monophthongs and diphthongoids in the Russian vowel system. л. (10) they pronounce initial vowels with a glottal stop (?). (4) very low vowels. ai. similarly to the Russian /э. (2) they do not observe the qualitative difference in the artic ulation of such vowels as /i:—if. (5) they soften consonants which precede /i:. а. e. In articulating EngHsh vowels Russian students are apt to make the following mistakes: (1) they do not observe the quantitative character of the long vowels. u. (6) There are 6 vowel phonemes in Russian and 20 in English. Given below are English vowels which have no counterparts in Rus sian: (1) long and short vowels /i:—i/. How are vowels classified according to the movements of the bulk of the 43 /а—ЛД . и/ by the Russian vowels /и. oi. о. i. D / more narrow because they don't open the mouth properly. о. эй/ with the lips too much rounded and protruded.(4) The length of the vowels. и:. i. (8) diphthongs /ei. (6) they articulate /t>. (7) they make the sounds /se. Jones? 2. What are the principles of vowel classification suggested by Soviet phoneticians? 5. e. but there are no diph thongs. What do you know about the system of Cardinal Vowels devised by D.. о:. ei/ production. v. ei/ front vowels as a result of which the latter become more narrow and the consonants are palatalyzed. o:. What is the acoustic nature of vowels? 3. a/. o:/. за. /U: —U/. Questions 1.

What do you know about the principle of lip participation and the degree of tenseness in the articulation of vowels? 7. What are the differences in the articulation bases of English and Russian vowel sounds? 11. What mistakes may the Russian students make because of the articulation differences in the pronunciation of English and Russian vowel sounds? Exercises 1. *I1. э:/ sounds from the viewpoint of the hor izontal and vertical movements of the tongue. et:/ sounds from the viewpoint of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue.tongue? 6. ге/ sounds from the viewpoint of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue. а/. *5. Give examples to prove that voiceless vowels exist in English and in Russian. *12.'(he cardinal vowels according to D. Draw sagittal figures and use solid and dotted lines to show that the /i:. (a) seem—since meal—тШ mean—mince sleep—slip least—list (c) team—Tim feel—fill been—chill cheap—chip (e) deed-did Jean—Jim 44 (b) read—rid steal—still creek—crick sleet—slit seek—sick (d) seen—sin dealer—dinner heat—hit beat—bit (!) fees—fizz me—missed . h: — u/ sounds. How are vowels classified according to their tenseness and length? What does the length of vowels depend on? 8. э:. Show by dots the position of cardinal vowels on the trapezium. Draw a diagram of cardinal vowels. 3. Characterize each of. аи. Jones. эй/ are not diphthongs. fl. What do you know about stabiliiy of articulation in vowel production? 10. Prove by examples that the Russian sound combinations /ой.Describe the cardinal vowels that can be compared with the corres onding ' Russian vowels. /u: — u/. *4. Give articulatory and morphological proofs of diphthong indivisibility. Explain the articulatory differences between the/i: — i/. Transcribe these'"words and read them. 2. 7. Observe the difference between the fully front /i:/ and the front-retracted hi. What is the difference between checked and unchecked vowels? 9. 10.[*. Explain the articulation of the /э. Explain the articulation of the /i:. 6. Explain the articulation of the /u:. 8. Supply each dot with the appropriate cardinal vowel and its number. e. Compare these sounds with the Russian vowel sounds /ы. u:/ vowels can be pronounced as diphthongoids.

feeling—filling eat—it seats—sits (g) leave—live fever—fifty beacon—bill cheek—chin beat—bit (a) bed—bad then—than plenty—plan else—Alice letter—ladder (c) French—ran pence—pants burial—barrow t wenty—twang many—matter (e) dead—Dad any—Alice Shelly—shall merry—married Henry—happy (g) Hetty—hat central—sandy cheviot—channel many—map vessel—value elderly—anxious . these—this steep—stick (h) he—him theme—thing seals—sits steep—stiff people—pit (b) bead—had ten—tan left—lad let—slack select—relax (d)end—and then—than anyway—family bed—b ack helping—happy (f) ten—tan men—man said—sad bed—bad chest — chap (h) any—anxious bet—back plenty—platform flesh—flash *13. Observe the difference between the mid-open /e/ and the fully open (low) /ее/. Transcribe these words and read them. Transcribe these words and read them. ' *J4. Observe the difference between the low long vowel of broad variation /a:/ and the low short vowei of narrow variation /л/. (a) calm—come rather—running barn—button lark—luck classes—busses (c) marvel—money laugh—lovely past—puzzl ing market—mug last—London (e) Arnold—others master—monkeys started—study (b) aunt—under hard—hundred dark—dull basket—above Jark—flush (d) darn—done Bart—but cart—cut March—much (f) hardly—honey rather—rubbed last—luck 43 .

i/. Observe the difference between the back Ы. torn—turn—tan call—curl—cat board—bird—bad chalk—church—channel . the mid /e/ and the low Ы1. the mixed Ы and the front /se/. central Back-advanced Back enlarge—instructor last—must (g) France—front harbours—hundred advantage—above half—hut past—but (i) star—stun can't—come hard—hut target—two-pence mask—must bid—bed—bad rid—read—rat mill—men—man Sid—said—sad pit—pet—pat beat—bet—bat all—earl—shall caught—curt—cat walk—work—whack for—fur—fat (h) arm—other hardly—hundred started—studied March—much half—struck * 15. Observe the difference between the high /i:. team—ten—tan hid—head—had Hit—-left—lad lit—let—lack mean—many—matter *16. Transcribe these words and read them.Tobte 3 Front Close (high) Narrow variation Broad variation Mid-open (mid) Narrow variation Broad variation Open (low) Narrow variation Broad variation Front-retracted Mixed. Transcribe these words and read them.

Make a copy of Table 3 and fill it in with the suitable vowels. .warm—worm—twang more— mercy—man lawn—learn—lad Control Tasks saw—sir—sad caution—curtain—cat 1. Draw a diagram of English and Russian vowel sounds and mark by dots the eight cardinal vowels. 2.

His theory of phoneme was developed гпб. Phonetics studies sounds as articulatory and acoustic units. bang. they mean something only in combinations. voicelessfortis—according to the classificatory definition. which are called words. if wereplace /b/ by /t/ in the word ban we produce a new word tan. The founder of the phoneme theory was I. bone. in which any one phoneme is usually opposed to any other phoneme in at least one position in at least one lexical or grammatical minimal or sub-minimal pair. To establish the phonemes of the language the phonologist tries to find pairs that show which sounds occur or do not occur in identical positions —■ commutation test. Ben. Phonetics and phonology are closely connected. alveolar. It is these sound types that should be included into the classification of phonemes and studied as differentiatory units of the language. See Table 4. at the same time they differ in some degree and are incapable of differentiating words. phonology investigates sounds as units. This method consists in finding pairs of words which differ in one phoneme. Shcherba — the head of the Leningrad linguistic school. occlusive. FUNCTIONAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS Separate segments of speech continuum have no meaning of their own. forelingual. back. that is they serve the purpose of social intercommunication. but — one of its variants. Two words of this kind are termed "minimal pair". post-alveolar in try. fan — it is a minimal set. we can also produce can. which are capable of distinguishing the meaning and the form of words. It is possible to take this process further. apical. or allophones of phonemes.g. man.A. the Russian scientist of Polish origin.III. the commuted sounds are different phonemes. boon. that is their acoustic and articulatory feautures have much in common. Allophones are realized in concrete words. who stated that in actual speech we utter a much greater variety of sounds than we are aware of. ban — tan is a pair of words distinguished in meaning by a single sound change. the unit of phonology is a phoneme. which serve communicative purposes. which are phonologically significant. and thai in every language these sounds are united in a comparatively smalt number of sound types. plosive. For example. exploded la48 . bat. The actually pronounced speech sounds are variants. If the substitution of one sound for another results in the change of meaning. Baudouin de Courteney. badge. speech sounds.V. which is aspirated. born. ran. The unit of phonetics is a speech sound. The change of the final /n/ in ban will result in a third minimal set: bad. perfected by L. e. They have phonetic similarity. in speech we pronounce not the sound type tt(. For example. dental in the word eighth. Phonemes can be discovered by the method of minimal pairs. labialized in the word twice. burn. The phonemes of a language form a system of oppositions. exploded nasally in written. The change of the vowel Izd in ban provides us with another minimal set: bun.

in each language is much smaller than the number of sounds actually pronounced (see Table 5). e. In practical teaching the most important allophones should be mentioned to teach the pupils their correct pronunciation. contexts in which no other phoneme ever occurs. etc. it is longer before a voiced lenis. Russian positional allophones can be observed in вопль. narrow. than in eat under the influence of the backlingual /k/. 49 . pit — peat. The allophones of one and the same phoneme never occur in the same context. рубль where terminal /л/ is devoiced after voiceless /п. Combinatory allophones appear in the process of speech and result from the influence of one phoneme upon another — see below. To distinguish the sound types from their allophones in writing. That variant of the phoneme which is described as the most representative and free from the influence of the neighbouring phonemes is considered to be typical. milt. who.1 Contrastive distribution. free". the pronunciation of /w/ as /W in why. or principal. let and hill. variants of one phoneme are mutually exclusive. the pronunciation of the initial /k/ with different degrees of aspiration. б/. long. which is defined as "unrounded. g. e. high. or allophones.terally in little. when one and the same phoneme occurs in a definite set of. This method helps to prove whether the phonemic difference is rele1 When allophones of one phoneme do occur In the same context without distinctive force. g. The simplest of them is free variation. etc. is one more pattern of phoneme environment. or the vowel phoneme /i:/. The number of sound types. fully front. g. pronounced without aspiration in stay. the English /1/ is realized in actual speech as a positional allophone: it is clear in the initial position. Another example: the sound type. that is the variation of one and the same phoneme pronounced differently. the phoneme /1/ has two positional allophones: clear [1J and dark [I]. or phonemes. are very important for language teaching because they are pronounced in actual speech and though their mispronunciation does not always influence the meaning of the words. and square—for their allophones. Positional allophones are used in certain positions traditionally. Phonemic variants. compare tight. Subsidiary allophones can be positional and combinatory. they are in free variation. Each phoneme manifests itself in a certain pattern of distribution. e. Minimal distinctive features are discovered through oppositions. greed — greet. said — sad. Complementary distribution is another pattern of phoneme environment. bad — bed — these are minimal pairs. The variants used in actual speech are called subsidiary. their misuse makes a person's speech sound as "foreign". than before a voiceless fortis consonant: seed— seat. For example. which. is more back in key. tense. and dark in the terminal position. two types of brackets are used: slant-like for the phonemes proper.

try — dry.van— veal— vice-tan deal nice thane thou thigh. double or multiple./ь/ /р/ р» г /ь/ /т/ /w / Л/ /v/ pike— mike boss— moss mind— wind /m/ Each minimal pair exemplifies a possible consonant opposition /w/ /f/ /v/ /e/ /a/ /t/ /d/ /n/ pen— pine— when fine bind— boot— wind loot meet— feet vice pan— van ban— van mice— Ruth pin— thin brash— thrush room— thine pine— thine bat— that mine— tan pin— tin bill— till man— dad park— dark bide— died mad— nine pieceniece be er near mine— wind— went— wick— wine— find vent thick thine fife— five loaf— loath thine will— till wide— died weedneed fear— fear— foughtdeer taught / е/ /*/ near vane— vow. If there are two distinc60 .Uy— thin— t h i c k ly they din Nick these— they— thine— tease day nine beats—t i g h t beads night т /п/ IV III /3/ / r/ /I/ / k/ /S/ /0/ vant or not. whether the opposition is single. thus /t/ and M/ have only one distinctively relevant feature — single opposition. time — dime. We can prove that this opposition is really phonemic by the minimal pairs: ten — den.g. e. /t/ and /d/ differ along the following lines: /t/ /d/ voiceless fortis voiced lenis Their other characteristic features are irrelevant.

throw— zinc law shief rouge runt your crow thee— thy— thybathe. The opposition /b/ — 1Ы SI . pail — dale.thaw. pry — dry.bell— bar— round yell car mice— melmad— rice low— cad yellow wipe— well— wave— ripe yell cave foot— • folk— root yoke fat— cat weatth— health fame— rough— forcegame rung horse vet— get throw— grow th e se geese tap— gap died— guide name— game same— game easel— eagle lame— game shamegame — have— viewhang bue hath— t h i r d hang heard with— th e re wing here sit— To bysing hobby bad— d ea r bang hear Ian— fang sis— sing has— hang silk— sink wish— wing — nearhear sit— hit zero— hero late— bate she he — veal— vice— veer— — vice— veer— van— zeal lice sheer rice year can think— thaw— thief.g.Commutation Table 4 (other examples can be found by the students). the opposition is double.knife— nave— bane— knock. e.thythen. bilabial | lingual.ruth.tin— boozy tight shoe rouge rock young kin deal— dives— death— rude— doe— door— danzeal lives chef rouge row your cer— cancer knock— known. M N IV Ш № /r/ /i/ perch— pope— search pose birch— best— search zest mad— meal— sad zeal pay— pine.thumb. /p/ and /d/ differ along the following lines: /p/ /d/ voiceless fortis voiced lenis labial. alveolar This opposition is really phonemic.thatzee lie shy beige rye yen cat booty— tight— toe— root— talks— tongue.— lay shine bay— bob— lay bosh mike— make— like shake rope— rouge babe— beige room— rouge /к/ /g/ pig— gig bide— guide met— get wave— gave /о/ pip— ping bib— bing rum— rung — /Ь/ penhen be— he mousehouse wowest— wife— whine— — und— zest life shine sound found— feel— fife— fee— roof— sound zeal life she rouge veal— seal thinsin they— say talk— sock died— side pipe— top— play— ripe toy clay bound. apical. It can be proved by the minimal pairs: pie — die. forelingual.hap— night— sock nose life shave beige rock yap kite peace— sock— sock— base— — sock— sore— city— peas rock slock beige rock your kitty zest— zone— ruse— sest— zoo— zinc— lest shown rouge rest you kink look— rule— lice— less— lick— shook rouge rice yes kick ruche— shock— shell— shin— rouge rock yell kin rouge— — beige— Ruhr bake rack— rid— yak kid yap— cap rag— — roofgag hoof yes— — guess coat— sock— c a l fgoat song half bag— g e a r bang hear tively relevant features.

. A Baudouin de Courteney (1845-1929) defined the phoneme as a psychical image of a sound. Klychkov. Distinctive features are the main. M. bit — hit. bilabial pharyngal occlusive constrict ive The phonemic nature of this opposition can be proved by minimal Soviet phoneticians perform commutation tests on the basis of the knowledge of the grammatical form and the meaning of the words. In our days Prof. C. which really exist in phonemic classes. Fant. The taxonomy of differentiator features is being constructed on the basis of objective reality of phonological distinction. K. Steponavicius and many others. H. The commutation of meaning and utterance is effected due to these features. There is one more big problem in phonology — theory of distinctive features. Enriching the theory of distinctive features Prof. I.g. V. it is one of the two main problems of phonological analysis. Kucbra. Trubetskoy and developed by such foreign scientists as R. I. Ya. Ptotkin thinks it appropriate to revive the terms "kinema" and "acousma" coined 52 pairs. R. Halle. V. G. The other big problem phonologists are confronted with is to define the phonemic status of the sound in the neutral position. The method of minimal pairs helps to establish the inventory of phonemes. basic elements of variability in different languages. Plotkin. such as L. 40 71 21 is multiple because these phonemes differ along the following linesi /b/ /h/ voiced lenis voiceless fortis labial. Chomsky. Jackobson. G. Monroe and many Soviet phonologists. N. e. Ladefoged. Ya. G. S. S. Zinder. bait — hate. It was originated by N. Klychkov introduces a modal feature of "turbulency" to make the hierarchy of consonants more logical. they apply the semantic method of phoneme identification. be — he. S. P. G.Table 5 Comparative Table of Phonemes in Different Languages Language Consonants Vowels Total Language Consonants Vowels Total Russian English French 36 24 17 6 20 15 42 44 32 German Abkhazian Finnish 22 68 13 IS 3 8. He states that the main question of distinctive theory is the criterion of frequency and the direction of markedness. He originated the so called "mentaJist view of the phoneme. There are different opinions on the nature of the phoneme and its v definition.

53 1 . Systems of Ultimate Phonological Units // Phonetica. S. The "abstract" view regards the phoneme independent of the phonetic properties.— P. L. while the sound chain is the vehicle for their externalization. Jakobson (1896-1982) viewed the phoneme as the minimal sound units by which meanings may be differentiated. The acceptance of the kinakeme makes the notion of distinctive phonemic features redundant in phonemic theory because the kinakeme covers practically the same ground as the notion of "distinctive feature". Ya. The abstraction^ conception of the phoneme was originated by Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913). syntagmatic and semantic properties. 1976. and are ultimate phonological units. b) postalveolarity. Fant considers the term "minimal category" or "distinction" much better than "distinctive feature". Its indivisibility should be qualified as inability to be broken up into smaller units of sound. their vocalic kinakemes deal with the height of the vocal tract."1 II. Plotkin V.advocated by their pupils in the Copenhagen Linguistic Circle'. b) discordance.by Baudouin deCourteneyfor the psychic images of articulatory movements and their auditory counterparts and blended into "kinakeme" to designate the bilateral psychophonic unit He states that experimental investigations demonstrate the impossibility of accepting the phoneme as the basic unit in the production and perception of oral speech." "As for the ultimate phonological unit. Speech production and perception are cerebral activities first and foremost. b) postlinguality. III. vBloomfield (1887-1949). They stated that the features of the phoneme involved in the differentiation of words are called distinctive. activating certain areas along the vocal tract. b) constriction. Locational kinakemes: vocalic and consonantal. (1) Obstructional: a) occlusion. It was . "The-phoneme retains its status of the minimal unit of sound in the language system. it is an instrument for the linguistic structuring of extralinguistic substance which might be called prephonic rather than phonic. (1) Articulatory: a) prelinguality. Ya. N. 82. Plotkin suggests two dichotomies: jl. R. Kinakemic system consists of two sub-systems: vocalic and con: sonantal. They can be found in contrastive sets. Hjelmsley (1889-1965). Trubetzkoy (1890-1938). Thus phonemes are composed of kinakemes which possess the paradignratic. Modal kinakemes are concerned with the origin of sounds and the vertical dimensions of the vocal tract. 2. (2) Phonal: a) sonority. (G.) V. Consonantal modal kinakemes determine the mode of obstruction and the acoustic type of sound-tone or noise. (2) Pointal: a) prealveolarity. the famous Swiss linguist and the Danish linguist L. All kinakemes are divided into two categories: modal and locational. which are not rigidly separated. characteristic of -other phonological units. function on the horizontal plane.

H. existing inde pendently from our will. Speak on the method of discovery of minimal distinctive features. The members of the family show phonetic similarity. A Theoretical Course". or a "supralect" — the phoneme is a unit of a standard form. How are phonemes discovered? 3. It is an objective reality. Bloomfield). Träger. A. it functions to make one word or its grammatical form distinct from the other. Smith). A. Single out the phonemes which are contrasted. allophones. A. Perry). This view was shared by the American scientists B. that is on the definition of the phoneme as a unit of an idiolect (D. VI. What are the main problems of phonological analysis? 9. Questions 1. a multidialect — the phoneme is a unit of the English Language as a whole (G. V. jug—bug judge—budge 54 led—laid men—main lay—He say—sigh . What is a kinakeme? П. Read aloud the minimal pairs below. a dialect (L. it constitutes words and helps to recognize them. Jones (1881-1967). Bloch and G. What is commutation test? 4. V. Prof. Pike). The physical view on the phoneme was originated by D. by which the dialects and idiolects may be compared (J. The problem of the phoneme can be solved on a "populational basis" (J. (2) abstractional and generalized. What patterns of phoneme distribution do you know? 7. (b) distinctive and (c) recognitiye. Vassilyev states that phoneme is material. L. 8. V.IV. What do you know about the history of the phoneme discovery? 10. Vassilyev developed Shcherba's theo ry and presented a detailed definition of the phoneme in his book "English Phonetics. How are allophones classified? 6. because we make it abstract from concrete realizations for classificatory pur poses.A. independent distinctive unit which manifests itself in the form of allophones. where he writes that a phoneme is a dialectical unity of three aspects: (1) material. What is phonology? 2. K. They define the phoneme as a class of phonetically similar sounds. V. How is the phoneme defined by Soviet scientists? Exercises 1. It serves to perform the following functions: (a) constitutive. contrasting and mutually exclusive with all similar classes in the language. real and objective because it really exists in the material form of speech sounds. No member of the family can occur in the same phonetic context as any other member. Perry. or intention. 1974). Jones. What is the difference between phonemes and allophones? How are they represented in writing? 5. (3) functional. Shcherba (1880-1944) was the first to define the phoneme as a real. It is an abstraction. Trager. real and objective. He defined the phoneme as a "family" of sounds.

coal unaspirated: baker. talking. deck chair. day voiced: leader. secret no audible release: locked. Pay attention to the allophonic difference of one and the same phoneme. Read these words. utmost lateral release: cattle. order. ago. bugle. dark night. struggle voiceless: dog. halfpin. geese. red map lateral release: middle. tall. murder voiceless: bid. badly. bed time. tone unaspirated: steak. stall. atlas. headless. figure. white chalk nasal release: cotton. vague partly devoiced: go. blackboard.5 . leg. road map. eaten. begin f. good cheese nasal release: admit. good luck ft/ aspirated: come. eager. road no audible release: good dog. /t/ aspirated: take. football. begged lateral release: glow. glass voiced. stone no audible release: outpost. button.birch—-bird singe—sinned keen—coin try—Troy bays—buys lied—Lloyd burn—bone fork—folk fawn—phone fur—foe girl —goal read—reared lead—leered day—deer pays—peers pace—pierce pen—pain edge—age law—low saw —so gnaw— no pause— pose pearl—pole pursed—post curt—coat perch—poach cursed—coast red—rared very—vary bed—bared pier—pair dearie—dairy bay—by days—dies roars—rose awed—ode called—cold torn—tone barred—bowed Karl—cowl part —pout art—out no—now do—doer pear— poor my—mire write—riot bowered—b owed 2. black Imagic. car. dog. equal. girt. mad. at last partly devoiced: do.

Read these words. her. houri 6.3. pull—-mill fool—hall cleft cleg ply please clerk play twice tweed quiet quaver queer plight—blight clad—glad clue—glue try tree pry price cry crone crop class—glass clean—glean 5. like—lip live—Uly less—leak doll—girl let— list coal—twelve 4. 1S6. each of them should be considered as a "strong. /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ pea —paw bee —bark tea —talk deep—dope /k/ key —car /g/ geese —goose /t(7 cheese—chosej /dg/ jet —jar Щ far —fee /v/ veel —vote /9/ theme—thumb /5/ thee —those. Read these words. hop. who. voiceless onset of the vowel. Op. half. hook. which follows it. hit. habitual. /r/ read—rode /s/ see—saw /z/ zeal—zone /j/ yes—young /Jf/ she— /аз/ jupe—Joe shoe /w/ we— /h/ he—home wet /m/ me—met /1/ lee—law /n/ knee—net /п/ пол /п7 пёк /б/ бак / 67 бязь /т/ ток /т7 тёк 1 /к7 Кяхта /с/ 1 /г/ год час /г7 гяур /Ц/ N /с / цепь /з/ /з7 / Gimson А. Read these words. hare. С. Read these words. Pay attention to the allophones in the syllable initial prevocalic position." г |he. Pay attention to the complementary nature of soft and hard English allophones and to the independent soft and hard Russian pho nemes. Pay attention to the positional allophones of the /1/ phoneme. cit___Р. t. horn. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the de voiced allophones of the /1. k/. high. w. r/ phonemes after /p. Mind the distributional character of the /h/ phoneme. hay. how. / Ф / фунт / сон сёл зол зять шёлк /м/ мак /м7 мять /н/ нос /н7 нёс /л/ лад /л7 лёд 56 . help. hoist. hear. happy. hut. hoe.

pair./д/ да /ф1/ Фёкла /ж/ жар /д1/ дядя /в/ воз /ж'/ жжёщь /к/ как /в7 вёз /х/ холм Control Tasks /и/ яр /р/ рад] /р7 ряд 1. Give examples to prove that the following features of the English consonants and vowels are distinctive. If there are more than one distinctive feature in a pair. Op.— P.) 1 . What positional aflophones occur as a result of palatalization in the Russian language? *4. (fa) contrast!ve. cit. lap.pnoneme is opposed to any other consonant phoneme in at least one position. Mutually distinctive speech sounds are called phonemes. and not essential to the work of analysis. it is called sub-minimal. catch. 6. he. Give examples of: (a) single opposition. (c) multiple Opposition. match ENGLISH CONSONANTS AS UNITS OF THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM Sounds can function as units of language only if they differ from one another. but not necessarily to be expected. this pair is called minimal. in the minimal pair pen — Ben the phoneme /p/ is opposed to the phoneme /b/ due to the presence and absence of voice. heap. it is the only distinctive feature of this minimal pair. lass." 'ßteason H. tear. All the other fea"Minimal pairs are useful. *3. A. (c) free variation. lay. (2) forelingual articulation of the /t/ phoneme and bilabial articulation of the /p/ phoneme. Match the words below to obtain minimal pairs. (b) double opposition. As has been pointed out the main method of establishing phonemes of a given language is the commutation test or discovery of minimal pairs through which the establishment of the phonemic status of each sound is accomplished. cheap. she. recognitive and distinctive functions of phonemes. 7. Give theoretical and practical proofs to explain constitutive. For example. sink. sap. rip. when found. When in a contrastive pair one consonan . cap. the pair treasure — pressure is sub-minimal because the opposition is due to: (1) the presence and absence of voice in the /g — J/ phonemes. Give examples for 'different types of distribution: (a) complementary. mink. jail. say. 280. All the other features of the pair pen — Ben are irrelevant. 5. fail. pip. orality—nasality voicelessness—voicedness tenseness—laxness 'plosiveness—constrictiveness labial' ity frontness—backness *2. Sam.1 For example. Give examples of combinatory allophones of the /r/ phoneme.

b. If we compare the English /p. For example. 3. . т — д. Minimal pairs occur in identical. k. г/. k — g/ oppositions are based on breath-force distinction. k. к. w t r. whereas the forelingual articulation of /t/ and the bilabial articulation of /p/ are relevant differentiatory features. in English (plead—bleed tip —dip come—gum peach—beach tea —Dee cot —got pat —bat tear—dear cane—gain 1 /A/ is a "facultative phoneme". t. b. wear____where. Palatalization is phonemically irrelevant. 65. Some authors prove its phonemic status by minimal pairs: witch — which. t.tures are distinctively irrelevant. A 1 / Classificatory principles suggested by Soviet phoneticians provide the basis for the establishment of the following distinctive oppositions in the system of consonants of the English language. I. It should be borne in mind that distinctively irrelevant features can be of two types: incidental. in Russian /п. k/ in the initial position are aspirated fort is. n. J\ 5. 9. s. Work of the Vocal Cords and the Force of Exhalation Voiceless—fort is vst voiced—lenis /p—b/ pen—Ben /t—d/ ten—den /k—g/ coat—goat Voiceless — voiced opposition is simultaneously based on fortis — lenis distinction. h. т. g/ are weakly voiced. tj. б. which may or may not be present in a phoneme. whereas in Russian. sub-minimal in similar environments. we may state that: in the initial position the English /b. the pairs /n — б. v. etc. д. з/ in the Russian рос — роз is a 'genuinely incidental or redundant feature. without which the phoneme can't exist at all. к — г/ differ due to voice — absence of voice distinction (but not in the final position). and such. d. f. incidental in English and relevant in Russian. 1. d. д. t — d. the presence or absence of voice in the word final consonants /с. d. n. therefore in English the /p — b. wine — whine. z. m. к/ are unaspirated. The phonological analysis of the system of English consonant phonemes helps to establish 24 phonemes: /p. g/ and the Russian In. the Russian /б. It is not so in the Russian language where the voiceless — voiced opposition is based only on the presence or absence of voice. j. g. t. г/ are fully voiced: book — бук goose — гусь deem — Дима In English /p. т.

Active Organ of Speech and the Place of Articulation This principle of consonant classification provides the basts for the following distinctive oppositions: (1) Labial vs. tongue — young jet — yet In these pairs the forelingual (apical alveolar) /t/ is opposed to the mediolingual (palatal) 1)1] the forelingual (apical palato-alveolar) l&$l is opposed to the mediolingual (palatal) /j/. the lingual forelingual apical interdental 1Ы is opposed to the pharyngal /h/. Within the group of labial. 3. lingual pain — cane bun — ton fame — tame In these pairs the labial bilabial /p/ is opposed to the lingual backHngual velar /k/. pharyngat (glottal) Tim — him this — hiss foam — home care — hair In these pairs the lingual forelingual apical /t/ is opposed to the pharyngal /hi. bilabial may be opposed to labiodental.in Russian пой—бой тал—дал кот—год пей—бей тол—дол кит—гид 2. apical may be opposed to cacuminal. constictive 59 . dim — rim In this pair the apical forelingual alveolar /d/ is opposed to the cacuminal forelingual alveolar /r/. the bilabial /m/ is opposed to the labio-dental /v/. Within the group of lingual. the labial labio-dental /f/ is opposed to the lingual forelingual apical /t/. forelingual can be opposed to mediolingual. the labial bilabial /b/ is opposed to the lingual forelingual apical HI. Within the group of forelingual. wear — fair mice — vice In these pairs the bilabial /w/ is opposed to the labio-dental HI. the labial labio-dental /f/ is opposed to the pharyngal /h/. the lingual backlingual velar Ikl is opposed to the pharyngal /h/. Manner of the Production of Noise This principle of consonant classification provides the basis for the following distinctive oppositions: (1) Occlusive (stops) vs. (2) Lingual vs.

v/ are opposed to the constrictive consonants with a round narrowing /si. (a) occlusive: noise vs. (b) constrictive: noise vs. Position of the Soft Palate This principle of consonant classification provides the basis for the following distinctive oppositions. (d) flat narrowing vs. n. nasal pit — pin seek — seen thieve — theme sick — sing 60 . Unicentral constrictive consonants may be opposed to bicentral consrictive consonants. may not be found. sonorants same — lame vain — lane then — when In these pairs the constrictive noise consonants /s. S. occlusive-constrictive (affricates) fare — chair fail — jail work — jerk In these pairs the constrictive /f. k/ are opposed to the nasal sonorants /m. or stops. In all these oppositions only examples with the initially opposed consonant phonemes are given. It does not mean that the pairs of medially and finally opposed consonants. t. that prove their phonemic status. Oral vs. 5/ are opposed to the constrictive bicentral Ц.pine—fine Bern—fern dare —share bat —that bore—thaw bee — thee care— there mine—t hine ca me—lame In these pairs the occlusive /p. v. 1/. dg/. d. w/ are opposed to the occlusiveconstrictive (affricates) /tf. ml are opposed to the constrictive /f. w/. (c) constrictive unicentral vs. b. w/. k. ö/ are opposed to the constrictive sonor ants /1. "Within the groups of occlusives. noise consonants may be opposed to sonorants. 4. d. J1. b. 9. (2) Constrictive vs. rj/. constrictive bicentral same — shame thine — wine In these pairs the constrictive unicentral /s. Constrictive consonants with a flat narrowing can be opposed to constrictive consonants with a round narrowing. and constrictives. round narrowing fame — same vat — sat In these pairs the constrictive consonants with a flat narrowing /f. nasal somrants pine—mine boat — moat tale—nail dead—need kick—king In these pairs the occlusive noise /p.

the allophones of the same phoneme never occur in the same phonetic context and always occur in different positions [. V.]. 160. This method is known in modern phonology as the purely distributional methodof identifying the phonemes of a language as items of its phonemic system. or to the distinctive function of the phoneme. they are variants of one and the same phoneme [. occlusiye-constrictive (or affricated) consonants? 8. 61 . What is the difference between minimal and sub-minimal pairs? 3. . A. What distinctive oppositions illustrate classificatory subdivisions within the group of labial and lingual consonants? 7. Op. constructive. A. What distinctive oppositions prove the existence of oral and nasal consonant phonemes? 10. cit. . What is the definition of the phoneme from the viewpoint of distinctive oppositions? 2. Vassilyev states thai "this belief I. Questions 1. and pharyngal consonant phonemes? 6. What distinctive oppositions illustrate classificatory subdivisions within the groups of occlusive and constrictive consonants? 9. k.—P. What features of the phoneme are distinctively relevant and distinctively irrelevant? 4. there are many difficulties in its use. The principle which determines the choice of the most suitable method for teaching purposes is called the principle of pedagogical expedience in phonemic analysis. ." From these laws "two conclusions are deduced: (1) if more or less different speech sounds occur in the same phonetic context. lingual. . . What is the nature of voiced — voiceless opposition in English and in Russian? 5. ту. What distinctive oppositions illustrate the existence of labial. v/ are opposed to the nasal /m. What is the difference between the semantic and purely distributional methods of phonological analysis? Vassilyev V. V. Vassilyey г writes that those linguists who reject meaning as external to linguistics think that it is possible to "group the sounds of the language into phonemes even without knowing the meaning of words" as D. they should be allophones of different phonemes.].] and (2) that consequently. . The method of minimal pairs helps to identify 24 consonant phonemes in the English language on the basis of such an analysis which demands a recourse to the meaning.] is based on two laws of phonemic and allophonic distribution (1) that allophones of different phonemes always occur in the same phonetic context I. What distinctive oppositions illustrate the existence of occlusive (or stops).In these pairs the oral consonants It. n. and (2) if more or less similar speech sounds occur in different positions and never occur in the same phonetic context.. Jones put it." Though the practical application of the purely distributional method is theoretically feasible.. A.

pail — sail. those — rose. /p—b/ It—d/ /k—g/ pet —bet ten —den come —gum pig —big town — down coast —ghost puts —boots ton —done came —game pass —bus ties —dies could—good pack—back takes—days cot —got port—bought curls —girls tear —dear corn —gone cave —gave tart —dart torse —doors *3. bait — gait fee — we. its absence in /b. fee — we fail — sail. debt — net. k/ vs. " t. sip ■— rip. seal — real. kick — Nick fell — well. sight — right pity—city. What minimal distinctive feature (or features) makes these oppositions .Exercises *1. d. fell — well fee — he sob — rob. been — dean pole — coal. fee — see. pole — sole. fell — sell 2/ Read the pairs of words. fat — sat. Pay attention to the presence of aspiration in /p. pie — bye. tie — die pen — ten. voiced lenis distinction. sip — rip. pin — bin. peel — seal pine — mine. g/ rather than to voiceless fortis vs. pay — say. foot — soot. pack — back. sole — role. sight — right fell — well.phonologically relevant? (a) cap —cab pack —back caper —labour sent —send ton —don latter—ladder leak —league coal —goal decree—degree 62 (b) pee —fee tie —sigh do —zoo supper—suffer attend—ascend raider—razor leap —leak park —part rude —ruse (c) till —chill day —jay share —chair martyr—marcher murder—merger much —marsh eat —each lard —large furnisher—furniture (d) thigh—shy Ruth —ruche root —rouge save —shave presser—pressure mass—mash ruse —rouge (e) bad —mad dock—knock rigging—ringing arbour—armour eddy—any log -long rub —rum bad —ban . soul — role. State what classificatory principles can be illustrated by the groups of pairs given below (consonants opposed initially).

occlusive-constrictive. cap. cot. quite ENGLISH VOWELS AS UNITS OF THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM Classificatory principles suggested by Soviet phoneticians can be illustrated by distinctive oppositions in the system of the following English vowel phonemes: /i:. kin. tore. i. <e) flat narrowing vs. k/ phonemes in the initial position due to the influence of the next vowel. term. round narrowing. top. backlingual oppositions. contain. car. tobacco. j. bicentral. /r. tar. tow. /I. U:. State which of the pairs illustrate (a) forelingual vs. (b) labial vs. price. tore /k/ key. tub. State allophonic differences of: Л. cork. backlinguai. se. j/ after /p/ in: plan. r. a-. pat —cat wield—yield man —nap supper—succour wail —Yale coming—cunning leap —leak seem —seen *2. cut. ten. D. town. sonorants. twelve. e. r. U. core. took. State which ofthem represent minimal pairs and which sub-minimal pairs. tan. tame —carae less —yes rudder—rugger drew —due sinner—singer bitter—bicker clue —cue bad —bag sung—young bat —back day —gay rung—young *3. cow. two. cue. cake. (b) constrictive vs. tip. л. cream. Sort out the oppositions under the following headings: (a) occlusive vs. w/ after /k/ in: clean. tale. constrictfve. \ W tea. (d) unicentral vs.*4. O:. thick —sick bathed —base mouth —mouse thigh —shy leasure —ledger Control Tasks zest —lest daily —daisy they —lay Weiler—weather marry—measure eel —ease genre —jar bathe —bail *1. mediolingual. tube. care *5. coy. kite. а:. (c) noise vs. (c) labial vs. Sort out the oppositions under the following headings: (a) labial vs. cool. зЛ 63 . curb. State allophonic differences of the /t. Read these pairs of words. pine —fine fare —chair boat—moat seek —seen kick —king work —jerk bee —thee deed—need thine—wine vain —lane came—lame fame—same sick —sing 4. coal. mediolingual and (b) forelingual vs. kept. j. tie. w/ after /t/ in: try. forelingual. pure. tear.

аз а fr Its ' in d S e n d e n t „ h . unrounded vowels: don — darn pot — part In these pairs the unrounded vowel phoneme hi is opposed to the rounded hi phoneme. . 64 bard—bud cart—cut pool—pull . e™ ° P^ved by the existence of minimal Pet e-pit deep-dip beet-bit e l sС1 ?Г т Ы } 1 -й~ < т <o r m i d> a s w e ll a s o p e n ( o r lo w ) y o w ^ т1 ° are subdivided into vowels of narrow and broad variation. central %honeme^r cab—curb bed—bird pull—perl cart—curt call—curl (2) Vertical movement of 'the tongue (a) close (Ugh) vs. Position of the Tongue (1) Horizontal movement of the tongue (a) front vs. 2.п % ! У ^ and front-retracted: y nt 1 . mid-open (mid) lack—lurk bard—bird call—curl X e n v o w e:i// 3 to th e 0h ? iW ilh innefcVhegr rocuPmwo hv ic hw e sto gle o u t a c c o rd in g lte 3 d ti al e subgroups ^ n ts o f th e to n g u e th e re a re Р Г0 8 аГ 3иЬ( 1у1аес1Ш Ь 1и][1 !го /i" е ^/1Т!. o fÄ f p aheng ! S° 1 C a l s t a t u Sb Ce pa rno v eЬdУ t h e6 X i s t e n C e U and^ck-SrlLf / a l s ? Evicted into fully back /u:. o:. central (b) back vs.1. mid-open (mid) bid—bird put—port week—work d J o m v o ^ i %o ts ev o w e l sl l t u'l u / a r e o p p o s e dt0 t h e (b) open (low) vs. 7 ° n t-re tra c te d v o w e l p h o n e m e . Position of the Lips Rounded vs.' { . W back-adväncS Wels^' a/'beThe ^dependent phonological status о 2 can V pairs.

g. the difference between /i:—i. з:/ belong to the phonemes of narrow variation and /a/ belongs to the subgroup of mid vowels of broad variation. э:/ and short /i. etc. з:. u/ belong to the vowel phonemes of broad variation. e. а. ■а—л/. free eel — ill steel—-still done—darn knit—need peel —pill seat —sit fun —farm cut -—card deed—did feet —fit come—calm fit —feed 4. lax Checked vs. within the group of high vowels /1:. Bart—bad. и. Their independent phonological status can be proved by the existence of minimal pairs: bad—bard knot—gnat 3. Qualitative difference is the main relevant feature that serves to differentiate long and short vowel phonemes because quantitative Some authors consider /a/ to be a long phoneme. E. э/. ae. is not only quantitative--------1 but also qualitative. u:/ are opposed to /i. In other words. which is condi-______[ tioned by different positions of the bulk ■of the tongue. Degree of Tenseness and the Character of the End of the Vowel This principle of vowel classification together with the principle of length provide the basis for the following distinctive oppositions: Tense vs. u/. и. a/) and of narrow variation \ht).not the only distinctive feature of minimal pairs like: Pete—pit. beet—bit. 1 л. But the length of the vowels is . u:/ belong to the vowel phonemes of narrow variation. Their independent phonological status can be proved by the existence of such pairs as: Pete—pit pool—pull In these pairs /i:. 3—182 6> . и:. э/ can be proved by the existence of such pairs as: pence—sixpence foreword—forward /'pens/—/'sikspans/ /ifo:w3:d/—/if Open (or low) vowels are also subdivided into the phonemes of broad variation (/se. о:. Within the group of mid-open (or mid) vowels /e. which belong to the subgroup of high vowels of broad variation. i/ js different but in the /i:/ articulation the bulk of the tongue occupies a more front and high position. than in the articulation of A/.Thus. Length There are long vowel phonemes in English /i:. in the words bead—bid not only the length of the vowels /i:. etc. The independent phonological status of /e. and /i.

it is advisable to do contrast exercises. * There are other factors. cart. (2) Diphthongs vs. hoot. u:/. ei. эй. According to the movement of the tongue within the articulation of the diphthong from the nucleus to the glide. u:/> 8 di phthongs: /ei. that condition the quantitative difference of vowel phonemes (see p. diphthongs bit—bait bid—beard dead—dared cot—coat In these pairs the monophthongs /i. аи. e. ю. stable vowels bite—bee bait —beet boat—boot pail—pool lake—leek beard—bead raid—rude care—coo In these pairs the diphthongs /ai. o/ are opposed to the diphthongs /ai. 39). car. . au. e. law. ai. term. loose. or length of vowels in different positions. card'. coo. еэ. i:. u. з:. diphthongs are subdivided into closing and centring. se. bar. e. (c) they are the shortest before voiceless consonants: beet. Bart. v. ia. э. иэ. o/ are opposed to the diphthongs /ei. o:. lard. To observe the quantity. вэ. эй/. л. The method of minimal pairs helps to establish 20 vowel phonemes in the phonological system of English vowels: 12 monophthongs: /i. (b) they are shorter before voiced consonants: bead. bee — bead — beet bar — Bard — Bart car — card — cart 5. bard. a. her. cool. 01/. oi.g. 1Э. Turk. эй/. вэ/ are opposed to the jr. e.. Stability of Articulation The principle provides the basis for the following distinctive oppositions: (1) Monophthongs vs. kit—kite debt—doubt John—join In these pairs the monophthongs /i.characteristics of long vowels depend on the position they occupy in a word:1 (a) they are the longest in the terminal position: bee.

ei. ж/ different. л. Read these words. u. Read these pairs of words. State what principles of vowel classification they illustrate. Can the existence of front-retracted and back-advanced vowels be proved by minimal pairs? 4. i. з:/ phonemes conditioned by their positional length. (b) vertical movements of the tongue? 3.Questions 1. эе. bee—been—beet dee—dean—deep o* lay—laid—late may—maid—mate 67 . ж. etc. a:. u/. How are diphthongs subdivided according to the tongue movement from the nucleus to the glide? Exercises *1. How is vowel length conditioned positionally? 6. Observe the allophonic difference of the /i:. State: (a) what closing diphthongs are opposed in the pairs: hay—high laid—lied no—now known—noun bay—buy tape—type hoe—how phoned—found (b) what centring diphthongs are opposed in the pairs: here—hair ear —air rear—rare fear —fair beer—bear tear—tare *4. Is the length of the vowels the only distinctive feature of long (tense) and short (lax) vowel phonemes like /i:. What distinctive oppositions illustrate the classificatory principle of vowel stability in articulation? 7. з:. bed—bird—bud—bard lack—lurk—luck—lark hat—hurt—hut—heart cab—curb—cub tan—turn—ton bid—bird—bud lid—led—lad big—beg—bag kit—curt—caught *3. What distinctive oppositions illustrate classificatory groups according to the (a) horizontal. (a) cod —cord not —nought cot —caught body—border (d) fool —full pool —pull food —put tool —took boot—book (b) end —and ten —tan hem —ham kettle—cattle (e) am —aim add —aid man—main lad —laid fat —fate (c) fir —for firm —form turn—torn bird —bord (f) nor —no law —low called —cold bald —bold caught—coat 2. What distinctive oppositions illustrate classificatory groups of rounded and unrounded vowels? 2. Read these pairs of words. Read these words and state what movements of the tongue make the vowel phonemes /e. i/.? 5. /u:.

cart. cord *2. which is conventionally free from any influences. open and (b) front. Which of the given examples illustrate (a) high. caught. The next stage is the mastering of the sound.knee—need—neat see—seed—seat lee—league—leak core—cord—caught saw—sword—sought four—form—fork bore—board—bought say—save—safe sign — side—sight tie—tide—tight her—heard—hurl sir—serve—serf fur—furl—first were—girl—purse at —out ladder—lower mass —mouse *5. wart. Sounds undergo changes due to the individual manner and even mood of the speaker and due to the complementary distribution in which every sound exists in the language. closing diphthong. or typical variant of the phoneme as a segment of the system. mid. What classificatory principle of vowels can be illustrated by the contrastiver pairs given below? bid —beard pooh —poor too —tour dead—dared ass —ice ate —eight pod —poured manner—minor letter—later Control Tasks *1. Sort out these oppositions into two columns: (a) closing diphthong vs. card. wrat. mixed. which is done by teaching the students to pronounce the sound in a definite set of contexts in which this sound occurs. DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL VARIANTS Strictly speaking. because not a single sound is pronounced identically even twice. Boz. cod. dor. bars. cot. Arrange these words into minimal distinctive pairs. (b) centring diphthong vs. Then a detailed description of this variant should be carried out by means of simultaneous comparison with the similar sound of the mother tongue. it is impossible to give an exact and detailed description of a sound within the limits of a short definition. down. The first step to learn a sound is to isolate it. back oppositions? bead—bed—bad cab—curb—cub had—bird—bud deed—dead—dad tan—turn—ton hat—hurt—hut •2. It means that for teaching purposes we single out the principal. known —noun beer—bear hay—high rear—rare phoned—found ear —air bay—buy no —now hear —hair tear — tear fear—fair hoe—how tape —type CONSONANT PHONEMES. The €8 . centring diphthong.

/b/ is pronounced in the similar way. The English _/p/ is pronounced with aspiration. the force of exhalation is not great and the muscular tension is not strong. Occluslve Noise Consonant Phonemes (Plosives)/p. гриб /грип/. /b/ is fully voiced between voiced sounds. The air passes out of the mouth cavity. III. etc. but the vocal cords are drawn together and vibrate. In teaching to articulate sounds. IV. oral. which is heard immediately after the "explosion" is accomplished. 25). etc. g/ /P. дуб /дуп/. II. d. Bill— бил. t. (1) In the production of /p/ noise prevails'over voice. mob. rob. /p/ is occfif-sive (plosive. diagrams and tables are very helpful. That is. when the contact is released. The lips are brought together and form a complete obstruction-. III. bilabial. noise.' b/ are never soft. In the pronunciation of the Russian /n. The Russian 161 is fully voiced in the initial position. 61' the lips are not spread and they are less tense. unicentral. 1 The figures I. so it is unicentral.g. b/ I.'It can be proved by the existence of such pairs as: бил — был. occlusive. or stop). The Russian /n/ is pronounced without aspiration. II. The English /b/ is devoiced but slightly: sob.final stage is to automatize the newly acquired abilities of the students.. when it is followed by a vowel in a stressed syllable and not preceded by /s/. the English /b/ is slightly devoiced. пил — пыл. (2) There is only one place of articulation in the /p/ production. The obstruction is broken with a kind of explosion. IV correspond to the principles of consonant classification (see p. Consonants are best of all learnt if the teacher directs the attention of the students to tactile and muscular sensations of the organs of speech. the air escapes from the mouth cavity with a plosion. whereas in Russian there are two independent phonemes /n — n7 and /6 — 6'/. b. but the force of exhalation and the muscular tension is great. /p/ is oral. the glottis \s still open.1 In the articulation of /p/ the vocal cords do not vibrate. The English /p. Cf. /p/ is fort is. therefore /p/ is voiceless. In the terminal position the Russian 161 can be devoiced almost completely: e. /p/ is labial. k. 69 . bilabial. therefore /b/ is voiced — lenis labial. /p/ is a noise consonant. Aspiration is a slight puff of breath.

occlusive (plosive. II. lingual. debt /det/—долг. pneumatic /njuimaetik/—пневматический. d/ are never soft. oral. The English /t/ is pronounced with aspiration. bomb /bum/—бомба. apical. t: pneumonia /njuimaunja/—воспаление легких. the Russian hi is not aspirated. doubt /daut/—сомнение. the front part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate (front secondary focus). /d/ is voiced lenis. The English /t. receipt /nisi :t/—расписка (2) in Greek words before n. IV. see /p/. Its simultaneous mechanism for /n. forelingual. whereas in the Russian language 70 А л/ . 61 closure is the following: as soon as the lips are pressed to form a complete obstruction — primary focus. raspberry /'razban/—малина. or stop) (1) noise. s. III. subtle /'sAtl/—тонкий. (2) unicentral. Ptolemy /ibtemi/ — Птолемей /b/ is pronounced when spelt as: b be /bi:/—быть bb ebb /eb/—убывать /Ь/ is not pronounced after m and before t: lamb /lsem/—ягненок. cupboard /'kAbad/—шкаф. psalm /sam/—псалом. /t/ is voiceless fortis. To avoid palatalization of /p. хитрый I. b/ Phonemes /p/ is pronounced when spelt as: p pen /pen/—перо pp happy /'haspi/—счастливый gh hiccough /'Ьклр/—икота /p/ is not pronounced: (1) in the following words*. comb /kaum/—гребень. plumber /1р1лтэ/—водопроводчик. b/ in the initial position when they are followed by front vowels it is advisable to do contrast exercises of the following type: peel — пыл — пил bill — был — бил Graphic Equivalents of the /p. alveolar.• Soft articulation of the consonant is called palatalization.

boatswain /ibsusn/—боцман. mortgage /1тэ:дк1з/—закладная. To avoid palatalization of the English/t. bouquet /ibukei/—букет /d/ is pronounced when spelt as: d do /du:/—делать dd add /sed/—добавлять ed begged /begd/—просил ddh buddhism /'budizm/—буддизм /d/ is not pronounced in the following words: handkerchief /ihsenkatjif/—носовой платок. закладывать. handsome красивый. chestnut /itJesnAt/—каштан (2) in words ending in -stle. castle /ikasl/ — замок. Thomson /ifomsn/—Томсон. Christmas /iknsmas/—рождество. ostler /'usla/—конюх (3) in French borrowings: restaurant /irestro:rj/—ресторан. d/ Phonemes /t/ is pronounced when spelt as. Guildford /tgilfsd/—Гилдфорд. Ып/—часто. Windsor Виндзор . hasten /'heisn/—спешить. when they are followed by front vowels. Anthony /laentsni/—Энтони. as: брат — брать дома — Дёма The English /t. It can be proved by the existence of such minimal pairs. the Russian /т. bankruptcy b k / — банкротство. t take /teik/—брать tt better /'bete/—лучше ed stopped /sbpt/—остановился th Thames /temz/—Темза. the tip being passive and lowered. д/ are dorsal: the blade of the tongue touches the upper teeth. d/ are apical: the tip of the tongue is against the alveolar ridge.there are two independent phonemes: h/ and /т7. treit/—черта. Thomas /ibmss/—Томас. -sten: listen /ilisn/—слушать. it is advisable to do contrast exercises of the following type: ты —tea /ti:/ тим —Tim /Um/ дик—Dick /dik/ тын—tin /tin/ тиф —teeth /ti:8/ дед—dead /ded/ тик—tick /tik/ дим—deem /di:m/ дел—dell /del/ Graphic Equivalents of the /t. Esther/lesta/— Эстер /t/ is not pronounced: (1) in the following words: often /b:fn. soften /Ып/—смягчать. trait /trei. /д/ and /д7. d/ in the initial position.

cape 2. taper. see /p/. куль. pleat. Strongest aspiration in initial position. The English /k/ is aspirated. g/ it is advisable to do exercises of the following type. (b) in the final position: top. S [Л The Russian/к'. k/ the following exercises are recommended: 1. or velum. j/ after /p. To avoid palatalization of the English /k. creep. backlingual velar — the back part of the tongue is pres sed against the soft palate. II. sport. k/: pray. coat /lout/—пиджак» пальто. before a long vowel or a diphthong: tie. г7 are pronounced with a more ^ С (\ advanced position of the tongue. principles П. clean. быть в состоянии. clip. /g/ is voiced lenis. oral. рог. lingual. toe. party. cut 4. or stop) (1) noise. Less strong aspiration is manifested before a short vowel: pity. The Russian /K/ is pronounced without aspira/ tion: кино. port. tart. w. t. иметь с before а. r. g/ i» different. proper. quick. g/ Phonemes /k/ is pronounced when spelt: k keep /ki:p/—-держать. spit. g / I. W. _ / The Russian /r/ is fully voiced in initial posi-'M^^Sl ti01} . /к/ is voiceless fortis. акын — кино -= keen кило — keel кипа — keep To observe the correct degree of aspiration of /p. the central part of —^ (\ the tongue is pressed against the juncture of the hard and soft palate — palatalization. cope. t.an{ * devoiced almost completely in the final p/if Д position: год. pit. Less strong aspiration is manifested in the devoicing of /1. coat. scope. occlusive (plosive. try. crow. 72 . IV. score. cut /kAt/~порез * Since only the first classificatory principle of the consonants /k. bick. о. и: can /kaen/—мочь./к.. queen 3. (2) unicentral. IV are given for both. Practically no aspiration: (a) after /s/: stop. /t/. I I I .1 II. coke Graphic Equivalents of the /k. patter.

exhibition ^eksi'bijgn/ — выставка gh hough /hok/ —поджилки /k/ is not pronounced: before n in initial position: knife /naif/—нож (2) in the following words: indict /m'dait/—обвинять. -victuals /'vitlz/—съестные припасы. but phlegmatic /fleglmaetik/ . plough /plau/ — пахать. (1) g before a. . scheme /ski:m/—план. ходьба. paradigm /Ipseredaim/ — пример. o. feign /fem/—притворяться. образец. u. girl /дз:1/—девочка. good /gud/—добро. благо. leg /leg/—нога. gig /gig/—кабриолет gg egg /eg/—яйцо gu guard /gad/—охрана gh ghost /gaust/—привидение x = /gz/ examine /ig'zeemm/—рассматривать. before a consonant and in terminal position i go /дэи/—ход. lock /bk/—замок ch in a number of Latin and Greek words: chemist /'kemist/—-химик. tongue /Urj/—язык gm in the Greek words such as: diaphragm /idaisfrsem/—диафрагма. sigh /sai/—вздыхать. light /lait/—свет 73 . gnaw /no:/ — грызть. banquet /'bserjkmt/—банкет cqu acquaintance /a'kwemtsns/—знакомство cc account /s'kaunt/— счет в банке sc sceptic /'skeptik/— скептик x=/ks/ except /ik'sept/—исключать. anchor /'эепкэ/—якорь. sign /sain/—знак (2) when spelt as: ng singer /'sing/—певец.t-Ä%j gh high /hai/— высокий. gild /gild/—золотить. give /giv/—давать. проект qu quick /kwik/—быстрый. осматривать /g/ is not pronounced: (1) before n in initial and final positions: gnat /nset/—комар. significant /sig'mfikant/—значительный (2) but also in the words: get /get/—доставать.с in terminal position: music /'mjuzik/—музыка ck black /blsek/— черный. character /'kserskta/—характер. phlegm /flem/—мокрота. muscle /'шлз1/—мускул (1) /g/ is pronounced when spelt. хладнокровие. game /geim/— игра.

purpose. What is the difference between the English /p. IV principles? 4. II. d. Cambrian. creek. State articulatory differences between the English /b. III. k. in Russian is a phonemic feature. r/. pity. cleaning. kitchen. days. g/ represented in orthography? Exercises 1. ft! tears. idea. take. /b/ been. splendid. tin. people. d. d. (c) spent. republic. started. /d/ different. /g/ get. act. pieces. cook. put. Pendelton. (b) till. campus. Define the consonant phonemes /p. To what classificatory groups do the phonemes /p. depths. again. k/ phonemes and the Russian /п. g/. total. Transcribe the words and read them. platform. kept. What is the difference between the English and the Russian occlusive consonant phonemes from the viewpoint of the tongue and the lips position? 5. plain. 4. Prove that softness of consonants. cost. к/. repaired. extensively. /p/ people. /k/ camp. curtain. k/. /b/ be. t. instead. tennis. k. State articulatory differences between the English /p. 3. /d/ idea. *5. Transcribe these words and read them. b. looked *6. explain. care. day. embarrassing. gets. artist. big. g/ belong according to the I. /k/ keep. expect. turned. pay. stay. experience. covered. go . How are the phonemes /p. possible. t. crop. didn't. t. time. plan. 2. basket. What are the ways to learn a consonant? 3. car.Questions 1. tears. Is it possible to give a detailed description of a sound within the limits of a short definition? 2. purpose. teachers. guessed. took. ties. going /p/ picture. period. stone. pause. cold. Daddy. college. take. k/ and the Russian /n. basket. la/ study. stick. (a) keep. /g/ get. toss. kissed. pumped. back. peer ing. parts. b. study. T . campus. Observe the degree of aspiration: (a) the strongest. til fifteen. vacation. both. д. к/ phonemes from the viewpoint of voice-breath distinction? 7. g/ and the Russian /б. classes. currents. t. /g/ giggle. curly. /t/ eating. т. t. Define the consonant phonemes /b. colour. (b) less strong. girls /b/ goes /p/ pieces. /b/ billiards. decided. d. What is palatalization? Is it a phonemic feature in English? 6. tons. girls. beside. permanent. penny. girls. (c) practically no aspiration. tell. 8. turned. pair. crept. taxi. Avoid palatalization of consonants before the front and mixed vowels. bed. place. courts.

/g/ gives. except. ghost. bit. whistle. g/ phonemes only the second principle of classification is different. t. k. Burton. duly. take-. guessed. lamb. go. plough. /t/ tin. Windsor. passenger. /d/ indeed. beacon. g/ sounds are represented in spelling. best. city. paid. bomb. pneumonia. /d/ deal. Transcribe these words. sugar-beet. n. repaid. date. breaking. ditties. obeyed. /b/ be. tulip. hiccough. II. handkerchief. penny. curly. III. rj/ voice prevails over noise. turned. Christmas. rj/ are occlusive (plosives. girls /p/ especially. cold. occasional. k. rj/ is lowered and the air passes out through the nasal cav ity. alveolar: the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge. Point out the letters which represent the mute sounds IP. in the articulation of /m. /t/ stiff. plumber. dinner. bouquet. forming a complete obstruction. wanted. n. Burlow. Thomas. b. Tuesday. pattern. chemist. dirt. candid. /m. I. *7. so they are sonor ants. idea. forelingual apical. can. banquet. d. carriage. back. pupils. sign. /d/ Dee. came. see above. /k/ keep. n. /t/ teach. back. muscle. backbone./p/ pink. /g/ getting. regular /p/ appealing. velar: the back of the tongue touches the soft palate or velum. get. cold. t. sigh. occupy. anchor. IV) are similar. carriage. tears. /k/ drinking. b. Say how the /p. n. gnaw. tongue. d. grotesque. muddy. dear. perfect. longest. /g/ give. /k/ keep. /m. gave. bilabial: the lips are slightly pressed together. deer. cupboard. happy. /m/ is labial. g/ are nasal: because the soft palate in the articulation of /m. n. looking. /t/ still. nodded. /b/ been. potatoes. \ In! is lingual. boat. /rj/ is backlingual. dead. /k/ keep. /b/ being. listen. /g/ given. 75 . pit. again. IV. pale. eight Occlusive Nasal Sonor ants /m. bad. III. or stops). /d/ condition. All the other principles (I. ago /p/ planning. g/. rj/ In the /m. n. turns. /b/ be. stick. diaphragm. experience.

/rj/ is articulated by the back part of the tongue. It passes out of the nasal cavity. which is to be lowered. n/ Phonemes /m/ is pronounced when spelt: m meat /mi:t/—мясо mm summer /'элтэ/—лето mb comb /kaum/—гребень mn autumn /loitam/—осень /n/ is pronounced when spelt: n no /пзи/—нет пп dinner /'dina/—обед en written /'ntn/—написанный on button /IbAtn/—пуговица /n/ is not pronounced in the words:] damn] /daem/— проклятье. /n —a. н/ and louder in terminal positions. sigggnig 3. /rj/ is proijmoufced when spelt: ng long /ltln/— длинный.1 6. reading /'riidirj/—чтение ngue tongue /tArj/—язык 76 . (b) to pronounce the final /rj/ as one sound. n.: doom /du:m/ — дум /дум/ balm /bam/ — бам /бам/ The pronunciation of the English /rj/ presents difficulties for Russian students. The English Im. There is no similar sound in the Russian language. To prevent possible mistakes. which is pressed against the soft palate and thus a complete obstruction is formed for the flow of air through the mouth cavity. cf. ingin_aut sirj —sin sAn —SAn ibnrjirj_aut raerj—raen дюд — дш idirjig^aut haeg—haend 'nbin—'гюЬш 'sirjig^aut Graphic Equivalents of the /m. strong /strorj/—сильный nk sink /sink/— раковина ing writing /iraitirj/—писание.—элп brigggrjig sig—saerj—sion—SAT) fflK K W l 4. Jt is advisable to do the following exercises: 1. sirj—säen—sog —SAQ P^Döira sigz—saegz—si>nz. /o — g k / 6m — ftrjk SA B — sA gk Ihserp (ihsegga)— raen — rsegk 'sirjirj— isigkirj 5. The tip of the tongue and the middle part of the tongue do not participate in the articulation of this sound. care should be taken (a) to watch the position of the tip of the tongue.. solemn /isulem/—торжественный. n/ are longer than the Russian /м. kg—kg—kg—kg—gg—grj—grj—grj—dn—dn—dn—dn 2.

where /g/ is pronounced). Translate them into Russian. 4. /ncf/ /9/1 'getting von 'peering »anxiously 'working in the vgarden 'coming kout In the words: English. 2. peering anxiously /'piano ^flkjash/. Q/. the uvula takes part in the articulation of the sound /rj/. hungry the sounds /gg/ are represented in spelling by the letters ng. What are the ways to teach students the English consonant phoneme /rj/? 4. cf. n. Describe the position of the tongue In the articulation of the English /m. read and translate them into Russian. Why are the /m. England. Read these words and spell them. mingled. when ng is immediately followed by a vowel <with the exception of the degrees of comparison of adjectives./n/ is pronounced. working in the garden /iwsrkin in оэ »gocdn/. longer /'bnjs/. What is the difference between /m. r/ phonemes referred to sonor ants? 2. Define the sounds /m. н/? 5. n/. n. /~/ — знак назализации / —/ — знак долготы 77 . What is the difference in articulation between the English /m. n. Questions 1. r/ from the viewpoint of the active ■organ of speech (II)? 3. 6m —9irj rsen—глд winz —wirjz win —wig SAn—элг| iteikn—iteikin sin — sirj глп —глп *5. coming out /'клпид xaut/ In such combinations. but: getting •on /igetuj vun/. n.: younger /fJAgga/. n/ and the Rus sian /м. younger longer singer yarn—young thin—thing give in—giving drive in—driving come in—coming son—sung clean—cling not thing—nothing go in—going own—owing 1 The practice of such combinations helps to obtain a nasal-fvowel without a plosive. How are the sounds /m. r/ related to orthography? Exercises 1. S. n/ and the Russian /м. State the articulatory differences between the English /m. singer /'sinja/. Я /. Transcribe these words. n.

II.). д.78 . путь с before e. thick. /z/ is voiced lenis. coalesce /kaualles/—соединяться. unicentral with a round narrowing. v. The Russian /с. oral. driving on. younger. hanger. романе и т. The /s. thing. English. autumn. noise. anything else. Graphic Equivalents of the /s. f. z. fishing. непременно. comb. h. nothing of thekind. /s/ is voiceless fort is. y: certainly /'sertnli/—конечно. /g/ with a wavy line. longer. g/ relation to orthography. hungry. morning. z/ phonemes are pronounced with a round narrowing or a groove. when. lingual. clasping in both hands *7. n. The tip of the tongue is passive and lowered (dorsal position). going. England. mingled Constructive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Fricatives) /s. thing. sung. Underline /rj/ with a single line. mingled. willingly. sunk. scythe /saiö/—коса (серп). bring. writing. a. sleeping. Transcribe these words. IV. seeing a friend off. spring. 5 / I. getting on. the sides of the tongue form a closure against the upper side teeth. j. hungry. reading. alveolar: the tip of the tongue rises to the alveolar ridge. lungs. circle /'S3:kl/—круг. /rjg/ with tw& lines. gone. taking it. abscess /'sebsis/—нарыв . з/ are pronounced with the blade of the tongue close to the upper teeth (round narrowing). hanker. III. constrictive. apical. iorelingual. younger. rank. i.sane — saying break in — breaking look in — looking *6. scissors /isizaz/—ножницы. e. rang. which is formed with the tip and the blade held close to the alveolar ridge. z/ Phonemes /s/ is pronounced when spelt: s speak /spkk/—говорить ss pass /pas/—проход. The sides of the tongue are raised forming a short and narrow groovelike or "round" depression — narrowing. cynik /isinik/—циник sc scene /si:n/—место действия (в пьесе. Transcribe these words and use them to explain the /m.

v/ I. walls /wo:Iz/— стены. draught /draft/—сквозняк. chamois /'Jaemi/—замша /z/ is pronounced when spelt: z zeal /zi:l/—рвение. II. scissors /' sizaz/— ножницы If. hi is voiced lenis. cough /fo:f. rough /глх/—грубый. puzzle /'рлг1/—трудный вопрос s if terminal or followed by vowels or voiced consonants: houses /'hauziz/—дома. socialism /'saujghzm/ — социализм ss in the words: dessert /diiza. hussar /hu i zee/—гусар. aisle /ail/—коридор. v/ Phonemes /f/ is pronounced when spelt: f fork /fo:k/—вилка ff off /o(:)f/—более удаленный.t/—десерт. labial. noise. p ossess /рэ' zes/ — владеть. Ы/—кашлять. /lju:itenant/ and marine /la'tenant/. husband /'hAzband/—муж.seh in the word schism /sizm/—раскол.i rove /rsuv/—ров /роф/ of /»v/—шов /шоф/ Graphic Equivalents of the /f. but: /lefitenant/—лейтенант 79 . The narrowing between the upper teeth and the lower lip is flat or slit type. IV. constrictive. island /laibnd/—остров. Grosvenor /igrauvna/—Гросвенор (2) in French borrowings: corps /кэ:/—корпус. unicentral with a flat narrowing. неровный /f/ is not pronounced in the words: halfpenny /1Ье1р(э)ш/—полпенса. Care should be taken not to devoice /v/ in terminal position. Cf. laugh /lerf/—смеяться. oral. дальний ph physics /Ifiziks/—физика pph sapphire /isaefara/—сапфир ugh enough /i'nAf/—достаточный. lieutenant Am. dissolve /diizwlv/—растворять. проход. labio-dental: the lower lip makes a light contact -with the upper front teeth. ересь ces in the middle of the word Leicester /'lesta/ tz in quartz /kwo:ts/—кварц /s/ is not pronounced: (1) in the words: isle /ail/. III. /f/ is voiceless fort is. tough /Ы/— твердый.

. III. ЛЛЛГП 4. d/ for /Э. t. . о. interdental. The substitution of /s. d/ and /9. /t/ thick—tick thought—taught three—tree heath—heat both—-boat fourth—fort 80 . I. which should be lowered from the edge of the upper teeth so that the lower teeth can be 2. To avoid the° r /f/ for /9/ articulation care should be taken to observe the position of the lower lip. lingual. . ü ven below are contrast exercises./v/ is pronounced when spelt: v view /vju:/—вид f of /Dv/—от. To avoid the /v/ for /Ö/ articulation observe the first recom mendation and make the vocal cords vibrate to produce the voiced consonant /of. об (preposition) ph nephew /'nevju/.. II. /'sti:vn/—Стивен /9. Ö/: they substitute /s. constrictive. v.. 'There are no similar sounds in the Russian language. /Ö/ is voiced lenis. To avoid the /z/ for /Ö/ articulation observe the second rec ommendation and make the vocal cords vibrate to produce the voiced consonant /9/. ф/ for /Э/ and /в. The place of incomplete obstructions is between the tip of the tongue (which may be slightly projected for /6/) and the rear of the upper teeth. t. Energetic articulation oi /ö/ may also be interdental. apical. 1. noise. . z. Ö/ leads to phonological mistakes because they are different phonemes. д/ 1. . Ö/. 3. /9/ vs.. v/ for /5/ and similarly the Russian /с. f/ for /Э/ and /z. f. forelingual. nUn n „. unicentral with a flat or slit narrowing: the air escapes over the whole surface of the tongue. . z. but a l s o /'nefju/—племянник. It is usually post-dental with the tongue position a little behind the front teeth. /s/ c pi ut thick—sick mouth—mouse thumb—sum worth—worse /e / v s . S/ Stephen /9/ is voiceless fortis. „ . which may be helpful for distinguishing between /s. .. To avoid the /s/ for /9/ articulation the tip of the tongue should be slightly projected between the teeth. There are several mistakes the Russian students make in the articulation of /0.

/S/ + /6/ this thing. thin /0in/—тонкий. The lip and tongue position is that of the following vowel. hate /heit/—ненависть wh who /hu:/—кто. voiceless fortis. glottal./9/ -vs. oral. III. The /h/ phoneme is pronounced when a strong stream of air is passing through the open glottis. /d/ then—den though—dough seet he—seed there—dare other—udder worthy—wordy The exercise given below can be done to improve the pronunciation of /6. hill /hil/—холм. whom /hu:m/—кому 81 /Ö/ vs. unicentral. sixth /Z/ + /6/ his thumb /S/ + /3/ pass the /z/ + /5/ is this /6/ + /s/ + /5/ Smith's there /Ö/ + /z/-i-/Ö/ soothes them Graphic Equivalents of the /6. there /Зеэ/—там. noise. To avoid this mistake it is advisable to do contrast exercises of the following type. with /wi5/—с (preposition) /h/ I. The articulators are in the position for the following vowel sound. IV. II. /z/ seethe—sees lathe—laze cl othe—close breathe—breeze . 5/ Phonemes /9. /h/ can be considered a type of voiceless vowel. A strong stream of air produces friction both at the glottis and throughout the vocal tract. In phonetic terms. ö/ in difficult combinations. Russian students often use the backlingual Russian /x/ instead of the glottal /h/. хил —hill хала—hull худо—hood холл—hall хитр—heet Graphic Equivalents of the /h/ Phoneme /h/ is pronounced when spelt: h how /hau/—как. which follow it. There are as many allophones of /h/ as there are vowels in English. with a flat narrowing. constrictive. ö/ are always spelt th: thick /6ikA—толстый.

with a flat narrowing. To avoid the pronunciation of the Russian /ш':. iorelingual. exhibit /igizibit/—экспонат. They are spelt щ. heiress /'еэгк/—наследница (2) in medial position: exhaust /igizorst/—выпуск. Graphic Equivalents of the /J". The Russian/ш':. with a front secondary focus. honour /1опэ/—честь. mission /'mr/n/—миссия sugar /ijuga/—сахар assure /э^иэ/увер 82 . apical. ж':/ for the English /J1 . дрожжи.jzed. жж as in: щель. with a strong outer lip-rounding and protrusion which contributes to the graver character of the hiss as opposed to the sharper friction of /s. III. noise. constrictive. /3/ voiced lenis. z/. II. They are produced with a back secondary focus and have the /ы/ colouring. Persia /1рз:|э/— Персия sion after consonants: pension /'penjty—пенсия. lingual. The Russian /ш. oral. forming a narrowing with the back of the alveolar ridge—primary focus. palato-alveolar. version /lva. honest /'onist/—честный. 5/ are soft or slightly palatal./h/ is not pronounced: (1) in initial position: hour /'am/—час. forming the front secondary focus. 5/ it is useful to do a contrast exercise of the following type: шип—J"i:p шит —Ji:t ложе—' шин—J"i:n кожа—'mesa тоже—' шик—Ji:k I. The sounds /J. bicentral. 5/ Phonemes /// is pronounced when spelt: sh she /Ji:/—она g j g / р ss assure /э^иэ/— уверять si Asia /leiJV—Азия. ж':/ are softer. In the articulation of the /J\ g/ phonemes the tip and the blade are raised to the teethridge. IV. vehicle /'vitikl/—■ автомобиль (3) In the word shepherd /'Jepad/—пастух IU 5/ HI voiceless fortis. выхлоп. The front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate. ж/ are hard sounds. heir /69/—наследник. версия ssi session /'se/n/—сессия.Jn/—перевод.

Why are the /s. To what classificatory groups do the /s. IV principles? 8. chaise /Jeiz/-— почтовая карета x = /kJ7 in accented syllables: luxury /ilAkJari/—-роскошь. anxiety /sen(g)'zaiati/— тревога.J—опись. Why are the /i. s/? 4. 11. f. v/ sounds belong according to the I. ж':/. Ö. J\ if sounds belong according to the I. IV principles of consonant classification? 2. f.m/—режим. z/ consonants considered to be unicentral with a round narrowing? 3. 2. z. z. Why do the sounds /J. III. f. III. ino:sis/—тошнота ci suspicion /sasipijn/—подозрение се ocean /isuj'n/—океан sci + a vowel in the middle of a word after the accented syllable: conscience /iktm^ans/—совесть. беспокойство /5/ is pronounced when spelt: g regime /rei^v. v/ consonants considered to be unicentral with a flat narrowing? 5. Why is it difficult to master the pronunciation of /9. rouge /ru:g/—румяна su pleasure /'plega/—удовольствие si decision /di'sigan/—решение zi glazier /igleigs/ (more often /igleizis/)—стекольщик zu azure /isegs/—голубой. champagne /Jaem'pem/—шампанское. conscientious/ iknnji'enj'ss/— добросовестный. Why is it difficult to master the pronunciation of /h/? 10. 5/ belong to the subgroup of bicentral with a front secondary focus? Compare them with the Russian /ш. chivalry /'J'rvsln/'—рыцарство. ж. notion /'nsujn/—понятие se nausea /'пэфэ. State articulatory and phonemic differences between /s — z/. переходный период zh Zhukov /i3uknv/—Жуков Questions 1. Define the consonant phonemes Is. h. To what classificatory groups do the /9. I I .9. /f — v/. J\ 3/? Exercises 1. h. расписание ch in French borrowings: machine /maijirn/—машина. v/. 83 . 3/ pronunciation? 12. anxious /lEerjkJss/—беспокойный b u t in unaccented syllables—/gz/: luxurious /kg'zjuams/—роскошный. What is the articulatory difference between the English /f. ш':. 8/? 9. What is the difference in articulation of the English /s. II.ti ration /iraejn/—паек. z. What are the graphic equivalents of the consonants /8. /z — v/. /s — f/. z/ and the Russian /c. v/ and the Russian /в/? 6. честный sch schedule /ij*edju:l/ (/iskedju:l/j4/ra. What are the difficulties in mastering the /J 1 . What are the graphic equivalents of the consonants /s. v/? 7. лазурный ti transition /trsen's^n/—переход.

State the articulatory differences between /6 — s/. behind. 3/ sounds. hills. fcrent phonemes. 'horror. 8/ Define the consonant phoneme /h/. Define the consonant phonemes /9. 'holiday. Transcribe these words and read them. Read these words. usual. ihither'to.. has. all—hall ought—hot ear—hear is —his out—house oust —house art—heart it —hit ill —hill as —has add—had and —hand arm —harm adds—hands air —hair 12. 13. fish. sheep. station. anxiously. Transcribe these words and read them. Id — v/. 'horses. /6 — z/. Ji:p Jip . *4.ed Jeiv Jeip Ji:t Aid Jel J"eid . /d — d/ are dif. flash. shop. ihuman. 'hardly. 10. him. hold. heard. 'happy. /d-d/. Irish. hall. Spell them and translate them orally into Russian. usually. Read these words. /ö — 1/. 'Hubert. anxious. she. State articulatory differences between the English /h/ and the Russian /x/. Prove by minimal pairs that /0 — s/. /9— f/. high.3. occasion. pleasure. Angelo. hear. brush. 9. Describe the bi central position of the tongue in the production of the noise /J. /9 — t/. hot.' Define the^consonant phonemes /J1. ho'tel. English. spell them and translate them into Russian. Э/. he. iHelen *U. 'handsome.Cn (bmpa'tijan 1р1езэ 'vi3n ksnidi^n p:g8nai'zei. harm. 'heather. 7. Transcribe toesej words. 'Holland.fai fun Juk Jetk Jeim Jam iilek. whole. Mind the pronunciation of /h/ as a pure sound of breath. Translate them into Russian and read them. found—thousand fought—thought F i nns—th ings first —thirst free —three deaf —depth 6. especially. sugar. shut. here.r9n '1езэ g'keign ideh'geijn 'steijn di's^n 'тезэ *15. *14. Read these words. British. help. his. fishing. head. 0m —sin 9ik — sik 9o:t —so:t fo:9 —b:s mau8—maus блт —sAm wa:9 —W3:s 9ik —tik 6o:t — to:t 9ri: —tri: si:6 —si:z leiö—leiz 6en —den бэи —dau si:6 —si:d hi:0 —hi:t Ьэио —baut fo:9 —fo:t klauB—kbuz bri:B—bri:z оеэ —des Uda —'Ada iwa:5i—iw3:di mAn8s Öi eitQ zäun wiä_stjend kteuöz siks0 iz 6m its 6is huz 6set *5. 'hardship. 'Henry. 3/. occasional 84 . hand. /8 — t/. house. should. special. /9 — z/.

h. hussar. sapphire. vehicle. regime. 1. so voice prevails over noise and the sound produced is a sonor ant. 9. try /trai/. chaise. conscience. only after that. Galsworthy. dry /drai/. they should be practised and learnt first: right /rait/. w/ In the articulation of these consonant phonemes voice prevails over noise. Transcribe these words. grind /gramd/. To pronounce /r/ in the proper way care should be taken to hold the tip of the tongue placed in post-alveolar position while breathing the air out of the mouth cavity. pass. and palatal /j/. then through the narrowing formed by the tip and the r back slope of the teethridge. forelingual. This passage is rather wide. Matthew. sonorant. certainly. post-alveolar. They fall into three groups: median /w. j. sugar. Leicester. other combinations are to be practised. Use them to explain the /s. /r/ I. azure Constrictive Sonorants (Approximants) /r. Graphic Equivalents of the /1/ Phoneme /r/ is pronounced when spelt: г red /red/—красный rr merry /'men/—веселый 85 . (In the/r/ production the tip and the blade oi the tongue are not so tense as in the articulation of the Russian/ж/ apical. unicentral. isle. or trilled. II. J1. 8. lateral /1/. houses. scythe. If it is curled still further — retroflexed position. bright /brait/. physics. draught. The tip of the tongue is curled behind the back slope of the teethridge. version. The air passes out of the mouth cavity through the median line: along the lowered front and the bunched-up back of the tongue. assure. pleasure.*16. 3A relation to orthography. The Russian sound /p/ is rolled. cacuminal. neph•ew. decision. oral. lingual. The main body of the tongue has lateral bunching: the sides of the tongue are in close contact with the back teeth and the palate. exhaust. shepherd. lieutenant. r/. cynic. This position of the tip of the tongue is called post-alveolar. or cacuminal. v. z. chivalry. enough. f. Combinations /r + ai/ are most simple. constrictive. median. therefore all of them are sonorants. notion. husband. IV. social.) The similar Russian sound /p/ (apical sonorant) is characterized by a different manner of the production of noise: the tip of the tongue vibrates in the flow of air and interrupts it repeatedly forming momentary obstructions against the teethridge. III. dessert.

. the tip of the tongue is curled further back behind the back slope of the teethridge and the vowels which precede /r/ acquire the It/ colouring. The tip of the tongue is lowered. III. Op. door /do:/—дверь. the sides of the tongue are raised.wr write /rait/—писать rh rhythm /пЗт/—ритм /r/ is not pronounced at the end of the word and before a vowel: star /sta/—звезда. II. spnorant. youth. first /fe:st/—первый. 207. IV.— P. median part of the tongue. farm /fa:m/—ферма /r/ is pronounced at the end of the word if it is followed by another word with an initial vowel: before I go /biifo:r__. /jes/. India and Pakistan.g.jm/ Lord /b:d/ /lo:jd/ I. The air passes out of the mouth cavity along the central. yawn. this second element of the glide is more prominent than the first. bird /ba:d/ /b3. C. In the American pronunciation It! is retroflexed." г The tongue immediately glides from the position for /jV to that of the following vowel. C. constrictive. especially in initial position: yes. e.jd/ firm Дз:т/ /fs-. law and order. The retroflexed allophone of the /r/ phoneme has the symbol Ц1< It is pronounced with noticeable lip-rounding and protrusion.ai 1дэи/—прежде чем уйти By analogy this "linking" /r/ intrudes sometimes into the pronunciation of such combinations as: drama and music. yard. lingual: medi о-lingual. yield. you. cit. In the articulation of /j/ the front part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate but not so high as to produce much friction. Gimson calls it a "semi-vowel" because it is pronounced as "a rapid vocalic glide on to a syllabic sound of a greater steady duration. A. oral. unicentral. palatal. area of agreement The intrusive /r/ should be avoided. yellow 1 /J / Gimson A. median. Care should be taken to avoid much noise and not to make the tongue tense when /j7 is articulated.

yeast /ji:st/~дрожжи i opinion /a'pmjsn/—'Мнение. view /vju:/—вид /w/ 1 I. 1 A. which is the result of the higher position of the front part of the tongue to the hard palate. II. ewer /!ju:9/—кувшин eur Europe /iju:9rap/—Европа eau beauty /'bju:ti/—красота. mute /mju:t/—немой eu in initial position: euphony /i ju:fsni/—благозвучие in. The second. IV. bilabial. The vocal cords vibrate. Gimson terms it a "semi-vowel" as well as /j/. beautician /bjui'tij'sn/—косметичка ew. oral. and through the round narrowing formed by the protruded lips. This sound is bicentral. Graphic Equivalents of the (\[ Phoneme /j/ is pronounced when spelt: у yes /jes/—да. its sides being raised. or primary. constructive. yield /ji:Id/—уступать. the tongue begins to move from an /u/-like vowel with strongly rounded lips. use /]u:s/—польза. familiar Дэ'пнlja/—знакомый u in initial position: union /'ju:nj3n/—союз. focus is formed by the lips which are protruded and rounded. onion /'лщэп/—лук. velar. sewage /'sju:i<33/—сточные воды. C. bicentral. The flow of air passes out of the mouth cavity without any audible friction along the median line of the tongue. labial. due /dju:/—должный ewe ewe /ju:/—овца. unite /ju:'nait/—объединяться. median with a round narrowing. III. feud /fju:d/—вражда ue rescue /'reskju:/—спасение. news /nju:z/—новости. The first. 87 . new /nju:/—новый. /w/ is pronounced with a glide onto another vowel of greater prominence. sonorant.'"The Russian Ш is pronounced with more friction. medial position: neuter /!nju:t3/—средний. Like /j/. or back secondary focus is formed by the back part of the tongue which is raised to the soft palate (velum). There is no similar sound in the system of Russian consonants. which instantaneously part. usual /1]'и:зиэ1/—обычный in medial position: duty /'dju:ti/—долг. dew /dju:/—роса. iew in medial and final positions: few /fju:/—немного.

ta'woidz/—по направлению к. what /wiat/—что. sonorant. III. front secondary focus [1]. alveolar: the tip and the blade are slightly pressed against the alveolar ridge.There is"Vdanger of confusing /w/ with /v/.e. twopence /iUp(3)ns/—два пенса. вставка worse хуже—verse стих Graphic Equivalents of the /w/ Phoneme /w/ is pronounced when spelt: w sweet /swi:t/—сладкий wh why /wai/—почему. чье. II. This mistake is phonemic. which /\ut|Y—какой qu quite /kwait/—совсем. square /skwes/—площадь su persuade /ps'sweid/—убеждать And also in the words: one /WAH/—один. bicentral. e. Chiswick /itfizik/—Чизик N I. towards /to:dz. once /WAns/—однажды. IV.g. whole /haul/—целое. the other. lateral. There are two positional allophones of the /1/ phoneme in English: one is the "clear". because bilabial vs. lingual. forelingual apical. oral. or "soft" [1]. неверно (2) in the words: who /hu:/—кто. whale кит—veil вуаль wine вино—vine виноградная лоза west запад—vest нижняя со« рочка. whom /hu:m/—кого. wrong /rug/—зло. it is pronounced with the front secondary focus. the back of the tongue is raised towards the velum in a concave shape. whose /hu:z/—чей. -wick: Greenwich /'grmicfe/—Гринвич. two /tu:/—два. it gives a back-central vowel type resonance to /1/. choir /kwaia/—хор /w/ is not pronounced: (1) when followed by r: write /rait/—писать. back secondary focus [I]. it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. Iabio-dental articulatory features in these two phonemes serve to differentiate the meaning of the words. constrictive.variant of the /1/ phoneme is the "dark" [1]. answer /lanss/ — ответ. 88 . sword /so:d/—меч: (3) in the geographical names ending in -wich. i.

/H:p/ люк—/luk/ лед —/Ы/ лет —/let/ The Russian soft and hard /л. in m leap. II. What are the articulatory differences between the 89 . желание. walk/wo:k/—ходьба. j. родник. almond /lamand/—миндаль. III. hill. because each of them serves to differentiate the meaning or words: мол—моль лот—лёд ел —ель мел —мель дал—даль угол—уголь Graphic Equivalents of the /I/ Phoneme /1/ is pronounced when spelt: I lay /lei/—класть II well /wel/—колодец. talk /to:k/—беседа. Why are the /r. Lewis bill. salmon /'sseman/—лосось Questions 1. The air escapes rather freely along the sides of the tongue. To avoid extra palatalization in the articulation of the English soft 111 the following contrast exercises are recommended: лев —/left/ лес —/les/ лили—/Uih/ лип—/lip/.b a c k se c o n d a r y fo c u s fro n t s e c o n d a ry fo c u s The soft [1] is pronounced before vowels and /j/. calf /ka:f/—теленок. folk/fsuk/—люди. mill. л7 are separate phonemes. IV principles of consonant classification? 2. To what classificatory groups do the /r. which are lowered (usually only one side of the tongue is lowered) (lateral articulation). cold In the articulation of the /1/ phoneme the tip with the blade of the tongue is pressed against the teethridge to form an obstruction. the dark [I] is pronounced in word final position and before consonants. /1. II — lateral. /j/ — palatal? 3. half /ha-f/—половина. The English soft [1] is not so soft as the Russian /л7 (in the articulation of the Russian /л7 the front part of the tongue is raised still higher to the hard palate). balm /bam/— бальзам. хорошо /1/ is not pronounced in the following words: would /wud/—тяга. flee. 1. calm /kcum/—тишь. w/ sounds Jconsidered median. lean. well. w/ sounds belong according to the I. should /Jud/ (past of shall).

j. red. rule. luck. still. pres. frend. yesterday. There are a number of small islands on thenver. в/? 4. Underline the devoiced allophones of the hi phoneme. helps. What are the ways to avoid mistakes the Russian students make in mastering the/r. figure. glass. suit. ndg. landed. human. work. railway. running. 8. The local newspapers were |a surprise to me. bred. meals. j. ru:ra. л'/? 5. й. world. yet. realize. scenery. j.position and before^a consonant (not /j/). place. What are the phonemic differences between the English /1. 6. I. comfort. red. few. Crusoe. Mind the linking hi in terminal position before a vowel which begins a new word. rl:tf. 3. used. matter. rsen. plain. iredi. glorious. w/ ana the Russian /p. for. lost. 2. Transcribe these words. bold 90 . л. Spell them. "kraisis. 1. 'trhzn. news. young. clasp. 'preznt *3. different. deal. reu. Americans are a sociable people they say. hundred. lonely. There is a theatre and a bar in the building of the new hotel. fellow. following. grei. prices. regular. run. frans. rates. rebuilt. round. America. rest. youth. 'rhzn. bald. How are the English constrictive sonorants related to orthography? Exercises 1. rait. greit. o'clock. Read these words. really. raid. w/ pronunciation? 7. doors. let. capsules 6.1. Read them. worry. friends. Transcribe these words and read them. Read these words. gladly. rig. Define the sonorants /r. 4. 9. period. longer. your. clothes. jelp. currents. Why do the sounds II. rsen. four. curly.English /r. *5. room. miles. kilometer. part. wild. rod. dressing. looked. drive. twelve. carried. blank. mother. chuckle. intn. lovely. London. 7. museum. linked. restful. lots. late. prais. 1. will. lived. raip. mixed and back vowels. learned. ri:p. long. year. were. There are hostels all over the place. krai. coloured. old. roast. raud. world. cold. Read these sentences. temperature. *2. absolutely. slums. letter. Observe the light [i] before front.l. 1. Mind the /j/ articulation. w/ belong to the subgroup of bicentral with a back secondary focus? 6. \l and the Russian /л. ru:f. weary. record. ru-. look. rot. forehead. fever. applause. car 4. story. flushed. adult. 10. trai. I 'l l. drowned. left. pn'zent. There are more sheep in Wales than anywhere in the British Isles. used to. never. The weather gets nicer and nicer. Read these words. looking. ri:d. You can see Moscow grow before your eyes. low. large. w/. rag. Observe the dark [1J in terminal . willing. true. 5. reviews. broom 7. In Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens you forget that you are in a big city. special. risk.. married. heather. along. modern. raej. Hotels are expensive in the South. clean. cigarette. Mary. borrowed. rose.

which. total. least. holiday. would. cit. letter. II. explain. article. led. apical. lit. nearly. the contact is relatively slowly released into friction. choir. soil. There are two affricates in the system of Russian consonants — /ч7 and /ц/. sewage. always. 1 The second. sword Occlusive-Constrfctive Noise Phonemes (Affricates) /tf. light-headed.— P. model. III. little. From the articulatory point of view /tf. What can you prove by the examples given below? when—van worse—verse went —vent west—vest week — Vi с weary—very *12. low. 166. looked. Lincoln." (Gimson A. like. [I] are allophones of one and the same phoneme. + / 3/ /3 /tr.) 91 . place. plans. slack. opinion. laughed. State the articulatory differences between the English and the Russian sounds. deal. than that which characterizes the fricative proper. reply. smile. lasted. The first. final. whose. hills. people. /63/ voiced lenis. which is raised to the hard palate. but in the Russian /ч7 articulation the front part of the 1 "The friction present in the affricate is of shorter duration. balm. IV. mute. Underline the letters. longer. hostel. long. C.and raediolingual. lingual. fell. once. will. Use them to explain how the IT. j. loudest *9. or primary. palato-alveolar. felt. lunch. fore. Op. or front secondary focus is formed by the front part of the tongue. w/ sounds are related to orthography. left. ds/ are bicentral. usual. talk. onion. coloured. special. touching the back part of the teethridge. restful. 1. Europe. sleep. Transcribe these words.8. neuter. unite. dg/ are indivisible clusters of two sounds: /t/ + / f/ = /tf/. oral. focus is formed by the tip and the blade of the tongue. small. /л У are separate phonemes and the English [Ij. occlusive-constrictive (affricates) bicentral (front secondary focus) with a flat narrowing. which represent in spelling the dark [i] with one line and the light [1] with two lines in the words given below. yes. The English /tf/ and the Russian K/ fare almost similar. believe. clapping. M —/p/ ■ ■ I'll —/й/ [1] —/л/ [Ц -M7 /w/—/в/ *10. towards. d$f I. gentle. *11. Give some examples to prove that the Russian /л/. /t|7 voiceless fortis. folk. hotel.

than in /tf/ articta-taffon. voiceless. but where the Russian /ч7 is voiced under the influence of the following voiced consonants /б. cats /kgets/. J joy /Ф1/—радость g before e. г. e. /tf/ is pronounced when spelt: ch child /tfaild/—ребенок ich kitchen /ikitfsn/—кухня tu nature /'neitfa/—природа ii question /ikwestfsn/—вопрос te righteous /'raitfss/—праведный Also in the word mischief /imistfif/—вред. бутерброд m . ж/ we hear a sound similar to M5/: меч златой с плеч долой ключ забыл врач дома луч заката Care should be taken to pronounce both parts of the affricate /d5/ simultaneously.5/ confusion the following exercise is recommended: catches ловит — cadges попрошайничает riches богатства — ridges горные хребты lunch ленч — lunge бросок beseech умолять — besiege осаждать There is no sound in the Russian language similar to /д§1. gem /dgem/—драгоценный камень. sandwich /1ssenwidg/—сандвич. In order to avoid /tj 1 .g. Cf. подпалить. s. i. gyps-/d3ips/—гипс ge.tongue is raised higher to the hard palate.: Джон—/dgrcn/ John Джек—/dgaek/ Jack Джейн—/eisern/ JaneThe Russian /ц/ is one more affricate. knowledge /1п»1к%/—знание du verdure /'vaidgs/—зелень de grandeur /fgraanclsa/—величие. The Russian /ч 1 / is softer than the English /tf/. gi in the middle of the word in an accented syllable. but rouge /ru:g/—румяна dg budget /ibAdgit/—бюджет. d. The English /ts/ is a cluster of two consonants—/t/ + /s/. /ds/ is pronounced when spelt. д. between the vowel sounds: advantageous /isedvcmiteidgas/—выгодный. у in French and Latin borrowings: giant /idJjarant/— гигант. singe /sincfe/—спалить. which can be defined as* occlusive. великолепие di soldier /'вэиИзз/—солдат ch Greenwich /igrmids/—Гринвич. dorsal. legion /ilüdsan/— легион ge at the end of words: large /lads/—большой. forelingual. noise. dental.

weak beginning). grandeur. watch. "3. gently. manufacturers. detached. (I3/ sounds are related to orthography. tfin i fa m a if up dgim peids djem tfek tfarid wutj1 dgra tfeindg азо:<% fes ntf tfoik id3imi ^ e m 'dgaimsni fern inAtf kauf eid3 d§ ee k dgu:n *4. rich. such. middle-aged. In terminal post-vocalic position the number of allophonesis adequate to the number of vowels that precede them. ts. (b) between the English /dj/ and similar Russian comb -ti'ons. Voiced consonants in initial position are gradually voiced (strong end. legion. What is the articulatory difference between the English /tj\ dg/ and the Russian ч'. Why are the /tf. chin. lunch. chief. advantageous. State the acoustic. II. dr. III.Questions 1 1. college. stranger. age. which. Use them to explain how the /tf. Define the affricates/tf. gem. soldier. 1. cheek. according to the I. cfc/. budget. 4. To what classificatory groups do the /tj dg/ phonemes belong . germs. Is the presence of voice in /<%/ a pho / nemic feature? 5. gyps. In initial prevocalic position the number of allophones of con sonant phonemes is adequate to the number of vowels that follow them.. dg/ sounds considered to be affricates? 3. There are some rules to this effect that can be formulated in the following way. righteous. 2. cottage. Spell them and translate them into Russian orally. IV principles of consonant classifica tion? 2. Voiced consonants in terminal position are gradually devoiced* (weak end. *6. sandwiches. VC. el. ц/? 4. chann gentle. knowledge. Read these words. *2. articulatory and phonemic differences between ДГ. enjoy ment. 3. Explain the articulatory differences (a) between the English /tf/ and theRussian AiV. natural 5. dj/ related to orthography? Exercises I. Greenwich' SUBSIDIARY VARIANTS OF ENGLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES Allophonic variants of consonants should be analysed from the viewpoint of CV. strong beginning). large. How are the consonants /tj". much. tz. Manchester. mischief. child. 0. What are the articulatory difficulties in the1. temperature. Transcribe these words. 93. engagement. CC connections. page./tj dg/ 1 production? 6. d*/' and /tr. nature. joy. da/. . question. Transcribe these words and read them. cheap. arrangement.

n/. step. longer before voiced and the longest in free terminal position. boot. 2. Phonemes /p. hop. bow. wallop. stoop. 1. pot. sharp. Modified by the preceding vowel: grebe. Similar voiced consonants are shorter before voiceless. bought. 4. lateral plosion. 8. paw. ebb. nasal. hope. peer. sob bitterly. Lateral release: people. pool. Generally preglottalized [?p] when syllable final before consonants — top. 6. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: labour. Plosive constrictives and affricates may be modified by the influence of nasal /m. Release partly lost: spleen. cab. splendid. chirp. 3. . 8. /9/ — dental: depth. bible. top. Partly devoiced (a) initially: balm. 7. babe. apple. bet. bore. imbibe. g. helps. nib. bet. nib. by. pay. Peter. boy. 8. palato-alveolar /j/. 1. 5. box. No release: supped. tub. tube. 6. Modified by the preceding vowel: Up. hubbub. k. 6. interdental /0. 5. harp. if. poach. postalveolar /r/. pun. Aspiration may also be heard in final position: top. 5. hip. 4. bar. d$/ occur in all positions. Modified by the following vowel: pea. Given below are the most important allophonic variants of English consonant phonemes. leap. bee. 7. thorp. purr. clap. bad.In medial position voiced consonants are fully voiced. spin. Aspirated: pass. cab. pore. parade. /b/ Modified by the following vowel: bit. /r/— post-alveolar: price. No release: rubbed. 10. 5/. 7. burr. In CC transition constrictive consonants may be pronounced with terminated constriction under the influence of the following consonant. up. (b) finally: ebb. garb. beer. palm. 3. boor. d. pet. poor. pound. type. pit. tape. 2. what place. put. but. bay. ebbed. Consonants are shorter in initial position than in terminal po sition. b. couple. Lateral release: able. orb. Nasal release: open. Modified by /j/— palatalized: pewter. globe. step. pat. t. Modified by /j/ — palatalized: beauty. mob. 9. banana. press. picture. book. surprise. verb. happen. table. Nasal release: ribbon. /w/ — labialized: Pueblo. stabbed. etc. stubborn. bilabial /w/. In CC transition plosive consonants may lose their plosion or its character may be modified: loss of plosion. pie.

7. straw. bored. Modified by the preceding vowel: eat. 2. had. (b) finally*. tree. daily. bud. host. two. darn f 1. eight. hood. door. bird. down. aspiration may also be heard in the final position. 6.g.3/. crowd. e. In colloquial speech /f/ may be reduced to /tj/. No release: stop talking. licentiate. die. spared. time. ought. 2. Modified by the following vowel: tea. 1Ы — dental: at the. hard. dad. come. better. write. walk down. took. tow. Aspiration may also be heard in w dog. 4. tobacco. Lateral release: bottle. done. Nasal release: written. 6. trick. town. down. twenty. Modified by the following vowel: deep. put. odd. rode t beard. hoots. kin. did. art.g. e. e. tale. adroit. cap. term. tan. gourd. what day. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: udder. dirt.g. dress. but. N the final position. kit. 8. Intervocalic /t/ is frequently realised as a brief voiceless tap. 7. tie. dome. hurt. top. 3. /w/ — labialized: twice. domination. Modified by the preceding vowel: deed. mid. e. ready. at. beaten. annoyed. /9/ — dental: breadth. 1Ы — dental: read those books. horde. dead. rout. tip. tuition. tore. tour. brood. /r/ — post-alveolar: try. rock. door. 2. Release partly lost: strong. Nasal release: garden. beadle. 5. dare. ride. day. duck. ate. 1. hat. 5. dead. dour. Lateral release: middle. wrote. did. ten. do. Aspirated: table. little. /1/ — released laterally: blight.g. toy. it. Partly devoiced (a) initially: do. cot. /w/ — labialized: Buenos Aires. 4. tear. tub. N 1. Aspirated: Kate. It! — post-alveolar: dry. 8. 3. made. Modified by the following vowel: key. Modified by /j7 — palatalized: duty. 95 . hot. Generally preglottalized [?p] when syllable final.kept. hard. dad. hut.IT I — post-alveolar: bright. car. Tim. dear. Modified by /j7 — palatalized: tube. rat. No release: good day. In colloquial speech /dj/ may be reduced to /d. before consonants. actress. hood. tar. eats.

fig. take. pouch. choke. coal. /r/— post-alveolar: cry. go. cheer. Modified by the following vowel: cheese. league.core. /tf/ may be preglottalized [?tf]. wreck. cool. scotch. game. /w/ — labialized: quake. cow. N 1. cord. cake. Modified by /r/ ~ post-alveolar: teach Robert. Gue. Modified by /j7 — palatalized: cute. pick. like. Jteen. gas. bulwark. goose. No release: picked. curb. again. 3. 6. /S/ — dental: take them. coach. oak. get. /r/ ~ post-alveolar: great. 5. -96 1. Nasal release: taken. good. N1 chaff. cook clean. gourd. chin. gown. gilt. such. 4.g. The velar closure for Ik. putsch. <child. gore. much. 8. /w/ — labialized: Gwendolen.g. Nasal release: fortune. big. took Kate. thicken. goitre. giggle. champ. chewing. dark. chain. rogue. school. lock. 5. touched. coy. chair. 5. garish. match. kite. chest. lÖl — dental: beg them. gutter. coup. back. e. Lateral release: eagle. cycle. 3. chow. Modified by the preceding vowel: each. care. chew. e. Lateral release: Rachel. tnarch. quirk. choice. liked. duck. quag. duck soup. gay. church. 3. plague. chewer. itch. galloon. guy. 'hitched. Modified by /j/ — palatalized. 2. Nasal release: dragon. gain. hoik. geese. guard. goose. bacon. chough. beg. 4. . (b) finally: big. fork. satchel. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: agony. chop. 6. Modified by the following vowel: geese. beg. scorch. Modified by the preceding vowel: beak. retracted before back vowels. aitch. book. Partly devoiced (a) initially: go. give. chore. got. search. 6. morgue. crab. 7.g. Shortened in terminal position. 4. gear. cranberry.g. 8. when followed by HI: reached. garden. fog. contain. y/ is advanced before front vowels. fetched. pecked. question. agree. No release: begged. matched. vocal. burg. plagued. searched. kursaal. e. fetch. before consonants. quaff. act. /Э/ — dental: teach them. Modified by the preceding vowel: league. Release partly lost: sky. 2. 7. cherubic. Lateral release: tickle. cook. e. Generally preglottalized [?k] when syllable final. big. pick those books. touch. marched. cup. duke.

M odified by the preceding vowel: leaf. jibe. chief. hedges. Lateral release: devil. shave. vote. jail. Japan. 4. fan. 5. 3. Joe. chaff t off. starve. thief — feet. veer. The exact point of contact m ay vary: it is m ore forw ard on the lip for front vowels. half. vocation. stooge.g. 6. 2. e. joule. 5. 6. Partly devoiced (a) initially: vile. vocative. veal — eve. fir. far. Nasal release: often. Nasal release: region. (b) finally:live. gin. variance. badge. Nasal release: even. and retracted for back vowels. 2. fin e . age. 4. 5. e. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: ever. Modified by/1/: Vladivostok. M odified by /j7: few. live. fo o d . fo o t. July. life. fee.g. jeer. vaccine. fo rsa k e . /ö/ — dental: judge them. five. jurist. M odified by the preceding vowel: leave. voyage. M odified by the following vowel: fill. ledge. fo w l. 4—182 97 . 3. abdge. journey. turf. III: flag. fee. voyage. fox. badge. joy. 2. fo e . urge. gouge. ridge. Modified by the preceding vowel: liege. Longer in term inal than in initial position. veil. van tage. Jew. fo r e . vortex. fo il. gee. have. judge. Modified by the following vowel: gibber. if. job. far. N l/v/ 1. loaf. urged. giraffe. 9. fo u r. coif. gorge. 1. voodoo. cough. Shortened in terminal position. cf. rough. of* groove. safe. /r/: fry. /<V is voiced between voiced sounds. large. 3. jaw. 7.] j e. vicar. Partly devoiced (a) initially: very. Googe. jet.1. love. 8. serve. Longer in terminal than in initial position. partly devoiced in other positions. virgin. trifle. Lateral release: cudgel. just. (b) finally:leave. doge. fa il.-jam. cf. fe a r. Modified byIt I — post-alveolar: urge Robert. vow. fu ss. when followed by obliged. vulgar. fence. Lateral release: rifle. rove. fa re . vest. oblige. 4. /d/i forged. 6. jar.g. Modified by the following vowel: veal. vile. /m/: lymph.

/j/: fourth year. 6. sit. 3. sir. so. 5. sigh. theatre. sear. 3. Partly devoiced (a) initially: these. south. thong. 2. 98 M . chaffs. suicide. Thalia. Place variation as for /f/. cf. Modified by the following vowel: see.g. Modified by the preceding vowel: leafs (v). 4. thin. myths. /n/ — nasalized: snarl. maths. thirteen. 5. breathe — these. thunder. sow. cuffs. /j/: view. soon. Longer in terminal than in initial position. /0/ Modified by the following vowel: theme. 1. fourths. /(k)w/— labialized: squirm. thole. this. cf. 7. Modified by the preceding vowel: breathe. coughs. Longer in terminal than in initial position. Longer in terminal than in initial position. In present-day RP the increasing dominance of /su:/ over /sju:/ is observed. say. knifes (v). then. 3. 4. 2. set. some /sm/. e. Modified by /j/ — palatalized: suit. chefs. sniffs. hoots. M: bathe Nell. Nasal release: earthen. smite. e. though. moths. It is one of the most frequent phonet с contexts for /6/. paths. tithe. booth. suffer. suit /su:t/. Initial /5/ in unstressed syllables in an approximant. 1. sick — kiss. coifs. cf.g. ihy. /5/ —dental: miss the train. laths. safes. Baths. thousand. May be interdental in energetic articulation. saw. Modified by hi: with Rose. serfs. births. Fully voiced: heathen. sock. this. castle. sergeant. thank. squish. death. giraffes. that. snare. Lateral release: whistle. 6. Фрайбург в ФРГ). thane. they. 2. sat. surround. mouth (v). therapy. lengthen. /w/: thwart. Ы: south night. (b) finally: writhe. thigh. 6. bathe. there. Nasal release: listen. Nasal release: rhythm. 1. 4. soil. 8. 1)l\ loathe you. tooths. the. faiths. Modified by the preceding vowel: wreath. 5. sore. loathe. with. Modified by /r/: three. soot. moth — theme. loafs. Sarah* sourdine. thus. /m/ — nasalized: smoky. /8/ Modified by the following vowel: thee./г/: Vryburg /'vraib3:g/ (г.

show .are these yours /э !c5i:5 з э:г/. . w a rm sh o p . shape. Longer in term inal than in initial position. 1. show e r. ship — fish. Modified by the preceding vowel: prestige. beige. Modified by the preceding vowel: cheese. Zutphen zoological Zoo. /j/ — palatalized: push your table. Genevieve. M odified by the following vowel: ship. Modified by the followingowel: gigue. measles. maize. jupe — rouge. sh eer. Modifiedby the followingvowel zeal. jabot. m a y b e syllable-initial an d syllable-final in re cent Frenc h loanwords. h /J/ Ы O ccurs only in m edial position. cf 4. buzz. zinc. Modified by/Ö/ — dental: wash them. bars. z/ can be assimilated to g/ before palatal and pal a to-al //. la /j/ — palatalized: yet. Zar a. season. shallot. she. rise. Zambia Zama.garage /igseraig/. 8. 6. pause. /w/ — labialized:fresh water. 3. Partly devoiced (a) initially: zoo. sh a re. Lateral release: special. : .It e. /n/ is — nasalized:buns. Lateral release: usual. shore.!— ■ n asalized :o m e sh ip . 4. gas showroom/gcej* ij*8tiru:m/. betw een vow els. . 3. has. rush. smash. jongleur. Fully voiced:asure. 2. is this. reason. nation. jupe. Longer in terminal than in initial position. Lateral release: teasel. /s. . gen v darme. says. 3. sh y. should. Im . shall. cf. rose. cf 4. (v). zest. shred. fish. shaft. Nasal release: station. zero. 4* 99 . .g. push. 5. 5. 6. su re . hers. oars. . Modified by the preceding vowel: clash. 7. shop. fresh. zest. rise. (b) finally:rouge. barrage. house poise. . shelf. sheen. zoril. is.g. Longer in term inal than in initial position. shirt. was. (b) finally:houses. 5.g. 2. shut. zoo — oars. veolar consonants. choose. 6. pines. zirconium Zealand zymosis zounds. /r/ — post-alveolar: shriek. e. ' 1. genre /sä:nr/. hears. wash. rouge.beige /beis/. M odified by/Ö/ — dental: the. 2. Nasal release: socialism. marsh. letters. zone. .N 1. e. m easure. douche. theirs. Partly devoiced (a) initially: jabot. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: reason.

hoe. yak. dwale. yokel. rat. t yonder. happy. ray. her. w ow . 4.couldn't you/fkudntfu:/. dr/ are realized as post-alveolar affri cates. yare. you /iwauntfu:/. hoist. * This phoneme is used by few RP speakers. It is borrowed from Am eri can English. rust. 1.won't g. withA/ used in all words beginning <wh>. e. t. Nasal release:decision.1 3. how. hare f houri. inhabit* boyhood. w are. wax. yoick. you. w ooer. yes. your. hay. Modified by the following vowel: hit. In/: sponge. right. w eir. strange. 1. was. he. war we. hip. g. w oe. year. 2. 2. Never occurs finally. Röntgen. Theie-may be complete devoicing. in stressed syllables: k/ tweed. raw. rook. dwindle. The initial clusters /tr. queen. Modified by the following vowel: wit. rid. 3. /j/ Occurs only initially before vowels. hear. Deyoiced following /t. It may also be heard in stressed syllables in "lazy speech". 1. 2. Modified by the following vowel: Yiddish. curious. /r/ Modified by the following vowel: read. In phonetic terms /h/ can^be consid ered a type of a voiceless vowel. Modified by /j/:rouge your face. Occurs only before vowels. young. H ood. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: awake. help. and /w/ will 'realized as Ъе a voiceless. who. munition. rural. k/: piano. orange. w hy. waft. djV are often realized as /tf.g. racoon. 8. Nasalized:mule. quite. yourself. roar. tube. dg/. hut. roof. rock. roister. habitual. 1. The sequences /tj. rear f rare. / e. Ihl the articulators are always in the position for the following vowel sound. where—wear /ллеэ—wee/.. w ay.7. Devoiced by the preceding consonants /p. Yankee. new. youth. high. yard ye. /w/ w orry. N There are as many allophones of as there are vowels in English. tune /tfu:n/t dune /dsu:n/. t twice. Voiced between vowels and voiced sounds: behind. twenty. 100 . e. labial-velar fricativeJU/. row. w oo. half. Some speakers have an addi / tional phoneme contrast. raft. hook. 2. rest. w ere. horn.

it is termed intrusive /r/.öw t. e. labialized. tie. nasalized: signalman /'signlnran/. tuck. g. railway. the idea of it /3i ai'dra г av it/. According to the /r/ distribution the dialects of English can be divided into two groups: rhotic and non-rhotic. these dialects include the majority oS American English varieties — including G. fool. lit. lay. In initial clusters. tow. lark.g. tar and feather /'tar on ifecte/. post-alveolar fricative. let. str. pressed. jew el.: hilt—healed—doll insult—bald—Carl belt—built—bull spoilt—bulled—jewel asphalt—spelled—bill holt—fooled—vale salt—snarled—bell false—hurled—well fault—lolled—Nell 7. w hüe'. loiter.but there may be devoicirig: spread. 2. fall. In unstressed syllables and after fricatives /r/ i&partly/levoiced. This /r/ is called linking /r/. In non-rhotic varieties /r/ is pronounced in word'boundaries. plea. Fred.g. metal. the data in the report /9э Meits r m Ээ riipo:t/. Devoiced after /p. shred. clever.'lagoon. * See p. e. law. lure. lurch.po le. after fortis stops. lair.. earl. plenty. Less devoiced after /f. lot. holes. took.3. present. South African and most New Zealand. snarl. g. slap. M odified by the preceding vow el: fill. Scots. lack. /r/ is a completely voiceless. and Irish).ann ual (dark allophones). Fully voiced: Alice.g.oil. '' In non-rhotic English /r/ may be heard in places when there is no <r> in spelling. flag. e. loop. 'These dialects include most of those spoken in England and Wales. sparkle. doll) feel. law. In the*clusters /spr. loud.g..ideal. Shorter before terminal voiceless consonants than before termi nal voiced consonants and the terminal proper. postalveolar fricative. clean. b ull. especially the rural areas. The use of intrusive It! is considered by 'English native^sfpeakers as "lazy" or "uneducated". mother-in-law /'шлбэг m 'lot/.w ale. by /w/ and rounded vowels. skr/ friction is not heard. 6. k/. /I/1 1. fell. Modified by nasals. Modified by the following vowel: lee." s/. 5. In rhotic dialects Id is pronounced in all contexts. e. e. 89: 101 . pal. Australian. and Canadian dialects (including the West of England. Devoiced and slightly fricative when syllabic. dull..g. 4. lore (light allophones). e. e. American English spoken in the Southern and ■Eastern States. 3. fills. scratch. tear. cf. ' In non-rhotic dialects hi is not pronounced before a consonant or pause. A. rip* pie.

tell. Shorter before terminal voiceless than before terminal voiced and the terminal proper. own. moist. /<V> /J7. still. tent — turned — ban. Devoiced after /s/. song. Modified by the preceding vowel: spleen. cf. worm. storm. Modified by . Devoiced after /s/. moustache. 3. bomb. g. June. maroon. cf. filthy. an tipodean. mail [meal]. name. mar. fun. channel. burn. mere. mill. Modified by the preceding vowel: thing. him. / £Э/.g. down. 6. noon. pan. /Ö/—dental: on that. /ai/. 3. before and after them /I/ becomes dental. Jamb. 2. murky. mouse. e. e. restaurant. Shorter before terminal voiceless than before terminal voiced and the terminal proper. B. mare. narrate. mate. e. near. may.g. 2. mile [maafj. e. 6. 4. In! 1. more. balcony. Lateral release: panel. moor. Modified by the following vowel: knee. 3. fine. When receded by front vowels dark [i] makes them more central and low. Lateral release: camel. knit. sink — singed — sing. Ы 1. 2. upon.: limp—limb—ham hemp—dims—drum bump—harms—beam lymph—aims—come 4.g. /3/—palato-alveolar: bench. Modified by /j/—palatalized: new. pen. lengthy. meal [nrnl]. orang. nook. /tf/. snack /snsek/. home. darn. e. Occurs only finally. /ei/ turn into /аэ/.g. nay. wrong. mourn. mad.by dental. e. my. mow. smack. them. Nora. much. London. nor. 5. ham. Modified by the preceding vowel: seem. nigh. moon. bourn. nut. cf. e. e. Modified by /k/: bacon (it forms a syllable with the preceding /k/). nasty. drum. pin. on. Vowels preceding nasals are nasalized. Palatalized after /j7. young. loathsome. nurse. nest. Nares. time.g. join. mop. room. 102 .g. Brunnhilde. Shorter before terminal voiceless than before terminal voiced and the terminal proper. noise. pain. 4. not. breathless. broom. gnat. no.g. wrong. harm.ne following vowel: me. Long /i:/ when followed by the dark [i] becomes /э/-Ике. Pitcairn. 1. born. now.

d. v/ modify the consonants that follow or precede them? 11. k. Is the quantity of similar consonants different when they are followed by voiceless arid voiced consonants? 12.Is the quantity of constrictives altered under the influence of the following consonant? 10. What do you know about a) the distribution of /r. 9.Questions I.position are gradually devoiced? 7. tf. I. What general rules do you know about the allophonic distribution of the consonant phonemes? 3. How do the phonemes /m. (a) /P/ supped top people stop talking /b/ rubbed ebbed stabbed sob bitterly he went to see I want to go /k/ cook clean took Kate /d/ good day what day walk down (b) /P/ people couple apple /b/ able label (c) /P/ open happen /b/ ribbon stubborn /t/ bottle little /k/ tickle cycle vocal /d/ middle beadle riddle /t/ written bitten taken bacon thicken /d/ garden pardon warden 103 /t/ /k/ . j/. How can you prove that in medial position voiced consonants are fully voiced? 8. In what position are voiced consonants characterized by maximal length? 13. t. b) the distribution of /p. How can you prove that the number of allophones of the consonant phonemes is adequate to the number of the vowels that precede them? 6. How should the all op hones of the consonant phonemes be viewed and analysed? 2. Observe (a) loss о lateral plosion. c) the distribution of /h/. w. 5. (c) nasal plosion. How can you prove that voiced consonants in terminal. d3. f. n. b. How can you prove that consonants are shorter in initial than in terminal position? 9. How can you prove that in initial prevocalic position the number of allophones of the consonant phonemes correspond to the number of the vowels that follow 7 them? 4. Read these word cmbinations and words. g/. voiced? 5. /J/? Exercises 1.. How can you prove that voiced consonants in initial position are gradually.

(b) reached. Pay attention to (a) the pal a to-alveolar character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme /j/. (a) twice. hitched. zest. (a) each. Observe the longer character of the terminal allophones of the /f. zed. if. Observe (a) the longer character of the /tf. fry. f —leaf. (b) bright. x/ phonemes and their shorter character in initial position. badge. fetched. fan. queen. live. searched. s. labour imbue /d/ Udder ready /g/ agony again balm bee bet /d/ do done down /g/ go gain guard ebb nib cab /d/ hard hood mid /g/ big beg league 3. urged. little. fuss. pouch. see. (c) blight. lodge. vulgar. . twenty. safe. off. Zion. Gue. George. Gwendolen. Zouave Б. sick. sake z — is. Read these words. ridge. fox. much. vote. judged 4. sincerely. dry. rough. vile. devil. (c) in final position. great. v. clever. fetch. serve — veal. zone. days. (a) beauty. far. groove. (d) the labialized character of the consonant modified by the foil owing pnoneme /w/. scorch. his. various. large. fence. zebra. dg/ phonemes in terminal position and (b) the shorter character of the /tf. obliged. veil. middle. of. love. birds. putch. (b) in initial position. match. vow. piece. Read these words. duty. matched. zero. thwart JO 4 . guess ■— sister. Readjthese words. Read these words. food v — leave. cough. (b) the post-alveolar character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme /r/t <c) the lateral character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme III'./g/ begged plagued big game (a) /b/ (b) /g/ eagle giggle beagle /b/ /g/ dragon wagon Morgan (C) /b/ "2. Observe the character of the voiced consonants (a) in fully voiced position. few. kiss. please — zeal. tennis. zip. sitting. sea. cute. t^/ phonemes in pre-terminal position (when they are followed by /t.try. forged. liege. tube. have. vest. since. half. gorge. vet s — face. d/). four. fill. fees. cry. guards. life — fee. giggle.

got to eat. in the noun.The description of the vowels should be accompanied by appropriate diagrams o£ the tongue position. write down. don't like. sit down. especially.' (b) an alveolar replaced by a dental. clean the board.— Oxford. that pub. repeat the noun. sometimes^even overshooting it and ending Sweet H. cr Simple Vowels Vowels are best of all learnt when the teacher directs-the-attention of the pupils to the position of the tongue and the lips. will you tell me. at' ths blackboard. mustard please. I'd like. what country. on the bo.-good time. 22. hit nose VOWEL PHONEMES. Read these word combinations. The Sounds of English. tea and cake. many people. The middle and the fore parts of the tongue are raised to the front part of the hard palate. because a vowel is "voice modified by different shapes of the supra glottal passages. but good. but not so high as in the pronunciation of the Russian /и/. glad to see you. just thirsty. next time. 1929. will you please. In the course of the /I:/ articulation the bulk of the tongue may move from a more retracted and low position. work now. the mouth and the lips. will you read louder. Э/. I /i:/ The bulk of the tongue is in the front part of the mouth cavity. read text 1. the space in the back part of the mouth cavity is empty.6. on this.y's plate. "The front of the tongue starts at the /i/ position and glides up and toward the /i:/ position. on the seventh. The slight movement of the tongue which results in the instability of the /i:/articulation occurs within the front and high position (narrow variation) of the bulk of the tongue. difficult to dealj silk dress. at' the institute that's the latest news on the hook at the club repairs the plug Control Task and the children opened the window on the radio about the'house in the'bathroom * Classify these word combinations according to the nature of modification within the group or at the end of it: (a) a loss of plosion. DESCRIPTION OF-PRINCIPAL VARIANTS a) Monophthongs. (c) the light and dark /I/. and the guest. round the city. Pay attention to the consonant modified by the following interdental /6.— P. to the more front and advanced position. 105 . what can I do. mashed potatoes. like to have it. tell the girl." * No.

III. Its idiolectal variation—a narrow diphthongal glide (in open syllables.P. unrounded. In the English I'v. IV. bee — bead — beat. before lenis and nasals) is considered as "vulgar" and many educated speakers attempt to avoid it. 106 . the side rims of it make> firm contact with the upper teeth. Graphic Equivalents of the f'v.I with the Russian faf. V. this diphthongoid may be represented in allophonic transcription as follows: [li'J. The lips are spread. cit. Op. high. 95. long. monophthong.1 Most RP speakers pronounce this sound as a stable vowel. cf.f Phoneme /i:/ is pronouncedVhen spelt: e be /bi:/—быть ее see /si:/— видеть ea tea /tl:/—чай ie piece /pi:s/—кусок ei ceiling /'si:hg/ —потолок i in French borrowings: machine /msijiin/— машина In Latin and Greek words: ae Caesar />si:z3/— Цезарь oe Oedipus /'irdtpss/— Эдип ey key /ki:/—ключ ay quay /ki:/—набережная eo people /ip£:pl/— народ l Vassilyev V. A.. Thus. the shortest before a voiceless consonant. Care should be taken not to confuse the English J'v. shorter in the position before a voiced consonant.f articulation the tongue is tense. II. /i:/ can be defined as: I.up in the HI position. tense. пил — pi:l рис — rees низ — niece сил — seal чик — cheek In the pronunciation of /i:/ its positional length should be observed: the longest in the open position. front (a) fully front. The Russian /и/ is pronounced with the almost neutral position of the lips. (b) narrow variation of the high position of the tongue.

coffee /ikofi/— кофе. women /iwimm/—женщины. short. touches /'Utfiz/—трогает. but not so high as for /i:/. business /ibizms/—дело. Monday /iniAndi/—понедельник. sieve /siv/—сито ai captain /'keeptm/—капитан. -----N / / IV. II. front (a) front-retracted. Wednesday /iwenzd(e)i/—среда. a before /biifo:/—прежде. forehead /'fond/—лоб. lymph /hmf/—лимфа. mountain /'mauntin/—гора ui biscuit /ibiskit/—сухое печенье. The lips are slightly spread. breeches /ibri(:)tfiz/—бриджи. 107 /'к лп аз—см ел о сть / . The front of the tongue is raised to the hard palate but not so high as in the III production. занятие. Thursday /I9a:zd(e)i/ — четверг. Saturday /isaetad(e)i/—суббота. Sunday /isAndi/— воскресенье. minute /'mmit/—минута.i 4 ] sition of the tongue. The position of the bulk of the tongue does not change during the /e/ articulation. The position of the tongue does not change during its articulation. England/iiflgbnd/—Англия. /i:/ and hi are different phonemes. /i/ can be defined as: I. The lips are spread and neutral. yß V (b) broad variation of the high po. circuit /'s3:kit/—цепь. lax. Friday/'fraidi/—пятница. * ' V. mischief /imistfif/—вред No. контур ei forfeit /ifo:fit/—лишиться чего-л. the English/lirjgliJV—англичане. courage ie studies /'stAdiz/—изучает. Tuesday /'tju:zd(e)i/— вторник.No. ( ч III. This can be proved by the minimal pairs: eat —it sheep—ship beet—bit seek—sick feel —fill eel —ill lead—lid deed—did heat —hit meal —mill leek —lik bead—bid leave—live feet —fit peak—pick peel'—pill Graphic Equivalents of the /i/ Phoneme /i/ is pronounced when spelt: i lid /lid/—крышка у very /Iven/—очень. monophthong. The front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate. gladly /'glaedh/—охотно ey whiskey /'wiski/—виски e. It is also pronounced in the following words: busy /'bizi/— занятой. 3 /e/ The bulk of the tongue is in the front part of the mouth cavity. 2 /i/ The bulk of the tongue is in the front part of the mouth cavity but slightly retracted. unrounded.

2 /«/ can be defined as: I. lax. monophthong. 4 /ж/ The bulk of the tongue is in the front part of the mouth cavity. short. mid-open. III. (b) narrow variation of the medium position of the tongue. It is longer before voiced lenis consonants. monophthong. e. man. bag. l The extension of /as/could be regarded as being in free variation 108 . III. IV. To practise the /e/ articulation contrast exercises are very helpful. unrounded. несколько u bury /'ben/—зарывать. short. The front of the tongue is slightly raised. (b) broad variation of the low position of the tongue. II. V. but rather low: the lower jaw is quickly and energetically lowered as soon as the vocal cords start vibrating. lax./e/ can be defined as: I. mad. unrounded. bit—bet beet—bit—bet lid—led lead—lid—led pick—peck peak—pick—peck Sid—said seed—Sid—said knit—net neat—knit—net hid—head heed—hid—head Graphic Equivalents of the /e/ Phoneme /e/ is pronounced when spelt: e red /red/—красный ea bread /bred/—хлеб eo jeopardy /'c^epadi/—опасность ei leisure /'less/—досуг ie friend /frend/—друг ai said /sed/—сказал ay says /sez/—говорит a any /leni/—какой-нибудь. but not so high as for /e/. The lips are neutral. front (a) front. хоронить ее threepenny /'бгерэш/—трехпенсовик No.1 V. g. II. . low. and nasals. front (a) fully front. IV.

articulation. It is long. absolutely /igabsalurth/—абсолютно. . -----ч \ П. To practise the /at/ articulation contrast exercises are recommended: bead—bard bee—bar lead—lard tea—tar heat—heart fee—far sheep—sharp key—car Graphic Equivalents of the /a/ Phoneme /a/ is pronounced when spelt: a staff /sta:f/—штаб аг far /fa/—далекий аи aunt /ant/—тетя er clerk /klctk/—клерк ear heart /hoi/—сердце IC 9 . W*~"^= ZT 4 Ы can be defined as: (J/ 4 I. The back part of the tongue is slightly raised. tense. back (a) back-advanced. monophthong. Q \ \ open (b) broad variation of the low position of / /I the tongue. . but the position of the bulk of the tongue does not change during its / .To practise the /да/ articulation contrast exercises are very helpful. unrounded. ambition /aera'bijsn/— честолюбие No. 5 /a/ The bulk of the tongue is low. ------^ I l\ III. The lips are neutral. abstract /'aebstraekt/—абстрактный. guess—gas bed —bad net —gnat set —sat said—sad met —mat bet —bat men—man head—had beet—bit—bed—bad peak— pick—peck—pack lead—lid—led—-lad seek—sick—sec—sack leek—lick—lack deed—did—dead—dad Graphic Equivalents of the /se/ Phoneme /ae/ is pronounced when spelt: a sat /saet/—сидел ai plaid /plaad/—плед It is also pronounced in the following words: champagne /Jaem'pem/—шампанское. V. but somewhat advanced. in the back of the mouth cavity. IV. The mouth is open (the opening between the jaws is rather wide). long.

7 /э:/ The bulk of the tongue is in the back part of the mouth cavity. Л. Its allophonic transcription is [yo]. it begins with the /y/ glide. The opening between the lips is smaller than for /D/. rounded. monophthong. back (a) fully back. Вашингтон No. tense. monophthong. The Russian /o/ is a diphthongoid.No. The back of the tongue is raised a little bit more-than for /a/. short. IV. long. lax. but not so low-as in the la/ articulation. siighly rounded. yacht /jut/—яхта. III. The Russian/o/is pronounced with the more rounded and protruded lips. Warwick/'wDrik/—г. Thelips-are slightly rounded. To practise the hi articulation contrast exercise should be done (see No. V. open (b) broad variation of the low position of the tongue. 7 /o:/ hereinafter). V. mid-open (b) broad variation of the midopen position of the tongue. /u/ can be defined as: I. Washington /'WDJirjtan/— г. It is farther in the mouth cavity than its the fa/ articulation. Ш. no . 6 / D / The bulk of the tongue is low in the mouth cavity. back (a) fully back. IV. Уорик. This vowel is long. The back of the tongue is raised a little higher to the soft palate than in the /o/ articulation. The Russian /of is closer. knowledge /inuhcfe/—знание. Graphic Equivalents of the /of Phoneme /D/ is pronounced when spelt: о not /nut/—не a what /wot/—что au because /bi'kDz/—потому что It is pronounced in the words: Gloucester /igbsta/—Глостер. I. The lips are rounded and slightly protruded. The bulk of the tongue in the articulation of the Russian M occupies the closer position. This sound is short and is pronounced with the energd-ic downward movement of the lower jaw. II.

8 /u/ The bulk of the tongue is in the back part of the mouth cavity. monophthong. II. short. It is raised in the direction of the front part of the soft palate. The lips are slightly rounded. higher than for /o:/. Graphic Equivalents of the /u/ Phoneme /u/ is pronounced when spelt: u put /put/—класть о woman /'wumen/—женщина oo book /buk/—книга ou! could /kud/—мог (бы) ull pull /pul/—тянуть ush push /puJV—толкать ш . III. IV. but somewhat advanced. V.l—закон No. slightly rounded. /u/ can be defined as: I. (b) broad variation of the high position of the tongue. back (a) back-advanced.Not to confuse h:I with hi the following contrast exercise can be recommended: cord—cod sport—spot caught —cot naught—not port—pot sought—sot Graphic Equivalents of the /o:/ Phoneme /э:/ is pronounced when spelt: о before r: horse /ha:s/—лошадь oo » floor /to:/—пол ou » your /jo:/—ваш oa » oar /D:/—весло a » war /WD:/—война eo in the word Georgia /'dgoidgis/—Грузия и штат Джорджия в США oa broad /bro:d/—широкий ough thought /ÖD:t/—мысль a water /'wo:ta/—вода au pause /pa:z/—пауза augh taught /to:t/—учил al walk /wo:k/—ходить aw law Ih'. lax.

The back of the tongae is raised higher in the direction of the soft palate than in the/u/ production. tense. The tongue is a little higher than for /cc/. III. the following exercise is recommended: pool—pull toot —took fool—full coot —could goose—good pood—good boot —book Graphic Equivalents of the /u:/ Phoneme /u:/ is pronounced when spelt: a true /tru:/—верный oo tool ytu:l/—инструмент о who /hu:/—который ои soup /su:p/—суп ui fruit /fru:t/-—плод eu rheumatism /iru:matizm/—ревматизм. ш 112 . The lips are spread. In order not to confuse the pronunciation of /u:/ and /u/ which are different phonemes. IV. sleuth /slu:9/—сыщик ew crew /kru:/—команда. 10 / Л / The central part of the tongue is raised in the direction of the juncture of the hard and soft palate. The Russian /y/ is pronounced with the lips more rounded and protruded. /u:/ may be a diphthongoid. rounded.No. then its beginning is a short /u/. which glides to more tense and labialized /u:/. monophthong. V. high (b) narrow variation of the high position of the tongue. long. Allophonic transcription of the diphthongoid In:! can be represented as follows: [uuw]. The bulk of the tongue is tense. back (a) fully back. which in the end has a /w/ glide. II. 9 /u:/ The bulk of the tongue in the /u:/ articulation is in the back part of the mouth cavity. /u:/ can be defined as: I. экипаж /ju:/ is pronounced when spelt: и tune /tju:n/—мелодия не due /dju:/ —надлежащий ugn impugn /raipju:n/ —оспаривать ui suit /sju:t/—мужской костюм eau beauty /'bjurti/—красота No. retracted more than for /u/.

/л/ can be defined as: I. unrounded; II. central mid (a) narrow variation of the low position of the tongue; III. lax; IV. short; V. monophthong. To practise the /л/ articulation contrast exercises are very helpful, e.g. Bart—-but darn—done march—much carp —cup cart —cut calm—come dark —duck charm—chum Graphic Equivatents of the /л/ Phoneme /л/ .is pronounced when spelt: u sun /8лп/—солнце о come /клт/~приходить, London /Плпйэп/—Лондон oo blood /bUd/—кровь ou touch /UtjV—трогать, enough /i'nAf/-— довольно, достаточно No. 11 /з:/ The central part of the tongue is raised almost as high as for /еЛ Its surface is more or less flat, the middle of the tongue is slightly higher. The lips are spread. Since.we cannot say that-the bulk of the tongue occupies the front or back position, it is convenient to define this position of the tongue in the /s:/ articulation as mixed. /з:/ can be defined as: I. unrounded; (a) II. (a) mixed; 3(b narrow variation of the mid-open position ) 4 III- tense; IV. long; V. monophthong. , To practise the /§:/ articulation it is useful to do the following conirast^exercises: bed—bird all —earl torn —turn full—furl ten — turn four — fur board—b ir d pull — pearl Ben—burn form—firm court —curt took—Turk Graphic Equivalents of the /з:/ Phoneme /з:/ is pronounced When spelt: ir birth /Ьз:6/—рождение у г myrtle /ima:tl/—мирт

(_____ 4 \ ___ of'the tongue;

из

er serve /ss:v/—служить ear earn /a :n/—зарабатывать wor word /W3:d/—слово our journey /'(^з:ш/—путешествие ur turn Дз:п/—вертеть, поворачивать No. 12 /э/ The central part of the tongue is raised a little bit less than for /з:/. The lips are neutral. In speech /э/ is easily affected by the neighbouring sounds and acquires different shades which are subdivided by G. P. Torsuyev1 into (1) /л/ shade, (2) /e:/, (3) /ы/ shade, (4) /з7 schade. 1. /л/ shade of /a:/ phoneme is observed in final position, before a pause: comma /1кг>тэА/, butter /<Ьл1эл/. 2. /з:/ shade is observed in all positions, with the exception of those mentioned (as 1, 3), for example: above /Э'ЬЛУ/, along /эПг/. 3. /ы/ shade is observed when /з/ is preceded or followed by the /k, g/ phonemes: again /sigem/, ca«c/ /Ira'nael/. 4. /з7 shade is observed before the terminal /z, d/: te#m /Uetaz/,
covered

/э/ can be defined as: I. unrounded; II. (a) mixed; (b) broad variation of the mid-open position of the tongue; Ш. lax; IV. short; V. monophthong. Graphic Equivalents of the /э/ Phoneme It can be stated, that almost every vowel in the unstressed position can be pronounced as /a/, for example: /e/ sense /sens/ смысл—nonsense /inunsans/ бессмыслица /ж/ man /тжп/ человек—milkman/ /Imilkman/ молочник /э:/ ford /b:d/ брод—Oxford /toksfod/ Оксфорд /a:/ sir /sa:/ сэр —yes, sir /'jes sa/ да, сэр /ei/ relation /пЧефп/ отношение, связь—relative /Irelativ/ родственник, etc. Questions 1. Why is it important to direct the attention of the pupils to the movement of the lips and the tongue in teaching vowels? 2. What do you know about vowel No. 1? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with the similar Russian vowel /и/;
i Торсу ев Г. П. Фонетика английского языка.— М., 1950.—С ЮЗ* 111

<d) rules of reading. 3, What do you know about vowel No. 2? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 1; (d) rules of reading. 4. What do you know about vowel No. 3? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 2; (d) rules of reading. 5. What do you know about vowel No. 4? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (с)comparison with vowels Nos 3, 1,2; (d) rules of reading. 6. What doyou know about vowel No. 5? (a) description of the articulation; (b> definition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 10; (d) rules of reading. 7. What do you know about vowel No. 6? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 7; (d) rulesof reading. 8. What do you know about vowel No. 7? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with the Russian hi; (d) rules of reading. 9. What do you know about vowel No. 8> (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 9; (d) rules of reading. 10. What do you know about vowel No. 9? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison* with. Russian /y/ and English /it/; (d) rules of reading. 11. What d» you know about vowel No. 10? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 5; (d) rules of reading. 12. What do you know about vowel No. 11? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition; (c) rules of reading. 13. What do you knowabout vowel No. 12? (a) description of the articulation; (b) definition^ {c) rules of reading. Exercises
*1. Transcribe these words. Read them. Observe positional length of the vowel ll:L

(a) see, we, tree, be, me, he, fee; (b) seem, read, clean, seen, deal, people, easily; (c) cheep, sweep, chief, treat, least, creek, week
*2. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the /i: phoneme to orthography.

she, eve, concrete, feet, meat, niece, receive, fatigue, aesthete, key, quay
*3. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.

in, ill, big, wings, pit, stick, cliffs, spring, thing, sick, wrist, silly, building, England, backing, bushes, guineas, lovely, busy, minutes, going, dishes,1 begins, college, women, commit, mercy, Britain, window, missis, symptoms, holiday, interested, excited, anything, hesitate, privilege, criticism, initiate, medicine
*4. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the hi phoneme to orthography.

did, lid, gladly, Freely, lynx, courage, village, washes, rouges, boxes, worries, copies, loaded, fountain, biscuit, Friday, sieve, lettuce, forehead, forfeit, coffee life

*S. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.

bed, said, help, tell, yet, head, tennis, weather, member, letter, dressed, setter, helping, anyway, envied, pleasure, friendly, dressing, desolate, separate, hesitate, myself, remember, endeavour, hotel, instead, forget, eleven
*6. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the /e/ phoneme to orthography.

red, get, ten, seven, head, dead, ate, the Thames, burial
*7. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian,

glad, bad, plan, can, swam, blank, drank, act, sat, fancy, gladly, shallow, added, anxious, badly, traffic, happen, Daddy, sadness, began, exactly, imagine, vocabulary, programme, sandwiches, manufactures, balcony, sacrifice
*8. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the' se/ phoneme to orthography.

carry, ample, have, salmon, plaid, champagne, absolutely, abstract, ambition
*9. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.

are, bar, far, car, arm, ask, card, past, farm, half, part, large, France, grass, dark, guard, park, start, smart, last, hard, mask, dancing, basking, laughing, rather, hardly, harbour, answer, artist, father, basket, classes, articles, archangel, departure, enlarge, at last
*10. Tranicribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the /ct/ phoneme to orthography.

mast, answer, last, tar, part, laugh, Berkley, Hertford, heart
*11. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them Into Russian.

on, nod, was, rod, want, gone, job, hot, long, song, bother, bonnet, doctor, model, hostel, honest, nodded, body, offer, Holland, rocky, solid, cannot, occupy, cottages, prosperous, geometry, following, holiday, wasn't, seen off
*12. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the Ivl phoneme to orthography.

■ hot, sorry, foreign, quality, almanac, sausage, knowledge, yacht
*13. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.

more, draw, all, call, bore, thought, horse, talk, sort, bought, George, shore, always, forward, water, walking, morning, before, also, exports, importance, awfully, audience, orchestra, altogether, of course, forty-four
*H. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the Ы phoneme to orthography.

port, fort, floor, door, course, court, four, pour, roar, war, broad, bought, wrath, cause, fall, yawn, paw, thaw
116

good, room, would, cook, foot, took, put, soot, shook, looked, bushes, manufactures, wooden, couldn't, wouldn't, woodland, restful, woman, put out, put on, good-bye, naturally, recapitulate, carefully put, push, pull, worsted, wolf, look, stood, took, could, should, courier 17. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian. flue, zoo, too, who, two, use, you, few, true, food, soon, school youth, move, rule, huge, knew, usually, absolutely, pneutnona, moving, avenue, humour, beautiful, review, ruined, suicide, value, regular, pupils, human, assumed, constitution
*18. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the /u:/ pho neme to orthography. *16. Transcribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the neme to orthography. /a/ pho-

*15. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.

blue, rude, rule, June, cool, tomb, group, wound, bruise, brew,
als^ribe these words. Use them to explain the relation of the /a:/ pho neme to orthography. , . u lio w

tune, humour, use, cue, Tuesday, suit, neuter, few, beauty, Hughes one, run, fun, shut, bus, much, ton, young, come other rammer, brother, mother/another, currents, chuckle, wor^«ndwd ™ш£ money, funny, lovely, country, compass, must, just, trouble, wonuex ful, wonderland, instructor, introduction, meaning *21. Transcribe
these words. Use them to explain the relation of the U! phoneme to orthography. 20. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.

must, unjust, judge, humbug, does, front, among, money, couple, rough, tough
*22. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into

y were, heard, word, workers thirty ^J^S her, years, Burlow,

girls, birds, work, turkey, cu worse, Sherlock, certainly, worth, dirt, perfect *23. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to explain
the relation the hil phoneme to orthography. Read>nd;tramlate them into *
D

stir, myrtle, kernel, heard,

worker, turner, nurse, fur *24. Transcribe these words.
ussia

again, along, about, across, obey, ^J^'Ä^ Piccadilly, confess, perhaps, suppose, condition, p to pleasef to stop, the song, to do, to fish, the giris,.P ably, finally, wonderland, woodland, decorate, gli ehester, desolate, recognize, traveller, balcony „ „stre ssed
25. Give examples to prove that the sound Ы U the core of the unstressed vocal ism in Modern English.

".

и. She'd have gladly sacrificed1 anything for the family's sake. The hotel at the seaside will cost you at least thirty pounds a week. т>. 4. He looked a sick and miserable boy. which relate to the founds /i. 4. 3.1 Underline the vowels. She started to have classes last autumn. Last time Arnold asked if they could have classes with the artist. 7агт a er ea irw ay is ft. People seem to like it. 2. I hadn't got a vacancy in my office. No. No. They drive on the left side of the road instead of the right. You forget about Kensington Gardens. Oh. He waved his hand back to> her till he hit his hand on the back edge. 2. а. 3. "At mv office I haven't got anything to offer you. There's a special burial ground for dogs there. 4. To enlarge your knowledge in art you must start reading at once. There are no more good waterways in the north.It is very im portant that "°he water of the North Sea near England is warm. 3. 3. 4. my godl What a lot of people come to his office to ask for a job. 2 /i/ I. "What is it?" I asked him. It took him ten minutes to get to Kensington Gardens. 3. Ann and Mary were happy in their ntw hats.Control Task Transcribe and read the passages. The fact is Mother packed the sandwiches herself. Wtio made that offer of a job? 3. They help by sweeping and cleaning the rooms. 2." No. Arnold can't enlarge his vocabulary by starting to toss dictionaries into a waste basket. Б «Arnold laughed at the artist. i. The plate of sandwiches. IIS y is l^ ftf C o u rse^ . No. з:. 3 /el 1. Shallow water is warmert£Si deep watI\i^ Z T f4 r^ .' is standing on the mantelpiece. 5. 5 "Doyon want a job?" He nodded. There are no more good waterways in the north 4 Shall £ S t "°^ .1 was shocked when he offered to sell his watch 4. 6 Ы I. 2. 5. He left different medicines with instructions for giving them.1г. л. you could spend a couple of hours there. The medicine w 1 bring down the fever. 3. Give their articulatory characteristics._ e/. 2. No. That doesn't mean sleeping and eating in tents.« w Sf +l i5 5i?S J the water of the North Sea near England is warm. 4.2.а. No. 1 /i:/ 1. 4. No. 4 Ы 1. e. 3. ж. 2.

So the water in the North Sea is shallow and warm. He is a good cook. 2. 4. 11 h:l 1. My brother likes running very much. He was rather taken aback. You are perfectly sure to meet factory workers. or Complex Vowels Closing Diphthongs No. Since the movement of the tongue in the*articu : lation of /ei/ is from a more open to a more close position. 3. You like their new costumes. 2. In the articulation of the diphthong /ei/the bulk of the tongue glides from the /e/ to the hi position.1 was rather surprised. 4. Perhaps when you were here last year you heard something about my girl-friend. 4. No. f No. Every summer hundreds of people come to the South. No. 119 . 5. but the full formation of hi is not accomplished. It's over three miles an it's rather difficult on'account of the currents roun^ the beacon. 8 /u/ I. He said he would come another time and I saw he was worried about something. The youth is truly fond of new music. 2. Soon the two were through too. 3/e/. First of all you must know that holiday camps are permanent buildings. 5. Should I look for the sugar? 3. The lips are slightly spread. 4. /ei/ is called a closing diphthong with the front. 5. 9). 2. The opening between the jaws is rather narrow. He'd put •on weight and looked solid. she would. The North Sea is not more than 600 feet deep. office woikers and shop girls there. 12 hi 1. mid narrow unrounded nucleus. No. 3. 6. 3. Mother is coming to see us this summer. I got some glimmering of what he wa*s driving at. which is closely connected with the second element of the diphthong — the glide /i/. 13 /et/ The nucleus of the diphthong /ei/ is vowel No. b) Diphthongs.1 looked at him or a bit. It was such an insane answer to give.«er and helps to keep the shores from the cold of Norway. The good woman put on her hat. 3. looked at iierself and said that if she could go. 10 /л/ 1. don't you? No. 2. 9 /u:/ The youth soon found two very good seats for the two. The woman put on her new dress and asked if it was good. wider for the nucleus than for the glide (Fig.

И /эй/ The nucleus of the diphthong /эй/ starts at the position for1 vowet No. To practise the /эй/ articulation the following exercises are recommended: 120 . The lips are neutral at the beginning of the diphthong and rounded at the end of it for /u/.the articulation of the nucleus is closely connected with the second element of the diphthong. gauge /geidg/—мера. 10 No. Since the movement of the tongue in the articulation of Iml is from a more open to a more close position /au/ is called a closing diphthong with a central 1 mid (narrow variation of the medium position of the tongue) nucleus (Fig.To practise the /ei7 articulation the following exercises are recomable—cable—'table pain mended: peel—pail—pile —came—game play— weel—wail—while plays—pace pen—pain jnean—ma in—mine fell —fail sell:—sale feet—fate—fight men—main leak—lake—like say—same—sake pay—paid—pain gay—game—gait may—made—mate bay—bait day—date Graphic Equivalents of the /ei/ Diphthong /ei/ is pronounced when spelt: a take /teik/—брать ai wait /weit/—ждать ay say /sei/—сказать ei vein /vein/—жила ey they /Öei/—они ea great /greit/—большой It is also pronounced in the words: jail /dseil/— тюрьма. aorta /eibtta/—аорта \Л "К \ \ \ \ N эй V Fig. 11 /3:/. but the full formation of /u/ is not accomplished. chaos xaoc. 9 Fig. измерять. In the articulation of /эй/ the bulk of the tongue glides from the /a/ to the /u/ position. the glide /u/. 10).

coal home hold cold close telephone Soviet slogan socialist Graphic Equivalents of the /au/ Diphthong /эй/ is pronounced when spelt: о so /sau/—так oe foe /fau/—враг oa road /raud/—дорога ou soul /ssul/—душа ough though /Ээи/—хотя. 15 /ai/ The nucleus of the diphthong /ai/ is the front open /a/ (more open and retracted than vowel No. 4 /seO» which glides to /i/ without reaching it. dough /dau/—тесто ew sew /sau/—шить ow know /neu/—знать It is also pronounced in the words: omit /s(u)imit/—упускать. To practise the pronunciation of the diphthong /ai/ the following exercises are recommended: I mine tide fight tie time tile slight die dime size like pie pine lies pipe my nine wide1 might lie line died night fine—feign by—bay line—lain like—lake fight—fate my—may mine—mane die—day Graphic Equivalents of the /ai/ Diphthong /ai/ is pronounced when spelt: i time /taim/—время igh night /nait/—ночь 121 Fig. the glide sounds like a weak Id. In the articulation of /ai/ the bulk of the tongue moves from a more open /a/ position to a more close /i/ position.oak own open old over only go snow no so show low ago October Moscow also tempo window flow . Olympic /au'limpity—олимпийский No. The opening between the jaws is rather wide for the nucleus and much narrower for the glide. The amplitude of this movement is bigger than that in the /ei/ and /эй/ articulation. it .

which \ \ \ \ U au 12 1 01 Fig.6 M S'hlanri Ы ть 7 the bulk Р08 оп fThe deS . the nucleus. but: eight /eit/—восемь у my' /mal/—мой It is also pronounced in the words: buy /bai/— купить. unrounded.и]cm the back and of ^e tongue is be-TZ direction ÄtOngU gH f' f ?. the following exercises are recommended: mice—mouse lice—louse shy—shout down loud die—doubt I—owl Graphic Equivalents of the /au/ Diphthong /au/ is pronounced when spelt: ou house /haus/ —дом otigh plough /plau/— пахать ow how /hau/ —как No. According to the data given by foreign authors. of the diphthong /au/ is open.eigh height /hart/—высота. 17 /:i/ cow gown now bow town row howl house mouth allow lied—loud night—now gye—gout rye—rout thy—thou prop^6 ПА' of ^АМЬ0Щ^Э1/ is & which is ndther No. 13 The opening between the jaws is wide for the nucleus and much narrower for the glide. eye /ai/—глаз No. 16 /au/ The nucleus of the diphthong /au/ is /a/. broad. ~ У to accomplish the 122 . To practise the /au/ articulation. central. Vassilyev defines it as a diphthong with a front-retracted nucleus /a/. low position glide ТЫ?fmbmL^J^lUOvI°l N* П( се83аг . guide /gaid/—гид. which is more back than /a/ in /ai/.

joy /d3Di/~ радость Centring Diphthongs1 No. In Gleason's transcription they are represented as /ih/. /oh/. boil /boil/—кипеть. 18 /ia/ The nucleus of this diphthong is vowel No. the glide sounds like the vowel /л/. coin /kom/ — монета °У boy /boi/—мальчик. clear. engineer. To practise the /oi/ articulation the following exercises are recommended: oil voice avoid coil join spoil boy toy destroy boy —bay foil —fail point—paint doily—daily hoist—haste soil —sail Graphic Equivalents of the /oi/ Diphthong /DI/ is pronounced when spelt: oi point /pomt/—пункт. /uh/. really he —hear me —mere fee —fear tea— tear bead—beard she—sheer be—beer we —weir pea—peer Graphic Equivalents of the /ia/ Diphthong /ю/ is pronounced when spelt: er here /hra/—-здесь eer beer /bia/—пиво L The term "centring" is connected with the glide э/. the full formation of it is fully accomplished. When /la/ occurs in an open syllable and is followed by a pause. Definition: /ia/ is a centring diphthong with the high (broad variation of the high position of the tongue) front-retracted unrounded nucleus. 2 /i/. /eh/. dear. near. low (narrow variation) slightly rounded nucleus (Fig.Definition: /01/ is a closing diphtnong with the back. In this book it is referred to as mixed. The bulk of the tongue moves from the /i/ position to the position. 13). which it occupies in the /э/ articulation. hear. which is considered / to be central. To practise the Лэ/ articulation the follow ing exercises are recommended: F ig . точка. year. 123 . И ear. The lips are neu\ ' tral.

3 /e/ and No. The lips are spread . IB Fig. variation of the medium position of the tongue). The \ \ 1/ Fig. ja:/—год ea before other consonants: real /ml/—настоящий e before unaccented a. 15). care /кед/—забота ai s> air /еэ/—воздух e » there /Эеэ/—там ei » their /5еэ/—их.or neutral. рвать ае » aerate /'еэге^. the full formation of which is not accomplished. 'fakia/—факир ear year /jis. To practise the /еэ/ articulation the following exercises are recommendedrchair ware" hair care square fair their mare' pair dare fare declare far—fare' mar—mare car—care bar*— bare char^-chair tar—tare Graphic Equivalents of the /ЕЭ/ Diphthong /еэ/ is pronounced when spelt: a before r.ier pier /pia/—набережная ir fakir Дэ'кю. u: idea /aildia/—идея. свой ea » tear Деэ/—раздирать. geum -бот. 4 /se/. unrounded nucleus (Fig. гравилат No. 'eiareit/—проветривать ay before or: mayor /теэ/~мэр 124 . midopen -(broad. Definition: /еэ/ is a centring diphthong with the front. 19 /еэ/ The bulk of the tongue starts from the position intermediate between vowels No. then it glides to articulate /9/. 16 nucleus of /еэ/ is more open than the English /e/ or the Russian /э/ in amo.

Definition: /иэ/ is a centring diphthong with the back-advanced. e.. 16). (a) tfia pen hsem b) mi: nset msep kin ten bom meed nest b Low vowels are more affected by nasal consonants than mid and high vowels. which gradually glides to /э/. it is considered to be a free variant of the phoneme /э:/. SUBSIDIARY VARIANTS OF THE ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEMES a) Unchecked and Checked Vowels Allophonic differences in the vowel system of the English language are conditioned by their distributional characteristics. All of them may occur in initial position» /i:/ economy /a:/ arc /u:/ Uganda /ei/ eight /ia/ earshot /i/ image /v/ on /л/' utter /ai/ idea /еэ/ airway /e/ editor /o:/ all /э:/ earn /au/ hour /иэ/ Urdu! /ae/ acid /u/ Uruguay /э/ about /oi/ oily /эй/ over In initial position the vowel is more or less free from the influence of the next consonant phoneme. short and lax nucleus (Fig. 125 . 20 /иэ/ The nucleus of the phoneme /иэ/ is a high back-advanced /u/. door.*/„ To avoid this mistake the following exercise is recommended: shoe—sure pool—poor crew—cruel two —tour do —doer grew—gruel Graphic Equivalents of the /иэ/ Diphthong /иэ/ is pronounced when spelt: oo before r: poor /риз/—бедный oe » doer /dua/—деятель ou » tourist /ituanst/—турист u » sure /Jua/—уверенный It is pronounced in the words: steward /'stjusd/— управляющий. g. slightly rounded. It is not included in the inventory of vowels.No.. (a) more — if they precede the'nasal sound and (b) less — when they follow it. Vowels may be nasalized. high (broad variation of the high position of the tongue). sewer /sju9/—сточная труба The phoneme /т>э/ which is represented in spelling by -oor. more is not obligatory. Care should be taken not to confuse the diphthong /иэ/ with /u. -ore.

peculiar to the English language./k'mifn/. з/ъ/ горой. 2. The Russian /e/ is pronounced as /э/ after soft consonants in posttonic position: вын/э/су. For example. For exam ple. It should be borne in mind that unstressed vowels in English jnay preserve their quantity. where all unstressed vowels are reduced. /o:/ in the word Forsyte is longer than / D :/ in the word oats- Connection of a vowel with word stress is another characteristic ifeature. ш/ in •the first pretpnic syllable: ч/ие/сы. The quality oE English vowels of full formation is very stable and definite </i:/ and /u:/ are exceptions). position of a vowel in relation to word stress." worthy. or length. position of a vowel in relation to sentence stress and rhythm. 3. position of a vowel in a word: (1) free. by iJohn 4 Gabworthy (title) "A "Forsyte. "is 'not an uncommon animal. etc. оч/э/редь. which may result not only in its reduction but in the occurrence of the neutral vowel /э/. if we compare similar vowels in the following sentences we may «observe quantitative dependence of vowels on the emotional colour ing. стор/ъ/ну. Articmatory differences of vowel phonemes depend on (1) the place ■of articulation of the adjacent consonant and on (2) the active organ of speech of the adjacent consonant. ж/ы е /вать. The quantity of vowels depends on the following factors: 1. (2) terminated by a ■voiced. orchestral /о:'kestrel/. The 'Man o? »Property. This is never the case with the Russian language. 126 . In other pretonic syllables . The Russian /e/ is pronounced as /ыг / after /ж. The Russian /a/ is pronounced as /н е / after the soft /ч.. or a voiceless consonant.Jolyon. the Russian /a./e/ is pronounced as /ъ/: ж/ъ/лтизна. ш/ in the first pretonic syllable: ж/ы е /на. o/ are reduced to /л/ in the first jpretonic syllable and to /ъ/ in other unaccented syllables: с/л/сна. They may be fully long: emission . according to their position in the word. 4. there are extralinguistic factors that may affect the length of ■vowels." reiplied iyoung .. д/л/ры. A vowel in unstressed position may change not only its quantity but it undergoes qualitative -changes. They are connected with emotional characteristics. гол/ъ/ву.noon nine noodle neat moon clean mean mar farm fine Allophonic differences in the vowel system are mostly in quantity.

l is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: leap. see the latest edition of the English pronouncing dictionary. each lingual. deal. lee. zeal. RP speakers try to avoid any glide in /i. /i:/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pee./ pronunciation as "vulgar". cheese post-alveolar. de. apical 127 N . e. deed. hi is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pit. sea. tea /ti:/. the alveolar: tea. be. if the prefix i& used to convert a word into a new form. The phoneme /i/ occurs in initial and in terminal position». vie lingual. league It may be diphthongized in open syllables and before lenis and nasal consonants. pronounced. wit labio-dental: fit. Birmingham. re III is. we Iabio-dental: feet. /э/ instead of /i/ tends to be the dominant form. interdental: sheath. medio-Hngual: yield lingual.d Monophthongs in Terms of CV. See above. neat palato-alveolar: she.ar."Contextual" and Idiolectal Variants of English Voxels. Wide diphthongs are typical of Cockney. cacuminal: read lingual. interdental: theme. forelingual dental. In words with prefixes pre. backlingual: teak. forelingual. hi varies with /э/ in unstressed syllables. helpless. modify — premcdifyY contaminate — decontaminate. seem Iabio-dental: leaf lingual. breathe alveolar: eat. remove. VC Relations n -i The phoneme /k/ may occur in initial and in terminal positions: epoch /ii:puk/. forelingual dental. spleen palato-alveolar: leash. g. backlingual: key pharyngal (glottal): he Iv. Before dark [I] a centring glide may be heard. It never occurs finally in a stressed open syllable: enough д1плг/ г pity /<piti/. veal lingual. g. Southern USA and other low prestige dialects. e.

silk. fetch lingual. forelingual. yill lingual. medio-lingual: yes lingual. bet labio-dental: fence. this palato-alveolar: fish. cacuminal: rest lingual. In Yorkshire and Lancashire a very open vowel. interdental: myth alveolar: it. almost like /e/ is found finally. but it never occurs terminally. chest post-alveolar. dead. backlingual: pick. felt. still. knit palato-alveolar: sftip. /el is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pet. g. peg. backlingual: kept pharyngal (glottal): help Id is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: step. interdental: death alveolar: ate. g. ridge lingual. In modern RP /i/ is lower and more centralized than in more oldfashioned speech. cacuminal: rid lingual. big Final /i/ in modern RP is considerably closer. forelingual. backlingual: wreck. backlingual: kin. ebb labio-dental: chef lingual. sometimes with a final /a/ glide. din. vest äingual. /e/ The phoneme /e/ may occur in initial position.dental. beg Some speakers have a more central quality. e. this alveolar: tin. 128 . g. did. nib labio-dental: if. g. e. tell. e. forelingual. peck. apical dental. e. dead palato-alveolar: shelf. /e/ is lowered and centralized before dark [II. less palato-alveolar: fresh. live lingual. /i/ is centralized and lowered before dark lit. Ялпе/. interdental: thin. give pharyngal: hit Ы is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: lip. apical alveolar: ten. chin post-alveolar. medio-Iingual: yin. Id is closer before velars. apical dental.

interdental. /a/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: palm. lark palato-alveolar: shaft. jar post-alveolar. apical dental. far /fa/. cacuminal: ran lingual. bag. that alveolar: tan. vast lingual. Sometimes /se/ has a pharyngal constriction — creaky voice quality. bar labio-dental: far. badge lingual. yard lingual. M The phoneme /a/ may occur in initial and in terminal positioni army /lami/. cab labio-dental: have lingual. bad. bad Iabio-dental: fan lingual. dad palato-alveolar: smash. backlingual: car. /se/ is longer before Ienis and nasals in: bag. backlingual: cat pharyngal (glottal): ham Ы is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: clap. chance.The phoneme /ae/ may occur in initial position but it never occurs terminally. forelingual. jam post-alveolar. interdental: thank. medio-Iingual: Yankee lingual. man. hath alveolar: hat. garden pharyngal (glottal): harm /a:/ is followed by consonants characterized ass labial 5-182 I29 . forelingual. forelingual. cacuminal: raft lingual. mad. apical dental. In affected RP some speakers pronounce Ы with a following /a/ element — diphthongization. /se/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pat. apical alveolar: tar. sad. backlingual: back. dad palato-alveolar: shall. medio-lingual. sang A very open /se/ is heard from young speakers. that (the only example before a fortis).

interdental: thorn alveolar: talk. wrong The phoneme /o:/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: orbit /b:bit/. old. sock palato-alveolar: chop. dog. was palato-alveolar: wash lingual. mob 1 abio-dental: off. apical dental. fog lingual. forelingual. box Iabio-dental: fox. interdental: moth alveolar: hot. The phoneme hi may occur in initial position but it never occurs in terminal position. apical dental. door. forelingual. saw palato-alveolar: shore. of lingual. backlmgual: bark A very back quality of Ы is typical of old-fashioned speech or affected forms. war Iabio-dental: for lingual. targe lingual. backlingual: cot. cacuminal. /э:/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: port. bought. Interdental: health alveolar: heart. saw /so:/. labial bilabial: pot. The lip rounding is very slight. medio-lingual: your 130 N M . backlingual: lock. fog. medio-Hngual: yonder lingual. jaw post-alveolar. forelingual. hi is preceded by consonants characterized as. cacuminal: raw lingual. apical dental. hard palato-alveolar: marsh. rob lingual.bilabial: harp labiodental: starve lingual. apical dental. fob post-alveolar. interdental: thong alveolar: top. got pharyngal (glottal): hot / D/ is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: hop. forelingual.

g. e. worry labio-dental: fuss. p:l may be pronounced instead of /иэ/ in: sure /Jo:/. poor /po. backlingual: core pharyngal (glottal): horn /x/ may be followed by consonants characterized as. cacuminal: ran lingual. interdental: thunder. It is the shortest of the checked vowels. medio-lingual: young lingual. love lingual. young /л/ is retractedjbeforejiark Ш. labial bilabial: orb 1 abio-dental: cough Singual. backlingual: fork Some speakers pronounce /ээ/ in words with ore. interdental: north alveolar: ought. duck palato-alveolar: shut.g. Uruguay. sore /SDS/. pause palato-alveolar: scorch. you're /jo:/. backlingual: duck. but it never occurs terminally. /л/ may be preceded by consonants: labial bilabial: but. apical dental. apical dental. backlingual: cut pharyngal (glottal): hut /л! may be followed J3y the following consonants: labial bilabial: up. forelingual. bug. thus alveolar: tub. forelingual. e. /A / The phoneme /л/ occurs in initial position. dull. just post-alveolar. More open varieties of [oil characterize old-fashioned Beech.g. . forelingual. but palato-alveolar: rush. bulgar lingual. judge lingual. tub labio-dental: rough.7. e. interdental: doth alveolar: bud. /u/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as: labial 6* 131 N . gorge Hngual. apical dental. The phoneme /u/ occurs initially only in proper names of foreign origin.lingual. It is heard in old-fashioned RP and prevails in dialects.

cacuminal: roof iala to-alveolar:shoe. moon. interdental: tooth alveolar: booth. forelingual. stable after [1]. backlingual: cool. f 132 . backlingual: took. SimilarlyI'vJ to diphthongization /u:/ with a glide is considered "vulgar". hood. cushion lingual. cacuminal: rook lingual. noon post-alveolar.g. backlingual: cook. backlingual: duke /u:/ may be diphthongized in open syllables and before lenis or nasal consonants.g. bush. forelingual. book labiodental:foot lingual. /u:/ The phoneme/Ü:/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: ooze /u:z/. rouge. fool palato-alveolar:douch. pull palalo-alveolar:push. use. forelingual. June ingual. forelingual. pooch lingual. e. do. M good. apical alveolar: put. It is 1)1. apical alveolar: took. cuckoo Some speakers pronounce back-advanced as more central. apical dental. /u:/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pool. goose pharyngal (glottal): who /u:/ may be followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: stoop labio-dental:hoof lingual. It is a stable vowel before fortis. apical alveolar: two. good pharyngal (glottal): hook /u/ may be followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: room lingual. choose. undo /'An'du:/. boot labio-dental:food lingual. soot palato-alveolar:should post-alveolar. All speakers pronounce /u/ with a very wide glide after e. new.bilabial: put. medio-Hngual: youth lingual.

verge lingual. backlingual: curb. apical dental. further /^з:бэ/. galloon pharyngal (glottal): habitual Ы may be followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: wallop labio-dental: 0/ lingual. backlingual: burg Very open Ir. interdental: mirth alveolar: hurt. forelingual. worm labio-dental: turf. interdental: Plymouth !3S . apical dental. apical dental. forelingual.l is typical of old-fashioned speakers and affected RP. was labio-dental: forsake. forelingual. /з:/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: purr. sofa /Iseufa/. fur /fa:/. bird palato-alveolar: urge lingual. interdental: Thalia alveolar: tobacco. interdental: thirst alveolar: term. refer /rife:/. girl pharyngal (glottal). domination post-alveolar (cacuminal): racoon palato-alveolar: Japan lingual. forelingual. dirt. medio-lingual: year lingual. backlingual: contain. /э/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: banana./з:/ The /з:/ phoneme occurs in initial and in terminal position: early /ia:h/. sir post-alveolar (cacuminal): Röntgen palato-alveolar: shirt lingual. burr labiodental: fir. The /э/ phoneme occurs in Initial and terminal position: about /31baut/. serve lingual. her /s:/ may be followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: kerb. vocation lingual. medio-Iingual: yourself lingual. apical dental.

Transcribe these words. leave. death. read. sit. fever. breathe. Questions 1. (a) we. What is the difference between the English and the Russian unstressed vow els in terras of their qualitative characteristics? 12. (a) wet. meals. deal. myth. lengthy 134 . backlingual: bulwark hi has two distinct allophones: 1) a closer one before velars. similar to /л/. yield. rich. How do adja cent consonants affect vowels? Which classificatory characteristics of consonants are the most important in this respect? Exercises *1. them. theme. is. live. kill* hid. me. needn't. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. says. In what position are vowels free from the influence of other sounds? 3. had. Transcribe these words. see above. e. (b) him. beak. eat. lift. league. doctor. (a) mist.g. feel. In what way are vowels influenced by neighbouring nasal consonants? 5. thinks. giver. sea. Is vowel quantity connected with sentence stress and rhythm? 10. get. How is vowel quantity connected with accent? 8. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /e/ phoneme. leash.g. thing. Transcribe these words. vest. tin. What is the basis for vowel allophonic differences? 2. help. How do extralingu ist ic factors affect thelength <>f vowels? 11. sheath. What are the factors that may affect vowel quantitative characteristics? 6. big. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. What is "positional length" of the vowels? 7. pen. cheeks. e. ledge. chest. china. nest. tell. did. bitter. again. Is vowel quality connected with the neutral vowel phoneme /э/? 9. spleen *2.alveolar: but. rest. fetch. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the kl phoneme. pick. met. (b) grebe. then. each. big"] 3. What vowel distributional characteristics are affected in a greater degree: qualitative or quantitative? 4. ridge. if. seem. he. reaches. (b) ebb. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. 2) an opener allophone in final position. jet. Idiolectal variations are connected with the degree of openness in terminal positions. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /i:/ phoneme. left. with. London palato-alveolar: such lingual. fish. chef. bill. yes.

that. gas. dull. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac teristics of the /л/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. north. Transcribe these words. duke. saw. badge. dodge. gnat. booth. horde. Transcribe these words. gar den. sang 5. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. chore. (b) harm. goose. much. loop. putch. doll. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. judge. 135 . vast. bug. choose. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. march. Use them to illustrate the distributional character istics of the laii phoneme. bull. god. (a) war. (b)room. stooge. large 6. morgue 8. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac teristics of the /je/ phoneme. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac teristics of the /u/ phoneme. good. noon. mop. upon. just. vortex. Transcribe these words. hut. gore. thus. buzz. hot. rank. (a) worry. nor. tsar. rub". vocative. match. lark. storm. (a) wood. yonder. Transcribe these words. Yankee. thunder. moon. Bug 11. law. rob. Transcribe these words. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. scotch. horn. core. puss. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional character istics of the /<L7 phoneme. food. got. who. zoo. (b) orb. gorge. (a) woo. hearth. Use them to illustrate the distributional character istics of the /э:/ phoneme. vulgar. gutter. nut. chop. you. thorn. groove. lamb. July. young. bag. job. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac teristics of the Inl phoneme. Transcribe these words. pass. roof. zoom. nasty. Transcribe these words. lot. not. ham. (b) tub. raw. luck. thorn. jaw. your.4. horse. cough. doth. (b) have. youth. mar. snarl. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. (a) van. (a) waft. hook. jar. come. June. jam. rook. wrong 7. (b) broom. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. young 9. foot. (b) mock. much. champ. thong. Use them to illustrate the distributional character istics of the h:l phoneme. moth. of. raft. was. love. Deline the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. soot. fog. none. chance. yard. goose. more. chew. took 10. all. bars. (a) was. starve. bomb. cook. hath.

large. virgin. a:.^pot ' . earl. jewel. i. mirth. в. vocation. shallow. imagine. shocked. hoof. e. lurch. habitual. Röntgen. burn. racoon. hill eI e d l te n > а д1 (1 p e n c e w e a th e rNo. a/ in these words.. 4 Ы nOTT4pl£ncab '. it. 3/e/ 5 5 '« i ' ' > e le v e n . speaker. year. channel.vdebt . rivers. a n y w a y . (b) kerb. (a) were. tree. 5 hi bar. strand. Use them to illustrate the distributional characдшаi flirt foil и Phoneme. quirk.hgone. yard d b & ^ hW ? ' S 0 U d >n o d No. meals. Jack. v. nurse. bulwark. ехаЯ1' natural. thirst. sleet. keep.d. card. hot. Define the consonants which (a) precede fa) maroon. bomb. Describe thOHophonic differences of the vowel phonemes Ik. pit. church journey. urge. ! sad hats. burg 12.?yonder. her. аг. Transcribe these words. far. sheep No. big. chew. of. gon ht t y No . sea. grass. No. e ry No. th e m . serve. cheaper. middle. thing. cool. 136 . silly. dancing. worm. harbour. agnostik Control Tasks •I. fever. lived. girl. No. galloon. Japan. shilling. (b) loathsome. lagoon. teach. Thalia. No. he. 1 /i:/ easily. 7 /a/ sorts> shore reÄ)rd water ' ' > ' S0Ud> nod d ^> crop' соиёЫщ. boot. narrate. a. u. pal.c r6 phi > o с John. dollar. л. 8 /u/ good-bye^cook W°Uld' t0°k> l00kedt SOOt' room' should> No. letters. murky. 9 /u:/ e ! t o o l ' move food soon ruj ' ' ' ned. we. Ш. 2 hi in. half. Plymouth. started.

/ei/ is preceded by the following consonants: labial bilabial: pay. laid. apical dental. forelingual. raise. mane palato-alveolar: age lingual. to see. Single out the words which are exceptions from thejules. human 2. shut No. condition. pace. coughing. year. Transcribe these words. thunder. И fr. London. taxis. come. thus. woodland. vulgar. Maria. wonderful. speaker. chain lingual. Earnest. bay labio-dental: fail lingual. 12 hi along. Crusoe. upon. day post-alveolar. purpose. luck. cafe. detached. Sherlock. varnished. girl. summer. pneumonia. asylum. letter. employ I ee b) Diphthongs At/ The phoneme /ei/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: aorta /eib:ta/. sir. workers. workers. backlingual: cake pharyngal (glottal): hay /ei/ is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: ape labio-dental: pave lingual. purr No. unbelievable. cacuminal: ray palato-alveolar: фаре. sightseeing. Present the rules for reading the vowel phonemes in bold type. perhaps. nurse. never. medio-lingual: Yale pharyngal lingual.No. comfort. ale. puzzling. heard. awful. interdental: bathe alveolar: ate. nothing. anxious. head. curly. Sherlock. Friday. mouth. just. j holidays. instructor. consist. forward. interdental: thane alveolar: tale. Germany. funny. churches. hotel. day /dei/. backlingual: vague . summer. pieces. forelingual. Priestley. apical dental. unfortunately. year. Mathew. turned. newspaper. must. bothers. August. Maugham. record. murky. dirt.f bird. billiards. desolate. about. chuckle. forehead. awkward. 10 /л/ bus.

/au / The phoneme /au/ may occur in initial and in terminal posi tion: owlish /'auhJV. g. Birmingham. /au/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pound. forms. now /nau/. Cockney. above /да/ characterizes affected speech. forelingual. leid/. apical dental. my /mai/. time labio-dental:life lingual. point. backlingual: cow pharyngal (glottal): how 138 M . /e The starting point may vary: a) close starting point. /ai/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: "labial bilabial: pie. child lingual. is shortened before it results in the reduction of the first element. apical dental. b) retracted starting point is found in Cockney and Birmingham. interdental:thigh alveolar: tie. apical dental. backlingual: kite pharyngal (glottal): high Ы is followed by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: type. Southern United States. cacuminal: round palato-alveolar:shout lingual. interdental: thousand alveolar: town. /э/ There is some variation in the openness of the starting A more open quality is characteristic of low-prestige dialect e./ei/. forelingual. cacuminal: right palato-alveolar:shy. interdental: scythe alveolar: night. ride_ palato-alveolar:oblige lingual. by labio-dental:fight lingual. die post-alveolar.. The phoneme /ai/ may occur in initial and in terminal position : •idea /atldia/. down post-alveolar. forelingual. fortis. backlingual: like For contextual variations see i/. compare /lert — The glide of /ei/ is obscured or may be of type. like other fronting diphthongs.bound labio-dental:fowl lingual.

forelingual. In prestigious old-fashioned speech the nucleus is more back. backlingual: coy pharyngal (glottal): hoist [oil is followed by consonants characterized as: labial labio-dental: coif lingual. interdental: thole alveolar: tow. go pharyngal (glottal): hoe . backlingual: hoik For contextual variations see /ei/. apical dental. pouch The first element is shorter before fortis. medio-lingual: yoick lingual. backlingual: coal. apical alveolar: adroit. interdental: mouth alveolar: rout. crowd palato-alveolar. /эй/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: poach. A very close nucleus may be^heard only in dialects. apical dental. Cockney. M The phoneme /эй/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: obey /aulbei/. /01/ The phoneme /01/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: oily /bill/. choke lingual. e. cacuminal: roister lingual. annoyed palato-alveolar: voyage lingual. boy /boi/. g. compare: /laut — laud/. cacuminal: road palato-alveolar: show. forelingual. dome post-alveolar. bow labio-dental: foe lingual./au/ is followed by consonants characterized as: lingual. /oi/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: point. apical alveolar: toy. no /пэи/. doily post-alveolar. forelingual. forelingual. Very front starting points are found in many dialects. boy labio-dental: foil lingual.

Dialect speakers have very close starting points. Thus /ia/ may be divided morphologicall y into the nucle us an d the gli de in u nstr ess ed p ositi on. alveolar: wrote.l to /э/. idea /aiidia/. backlingual: Kßary pharyngal (glottal): hear Ivdl is followed by alveolar consonants and sonorants Im. because the glide /э/ is more sonorous than the nucleus /i/. r. dear post-alveolar. rode palato-alveolar: coach lingual. Before dark [I] the second element is sometimes lost. forelingual. cacuminal: rear palato-alveolar: sheer lingual.^ librarian. theoretical /Oiairetilral. nl/. forelingual. 01-э-1геиЫ/. apical dental. frontier /ifrAntra. interdental: growth. g. 140 . n. Greater sonority of the glide may lead to the /je/. saAo/e/haul/—+/Ьз:1/- M The phoneme /ю/ may occur in initial and in terminal position! eery /'юн/. g. tfrAntja/. compare: coat — code. as a sequence of I'v. the diphJhong reminds /з:/. e. apical dental. centennial post-alveolar: appearing The nucleus may begin closer. nearer to hi. interdental: theatre alveolar: tear. [ю] is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: peer. backlingual: oak The first element of the diphthong /эй/ is reduced before foriis consonants. fierce. /ja:/ instead of /ю/ articulation. /1Э/ may turn into /t/ in terminal position: real /rial. g. 1/: labial bilabial: museum lingual. medio-lingual: year lingual. apical alveolar: beard. Very open endings are characteristic of affected speech. coat /кэи!/—>-/кз:1/./эй/ is followed by consonants characterized ast labial bilabial: hope labiodental: loaf lingual. forelingual. e. Jn present day RP year is pronounced as /ja:/. This phoneme is highly variable. e. beer labio-dental: fear lingual.

forelingual.м The phoneme /еэ/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: airway /teswei/. scares /ske:z/. g. scarce The chief variation is in the presence or absence of t he/э/off-glide. cacuminal: rural palato-alveolar: sure lingual. Its pronunciation may lead to phonological disintegration of /иэ/ into /u/ and /э/: influence /'пШи-эпз/. forelingual. The phoneme /иэ/ may occur in initial and in terminal position: Urdu /'uadu/. poor /риэ/. dour post-alveolar. scarce /ske:s/. apical dental. Hl M . apical alveolar: tour. backlingual: care pharyngal (glottal): hare /еэ/ is followed by consonants: labial bilabial: Shairp Üngual. forelingual. interdental: there alveolar: tear. cacuminal: rare palato-alveolar: share lingual. boor lingual. forelingual. In this case the morphological division takes place within the diphthong /иэ/. medio-lingual: Yare lingual. dare post-alveolar. cacuminal: rural The phoneme /иэ/ is highly variable because the nucleus of this «diphthong is more sonorous than the glide. medio-Iingual: your lingual. /еэ/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: pear. apical alveolar: bourn post-alveolar. apical alveolar spared. air /еэ/. /иэ/ is preceded by consonants characterized as: labial bilabial: poor. e. bear labio-dentai: fare lingual. backlingual: kursaal pharyngal (glottal): houri /иэ/ is followed by consonants: labial bilabial: gourmand lingual. The use of the stable nucleus /e:/ is on the increase.

crowd. из. thy. own. gay. lay. age. hoist.The greater sonority of the glide may also lead to the substitution of /w/ for /u/: influence /imfluvrans/. (b) coif. contextual and idiolecta! peculiarities of the diphthongs /ei. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. Transcribe these words. (a) woe. hoik 5. In an accented syllable /иэ/ may turn into /o:/. rise. Read them. Transcribe these words. no. 6. join. owl. Transcribe these words. roister. goiter. mouse. they. Use them to illustrate the distribution al characteristics of the /ai/ phoneme. zone. gouge 4. 01. Use them to illustrate the distribu tional characteristics of the /аи/ phoneme. The phoneme /иэ/ may turn into /u/ before dark [I]: usual /ljugual/ —у /IJU3U1/. night. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. Questions 1. ride. is becoming more and more frequent. round. voyage. (a) why. g. loathe. еэ. What is the difference between closing and centring diphthongs? 2. Yale. vow. lie. Read them. loiter. vote. What can you say about distributional. Read them. yolk. may. voyage. high. pole. Define the consonants which^<a}> [precede and (b) follow it. vile. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. how. jail. lithe. choice. mouse. veil. bathe. joy. Transcribe these words. hoe. Hi . Mike 3. low. . though. sure. rate. Transcribe these words. эй/? Exercises 1. The use of /o:/ in such words as tourist. plague 2. chow. (a) wow. Read them. mice. close. pain. rove. oil. poor r your. Use them to illustrate the distribution al characteristics of the /эй/ phoneme. my. so. go. joke. ai. gown. pace. (b) mouth (v). sure. five. rode. Read them. аи. down. rogue . shave. Read them. now. hate: (b) Ьабе. you're and other high frequency words. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. Use them to illustrate the distribution al characteristics of the Ы phoneme. oblige. moor. (a) moist. (b) home. doge. mow. (a) way. maize. loud. Use them to illustrate the distribution al characteristics of the /ei/ phoneme. known. Use them to illustrate ihe distribution al characteristics of the /oi/ phoneme. soil. (b) imbibe. rope. kind. nine. Transcribe these words. thou. yoick. time. jibe. nay. e. State how I til is influenced by the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. та. furious.

Transcribe these words. pay. d) cacuminal post-alveolar. mild. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it (a) ware. c) apical palato-alveolar. annual. make. kite /аи/ how. famous. there. case. jurist. nine.(a) weir. hare. (2) Lingual. shape. lair. (b) licentiate. boy. poker. kindly. ideals. idea. mere. Boers. south. ray. taken. forelingual a) apical. Yare. gourd. lay. shoulder. over. destroy. face. variance. bright. able. again. rear. pound. gear. paint /аи/ go. sear. so. gold. drown. isles. beard. my. boating. profile. gave. low. both. eye. theirs. silence. waste. pain. (3) Lingual medio-Iingual. (4) Lingual backlingual. round. noticed /ai/ why. near. wild. point. lear. cheer. hold. down. bourn Control Tasks *1. right. like. вэ. old. pale. cold. loud. year. rural. poet. now. Pitcairn 8. don't. rain. age. hear. quite. jokes. эй. ai. Use them to illustrate the distribution al characteristics of the /еэ/ phoneme. soil. sane. veer. follow. show. arduous. joint 143 . lake. sound Ы join. antipodean 7. kind. day. ache. garish. lie. social. (a) wooer. moot. mouth. motive. lain. climb. Transcribe these words. Zara. /ei/ stay. foe. while. only. motor. side. oi. high. yolk. die. total. rare. luer. eyes. enjoy. David. (5) Pharyngal (glottal). theatre. (inter)dental. rise. fierce. chewer. chair. your. found. Use them to illustrate the distribution* at characteristics of the /иэ/ phoneme. noise. Wales. cosy. Nares. thousand. Read them. out. bureau. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it. (b) Shairp. hope. weigh. way. wife. mare. b) apical alveolar. couch. coin. Follow the order of consonant classification: (1) Labial a) bilabial. though. b) lablo-dental. Michael. zero. road. employ. hear. jeer. Sort out these words according to the distributional characteristics of the phonemes /ei. аи. late. hotel. Read them. ». game. 'b) gourd. zoological. nose. иэ/ in relation to the (A) preceding or (B) following consonants.

realize. winding. dare. за. ears. period. enjoyment. эй. parents. Michael Angelo. Mary. poor. typhoid. various. stare. theatre. here. during. us/. strangely. jurist. area. stairs. cheer. э]. tear. real./в/ dear. farewell /из/ ' sure. heighten. poor. motor. moor. anywhere. Jane Eyre. Crimea. over night. weary /sa/ there. clear. severe. usual. despair. ai. care. following. carefully. facilitated. Transcribe these words. realize. south. dour . square. еэ. Use them as examples to explain the rules for reading the letters in bold type which represent the diphthongs /ei. potatoes. аи. appear. Europe. bare'. tour. Europe *2. noticeable. year. idea. near. Mary. museum. pair. sincerely. accordeon. fear. theatre.

g. A ssim ila tio n w h ich too k p lace a t an e arlier stag e in th e h isto ry o f t h e la n g u a g e is c a l le d h is t o r ic a l . sell. gtun e. in th »45 . e d g. /tj /. /i k w e s t j b n / . the fully back /u:/ becomes back-advanced under the influence of the preceding mediolingual sonorant /j/ in the words tune. /э / . e. c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial.IV . let. In the word keen /k/ is not so back as its principal variant. sounds are modified. o c c a s iroen u l t s f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s s i m i l a t i o n s o f / s j/ . The mid-open. n a t u r e . it is advanced under the influence of the fully front I'v. / 'n s e tju r /. that is in the process of transition from the articulatory work of one sound to the articulatory work of the neighbouring one. e. slight pressure /'slait ipreja/ may turn into /islaipipreja/ in collo quial speech. o f . front /e/ becomes more open followed by the dark 1 in hell. A R T IC U L A T O R Y T R A N S IT IO N S O F V O W EL AND C O N SO N AN T PH O NEM ES ASSIMILATION In the process of speech. F or exam p le the present-day p ronunciation of the sessio n. W h en a co n so n an t is m o d ified u nd er the in fluen ce o f an ad jacent v ow el or vice versa th is p heno m eno n is called adaptatio n or accom m o d atio n. k ee n. x m a t c h e s/ э i b ü k s s v 'm s e t j i z / m a y b e p r o n o u n c e d w i t h o u t / v / i n / s v / — / э 'b ü k s э 'm s e t f i z / . nude. W hen on e of the neigh bourin g soun ds is not realized in rapid o r c a r e l e s s s p e e c h t h i s p r o c e s s i s c a l l e d e l i s i o n a eb. w hen the first of the tw o sounds affected by assim i latio n m akes the seco nd so un d sim ilar to itself. g. tell. /in e i tj s 'к е х з э п / . These modifications can be conditioned: a) by the complementary distribution of the phonemes. /i k w e s t ja n /. . g. the alveolar phoneme /n/ in the combina tion in the is assimilated to the dental variant under the influence of /3/ which follows it. A ssim ila tio n is a m o dific a tio n o f a c o n so n a n t u n d e r th e influ e n c e of a n eig h b o ur in g c o n so n a n t.W a s t e p a p e r i w e i s t i p e i p a / m a y t u r n i n t o / / iw e i s 'p e i p a / i n r a p i d o r c a r e l e s s s p e e c h . w o rds q u e s t i o n . o g . Compare with bet. e .esks. /z j / i n / I s e s j a n /. /a l k s e z ja n / t o / is e j a n /. similarly hot muffins /ihut ImAfmz/ may turn into f i r f /p / A ssim ilatio n is th e ch ief fac to r un d er the influe n c e o f w h ic h th e p rin cip al v arian ts o f ph o nem es are m o dified in to su bsid iary o nes.l which follows it. E. A ssim ila tio n w h ich o cc u rs in ev e ry d ay sp e ec h in th e p resen td ay p ro nu n c ia tion is calle d liv ing . e. pegs. b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at the junction of words. set. A s far as th e direction of assim ilation (and accom m o dation ) is co n cerned it can be: 1) progressive.

This stage is called final stage. the vocal cords are brought together and made tense. or identical nature are joined together. Interpenetration of stages takes place when sounds of a similar. the mouth cav ity and escapes through the lateral passages producing a clear allophone [1] of the /1/ phoneme —it is the medial stage of the lateral sonorant /1/. the lips begin to get rounded for Ы. stop-stage.During the final stage of /II.sounds /k/ and /g/make the plural inflection /s/ similar to the voiceless Jkl in /desks/ and to the voiced /g/ in /pegz/. It is called differently by different authors: initial stage. or reciprocal. recursion. To make the mechanism of articulatory transitions clear it should be viewed in detail in terms of the articulatory work of the speech producing mechanisms. . As soon as the tip of the tongue touches the teethridge and the sides of the tongue are lowered forming lateral passages. excursion. narrow position for Ы. /kl/. twice /t/ is rounded under the'influence of /w/ and /w/ is partly devoiced under the influence of the Voiceless /t/. loose type of articulatoiy transition and (2) interpenetration of stages — when the final stage of the first sound penetrates not only the beginning but also the middle of the second sound —close type of articulatory transition. then follows /o:/g and /o:/3. when the two adjacent sounds influence each other. g. 3) double. vehicle the clusters /kt/. This stage is called: medial stage. For example: in the words act. assimilated to the inter dental Id/ which follows it. the hold. see Fig. There are two ways of joining the sounds: (1) merging of stages — when the final stage of the first sound merges with the initial stage of the second sound. which follows III. e. when the second of the two sounds affected by assim ilation makes the first sound similar to itself. /Id/ are pronounced with the "loss of plosion" — /kt/ and lateral plosion — /tl/. 146 . bottle. in the combina tion^ the the alveolar It/ becomes dental. on-glide. e. Each sound pronounced in isolation has three stages in its articulation. In the word /b:/ /1/ 4 is followed by Л/„ and /l/ 3 coincides with ly. release.lt. 2) regressive. the tip of the tongue moves away from the alveolar ridge and the whole of the tongue moves backwards to the low. off-glide. 17.g. During the first stage the organs of speech move to the position which is necessary to pronounce the sound. During the second stage the organs of speech are kept for some time in the position necessary to pronounce the sound. For example in the word law the two sounds III and /o:/ are joined by way of merging their stages. Duringthe third stage the organs of speech move away to the neutral position. /tl/. The first stage for III is the raising of the front edge of the tongue to the alveolar ridge and simultaneous lifting of the middle part of the tongue to the hard palate (the soft palate is raised). the end of III merges with the beginning of h:l. the air passing between the vocal cords makes them vibrate: the vibrating air fills the pharynx. retention stage.

/dn/. e. In /kl/ the air also escapes laterally. M. the affricate is released in the usual way. the final stage of /1/ takes place. The tenseness decreases at the end of the hold of the first sound and increases at the beginning of the hold of the second sound. When two identical sounds are joined together. the plosion of /k/ is not heard. д/ are pronounced with an audible plosion of 7п. In the word bottle the sounds /t/ and /1/ are joined interpenetrating their stages. hard times /'had 'taimz/. takes place. hot tea /'hut 'ti:/. The vocal cords start vibrating A z &iX\ 3 Fig. In a sequence: affricate -f.In /kt/ the medial stage of the sound /к/ — the back part of the tongue is pressed against the soft palate and a complete obstruction is formed — coincides with the initial stage of the sound /t/ — the tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge. When a plosive is followed by the nasal /n. producing the dark allophone II] of the III phoneme. that is. e. After the hold of /1/ is accomplished. dn/ — nasal plosion. g. к. resonator and obstructor mechanisms in English and Russian is different. g. /KT/. Ü47 ■ ■ ■ . that is the tongue returns to the neutral position and the vocal cords stop to vibrate. The back part of the tongue is lowered only after the tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveolar ridge. /KT/. see Fig. that is. letting the air pass through these narrow air passages (or one passage. /bm.a stop. For example the Russian clusters /пт/. 17. d/ to /n/. the timing of the work of the power. m/ the closure is released nasally: the soft palate lowers during the hold of the stop. г/. There is no interruption in the articulation of the two sounds. the sides of the tongue are lowered. /gd/ because the mechanisms of the articulatory transitions from /t. факт. from /k. g/ to /t. tn. /гд/ :in аптека. The velar closure is released by lowering the sides of the tongue. Russian learners are apt to mispronounce English clusters /tn/. if only one side of the tongue is lowered): the lateral plosion takes place — the hold. /ГД/ are different. /kt/. vibrator. the vocal cords start vibrating at the end of the hold for /k/. 18. a single but pro longed medial stage. sketchbook /'sketfbuk/ — the alveolar release of /p takes place in the usual audible way. when the tip of the tongue is pressed against the teethridge. releasing the compressed airstream through nasal cavity.TT B/ ^ Fig. d/ in English and the Russian clusters 7пт/. but we hear both of them due to the change in their tenseness. IS. где /т. B 2 B ^ ^f /-----------J . At the moment of the hold of /t/. at the end of the hold for /t/ and the air passes through the pharynx and the mouth cavity along the lateral passages. or hold.

pull — пуля. call — кол. j. смена. neat — нить. boor — бур. When the two neighbouring sounds are affected by assimilation. кет — лим. However the delay in the onset of the vowel is longer in English than in Russian. 2) the active organ of speech. p. 1. e. For example. In the process of speech the sonorants /m. which follows /p. r. cry. meal — мил. к/: пить. /t h ik/. slowly. t. Russian learners should be careful about the cases where regressive assimilation may fully affect the work of the vocal cords due to the Russian habit of regressive voicing £48 . tall — тол. /k h eit/ before the vowel. Compare: Paul — Пол. veal — бил. b) the mechanism of the Russian CV transition. it may influence: 1) the work of the vocal cords. t. W in English. plate. In this case partial progressive assimilation affects the work of the vocal cords both in English and in Russian. Both in Russian and in English the vowel articulation is superimposed on the consonant articulation which precedes it. when a consonant is followed by the front /и/ is more close than the English consonant to /i/ or /j/ transition.Cases of loose and close articulatory transition can also be observed a) the mechanism of the aspiration of the initial stressed /p. Тим. t. A brief peri od of voicelessness is heard after the hold of /p. tool — Тула. к/ under similar conditions are unaspirated: the vocal cords begin vibrating immediately after the release of the closure for /п. beat — бить. кров. leap —■ лип. tick. twice. субпродукты where /6/ undergoes complete regressive assimilation to /n/ which follows it. seen — синь. 1) Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords is observed when one of the two adjacent consonants becomes voiced under the influence of the neighbouring voiced consonant. g. In the combination what's this the voiced /z/became voiceless under the influence of the preceding voiceless HI— progressive assimilation. кит — close CV transition. cool — куль. which is characterized by the more obvious softening in the Russian consonants during the CV transition — close type. In Russian voiceless-voiced distinction can be completely lost. Aspiration is a delay in the onset of voicing. т. k/. c) Labialization in English (no lip protrusion) and Russian simi larly involves the lip-rounding in addition to the primary articula tion — clcse CV transition. compare the above examples with the Russian: пламя. Russian /n. buck — бука. this results in palatalization. compare: суп. compare: Pete — пить. 3) the manner of noise production. n. T. t. 4) both: the place of articulation and the manner of noise production. k/. which sounds like a puff of air after the release of the stop: Pete. w/ are partly devoiced before a vowel. preceded by the voiceless consonant phonemes /s. Kate /p h i:t/. or voiceless — under the influence of the neighbouring voiceless consonant. in the word gooseberry Is/ became voiced under the influence of the next voiced /b/ — regressive assimilation. k/.

Nasal plosion takes place in Russian. In unstressed syllables the assimilations of Ienis to fortis (energy assimilation) are very frequent particularly with a) final inflexional /d. g. Complete nasal and lateral assimilation may occur in the. обман. The first is incomplete. for example: blackboard — no voicing of /k/. submarine. z/. e. button. /db/. / used to wear a suit /ai Jju:st t9 'wee э ssju:t/ but / used two /ai iju:zd Ни:/ (шаш verb). lamp post.or "devouring. but by the lowering of the soft palate. pb. In the first case a single ■plosive is pronounced with a very long hold. g. отнюдь. In the second case the ■closure of the organs of speech for the second plosive is made before the release of the first. of. please. alveolar /t/ is followedjjy the . cattle (see above). /dg/. /ktf/. g. c) auxiliary verbs: He collected stamps III I was sure /s/ As cold as ice /s/ She refuses to answer /s/ of course III James could tell him /t/ This assimilation is not observed in the most careful styles of speech. what time. setbauit — no voicing of HI. or b) of two plosives with different points •offcrticulation like: /kt/. The mechanism of the nasal plosion is similar in both languages: a plosive followed by the syllabic/n/. g. or lost. днем. In Russian similar plosives have the three stages.7 open the door /teupn 5э vda:/—*-/(эирп пэ vdo:/ all the best /Ь:\ бз v best/-^/'o:l wte v best/ 3) Assimilation affects the place of articulation and the manner of noise production when the plosive. fact. there across word boundaries. g. when a plosive is followed by /1/. Two obligatory assimilations of this type in English are used ■to and have to (must). these people — no devoicing of /z/. kg/. tt.g. which results in two explosions for both plosives: акт. hot bottle. e. stop moaning. /m/has no release — the release is produced not by a removal of the closure. 2) The manner of noise production is affected by assimilation in cases of a) lateral plosion and b) loss of plosion or incomplete plosion. big cat.: turn the key /its:n бэ №'•/ —>-/%:п^_пэ Jki. e. / have to be ■early /ai 'haef ta bi V3:h/ but / have two /ai 'hsev 'tu:/ (main verb). went down. act. attraction. The lateral plosion takes place. g. e. So there is only one explosion for the two plosives.. kk. the air escapes through the nasal cavity. e. candle. td. Incomplete plosion takes place in the clusters a) of two similar plosives like /pp. /tb/. факт(&е& above). In this case the closure for the plosive is not released till the off-glide for /1/: the sides of the tongue are lowered and the air escapes along them with lateral plosion. b) grammatical items as. good girl. e. <e.

st. at more rapid tempo. post-alveolar /r/. iron /laisn/.replz/ six of the best /isiks d Ээ v best/ — before other consonants. two pounds of pears /ltu: Ipaunz э v peaz/ a pint of milk /э Ipamt э 4 milk/ 150 . knight /nait/. In should you /ijud ju:/ the place of the alveolar /d/ can be changed into palato-alveolar /dg/. /siksG/ -+ /sikG/. ELISION Elision can be historical and contemporary. knee /ni:/. Jt. English spelling is full of "silent" letters which bear witness to historical elision. There are some words and verbal forms in which elision frequently exists in everyday speech. etc.g. e.g.g. dsd/ sequences. rid. The most common cases of contemporary elision are Ihe following: elision of /t. The meaning is usually clear from the context.dsUfs/ ridged surface /Ind3 vs3:fas/ c) /md.g. e. 6t. /kbuöz/ —>■ /klauz/. /fif6/—эк/fif/. walk /wo:k/. which is not a plosive but an affricate. vd. öd/ sequences: cleft palate /iklef ^paslst/ waste paper /'weis грегрэ/ crushed strawberries /1кгл£ sstro:bnz/ bathed the baby /*ba:6 Эз 4beibi/ dived below /idaiv bijau/ closed doors /kbuz 4do:z/ breathed deeply /'bri:8 vdi:ph/. 3. fricatives: /mAn6s/-> —►/nuns/. gd. c) cases elisions most frequently remove the marker of past tense in verbs. d/ in a) /ft. trapped by /Itrsep v bai/ cracked pots /'кгэек 4pots/ dubbed film /idAb Jilm/ bugged telephone /'Ьлд ^elsfaun/ enriched foodstuffs /mintf Ju'. under the influence of the palatal /j7. e. gd/ sequences: slammed the door /islsem Sa ^do:/ hair-brained scheme /iheabrem sski:m/ stringed musical instrument /'strip 'mjuzikl ^nstrsmsnt/ In a). in the word tip alveolar /t/ becomes post-alveolar and has a fricative release. castle /ika:sl/. zd. . kt. fifth and sixth elide the consonants which precede /6/. which follows /d/: /'Judgu:/.constrictive. write /rait/. 2. b). tft. They are: 1. e. seven of those apples /isev3n э Öair. months and clothes with elided dental. b) /pt. bd. For example. of elided /v/ before /5/.

going to has the form /дэпэ/ in all cases except very careful speech. Contracted forms of the verbs. What is the difference between the close and loose type of articulatory transition? 7. Jack's hat. give me your word /'gi mi jo: x w3:d/ leave me some more pudding /IH: mi ээ 1тэ: vpudin/ he mustn't have my share /hi 'nusnt h® mai Jes/ 4. but quite common in English. five pence /ifaifpans/.g. What conditions are responsible for the modifications of sounds? 3. We're going to move house /\пэ 1дэпэ 'mu:v v haus/ There is a tendency nowadays to pronounce sounds which are not pronounced as a result of historical elision. e. 2. Regressive voicing or devoicing in Russian is obligatory both within a word and at the word boundary. writes.g. 3. e. Cases of English regressive voicing or devoicing are very rare. e.'gu:zbn/. that's right.g. Suffixes -(e)s of the nouns in the plural. How is the work of the vocal cords affected by assimilation? 8.g. Regressive assimilation of this type is very rare inside words in English.g. под столом. gooseberry /.g. when the ending s is preceded by a voiced or a voiceless consonant. these people /'Bi:z ipi:pl/.g.g. these are cases of historical assimilation. often /ufn/—>• /of tan/. e. Bob's gone. What types of assimilation do you know? 4. or the third person singular. girls. elision? 2. пробка.g. Questions 1. Assimilation in English differs from the Russian mainly along "the lines of direction: progressive voicing or devoicingis very rare in Russian. played. The past indefinite suffix -ed. However it is observed in word boundaries in rapid.g. How is the manner of 151 . воз сена.Elided /v/ before /m/. e. What is assimilation. e. tt is reduced to t in the following verbal forms: I want to drive /ai 'wonla v draiv/ We've got to be careful /wi:v igots bi 5. e. e. 4. blackboard /iblaekbo:d/ and in the word boundaries: English book /Irnglij 1 tbuk/. Care should be taken to avoid regressive assimilation in such English words as tennis ball /items bo:l/. at more rapid tempo. rooms. e. like that /laik löaet/. lived. books. What is the merging of stages? 5. careless speech (see above). The possessive suffix -s' or -'s. newspaper /inju:speipa/. Bob's dog. adaptation. What is the interpenetration of stages? 6. e. It occurs in the following cases: 1. сказка. worked.

0/ in "three". 0). 6w. si. "try". kl. "fry". a) lane /lern/ rise /raiz/ . "room". beware /bilwea/ — plane /plem/ — price /prais/ — between /biitwim/ J52 . . "rule". Read the examples below. tj. How are the place of articulation and the manner of noise production affected by assimilation? 10. kw. sj. Read the pairs below. What variants of the /r/ phoneme are used: a) when it is preceded by /0. I 1 should be used before /0. characterize subsidiary variants оГуоше! phonemes due to adaptation.v Sis/ wide /waid/—width /wide/ read it /*ri:d it/—read this /iri:d J5is/ ten /ten/—tenth ДепЭ/ on my table /on mai ДехЫ/—on the table /on 9э »teibl/ heal /hi:l/—health /helB/ all his /to:t Jhiz/—all this /I3:l %Öis/ *3. "thread". g. кг/ before a stressed vowel? b) in the clusters /pj. й *4.pi9d/ •5. Read the pairs below. fr. c) when it is followed by /з.p/—cat /ks&t/—keen /kkn/ d) peel /pi:I/—pool /pu:l/—-Paul /po:l/ goose /gu:s/—cattle /iksetl/-— keep /ki:p/ tea /ti:/—ioo /tu:/—tore /to:/ geese /gJ:z/—goose /gu:s/—gorge /дэ:аз/ *2. How are sonorants modified a) in the cluster* /pi. "with Russian": b) when it is preceded by a voiceless consonant in "shriek". 3/ are used before /w/? a) dell /del/ — b) dwell /dwel/ luggage /UAgids/ — language /ilserjgwids/ gendarme /isa-ndam/— bourgeois /'buaswa/ c) read well /irl:d ^wel/—the bag which disappeared /бэ ibseg witf dis3. d. What variants of the alveolar /t. 6r. sn/ before a stressed vowel? . pr.. sw. n. a) booty /lbu:ti/—beauty /ibju:ti/ b) bed /bed/—bell /bei/ moon /mu:n/—music /imjurzik/ wet /wei/—well /wel/ c) coop /ku-.noise production affected by assimilation? 9. kj. Read the pairs of words below.. fj. What variants of the consonants /d. What is the difference between the mechanisms of articulatory transitions in English and in Russian? Exercises •I. tr. sm. 11. "free". H. tw. B/ which follow them?J eight /eit/—eighth /ate/ that evening /löset vi:vmrj/—that theme /töset %6i:m/ write it /Yait it/—write this /'rait. u:/ in "roar". Give examples of contemporary elision.

.. colloquial stylt in the examples below.. a)bright blue . t.shouldn't you? . k. k.can't you? h) in the corner all the books what's the point?where's the breadknife? 153- . Explain the mechanism of the laterally expl ded variants of the It. d. 5tate what cases of assimilation can be observed in rapid. t. d/ phonemes followed by HI in: — that lesson /'Sset Jesn/ — good luck /igudк1лк/ *S. dart board whitewash b) third part head boy red meat hard work <c) short cake bright green ■d) hard cash head gird «) in Cardiff sunglasses f) Christmas shopping g) get your coat I heard you come inbless you close your books. g/ in the left column.. n/ in the right column. ..won't you? . b) the nasally exploded variants of /p.. . b. help us Ahelp as/ departing /di'patirj/ don't ask /idsunt%ask/ darker /'dctkg/ask us / 4o:sk as/ little /Hi«/ middle /imidl/ help me Ahelp mi/ department /di'patmsnt/ don't know /idauntvnsu/ darkness /idakms/ask me Да-sk mi/ 7. d.■dry /drai/ wire /waia/ lean /lkn/ green /grim/ beauty /ibju:ti/ dune /dju:n/ you /ju:/ lie /lai/ rend /rend/ reviews /n'vju:z/ rise /raiz/ enumerate /iinju:m9reit/ way /wei/ leep /H:p/ mute /raju:t/ mile /mail/ know /пэи/ try /trai/ quire ik clean /klhn/ cream /kri:m/ pupil /ipjurpl/ brie /tju:n/ queue /kju:/ fly /Hai/ friend /trend/ refuse /n'fju:z/ thrice /8rais/ enthusiasm /m'Ojuizisezm/ sway /swei/ sleep /sli:p/ suit /sju:t/ smile /small/ snow /srau/ Explain the mechanisms of a) the orally exploded variants of /p. b.couldn't you? . g/ followed by /m.

т. Transcribe the words below. Give examples of historically established elision in words with the clus ters Im. Single out the consonants that may be elided in these words.*9. observe the elision of /t.'Jk/. d/ pieceded by a) fricatives. b) stops. Describe the difference In the transition from /p/ to Ы in the words "port" and "spot". kn. Compare with the Russian /п. humpty-dumpty attempt empty night time crumbs 12. mn. к/ pronounced with out aspiration. Single out the vowels that may be elided in these words. Read the words. mb. Transcribe and read the examples below. Transcribe the words below. port Pete power pit 154 tar table tower tip car cable cow cat порт торт кот nap 2. . t. c) nasals. gn. a) cleft palate c) slammed the door waste paper crushed strawberries bathed the baby b) trapped by cracked pots dubbed film bugged telephone enriched foodstuffs ridged surface dived below closed doors breathed deeply hair-brained scheme stringed musical instrument 10. observe fhe stronger aspiration of/p. k/ before long vow els and diphthongs. nursery petitioner policeman difficult banana boundary several suppose history ' perhaps handbag postman a sixth round last Saturday next time Control Tasks temporary phonetically potato preference secretary Edinburgh especially carefully possibly suffering reasonable parliament buffalo government bachelor naturally awfully comfortable machine interesting landscape sanctuary next stop lamb punctual 11. 1.

great number. cope. день. breadth. describe the mechanism of voiceless fortis. (3) labialization. полк. lean. "strike". (3) loss of plosion (two plosionless stops). топь. Explain how assimilation affects the place of articulation in the vowels. madness. labialization with the lip protrusion. top. роль. (2) nasal plosion. red light. рёв. call. curdled. ком. huddle. лом. music. ряд. jes—ipju'. соль. beauty. afraid. tool. big books. at that. plight—blight try —dry crate —great found — bound tune—dune piece —bees penny—Benny park—bark twelve—dwell 4. which is functional here. мел. Read the pairs of words. doom. underline the two plosives. Underline the sounds ffected a by assimilation. pepper. good looks *12. tall. sudden. goose. сила. slept. cotton. What mistake can be made by the Russian students in the articula tion of /кЭ/? 8. built. port. explain the articulatory difference in the CG transition in English and in Russian. deep. дуло. Britain. of /m/ in the words "smell". actor. tarn. room. Read the word combinations below. кило. wealth. пел. back to back. what kind. come. поле. /ta:—ka:. no aspiration. needless. coop. partner. Pronounce the words correctly. at night. begged. Arrange these words under the headings: (1) lateral plosion. Explain the mechanism of /k/ to /ö/ transition in the combination "like that". gorge. car. 5. (2) palatalization a) loose CV transition. muddle. Observe and explain the mechanism of articulation of two plosionless stops. corn. Describe the mechanism of the articiilatory difference between the /e/ in "hen". b) close CV transition. dean. describe its type.te. тесто. apron. thorn *11. peace. Коля. apt —аптека helped—обточка shopkeeper—шапка begged—когда fact—факт *10. captain. mottled. "hell" and between the tml in "tool". бук. cable. bee. Pronounce the words and word combination. вилы. voiced lenis difference. ток. Arrange these English and Russian words under the headings:(I) aspiration.3. at last. help Peter — сноп пшеницы club building— клуб был полон at times — оттуда good day — под домом black coffee — как когда 6. admit. thrive 9. ku:l—ki:n. onion. lion. ki:—ka-. "tune". top coat. black goat. 1:1—ki:p/ 155 . пень. "smoke" or in 1)1 the words "student". тина. pit. witness. meal. oughtn't. "suit"? 7. What mechanism is affected by assimilation in the pronunciation of /r/ in the words "string". dawn. ripe cheese.

medicine. . (3) loss of plosion.*13. fifths. blackboard. his thing. (2) lateral plosion. in the 14. birthday. Read them. 15. pass them. let's go. (4) the position of the soft palate. (3) labialization. what's the time. soothes them. this book. sixth. (3) the manner of noise production. Smith's there. anecdote. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English and Russian articulatory transitions in cases of assimilation affecting (1> the work of the vocal cords. Transcribe these words and word combinations. (2) the place of articulation and the active organ of speech. is that. (2) pala talization. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English and Russian articulatory transitions in cases of the (1) nasal plosion. J7. Explain possible mistakes in the close CC transition. Give your own examples to illustrate rf'fferent cases of elision. Give your own examples and explain the difference between the English and Russian articuiatory transitions in cases of (1) aspiration. 16.

g. corresponding to one phoneme is called a monograph. e. Graphemic symbols are included into angle brackets. au. ew ear. ir. oy. m. f. er. u oa. These symbols are separate lettersor combinations of letters. 2) the English spelling has remained essentially the same since the days of Caxton * and theother early printers. ur ue. ou. w. yer oar. ay. e . Therefore it is important to establish the relationship between orthography and pronunciation. tch. o. ae.of intercommunication not only in oral but also in written form. one grapheme has many phonemic references. e. ye iar. This is because 1) it represents two different languages. three. 157 . A grapheme. ее. oor. {ng). p. gh. lid. (1422-91) — the first English printer. ENGLISH PHONEMES IN WRITING Language performs its function as a means. which correspond to one phoneme are called "digraph". ei. ier. eu. i . z. e\v(e)r te. sch. ey. g. <w).and four-letter graphemes. g. which correspond to vowel and consonant phonemes. si. aw. ng. uy aa. 1. one of Romance and the other of Teutonic origin. <b> are monographs. h. uer igh. wh. n. "trigraph'" and "polygraph" — accordingly. dg. oi.. u. that is letters and sounds. ce. (b). sh. As a result of this 60 symbols are used to represent vowels and diphthongs and 44 symbols are used to represent consonants in the written language. eur. y. Graphemes for the system of vowels are the following: a . because the English spelling system is very difficult. aigh. ai. our. ch. (a). sei. v. ough Graphemes for the system of consonants are the following: b. zi There are very few sounds which have one-to-one graphemic reference. ti. s. bay. oo. t. эе aer. c. eigh. which consists of one letter. air. ui. oe ar. (]) in way. —э banana —o: thought —ei baby —u: through <a>—ae back <ough>—ou though — a: bask —э borough —э: ball —D wash Graphemes may be simple (a) and complex (ough). j. k. sc. As a rule.V. d. ow. ssi. ph. ayr ea. xc T У. ow{e)r. gu. English dictionaries usually indicate the pronunciation of each individual word. ci. e. They are called graphemes. which represent them. are single-valued graphemes. or. eyr. eir. q. r. Caxton W. two-. x. g. th. yr. eer. qu. gn. oe.

book. bullet. Any graphic -difference must be considered as having an independent morphemic reference. took good. would However: bosom. Therefore there are a large number of rules of reading in modern English. the word stretch consists oi: 5 phonemes /s/ HI /r/ /e/ /tf/ 5 graphemes s — t — r — e — tch 7 letters s — t — r — e — t — с — h The word mouth consists oi: 3 phonemes /m/ /au/ /0/ 3 graphemes m — ou — th . For example. push could. shook. For example. meat. s*( 'shave different morphemic reference: s indicates the plural 'form*. Given below is a simplified table of some grapheme-phoneme correspondences. cook. g. from (ea): ready. egg. the discrepancy between them will be almost universal. g. the phoneme lei is derived from (e>: tmt. due to the complementary distribution or free variation. (tch). In "Phonemic references" only vowel phonemes are singled out to revise their spelling correspondences. s' indicates the plural form. boys /bolz/ — boys' /bolz/ —boy's /b?lz/ s. 5 letters m — о — u — t — h From the phonological point of view.<ck> are digraphs. If we analyse a word from the viewpoint of orthographic —■ phonemic and graphemic reference. Morphemic reference of graphemes is many-sided. The knowledge of orthography is very important because changes in orthography are much slower than changes in phonology. {eigh>. illustrated by typical contexts. The grapheme (t) in twice is in reference with a rounded allophone of Ш and with It] post-alveo3ar in tree. J58 . bully. 's indicates the possessive case of the singular form. ■the grapheme <o> in box is in reference with a more front allophone lv] than in cot. In. wolf. hood bull. e. a grapheme has a considerable number of allophonic references. <ough) are polyOne and the same phoneme may be derived from both: simple and ■complex graphemes./ are pronounced only in complex graphic contexts. (sch) are trigraphs. bullock. possessive case. ir. in which a phoneme occurs. cushion. e. g. where Ы is more back. pull bush. E. full. should. woman. look.

grasp. law. feudal reverse. daisy cautious. cast. bath. asp. whirl easier fire. g. brass. palm watt. command. tear. ath /a/ /ei/ /ei/ /ei/ /CK/ Ы M M M M fat fate fast anaemic wait. dance. serve hammer hear. all calm. eer M 14 / «/ M /e/ /Jo/ / a:/ /1Э/ /»/ / « :/ bed. ask. chant. am. fair tall. father w e ea ее eigh. shew euphemism. qua a af. sir. e. e. grant. task. ast. ance. цитировать site /sait/ — местоположение There are also cases when words coincide in their plural and singular forms so far as the spelling and pronunciation are concerned. They may be distinguished only by the abbreviated forms. setting heading. mire Orthography helps to differentiate homophones. species /'spi:Ji:z/ (вид. semolina after. meet weight. fast. meadow heed. ant.Table Graphemes Phonemic references Examples a a a ae ai au. drama. class. bitter police. thief tie. вид cite /sait/ — ссылаться. ey ew eu er ear. diary India. aw ey ar are. whey. marine dial. dear bear. chance. sight /sart/ — зрение. gear. приводить. craft. hawk day far fare. pie birth. Sylvia relief. demand. dearth ii ia ie ir ier ' ire A/ /1'/ /аю/ /1Э/ /t/ /ai/ / «/ /»/ /аи/ it. beer. gasp. squash China. ass. pear earth. g. draft. they blew. example. порода): the singular and plural of this word! 159> . ask. mand. air all aim wa.

Words Syllabographs higher high-er barring Ъаг-ring bankrupt bank-rupt refinement re-fine-ment 1 rt is a noun denoting a musical note. 1.are pronounced alike. The parts of a word which represent syllables graphically are called syllabographs. stirred. E. but not the verb do. furred 2. They may consist of a •vowel. The doubling of consonants: (a) indicates the shortness of the preceding vowel jmd differenti ates the meaning of words: planed — planned noted — knotted (b) differentiates the meaning of words: assent—a cent appear—a pier arrival—a rival occur—a cure (c) lengthens the preceding vowel: barred. Graphemes in the English language may indicate the phonemic reference of a preceding. 160 . The abbreviation sp stands for the singular and spp stands for the plural. The use of a "mute" e or r: (a) indicates'the alphabetical reading of the preceding vowel and performs differentiatory functions: rat — rate pet — Pete fin — fine (b) differentiates homophones: born—borne pleas—please step —steppe do /deu/1—doe (c) indicates the lengthening. or a combination of vowels and consonants which corresponds to a syllable or syllables within the graphic norms of the analysed word. g. or the diphthongal nature of a precedüng vowel: are toe awe pore mere were due cure fury sire There are two*notions in phonological literature which reflect the -connection of orthography with syllables and morphemes: (a) syllabo•graph and (b_)morphograph. e. g. or the following grapheme. They perform diacritic function.

3. Sounds are indicated in writing by means of transcription. Transliteration differs from transcription: it is simpler and may use additional symbols. о.A morphograph is that part of a word which represents a morpheme graphically. оу оа —о. у. ии ei —ей. оу ое —о. Transcription is quite indispensable in transliteration of names of persons. ш d __д e —е. и. or words. ш —м п —н ng —нг 0 —о. иногда не передается gg — гг. ью ey —ей. и. у ui ur —ер. дж. иногда не передается —и. иногда не передает- ae —а. иногда не передается ea —е.j-g.„ q —Р г S —ж. the suffix -ed is a morphograph in the word long-legged. g. у. уу 0U —а. It is especially useful in studying English. ей. ии ai —ей. аи eo — е. where the interpretation of the orthography can be complicated and misleading. ии eig —и. о. the suffix -ing is a morphograph in the word singing. ио 6—182 —б. у. э. и. о. КС —в У z —аи. и. 00 ay —ей. эй b с ch —к. й 161 . _. English Russian a Englis h Russia n —л. эй. е. у. и. а. ии io —айо. names of ships. ау. и. иногда не передается wo ' —Уэр X — ГЗ. ии ее —и. е. оу. оу 00 —а. иа. ггк h —х. у. geographical names. иногда не передается ph -ф. ж. эй au —ау. и. эй f -ф g —г. х. Transliteration is writing a word. с. magazines. э. и. у. оу. эй 1 га aw —0. ии eu —ю. иногда не передается i —аЙ. etc. с. E. эр ТУ ся V w —в. э ia —айа. у ough—аф 0W —ау. эй. и. и. у.. ч. оу р —п. ш sh —ш —т t u —а. of one language in the letters of some other language. ия ie — айе. оо —а. Given below is a list of Russian equivalents for English letters and letter combinations and phonetic renderings. etc. ю. ью ew —ю. э. e. Bath is transcribed as /ba0/ but transliterated as 5am (the length of /a/ and the sound /6/ are ignored). иногда не передается —-к. э..

Give examples of orthographic-phonemic-graphemic reference. How are graphemes connected with phonology? 9. 11. иногда не передается For example: exact /igizaekt/ Exmoor /leksraua/ Levy /H. Cheboksary щ—shch Shcherba ы—у Bykov x —kh Kharkov я —ya Yalta Questions I. Вортинг Эрбан Уислер Фернесс Просерпайн. What are the single-valued graphemes? What is a monograph? 4. How are graphemes connected with morphology? 10. What diacritic functionsof graphemes do you know? 14. 8. ch Chekhov.к j — К . e. txigraph. Give examples of phonemic reference of some graphemes. Give examples of /ae. What is a morphograph? 16. 7. What is the difference between transcription and transliteration? 162 . Why is it important to establish relationship between sounds and letters? What is a grapheme? 2. grammar? 12.i:vi/ Dyson /idaisn/ Byrd /ba:d/ Vyrnwy /iv3:nwi/ Woi thing /Iw8:8ig/ Urban /1э:Ьэп/ Whistler /iwisb/ Furness /ifa:nis/ Proserpine /'prusapain/ Louth /Iau9/ Southend /'sauGend/ Highmoor /lhaimua/ игзэкт Эксмур Ливи Дайсон Берд Вернуи Уэртинг. What are the multi-valued graphemes? What is a digraph. What is a syllabograph? 15. What are the types of graphemic reference? 3. which are transliterated in English in the following way: ш—sh Sholokhov ж—zh Zhukov ч —tch. Tchaikovsky. What are the simple and complex graphemes? 6. What is the importance of orthography in differentiating homophones? 13.) (название судна) Лаут Саутенд Хаймур —ДЖ Given below are several "difficult" Russian letters. How is orthography connected with lexicology. Прозерпина (миф. polygraph? 5. u. u:/ connection with simple and complex graphemes.

work t archaic. liked. high. pact—packed barred—bard pair —pare — pear franc—frank ■wear—where wea t her—whether scene—seen ■berth—birth ceiling—sealing sole—soul bare— bear pray —■ prey rain —reign pail — pale air—heir fined — find pains —panes teas— tease peace— piece 6* feat—feet witch —which dear— deer bow— bough bread—bred right—write — rite peer —pier beach— beech hear—here fur—fir tale— tail male—mail sun—son beat— beet break— brake maize— maze weak— week currant— current serial— cereal vain—vein —vane sell —cell sail —sale compliment —complement hair—hare blue—blew sea—see meat— meet heal—heel fare—fair cent —sent —scent rode—road team —teem hoarse— horse berry— bury gate—gait plain—plane key—quay 163 . baobab. Give some examples of English graphemes. phonemes. Give explanation of the phonemic reference of the graphemes <r). pinned. right. laugh. Give graphemic symbols of the phonemes: /s/ in the word city /k/ in the word cat /J7 in the word oceanic /(j)u:/ in the word beauty /л/ in the word courage /3/ in the word borough 2. limited. try.Exercises *I. dry *S. added. letters. dish. vest. cared *6. Analyse these words from the viewpoint of the inventory of graphemes. begged. very. *3. Translate them into Russian to prove the differentiator}1 function of graphemes. tour. barred. ship. Give the phonetic reference of the tnorphograph "-ed" in the words: worked. dawn. watched *4. tear. (our). Transcribe these homophones. afraid. duly. pray. awful. airy. (ear) in the words. light.

(nn) by comparing these pairs of words.. sauce. o f t h eг о с тi s h i g h . s o u 1 ).*7. surely. unknown. crying. .u . (a) meter. e. H e m o v e d . irrational *8. fountain. face. Bernard. sixty (b) prays.e . cheering *3. iWl . n e . <rr). a) man—mane hear—he pope—pore met—mete her —hen bar —bare sit —site sir —sit sort —sour b) tony—bonny lazy —lassy car —carry noted—knotted m ar — merry wrote—ro tten her —hurry later —latter cut —cutter fuse —fussy *9. Jeremiah. <tt>. stirring. . caring. laugh. thoroughly. Gerald» Hugo. . ( b a r e .n. Ann.h e T h e . H e p u t h i s h e a r t . T h e 1. Pius Control Tasks •I. .t . Esther. villain. said. T h e p a i n w a s r . worked. hugely. . culture. . praise.. Show the phonemic reference of digraphs and polygraphs. Abel. faced. b) syllabographs.a n. nation. burgess.e h a d a n i. delay. ( s e a l i n g . larger. nicer. Andrew. Baldwin. redder. n. changeling. c e i l i n g )W e h a d d i f f i c u l t y. misrule. taught. readable. immortal. . dislike. raging.e . Divide these words into (a) syllabographs and (b) morphographs. sourly. aid. racy. 164 . engagement. H e w a s t .d a l m o s t m o r e t h a n h e c o . child's. . e x el . tea. t . Divide these words into morphographs.w2 . pined. <ss). Jean. facing. Mabel. ( s o l e .. August. Transcribe them to illustrate phonemic references to syllabographs. leopardr people. b e a 1 ). occurred. Lionel. f o r l u n c h4. fairy. (r>. . Transliterate these names by Russian letters. . changeable *2. nicely. city. -i n t o w o r k . cheerless. threepence.t.Fill in the blanks with fhe appropriate homophone. Explain the diacritic function of the graphemes <e). . cured. 3. Ira. beige. stirred. d w i t h t h e g r a c e o f a t r a i.h . penniless. 5 . curing. Dorothy. c u t o r n a m e d i n t h e 3 . . Keith. M y o l d b o o t s n e e d . . choicest. outrageous. raged. tdo g e t h e r5. pining. nt h e l e a k 2 . straight. authority. T h e i c e w o n ' . princess. i. d . H e h a s a w l h a r d j o b t o k e e p b o d y. bulgy. freight. portrait. s p i d e r m a d e i t s w e b o . working.. I n w i n t e r t h e g a r d e n l o o k e 2 .c . 1 c a n '. Transcribe these words.a n d . weigh *4. teacher. worker. beauty. Martha.l 3 . east. Divide these words into a) morphographs. t h a t m a n4. age.. y o u r w e i g h t . fires. urgent.

2. 3. . write) 1. AH our work was in . . State a) which consonants are silent. . and wrong. . 5. They went away in . of shoes.. hide—I'd hitches ■—itches hair—heir hedge—edge hall—all harmful—armful handy—Andy unharmed—unarmed 7. . One of the . not to the . Single out words with the author's individual spelling used to sustain the humour. . as in other countries.es knick-knack b) wroth worthy method throat bathe ethos sooth loath Smith thief moth pith clothes strength smooth with wealthy Plymouth 6. b) which of the words have /6/. She is a . . . О the harbor of Fowley Is a beautiful spot And it's there I enjowey To sail in a yot Or to race in a yacht Roundja mark or a buoy Such a beautiful spacht Is the harbor of Fuoy! . 2. . 3. . time? 3. But the wave mountain-high And the violent storm Do I risk them? Not Igh But prefer to sit worm With a book on my knees By the library fire While I list to the brees Rising hire and hire 165 . .. (vain. always giving herself airs. .1 have bought a . . Give sentences with the contrast homophones. 5. What's the . 2.. .. young girl. 4. of gold in the rock. . pair) 1.. Please give me a. broken. 4.. vein. I prefer them to apples. Don't . consult the dictionary for correct spelling.(pear.. He became so angry? that the . . In England traffic keeps to the left side of the road. on both sides of the paper. (right. . .. a) exhaust diaphragm cupboard subtle shepherd Thomas debt tomb listen sign comb hustle limb isle gnarl light heirloom Tham. They found a. . of the propeller was. . . on his forehead swelled.1 hope you know the difference between . vane) 1. .

slaven. Dover Leeches. but police and lice. precise. We say hallowed but allowed People. towed but vowed Mark the difference moreover Between mover. Transcribe these extracts. plover. In this cottage of mign By the Harbor of Foy by Sir Arthur Quiller-Coach 8. Rounded. leopard. ache. alive and live. heave and heaven Rachel. moustach. Blood and flood are not like food Nor it mould like should and would Banquet is not nearly parquet Which is said to rhyme with "darky". breeches. grieve and sleeve Friend and fiend. They illustrate difficulties of English pronunciation. library. Learn the extracts by heart. Liberty. .And so whether I weigh Up the anchor or not. wise. Challice. wounded. Every care I resign Every comfort enjoy. I am happy each deigh In my home or ray yot.

СГС. human intercommunication is actualized in syllables. СГ. a part of the grammatical form of a word: later /ileiThe syllable can be analysed from the acoustic and auditory. Acoustically and auditorily the syllable is characterized by the force of utterance. though native speakers of a language are usually able to state how many syllables there are in a particular word. resonator and obstructor mechanisms. The syllable can be viewed in connection with its graphic representation.VI. The articulatory energy which constitutes the syllable results from the combined action of the power. Torsuyev suggests a differentiation of the following types of syllabic structures: Г. a part of a word: English /'in-gliJV. V type: fully open. SYLLABLE Though the basic phonological elements are phonemes. Г. CV — types of syllable called covered open. CV type: initially covered. by a vowel and a consonant: (VC) in English. which may be a word. articulatory and functional points of view. forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance. sonority and length. (Г) in Russian. pitch of the voice. it is of great importance for syllable division. by a consonant and a sonorant (CS). СГС. (ГС) in Russian. . or a commonly recognized subdivision of a word. The syllable can be a single word: chair /tfea/. Auditorily the syllable is the smallest unit of perception: the listener identifies the whole of the syllable and only after that the sounds contained. Syllables in writing are called syllabographs and are closely connected with the morphemic structure of words. vibrator. The syllable as a unit is difficult to define. Acoustic properties of syllables are studied with the help of intonograph and spectrograph. V — types of syllable called uncovered open. VC — types of syllable called uncovered closed. CVC type: fully closed. СГ. that is by prosodic features. Kenyon the syllable is one or more speech sounds. P. Electroacoustic analysis made it possible to formulate some rules of syllable division (see below). that such syllables are characterized by some noise in the beginning of the vowel and by a vowellike termination of the consonant: СГСГ. or accent. CVC — types of syllable called covered closed. A syllable can be formed by a vowel: (V) in English. G. ГС. According to J. Spectrograms of Russian ГС syllabic structures show. 167 ta/. Phonological! у the syllable is regarded and defined in terms of its structural and functional properties.

ГС, VG type: finally covered. The structure of the English and Russiasyllable is similar. n English Russian и err V Г пол pit cvc crc вопль СГСС cvcc fact текст СГССС lapsed cvccc plan жнец ССГС ccvc spleen взлом СССГС cccvc twist фланг CCVCG ССГСС ccvccc stamps ССГССС спектр СССГСС вдрызг cccvcc spleens СГСССС монстр texts cvcccc dew но СГ cv ДНО spy ccv ccr мгла ад straw cccv eat cccr акр астр ГС vc act ГСС The peak or the crest vcc ГССС of the syllable is formed vccc asks by a vowel or a so- orant. The consonants which precede the peak n and follow it arecalled slopes. Vowels /эе, е, л, v, a,:, o:, ei, ai, аи, еэ, oi/ constitute almost always the peaks of prominence, i, u, эй/ occur, as a rule, in /э, unaccented syllables. The consonant /rj/ never begins, /w/ never terminates the syllable. The sonorants /w, r, j/ function as consonants, because they occur only before vowels: SVC structural type, e.g. /wi5, rait, jes/. The sonorants/1, m, n/ can form syllables in terminal position, when preceded by a consonant, e.g. /'pi:pl, iga:dn, п, 'j 9 Ы / The structu patterns of syllables formed by sonorants with a ral preceding consonant in English are similar to V-f patterns: CS С written /intn/. According to G. P. Torsuyev's data the syllabic structure in the English language of the combination consonant (or consonants) +a sonorant is characterized by the following data: CS type — 40 combinations, CSC type— 90 combinations, CSCC 1 type — 15 combinations, CCSCC type 1 combination. — Syllable-forming sonorants in the combinations of the CS type are terminal /m, n,1/. E. g. earthen channel prism equal people garden often nation
1 Торсу ев Г. П. Строение слога и аллофоны в английском языке. -1976.

■ М .,

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written eagle even decision taken fortune listen rhythm able angel season camel The combinability of syllable forming sonorants is the [following: /1/ combines with all consonants except /6, 5/; /n/ combines with all consonants except /m, rj, n/; /m/ combines only with /6, 6, s, z, p/. The distribution of consonants in the syllables of the CSC type is characterized by the following features: initial consonants may be represented by /p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, 6, d, s, z, J 1 , 3, tf, cfc, m, r, w, n/; the medial sonorants may be represented by /n, m, 1/; final consonants are represented by /t, d, s, z, 6/. E.g. opens vacant goggles ovens patient marbles enables merchant arrivals] angels patterns mortals urgent heathens equalled coupled student softened rhythms motions] peoples gardens servant decent whistles officials leventh present persons panelled The distribution of consonants in the syllables of the C£CC type is characterized by the following features: the initial consonant may be represented by /p, d, t, tf, dg, f, v, s, z, J\ 5, r/. The peak of syllable is represented by the sonorants /n, 1/, they are immediately followed by /t, d, s/; final consonants are represented by /t, s, z/. E.g. innocents agents patents tangents parents serpents students servants pheasants errands patients scaffolds licensed merchants heralds The syllables of the CSVSCC type: entrants /lentrants/, emigrants ^emigrants/, minstrels /'minstrels/, hydrants /lhaidrents/ can5 be pronounced without (V)—CSSCC type, e.g. emigrants /'emigrnts/ entrants /lentrnts/ minstrels /immstrlz/ hydrants /'haidrnts/ Russian terminal sonorants do not form syllables witlfconsonants, which precede them. However in some special cases: for stylistic purposes, or for the sake of rhythm, they may^become syllabic; e. g. р у - б л ь , в о - п л ь , в и - х р ь , д ю -C т m.p a r e : сoр 1. Б ы л а в О с т а н к и н е з и м а . Д екабрь, число тридцатое и 2. Была в О станкине зима, Д е к а б р ьТ р и д ц а т ь , первое In th e seco n d v a ria n t th e R ussia n /p / is m ad e sy llab ic fo r rh y th m ical pu rpo ses. 169

There are different restrictions on the possible consonant clusters in English and in Russian. Final clusters in English are much more complex than initial ones. They express different grammatical meanings: plurality, tense, number, e.g. texts, mixed, glimpsed. The structure of the Russian syllable is characterized by more complex and numerous initial clusters, they represent grammatical prefixes, e.g. вскрикнуть, всплакнуть, взрыв, кстати. Syllables of the initial CC type constitute more than 50 combinations in English (except affricates and double consonants). Syllables •of the initial CC type in Russian constitute 236 combinations (affri-cates and double consonants including), e.g. speak, вчера. Syllables of the initial CCC type constitute H combinations in English and 97 in Russian, e.g. street, вскинуть. A number of combinations of the initial CCCC type constitute syllables only in Russian, there are no similar combinations in English, e.g. всплакнуть, взгляд, вздрогнуть. The clusters/mh, sr, sj, fs, hr, stl/ never occur initially in English, compare with the Russian: мхи, сразу, сшить, всё, хруст, стлать. The clusters /gr, str/ can occur only initially, /tn, dn, stl/ occur only finally, compare with the Russian: дни, стлать. The cluster (TH) does not occur in Russian finally or initially. In Russian СГ structural types of syllables are more common than ГС type. СГ syllabic types constitute more than half of all the structural types in Russian. СГ together with ССГ types constitute 85%. In the Russian texts open syllables occur 3 times more often than closed ones. The most frequent pattern in English is CVC. English VC, CVC structures are much more common than the Russian СГ structural type. СГ prevalence in the Russian syllabic structure results in the appearance of the vocalic element of /ъ, ь/ type inside or before the CC clusters. They most commonly occur in /гд, дг/ combinations, e.g. «игде», «отъгул». Similar clusters in English are pronounced with the loss of plosion, e.g. good day, that cat.
THEORIES OF.SYLLABLE FORMATjQN AND SYLLABLE DIVISION

There are different points of view on syllable formation which are briefly the following. 1. The most ancient theory states that there are as many sylla bles in a word as there are vowels. This theory is primitive and insuffi cient since it does not take into consideration consonants which also can form syllables in some languages, neither does it explain the boundary of syllables. 2. The expiratory theory states that there are as many syllables in a word as there are expiration pulses. The borderline between the syllables is ^according to this theory, the moment of the weakest ex piration. This theory is inconsistent because it is quite possible to
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pronounce several syllables in one articulatory effort' or expiration, e.g. seeing /Isi: 15/. 3. The sonority theory states'that there are as many syllables in a word as there are peaks of prominence or sonority. Speech sounds pronounced with uniform force, length and pitch, differ in inherent prominence or sonority. For example, when the Russian vowels /а, о, э, у, и/ are pronounced on one and the same level, their acoustic intensity, or sonority is different: the strongest is /a/, then go /о, э, у, и/, 0. Jespersen established the scale of sonority of sounds, that is, the scale of their inherent prominence. According to this scale the most sonorous are back vowels (low, mid, high), then go semi-vowels and sonorants, then — voiced and voiceless consonants. Scale of Sonority low vowels /a:, 0:, v, as/ mid vowels /e, э:, э, л/j high vowels /i:, 1, u:t u/^ semi-vowels /w, j/ sonorants /1, r, m, n, n/ voiced constrictive consonants /v, z, g, 8/ 7. voiced plosive consonants /b, d, g/ 8. voiceless constrictive consonants and affricates //, tf§ CI5, f,. s, h, 6/ 9. voiceless plosive consonants /p, t, b/ Sounds are grouped around the most sonorous ones, which form the peaks of sonority in a syllable. Two points of lower sonority constitute the beginning and the end of one syllable. Compare melt and metal: in the first word /e/ is the most sonorous sound, the only peak of sonority, it is a one-syllable word. In the word metal there are two peaks of sonority /e/ and III, it is a two-syllable word. In the word sudden the most sonorous is the vowel /л/, then goes the nasal sonor ant /n/ which forms the second peak of prominence, /s/ and /d/ are sounds of low sonority, they cannot be considered as syllable forming sounds. In the Russian word пятница there are three peaks of sonority and accordingly three syllables.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The sonority theory helps to establish the number of syllables in a word, but fails to explain the mechanism of syllable division because it does not state to which syllable the weak sound at the boundary of two syllables belongs.

a

4 The arc of^loudness" or "arc of articulatory tension" theory is based on L. V. Shcherba's statement that the centre of a syllable is we syllable forming phoneme. Sounds which precede or follow it constitute a chain, or an arc, which is weak in the beginning and in the end and strong in the middle. If a syllable consists of a vowel, its strength increases in the beginning, reaches the maximum of loudness and then, gradually decreases. Graphically it can be represented by an arc of loudness or an arc of articulatory tension. Consonants within a sillable are , , , characterized by different distribution of muscular tension. Shcherba distinguishes the following types jot consonants: finally strong (initially weak), they occur at the beginning of the syllable; .finally weak (initially strong), they occur at the end of a closed ■syllable; double peaked (combination of two similar sounds): in their articulation the beginning and the end are energetic and the middle is weak .Acoustically they produce an impression of two consonants: flpen «naif/, /igud 'dei/. For example, in the words cab, за the consonants /k/ and /з/, that begin the syllables, are "finally strong", that is their articulatory strength increases to the end of /k/ and/з/ (they are also called initially weak). These consonants begin "the arc of loudness" In the words eat, воз the final consonants /b/ and /в/, that end the syllable, are finally weak", that is their articulatory strength decreases to the end of /b/ and /a/. These consonants terminate the arc of loudness" or the arc of muscular tension. In terms of the "arc of loudness" theory there are as many syllables in a word as there are "arcs of loudness" and the point of syllable division corresponds to the moment, when the arc of loudness begins or ends, that is: initially weak consonants begin a syllable, finally weak end it. (Finally strong consonants begin a syllable, initially strong end it.) For example, the word mistake consists of two arcs of loudness 1у which /m/ and /t/ are finally strong consonants and /s/ and in S/ аГе ч а А- s/ consti tutes the end of «the arc of loudness", /t/ constitutes the beginning.
b p e a k e /d /o c u r a t s • ff Ä r f «The 1Ä ?U "h e d/s/U/islestrongs satc bothth e ju n c tio n ^Lt ol two syllables. n S sound ,° ends and weak

3 3 5A S S " "
172

g l c a l l ym n s M ?s 0

*"Ж *

it may beging syllable: мрак — о-мрачать. is louder and higher in pitch than the slopes. army /'a:-mi/. be-come. The experiment carried out by N. None of the theories mentioned above are reliable in the definition of the syllabic boundary. To define the syllabic boundary it is necessary to analyse the syllable on two levels: articulatory-auditory {phonetic-phonological). In the Russian language syllables of СГ-СГ type have their boundary after the vowel: мо-ло-ко. party /lpa:-ti/. which is responsible for the variations in the loudness of the syllable. count4ess. the place of the syllabic boundary depends on the character of CG cluster. un-able. E.k/—despite /dis-ipait/ sky /skai/—escape /is-ikeip/ twice /twais/—saltwort /iso:lt-wa:t/ There is a tendency in Russian to begin non-initial syllables with the sound of minimal sonority: до-жди. 173 .g. There are similar cases in'English: щюг£ег/%з:-кэ/. In the Russian words with ГССГ structural type. On the acoustic level it is characterized by a higher intensity than the slopes. but тан-ки. speak /spi'. or the crest of the syllable. If it occurs initially. Different languages are characterized by different types of their syllabic structure. since лт does not occur^ initially. but Ал-тай. great—agree /э-igri:/. Zhinkin showed that it is the pharynx. and in many cases by a higher fundamental frequency. кол-хоз. 1 There are other opinions on this point. In affixal words the syllabic boundary coincides with the morphological boundary: dis-place. Electroacoustic analysis makes it possible to formulate the following rules of syllable division in English: 1. Perceptually the peak. ко-тлы. о-ко-ло. break—abrupt /a-'brApt/ However there are exceptions» e. to take into consideration the structural pattern of the syllable. * A similar distributional dependence of the syllabic boundary on the nature of the CC cluster exists in English. which results acoustically and auditorily in one uninterrupted arc of ■loudness. which is pronounced by one articulatory effort accompanied by one muscular contraction.A syllable can be defined as a phonetic unit.g.

disjuncture. long. help to perform distinctive variations on the syllabic level. Ма-ни. identificatory. mid. ли-ли. I scream: in the first example the close juncture is between In! and /ei/. distinctive. which terminates the short accented syllable: city /isrti/. Close juncture or conjuncture occurs between sounds within one syllable. in the second — between /s/ and /k/. Compared with the Russian СГ acoustic connection. or internal open juncture occurs between two syllables. Uaitnm/. phrases and sentences through the combination of their prosodic features: loudness — stress. English triphthongs are disyllabic. English diphthongs are unisyllabic. distinctive feature: /Uaitfltn vs. compare. enemy. Har174 . they consist of one vowel phoneme. The distinctive. money /1тлш/ and си-то. English CV cluster is close. Open juncture. In words of CVCV structure the syllabic boundary is withm the intervocal consonant. L. /wi. There are rather many combinations in English distinguished from each other by means of the difference in the place ol the syllabic boundary: a name—an aim. pity /ipiti/. falling. lily /Uili/. S. pitch — tone. Constitutive Function Syllables constitute words. In words with CVCV structure the syllabic boundary is af ter the long accented vowel: farmer /iJa:-ma/. They are closely connected. 4. I + scream. 6. city /'siti/.. flower /Шэи-э/.g. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYLLABLE The syllable as a phonological unit performs three functions: constitutive. If we mark open juncture with /-f / then in our examples it will occur between a +mme. a name. 3.2. American scientists H. All these prosodic features constitute the stress pattern of words. Distinctive and Differentiator^ Function If we compare the words: lightening освещение and lightning молния. /iais'kri:m/—/ai iskrhm/. rising. duration — length and tempo. high. 5. differentiator function of the syllabic boundary makes it possible to introduce the term "juncture". Gleason. we may observe that their syllabicity is the only minimal. low. 2./wil isun/. Russian СГ syllabic cluster is loose. In words of CSCV structure the syllabic boundary is within the intervocal sonorant: inner /Una/. short.Uaun/— . unstressed. /lenimi/. ice cream—/ scream. e. tonal and rhythmic structure of an utterance. 1. because they consist of two vowel phonemes: science /'sai-sns/. cinema /ismime/. we loan— we'll own: /ataeim/—/an leim/. It is an example of the word-distinctive function of the syllabicity of /n/. A. Syllables may be stressed.

-fully. or a root (morphograph): un-divided. 4) Never divide a word so that one of the parts is a single letter. e. Parts of ortho graphic and phonetic syllables do not always coincide.g.g. Hornby — Moscow. never divide a word so that an end ing of two letters such as -ed. which is separated. should be either a prefix. GRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYLLABLE e. e The listener can understand the exact meaning of the utterance only if he perceives the correct syllabic boundary "syllabodisjuncture". Division of words into syllables in writing (syllabographs) is based on morphological prin ciples. They include/+/ into the inventory of phonemes as a separate differentiatory unit. pea stalks стеблу гороха—peace talks мирные переговоры. — The existence of such pairs demands special attention to teaching not only the correct pronunciation of sounds but also the observation of the correct place for syllabodisjuncture. -er. Word Phonetic syllables Orthographic syllables (Syllabograph s) table /Itei-bl/ ta-ble laden /Uei-dn/ la-den /fspga-nij/ Spanish Span-ish It is very important to observe correct syllable division when necessity arises to divide a word in writing. utterance. if there are two or three consonants before -ing. g. 1982. There are six rules to help with dividing a word in writing: 1) Never divide a word within a syllable. The morphological principle of word division in orthography demands that the part of a word. as -ably. e. pun-ishs be-fore. E. liner /Uai-пэ/.They can also be divided according to their meaning. 3) With the exception of -ly. The auditory image of a syllable can be shown in transcription: unknown /1лп-1пзип/.— P. un-kind'U-ness. Identificatory Function This function is conditiond by the pronunciation of the speaker. S. g. 1 6) Never divide a word of less than five letters. 5) Never divide a word of one syllable. Words can be divided in writing according to their syllabic struc ture. or a suffix. e. 175 . maker /imet-кэ/. However. 3.ris and K. -ic begins the next line. 2) Never divide an ending (a suffix) of two syllables such -able. gras-ping. g. puz-zling. If we compare the system of syllable division and syllable forma1 Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary ofi Current English by A. XIV. these consonants may be separated in writing.spot-light. Pike consider the open juncture a separate segmental phoneme. my train мой поезд — might rain возможен дождь.

prism.g. took. конь-ки. characterize them from the viewpoint of their structure: open. What is a syllable?2. мор'Ской^. the peak and the slopes of the syllable. What is "disjuncture" ("internal open juncture"). What do you know about different structur al types of the syllable?7. вепрь. боч-ка. g. 13. жатв.syllable 8. -y.city. What are the lines along which a syllable can be analysed?3. метр. 7) English diphthortgsjDelong to one syllable. corresponding to English words with the suffixes -tion. bet. нос (2) fact. pity.etc. час. бак. (l)"pit.tion in Russian and in English. English and in Russian? Exercises ■*!. Questions 1. e. in syllable formation?6. What do you know about syllable division?' How 10. 4) The structure of the Russian syllable is characterized by more complex initial clusters. ЗАГС: 176' . 5) Initial CCCC type clusters constitute syllables only in Russian. triphthongs may be divided into two parts. тол-па. Give examples to prove the importance. типе. What do you know about structural dif ferences of English and Russian syllables? Speak on the theories. 9. 6) Russian words of foreign origin with the suffixes -ция. have one extra syllable:революция — revolution. In the system of the Russian language all consonants may begin a syllable. 3) All consonants may begin a syllable in English. "closejuncture" ("conjuncture")? 12. we can draw the following conclu sions: 1) Similar syllabic structual types can be found in both languages. -ия. What is the structure of the syllable? Define 4. region. пол. the only ex ception is the sound /rj/. r 2) In both languages the single intervocal consonant between two phonetic syllables belongs to the next vowel: morning /lfflo:-mn/— мо-ре cozy /'кэи-zi/—во-ля occasi on /э-'ке1-зп/—вб-ло-ком The checked vowels constitu an exception. тенденция— tendency. te There is a tendency in the Russian language to accomplish syllable division before a sound of minimal sonority. ten. e. сон. taken. The structure of the English syllable is char acterized by more complex final clusters. ток. of formation. tip. covered. так. etc. ритм. pat. does the syllable perform constitutive and distinctive func tions? 11. воз. вопль. listen. bacon.the of ident'iflcatory functionöf the disjuncture. pot. top. "What is the role of sonorants5. What are the* principal differences of syllable formation and syllable division in. битв. rhythm. Give syllabic structural patterns of the following English and Russia«? words.

прав. sprains. rhythm. два он. art. listened. satisfactory. ханств. elks искр. lapsed. cleansed. жертв. squeek. фа. street. сгнить. msep. мзда. dragons. equal. orb. thrust. взлом. smoke. sprawls. oak. ask. здесь. Mark initially strong consonants with a single line and initially weak con» sonants with^two Tines. he. female. scroll. plosion. clenched. misunderstand. shriek. spray. те. tramps. a nation—an Asian a nice house—an ice house the tall boys—that all boys до дела ли—доделала see Mable—seem able it swings—its wings хлеб с ухой—хлеб сухой по машинам—помаши нам 177 . ксеркс. внутрь. tomato. twelfth. lisped. сдвиг. Read these examples to prote the semantic importance^ of the correct syllable boundarv. жнец. 'bu-tl. 'sek-ta. eights. 'mi-dl. Минск. trifle. springs. patterns. ил. ах мсти. unfortunate. dew. . fret. Define the number of syllables in these words according to the sonority theory. satchel. asks. tangents. urgent. out. twice. straw. ту. взрыв (14) twiddle. dry. швабр. so. acts. (8) splay. шерсть. ас. (4) рЗал. вдрызг. else. happens. heralds. злак. servants. U:-gl. (9) ebbed. (b) Give their syllable structural^ patterns. вскользь. lifts. игр. ость. solecism. unimportant. screams. спектр. scaffold? *3. ли дно. servant. кто. скетч (15) stamps. yesterday. pray. patents. flint. j S. (7) ought. pie. сгиб да. students. eight. акр. (6) spy. film . trance. чувств (13) spleen. blue. machine. patients. aunts. appetite. монстр. Mark dose juncture by pluses. ух. act. brew. eat. льсти. llai-пэ. ii:-te. flask. сфинкс people. 'глд-bi. aunt. errands. struck. пну. си. licensed. цвесть. a. царств. альф (10) aked. marbles. земств. взмах. 'лп-пэип. мгла акт. *2. тем птах. strains. всласть. все. split. pea. remarkable. (5) do. aristocracy. go. 'wm-ta. еггапЖ». астр (11) spleens. parents. boxed. про. window. взвизг (12) serpents. insufficient. текст. boy. electrification 4. stay. ох. bugle. горсть. inferiority. вздеть. бы. April.(3) depths. busts. la-пи. игл. ад. price. фланг. Supply each word of exercise 4 with the corresponding arc of loudness. apt alone. (a) Divide these words into phonetic syllables. от.

August. Wednesday. Analyse these words from the viewpoint of phonetic and orthographic syllable division. астр. top. pears. orchard. сфинкс. rural. ironing. playing. culture. bedroom. Divide these words into phonetic syllables. till. shopping. September. nose. several. fate. pea. strays. cheering. November.*7. worker. coffee. aunt. cake. nine. gray day . upstairs. marry. spot. late. bananas. standing. miss. the waiter cut it. breakfast. fishing *S. ЗАГС. bathroom. cured. work. thick. Минск. чувств. горсть. speaking. (b) closed covered. fire. thrust. dinner. back. lame. occurred. sack. stamp. that's tough. fix. furniture. plural. nursery. October. cottage. всласть. December. texts. Thursday *4. kitchen. pin. Arrange these words into three columns according to the type of syllable structure: (a) closed uncovered. cap. asks. ebbed. ground. ил. pine. firing. pile. not at all. electricity. Divide these words into syllabographs (where possible). land. act. start. pudding. pantry. Mark with /+/ open Juncture in the examples below. bet. mark. why choose. скетч. tip. boy. thoroughly Control Tasks *1. mole. a name for it. гипс. curing. (c) open covered. nation. I saw her rise. harm. merry. mistake. здесь. pining. ice. tip. sit. bat. grave. fact. redder. straw. disappear. form *3. walking. potatoes. кто. face. mist. что *2. рад. my train. took. price мгла. gold. struck. Isawthem eat. stirring. own. злак. clenched. January. hid. tomatoes. fret. working. parents. pray. tide. made. mad. horn. berries. cheerless. от. keep sticking. Write out: (a) initially weak (finally strong) and (b) finally weak (initially strong) consonants. сон. transcribe and divide them into syllabographs. Turn them into examples with close juncture. Tuesday. comfortable. passing. study. взрыв. a black tie. beer. plot. modern. elks. cabbage. та. writing. pined. at. lifts. hate. housework. February.

such type of stress is called dynamic. defined stress as an increase of energy. contract /'kuntrsekt/ договор. or force stress.VII. in which it is more narrow than /'se/. to contract /ta kan'trsekt/ заключать договор. 1 Jones D. D. 247.— Cambridge. An Outline of English Phonetics. qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound. quality and quantity of the accented! sounds. Stress in the isolated word is termed word stress. STRESS Any word spoken in isolation has at least one prominent syllable. H. stress in connected speech is termed sentence stress. that "stress or prominence is effected ."l A. 1960. however. frequency and the formant structure. Stress is defined differently by different authors. Gimson also admits that a more prominent syllable is accompanied by pitch changes in the voice. In different languages one of the factors constituting word stress is usually more significant than the others. . by inherent sonority. pitch of the voice. which has a special prominence. (c) the quantity of the vowel /se/ in /ksn'trsekt/ is greater.—P. Their physical correlates are: intensity. C. we may note that in the stressed syllable: (a) the force of utterance is greater. which is usually a vowel. B. According to the most important feature different types of word stress are distinguished in different languages. Later. Bogoroditsky. A. If we compare stressed and unstressed syllables in the words. Word stress can be defined as the singling out of one or more syllables in a word. modifications in the pitch and quality. All these features can be analysed on the acoustic level. Sweet also> stated that stress is connected with the force of breath. Stress is indicated by placing a stress mark before the stressed syllable: 14. (b) the pitch of the voice is higher. the vowel becomes longer. Jones defined stress as the degree of force. which is connected with strong er tenseness of the vocal cords and the walls of the resonance chamber. 1) If special prominence in a stressed syllable or syllables is achieved mainly through the intensity of articulation.— 9th ed. duration. accompanied by an increase of expiratory and articulatory activity. . which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance. We perceive it as stressed. D. On the auditory level a stressed syllable is the part of the word. (d) the quality of the vowel /se/ in the stressed syllable is differ ent from the quality of this vowel in the unstressed position. which is connected with more energetic articulation. for instance. vowel and consonant length and by intonation. Jones wrote. It is produced by a greater loudness and length. which is accompanied by a strong force of exhalation and gives an impression of loudness. 179 .

2) If special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved mainly through the change of pitch, or musical tone, such accent is called musical, or tonic. It is characteristic of the Japanese, Korean and other oriental languages. 3) If special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved through the changes in the quantity of the vowels, which are longer in the stressed syllables than in the unstressed ones, such type of stress is called quantitative. 4) Qualitative type of stress is achieved through the changes in the quality of the vowel under stress. English word stress is traditionally defined as dynamic, but in faet, the special prominence of the stressed syllables is manifested in the English language not only through the increase of intensity, but also through the changes in the vowel quantity, consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice. Russian word stress is not only dynamic but mostly quantita tive and qualitative. The length of the Russian vowels always depends on the position in a word. The quality of unaccented vowels in Russian may differ greatly from the quality of the same vowels under stress, e.g. /a/ in травы, травь'1, травянойis realized as /a, 5, ъ/. /а, о, э/ undergo the greatest changes, /y/ and /и/ are not so much reduced when unstressed. Stress difficulties peculiar to the accentual structure of the English language are connected with the vowel special and inher ent prominence. In identical positions the intensity of English vowels is different. The highest in intensity is /a/, then go з:, /э:, i:, u:, se, u, e, u, i/. The quantity of long vowels and diphthongs can be preserved in (a) pretonic and (b) post-tonic position.

a) idea /ai'dra/ b) placard /iplsekad/ sarcastic /saiksestik/ railway /ireriwei/ archaic /aikeuk/ compound /ifc»mpaund/ All English vowels may occur in accented syllables, the only exception is /э/, which is never stressed. English vowels /i, u, эй/ tend to occur in unstressed syllables. Syllables with the syllabic / 1, m, n/ are never stressed. Unstressed diphthongsmay partially lose their glide quality. In stressed syllables ^English stops have complete closure, frica tives have full friction, features of fortis/lenis distinction are clearly defined. tress can be characterized as fixed and free. In languages with fixed type of stress the place of stress is always the same. For example in Czech and Slovak the stress regularly falls on the first syllable. In Italian, Welsh, Polish it is on the penultimate syllable. In English and Russian word-stress is free, that is it may fall on any syllable in a word:
180

on the first—^mother мама on the second—occasion возможность on the third—deWnation детонация Stress in English and in Russian is not only free but also shifting. In both languages the place of stress may shift, which helps to differentiate different parts of speech, e.g. Hnsult—to ШтИ, Hmport—to imSpoH. In Russian: $зко, кисло, мало are adjectives, узко, кисло, мало are adverbs, что, как, когда may be pronouns and conjunctions: что читает—что читает; как вошел—как вошел; когда уехал—когда уехал. In English ^billow is морской вал, beUow—вниз. Similar cases can be observed in Russian: му~ка—мука, замок—замок, кружки — кружки. When the shifting of word-stress serves to perform distinctive function, V. Vassilyev terms this suprasegmental phonological unit form distinctive accenteme, when it serves to distinguish the meaning of different words, its term is word-distinctive accenteme. Stress performs not only distinctive function, it helps to constitute and recognize words and their forms (constitutive and recognitive functions). Strictly speaking, a polysyllabic word has as many degrees of stress as there are syllables in it. American and English phoneticians give the following pattern of stress distribution in the word examination. They mark the strongest syllable with primary accent with the numeral 1, then goes 2, 3, etc. It is more convenient and vivid to represent this pattern of stress distribution in the following way. i g, ъ аз m r n ei 3 2 4 i 1
,0 p 8 t l U i n i t 1 V Ь 1 5 1 I 3

i

\ v
4j

1

\ \ / \ /

The number of lines corresponds to the number of syllables in a word. The primary strongest stress mark is placed on the highest line, the second strongest one is placed on the second line, the other stress marks are distributed on the appropriate lines according to accentual sonority. The vertical lines, drawn perpendicularly to the lowest line vividly show the degree of accentual sonority of the syllabic phonemes and the height of the voice pitch, which is bigger within the strongest syllable, smaller within the second strongest syllable, etc. The least strong syllable has the lowest sonority and pitch (5 in
181

V

our examples). Such graphs help to visualize the greater intensity of syllables with primary and secondary stress compared to other,, less prominent syllables. There is some controversy about degrees of the word-stress terminology and about placing the stress marks. Most British phoneticians term the strongest stress primary, the second strongest secondary and all the other degrees of stress weak. The stress marks placed before the stressed syllables indicate simultaneously their places and the point of syllable division: examination. American descriptivists (B. Bloch, G. Träger) distinguish the following degrees of word-stress: loud /i/, reduced loud /"/, medial /V, weak, which is not indicated. H. A. Gleason defines the degrees of stress as primary 14, secondary /"/, tertiary /7, weak /"/, (H. Sweet distinguishes weak / v /, medium, or half-strong (:{, strong /7 and extrastrong, or emphatic stress /;/. V. A. Vassilyev, D. Jones, R. Kingdon consider that there are three degrees of word-stress in English: primary—strong, secondary—partial, weak—in unstressed syllables. For example: certification /|S3:tifiikeiJ"ön/—the second and the third syllables have weak stress, which is not marked. Most English scientists place the stress marks before the stressed syllables and don't mark monosyllabic words. Some American scientists suggest placing the stress marks above the vowels of the stressed syllable, e.g. blackbird /ЫгекЬз:а/. They place the stress marks even on monosyllabic words, e. g. cat, penY map. In the Russian word-stress system there are two degrees of word accent: primary and weak. The stress marks in the Russian phonetic tradition are placed above the vowels which are the nuclei of the syllable, e. g. усердней с каждым днем гляжу" в словарь. The dictionary of accent for TV and radio workers gives some words with two stresses /7-—primary, /7—secondary (побочное), e.g. автокорд, водоналивной, библиотековедение, агрометеорология. Some scientists distinguish between stressed and accented syllables. O'Connor states: "Accent . . . is indicated by stress and pitch combined. If a stress occurs ... without a downward step in pitch, the word concerned is not accented." Stressed syllables in the text have the symbol /i/, accented syllables have the sym bol /'/. For example: \Are you doming \back again onfiunday? On tonograms stressed and unstressed syllables, according to O'Connor, * correspond to big and small dots. Gimson suggests marking accentual elements in the following way: j —a black dot with a downward curve corresponds to the syllable, receiving primary accent.
1 O'Connor I. D., Arnold 0. F. Intonation of Colloquial English.— L.„ 1959.—P. 18.

18a

„°—a black dot, or a "white" dot correspond to the syllable receiving secondary accent. .—a tiny dot corresponds to the unaccented syllable. Here are some accentual patterns for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-, 9- syllable words according to Gimson's representation: 1
•* • ■• •*■ ............
unknow n fem ale, w indow ; * • q u an tity , y es terd ay ; to b a cco , to m a' to ■ • rem ark ab le, im p o ssible; con terattack •a > ■ affilia tio n , c o n sid e ratio n ;reh ab ilitate • • • •> ° ■ ■» •■ • • characteristically • • • • • u n ilate r alis m ; in te rn a tio n aliz a tio•n ■ • • • ■ » •

In spite of the fact that word accent in the English stress system is free, there are certain factors that determine the place and different degree of word-stress. V. A. Vassilyev describes them as follows: (1) recessive tendency, (2) rhythmic tendency, (3) retentive tendency and (4) semantic factor. (1) Recessive tendency results in placing the word-stress on the initial syllable. It can be of two sub-types: (a) unrestricted recessive accent, which falls ön the first syllable: father /'faSs/, mother /'тлЗэ/ and (b) restricted recessive accent, which is characterized Ъу placing the word accent on the root of the word if this word Jias a prefix, which has lost its meaning: become /Ь1<клт/, begin bi (2) Rhythmic tendency results in alternating stressed and un stressed syllables, e.g. pronunciation /ргэ|1Ш151!е1,Гэ>п/. (3) Retentive tendency consists in the retention of the primary .accent on the parent word, e.g. person—personal /ip3:sn—! ps:snl/. More commonly it is retained on the parent word as a secondary accent, e.g. similar—similarity /'stmib—isnniHaentr/. (4) Semantic factor. Given below are the rules of word-stress in English: 1. In words of 2 or 3 syllables the primary stress mostly falls on the first syllable, e.g. terror, Cabinet, ^sensible. 2. In prefixal words the primary stress typically falls on the syllable following the prefix, e.g. impossible, recall, behind. 3. In prefixal words with prefixes having their own meaning, the place of stress is on the prefix, e. g. ^anti-capitalist, \non-Party, ^ex-minister, ■ W ice-president, ^ultra-fashionable, 4. In prefixal verbs which are distinguished from similarly spelt nouns and adjectives, the place of stress is on the second syllable, nouns and adjectives have their stress on the initial syl}al>le, e.g. verb noun adjective to compound — 'compound to in'crease I increase —
1

G i m s o n A . CO p . c it . . 163

5. Suffixes: -esce, -esque, -ate, -ize, -fy, -ette, -ique, -ее, -eer, -ade have the place of stress on the preceding syllable or en them selves, e.g. [picturesque, \Cigairette, technique, \re\e\ree, \рШпеег, \tnarVnade, fluaWfy, tspecia4ize, dictate. 6. Suffixes: -ical, -ic, -ion, -ity, -ian, -dent, -ieticy, -eous, -ual, -uous, -ety, -itous, -ive, -ative (-Hive), -itude, -ident, -inal, -ital, -wards have the place of stress on the preceding syllable, e.g. economic, grammatical, position, majority, ^special, etc. 7. In words of four or more syllables the place of stress is'on the antepenultimate syllable (third from the end), e.g. Emergency f caHamity, historical. In compound words the first element is stressed when: 1. compounds are written as one word, e. g. lappletree, ^bedroom? ^caretaker, 'watchdog, ^downcast; 2. nouns are compounded of a verb and an adverb, e. g. a 'pick up, a ^make-up; 3. nouns in the possessive case are followed by another noun» e. g. a \doWs house, Hady's maid. In compound words the second element is stressed when: 1. food items have the first element which is of a material used in manufacturing the whole, e. g. apple Hart', 2. names of roads, parks and squares are implied, e. g. CaUhedral iRoad, Park Wace (but CaHhedral street); 3. parts of the house and other buildings are implied, e.g. front idoor, kitchen ^window; 4. adjectives with past participles characterizing'personsi e.g.. thick-skinned, cold-blooded (but \downcast); 5. compound nouns ending in -er or -ing are followed by an1 adverb, e.g. passer iby, summing 'кр. Two equal stresses are observed: (a) in composite verbs, e.g* to

(b) in numerals from 13 to 19, e.g. \six4een, ififHeen. The semantic factor is observed in compounds: (a) when compound nouns denote a single idea, e. g. ^blacksmith (кузнец), ^walking stick (палка, трость); \drawing room (гости ная); (b) when the first element of the compound is most important e. g. \birthday (день рождения), \darning needle (штопальная игла; Am. стрекоза); (c) when the first element of the compound is contrasted with some other word, e.g. \flute player (флейтист), not ЫоШ player (скрипач); (d) when a compound is very common and frequently used it may have a single stress, e.g. \midsummer (середина1-1 лета); ^mid night (полночь). The rhythmic tendency is very strong in modem English. Due to its influence there are such accentual variants as: capitalist /■toepitehst/, /katprtelist/, hospitable /Urespitebl/, /hesipitebl/, etc.. In sentences words with two equal stresses can be pronounced!
64

igive \up, to \come If«;

g. How does Gimson mark accentual elements? 14. What factors determine the place and different degree of word-stress? 16. e. g. engineer. To what type of word-stress does the English accentual structure belong? 5.g. What is the difference between fixed and free type of word-stress? 8. e. territory /jteriib:n/ (full style)—/itentri/ (rapid colloquial style). Творог /твбрък/. articulatory and acoustic level? 3. /твлрбк/—both variants are correct. after —1. In everyday speech the following variants of stress patterns can also be observed: J. b) for compound words? 16.g. individual. What types of wordstress do you know? 4. Under the influence of rhythm compounds of three elements may have a single stress on the second element. p Similar cases can be observed in Russian. What is the shifting of word-stress? 9. Under the influence of rhythm a shifting of word-stress can be observed in words with secondary stress.g. g.g. What is the terminology suggested by different authors to distinguish betwen different degrees of word-stress? 12. etc. waste 'paper basket корзина для ненужных бумаг (\hoi \water bottle. occupation. Free accentual variants should not be confused with orthoepically incorrect accentuation. How is stress represented in written form? 13. g. What rules of word-stress do you know a) for prefixal words.). How is stress defined by different authors? 2. e. refugee. How does theseman185 but: Her ^number is Ukirteen ^hundred.g. and п/ъ/шёл. What is the difference between stressed vocalism in English and in Russian? 7. itebl/ Questions 1. To what type of word-stress does the Russian accentual structure belong? 6.: [qualification—ljust qualification—^qualification (emphatic variant). distinctive and recognitive functions? 10. \waste \paper basket may also occur. e. g. e.with one single stress Runder the influence of rhythm. e. stylistically conditioned accentual variants. Uhir-Heen. before in three-syllable words —------. hot iwater bottle грелка. pronounced in rapid colloquial style. employ^ee. e. What is stress on the auditory. This results in the secondary accent. importance 2.g. e. picturesque. hospitable/ ihospitabl/. How does stress perform constitutive. recommendation. which is pronounced in full style. According to the data given by Soviet and foreign phoneticiansthe most common types of English stress pattern are: in two-syllable words — —. The rhythmic stress affects the stress pattern of a great number of words in the English language. e. e. п/А/игёл. . family —I—. e. How can the stress patterns be represent^ ed graphically? 11. free accentual variants.

unaided /lAn'eidid] repack /irkipaek/ tmalienable Ллп'еи^пэЫ/ unaltered /'лп'э:1Ы/ unarmed /Uniarad/ unaspirated /lAn'sespireitid/ unclean /'лп'кШп/ anticyclonic /lantisai'kkmik/ anti-national /isentilnaej9nl/ non-payment /'mm! pennant/ non-resident /'monirezidsnt/ non-stop /inon'stup/ ex-minister /leks1 minis tg/ reopen /'гк'эирэп/ reorganize /'г1:'э:дэпак/ prepaid /'prUpeid/ misspell /imis'spel/ misuse /imis'ju:z/ misrule /'mis'ru:l/ misquote /'mis'kwaut/ misplace /'misipleis/ under-dressed /Undaidrest/ underoificer ^Andatofisa/ underpopulated / ' d ' j leitid/ vice-adrairal /ivais'eedmiral/ vice-consul /'vais'konsal/ pre-history /iprh'histan/ ultra-modern / ' И а 'bad-'tempered. time-table. выпадать imake 'up мириться 'blow 'out взрываться Ipick 'out выбирать igo 'on продолжать 'point 'out указывать 'put ion надевать isit idown садиться Hake 'off снимать (одежду) ifall 'back отступать iget 'back возвращаться ibring 'forth производить 'fix lup устраивать *4. inkpot. Read these compound words with one single stress on the first. inome-imade labsent-imindedf Note.tic factor affect the place of word-stress? 17. anyone Ш . daybreak. Read these composite verbs with two equal stresses. apple-tree. sheep dog. birthday. igood-ilooking. Read these compound adjectives with two equal stresses and translate them. !old-!fashioned. fire-place. and translate them. housewife. How does the rhythmic tendency influence word-stress system in modern English? 18. pillowcase. 'carry 'out выполнять 'come a!cross встречать iget 'up вставать 'see 'off провожать 'set lup устанавливать ifall 'out ссориться. What are the most common types of English stress patterns? Exercises *I. suit-case. Read these compound words with two equal stresses and translate them. bystander. hair-do. everything. most important part of the compound. fbare-'headed. broadcast. school-boy. *2. When a compound adjective has a synonym to its first element. the stress is on the first element: !oval-shaped=oyal Syellow ish-! ooking=yellowish Jsquare-sha ped=square IgreenishIooking=greenish 3. fountain-pen.

Read these pairs of words. It's because they con'trast. 'Contrast makes it seem better. empiricism. 'abstract—to ab'stract 'commune—to co'mmune 'compound—to com'pound ^conflict—to conflict 'contest—to con'test (a) .mathematician 'desert—to de'sert 'forecast—to fore'cast 'import—to im'port 'outgo—to out'go 'produce—to pro'duce (b) ad. It's because of 'contrast. telephone 4-sytlabte words: unimportant. 1. circumlocution 6-sytlabte words: variability. identification 7-and 8-syllable words: unreliability. husband 3-syltabte words: important. Translate them into Russian. Mind the position of secondary stress on the first syllable in the (a) column and on the second syllable in the (b) column. cotton. Translate them into Russian.minis'tration a. airplane.archaeo4ogical . blacksmith.tempera' mental . 'Export is forbidden. relation. newcomer. Read the sentences below to prove the distinctive function of the stress. Translate these words. melancholy. uninteligibility 10. caterpillar. butterdish. 9.modification . excessive.nunci 'ation an.represenitation . 2. butterfly. Read these pairs of words. butter-fingers. table.aristo'cratic . mind the seman tic importance of word-stress (distinctive and recognitive function). mind the impor tance of the form-distinctive accenteine. impenetrability. administrative. bluebottle. 2-syttable words: female. autobiographic. unilateralism. Translate them into Russian. 187 . aristocracy. criticism.f filiation assimilation consideration e. appetite.xami'nation pro.oma mentation . photograph. Mark the accentual elements of these words according to Gimson's accen tual patterns. ^blackboard—'black 'board 'overwork—'over 'work 'blackbird—'black 'bird 'yellow-cup—'yellow 'cup 'strongbox—'strong 'box 'tallboy—'tall 'boy 7. under. insufficient. greatcoat. capitalize 5'Syttable words: satisfactory. Ex'port cotton goods. Contrast Tom with his sister. Read these compound nouns with one stress denoting a single idea and translate them. Read them.tago'nistic academician 8. butter-boat. consideration. bookmark *6. window.qualification . These goods the cities ex'port. over. profile. meteorological.*5. industrialization.

Transcribe the words and put down stress marks in these verbs and nouns. I like his iforecast. Read them according to the model. Give examples of the most common stress patterns in English. Give examples to show the existence of word and form-distinctive accentcmes in English and in Russian. aqueous. . fundamental. hot-waterbottle. phonological. post-graduate. They decided to pro'test. teapot. 188 . office-boy. They gave way without " protest. characteristic. Model: qualification — ljust [qualification (emphatic variant) centralization. beneficial. It's a 'prefix. career. residual. artificial. flat-footed. justification. employee. A iprefix is added. labour exchange. It's what they forecast. dinner-jacket. He is a 'suspect. acquiesce. mail-bag. cigarette. sagittal. birdcage. atomic. impetuous. knee-deep. impossibility. This iprotest was wrong. nationalization. 11. attitudinal. gratitude. ornamentation. overbalance. waste-paper-basket. Put down the stress marks in the words below. ascertain. hospitality. Translate them. waiting-room. sentimentality. intercession. active. 5. saloon. grotesque. ladybird. washstand. He is the man we susipect. composition. Provide these words with necessary stress marks. tape recorder. absent n—absent v compress n~ compress v consort n—consort v produce n—produce v infix n—infix v combine n—combine v concert n—concert v desert n—desert v outlay n—outlay v 3. 4. coalmine. proletarian. antique. upwards Control Tasks *1. handwriting.ir-raid. propriety. satisfactory. efficient. anticipation. phonetic. dancemusic. grandfather. 6. interrogation. shop-window. distribution. 4. We susipect this man. Put down the stress marks in the words below. administration \2. lemonade. This 'forecast was wrong. ground floor. representation. relative. secondhand *2. The 'suspect is here. vice-chancellor. familiarity. It's a paragraph they decided to pre'fix. Protest against it. idiomatic. organization. modification. Tran late them into Rus sian and read according to the stress pattern. unaccountable.3. shopkeeper. Pre'fix a paragraph to Chapter I. cross-question.

'throw-back. 2. 9. 3. 'pick-up . 6. 5. This accent is on. 'head-'on. I import—im 'port 'increase—inJcrease 1 protest—pro 'test 1 record—re'eord ' transport—transport 'object—ob'ject I forecast—fore least icontrast—conl tr ast 8. 7. Mark it with a weak accent. Read the following compounds. The contest wasfriendly. Translate them into Russian- 1. they conflict. They contract serious diseases. They contest it. b) compound words. They conflict with this theory. lali iin.ilooker-'on. It's a contest. 'look-iround. Use the words below in the examples of your own. 'runner-lup. These diseases they contract. Abstract this theory. 'head 'first. Give examples to prove the importance of a) the rhythmic tendency and b> the semantic factor for the system of English word-stress. The abstract is short. the first syllable. They contest this statement. He accents the word» It's the word "son" you are to accent. Put down stress marks in the sentences below. Translate them into Russian. iknocker-lup. It's finished in a conflict. fflashbacki Qie-idown. It's a contract. iwashing-'up. 4. Still.5. The contract was signed. A conflict took place. Give examples to illustrate the rules of word-stress for a) prefixal words. Uook-out.

If a word is stressed the strong form must be used. has./idstm sas^pekts Ьэ/ W e adore them. I John111 come.g. /9set iplei ai iso: wsz »d 4. Given below are the lists of essential weak and contracted forms. H a ve as a m ain v erb is u sually in the s tron g fo rm . him .VIII. 'w e've. e. e.g . /z. have. ithey've a 'bit of a problem. for example at the beginning of a sentence. The /h/ is in variably used following a pause. m ay or m ay not be preceded by /h/. lie.wont/ That play I saw was wonderful. we've. e. They are more common than non-contracted or full forms. /'aiv. slow or rapid tempo. e. n/ in contracted forms are typically syllabic. they've {never he has. <ls> is pronounced as /z/ after all lenis (excluding 5. In other cases the use of the /h/-forms is in free varia tion with /h/-less forms. Demonstrative pronoun that always has the strong form (even if not stressed). 5. John suspects her. 6. 'I've. Where did Mary come irom? /Iwss did imsan fn>m/ 4 клт The only exceptions are pronouns. /1(%оп1хклт/ ibread and vbuiter /'oread n 8. she has). /Basts igizaekth wot ai . 'w i:v. iSeiv э 'bit 9v э ч ртЫ зт/ 7.g. e. Weak forms ending in are not used before vowels (see /э/ table for special forms). g. 2. The weak forms of words beginning with /h/. /wi. STRONG AND WEAK FORMS.g. That's exactly what I want. UNSTRESSEDVOCALISM In actual speech there is a great number of words which are -pro nounced in the weak or contracted form. It applies to all styles and different man ner of speech — formal or informal. etc. Scnorants /1.vs 5эт/ do: 3. m. The Use of Weak and Contracted Forms 1. and after vowels: . Strong form s are used at th e end of the intonation group <even if the word is unstressed. They retain the weak form in final position.g. s d e laines contracted forms with have may be used: I've. e.

/ar/ before vowels /s. т / /a/. du/ other auxiliary and modal verbs /к э п / A M /'' d/ /ad. z/ /wa/. tu/ used before vowels /mta/. /war/ used before vowels auxiliary v^rh have has ('s) have ('ve) had (*d) do does can will shall would should must could /az. n/ /az/ /San/. mas/ /kud. V/ /ad. a/ before consonants /эт. n/ only before vowels /?a. d/ /mast. kd/ /dAZ/ I9L . or/ before vowels conjunctions and as than that but or particles there to /ffa/ before consonants / 0эг/ before vowels /ta/ before consonants /tu/ before vowels /at/ /fa/. ffi/ before vowels /and. /far/ before vowels /fram/ /av/: /a/ often used before /ö/ /ta/. /sd. d/ /da. /intu/ before vowels /Bra/ prepositions at for from of t o ' into through verb be am ('m') are ('re) is ('s) was were / э т . an. s. /ffsen/ is hardly ever used /Sat/ /bat/ /o-. z/ /av.Tibs 7 Essential Weak Forms Class Word Weak Forms articles a an the /э/ not before vowels /эп. /tu:.

t. 102 .Продолжение Class pronouns Word Weak Forms them us our you he she we me her /Ээт. з:/. hi.Spoken Contracted Form tracted Form Comments I am you are he is she is it is we are they are I'm you're he's she's it's we're they're /aim/ /jo:. Not necessarily used if have is a main verb. wid. Jud/. mi/ /ha. Jiz. Cannot be used iF have is a main verb. /Ju/ /hi. juar/ before vowels /wfcar/ "1 before /Эеэг/ / vowels have I have you have he has she has it has we have they have I've you've he's she's it's we've they've /aiv/ /J«v/ * fill'Of /its/ /wkv/» / 9eiv/ Not necessarily used if have is a main verb. jua/ /hfcz/ » /W * /its/ /'wte / /Зеэг/ Лкг. wiv. /э/ before consonants negatives not nor /not. shall will I shall you will he will she will I'll you'll he'll she'll Ä/ /ail/ г ■ These may be contracted /tiB. Jul. wi/ /mi. w». i/ /Л. Juv. at/ /no/ before consonants /пэг/ before vowels Essential Contracted Forms Derivation be Full Form Written Con. Л/ /wi. EFm/ /as/ /a-/ (is also used in stressed contexts) /juV.

shouldn't /iznt./'ffearer. All auxiliaries may combine with n't to form contracted forms and only the most significant and/or irregular are given here.nt/1 /wa:nt/ /daunt/ /Jamt/ /waunt/ A a n t / /'n us n t/ /desnt/ Also used in aren't.Продолж ение Derivation Full Form Written Contracted Form Spoken Contracted Form Comments it will we shall/will they will tfii we'll they'll /'Itl/ / Wi:l/ /foil/ had+ should/ would I had (should) would you had (should) wouldhe had/wouldshe had/wouldit had/would we had/wouldthey had/would I'd you'd he'd she'd it'd we'd they'd /aid/ /jad/ /hi. let let us let's /lets/ Only as verb. couldn't. vowels Зегэ/ /Эта!. »э1/ /Dead. auxiliary there there is there are there wil! there would there's there are there'll there'd /Эеэг. kudnt. 'Эегэг/ before Ээг/ /Яеагэ. woznt. There are many more such as isn't. 'Judnt/.d/ Affcd/ /itad/ / wfcd/ /Seid/ Context usually makes it clear whether had or should/ would is meant. wasn't. not are not were not do not shall not will not cannot must not dare not aren't weren't don't shan't won't can't mustn't daren't /d. This Is tiow heard only In 7-182 193 . Яег. ifed/ The older contracted form of aren't and Isn't was uln't.

i:. when. what. /imseks iz ikAmirj Jeite/ Mr. ai/ are unstressed rather often. /ipi:ts 4 клт/ <is> is pronounced as /iz/ after /s. /irrjbsts %gon' I Pete's come. on. ou/ are always unstressed. where As has already been mentioned. For example the indefinite article a may be pronounced as /э/. The major role in the system of unstressed vocalism in English belongs to the neutral vowel /a/.7—/э/ herd /ha:d/—shepherd /!j"ep3d/. g. э. иэ/ are practically never unstressed. tf/)j Uack's here. is/ are rarely unstressed. Э : au. up. e. He may be pronounced as /hi'/ which diilers from /hi:/ quantitatively.g. /icfceunz ez difsaidid ta %li:v/ 9. /i:/—/э/ the /5i:/— the lesson /Зэ Uesn/ /e/—/9/ pence /pens/—three pence /trepans/ /se/—/э/ land /lsend/—England /lirjgfend/ /a/—/3/ particle /«ptttikl/—particular /psltikjula/ Ы—Ш a combine /э ikombain/—to combine /Ь кэт'Ьат/ /и/—/э/ fully /ifult/—playfully /ipleifah/ /и:/—/э/ to him /tu. / D :. According to the data of modern phoneticians /i. which differs from /ei/ qualitatively.. /ivsenz чклт/ Boy's gone. Some common grammatical words do not have a regular weak form. / o b t / iVan's . ja. The neutral vowel /з/ may alternate with any vowel of full formation. then. <has> is pronounced as /3z/. еэ.come. It originated as a result of the development of the analytical grammar structures. X. u. e. /'dsseks vhi3/ (Robert's gone. In the word potato the final / 9U/ remains unchanged though it occurs in an unaccented syllable /pa'teitsu/. 01.raivd/ Jones has decided to leave. Max is coming later. /miste 'tradj эг a.g. one. /ei/—/э/ face /feis/—preface /iprefas/ /ai/—/э/ shire /J1 аю/—Yorkshire /ijo:kjty /аи/—Ш mouth /mau0/—Plymouth /'рктэО/ 194 . u:. Л . /tboiz vgon/ <is> is pronounced as /s/ after the fortis (excluding /s.g.iBob's v here. t)7. /ei.him/—to the table /ta Ъ Iteibl/ /Л/—/Э/ some Mm/—tiresome /itaiasgm/ /3. which led to the reduction of some vowels not only in inflexions but also in other parts of lexical and grammatical words. J 1 . unstressed vowels in English may either change their quality and quantity or remain unchanged. e. Hodge has arrived. z.

/IB/ paragraph /ipasragrof/ conservatoire /kanJseivatva:/ radar /ireida:/. some /элт/ — some /sam/ /3/ performs distinctive function.g. a/ in the first pretonic syllable are both pronounced as /л/: /л/ ват. Similar pairs in which the members differ in quality prove the independent phonemic status of the /э/ phoneme. The peculiarity of the unstressed vocalism of Russian is that an unstressed vowel never preserves its full form. or a variant of the phoneme with which it alternates? This question can be answered in terms of the distinctive function of the phoneme. In the sentence / read some /sam/ books some means "several". From the position of the Moscow and Leningrad phonological schools the relations between the vowel of full formation and /э/ in the pairs mentioned above should be viewed differently. artistic /o:itistik/ are very common in English. Cases like potato /pa'teitgu/. IЦ лень. e. because Ы is considered by them in the pairs like /sAm/ — /ssm/ to be an allophone of the /л/ phoneme. g.g. /0. In the Russian language vowels in unstressed syllables may coincide in speech. for example./эй/—/э/ folk /fouk/—Norfolk /'пэ:Гэк/ /га/ —/э/ revere /nivis/—reverence /irevarens/ /еэ/ —/э/ there's /Öeaz/—there's S On the phonological level the question arises about the phonemic status of the neutral vowel /э/. e. E. Is it an independent phoneme. The representatives of the Leningrad school state that in the above examples /3/ and /л/ undergo interphonemic changes and that they are separate phonemes. er — teacher /ftiitfa/ ar —mortar /'mo:to/ or—motor /imauts/ et—foreign /iform/ ir— elixir /iihksa/ ie—hobbie /Ihobi/ ou(s)—famous /ifeimas/ 7* 195 . or hyperphoneme. In pairs like. /ireida/ /1/ graduate /tgrsedjuit/ surface /'seihs/ effect /lifekt/ ticket /itikit/ /эй/ also /ID:IS9U/ zero /tziaröu/ /л/ tumult /ltju:mAlt/ There are some digraphs in English which are pronounced in unstressed syllables either as /э/ or /1/. The representatives of the Moscow phonological school consider such relations to be interaHophonic. In the sentence / read some /алт/ book some means "a certain".

would. dictionary. abstract adj. относительное местоимение) variety (разнообразие) estimable (достойный уважения) —army (армия) —illusion (иллюзия) —tell him (скажи ему) —city (город) —foreword (предисловие) —experiment (экспериментиро вать) —some (некоторый. can. 5. shall. a) Transcribe these words and underline the sounds of full formation in the pretonJc syllables. cannot. указательное местоимение) —various (различный) —estimate (оценивать) *2. had + should. asphalt n. Transcribe these words. 6. Transcribe these words. often. there} Use them in your own examples or in the examples taken from literature. b) Give examples of Russian vowel reduction in a similar position. particles let. 4. for the negative not. какой-то) —that (тот. 3. What are the peculiar features of English unstressed vocalism? Exercises •1. content n. emission eleven ensign abstract usurp Uganda upturn urbane aorta oil-painting coyote aerologist . conjunctions. What are essential contracted forms for the verbs to be. With what vowels of full formation does hi alternate? 9. session. armour (броня) allusion (намек) tell 'em (скажи им) sitter (живая натура) forward (передний) experiment (опыт) some (некоторое количество) that (который. Underline the vowels of full formation in the unstressed position. to have and the negatives not. Are weak and contracted forms common for actual speech? 2. What phonological status does Ы possess? 10. institute *3. April. nor are pronounced in the weak forms. expert n. export n. Give examples in which the verbs to be. Give examples in which auxiliary verbs are pronounced in their weak forms. humbug.Questions 1. will. What role does the phoneme /э/ play in the system of unstressed vocalism? 8. difficult. Read them. What rules for the use of weak and contracted forms do you know? 7. have *4. Mind the dropping off of hi in the unstressed position. Transcribe these words. Single out the pairs of phonemes in which /э/ alternates with the vowel of full formation in the unstressed position. particles and prepositions are pronounced in the weak forms. epoch. some. protest n. comment n. Give examples in which articles. conference. special. blackguard. to have.

" /'Sset imaen v sed iSssts »gud/ Let's do it tomorrow. /1клт fa 5з »tikit/ Come for a change. /ai iwont isAra . highway. WF. simplify. 'but there's only one "1" in Philip and you've put in two. pantheon. Write out some examples of the strong and weak forms. humpback. The Guardian newspaper is famous for its misprints. 'I don't want to seem ungrateful. Transcribe these words. it was duly placed above his usual seat on the wall and unveiled at a small ritual. outdoor. /I8i:z ibuks эг kintnstirj/ These bags are black. Red and white. simplicity. armature 2.wait/ That man said: "That's good. skylark.' said the recipient. misprint preserved in brass for posterity. /hi 'ni:dz ssm v buks/ I want some book. peering at it closely. Mark them with SF. accordingly. Use them to illustrate the peculiar feature of the 2j [English unstressed vocalism. Read the exercise. Transcribe the passage below. latchkey. Some years ago the El Vino wine bar decided to put up a plaque in honour of Philip Hope-Wallace. /aim э vstjudsnt/ These boys are naughty. dining-room. there is even a Guardian. raincoat.' .objective orchestral idea outwit hereunder Eurasian S. protest n. bulldog. 3. /ai lhaev 'mem v buks/ He needs some books. /1клт far 3 v feind5/ Would you like to stay? /iwud ju Uaik ta 4 stei/ Do you want to argue? /Idu ju iwrjnt tu . convoy. /'Öi:z ibsegz э Jilgsk/ Which is correct? /iwitj* iz kajekt/ I have many books. /Ired (3)n.' 'How can that be?' gasped the management.buk/ Come for the ticket. Why. highbrow. raconteur and critic. mildew. Pay attention to the strong and weak forms which are singled out. underwear.agju:/ You shouldn't have done it /ju Ijudnt av k dAn it/ Control Tasks *1. heart-burn. woodcut.nrarau/ I ' m a student. 'We were careful to check with the Guardian. And so. /Jöi:z 'boiz э 4no:ti/ These books are interesting. /llets Idu: it ts. Give some examples from the English language to illustrate the qualitative and quantitative changes of vowels in the unstressed position. rainbow. Prove the functional independence of the id phoneme in the English language. its most faithful and probably wittiest habitue. *4. into. mentioning his eminence as a wit.

Armstrong. tamber (voice quality). Sweet.IX. sentence stress. Ward. They convey the attitude of the speaker. 2. Kingdon. Intonation is very important. There are two main approaches to the problem of intonation in Great Britain. melody. expresses contrasts and attitudes. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may be called grammatical. MELODY Speech melody or pitch of the voice is closely connected with sentence stress. Tonality marks the beginning and the end of a tone-group. Intonation is a complex of three systemic variables: tonality. or prosodic features of speech: 1. which are linguistic. but the word "meaning" stands apart from communicative function of intonation. The founder of theTAmerican school of intonation is K. In fact the aim of communication determines the intonation structure not vice versa. Antipova in her "System of English Intonation" characterizes the approach of the American school to the study of intonation system as "mechanical". Tonicity marks the focal point of each tone-group. which are connected with grammatical categories. 3. pausation). A. Tones can be primary and secondary. It organizes a sentence. G. They pay much attention to these "blocks" but not to the way they are connected. L. It is traditional and widely used. Tone is the third unit in Halliday's system. A. 4. gives prominence to words and phrases. The two main functions of intonation are: communicative and expressive. Intonation is treated by them as a layer that is superimposed on the lexico-grammatical structure. Jones. which are capable of creating an effect of relative prominence. Halliday. divides sentences into intonation groups. Palmer. I. pitch of the voice. Gimson and others. In his book "The Intonation of American English" he considers "pitch phonemes" and "contours" to'be the main units of intonation. The first is represented by a large group of phoneticians: H. of accent. J. Their theory is based on the assumption that intonation consists of basic functional "blocks". Crystal states that "the only realizations of stress. are those which are effected with the complex 198 . О 'Connor. The grammatical approach to the study of intonation was worked out by M. He describes different contours and their meanings. temporal characteristics (duration. Halliday's theory is based on the syntactical function of intonation. The main unit of intonation is a clause. According to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning can be attached is a tone-group (sense-group). tempo. INTONATION Intonation is a complex unity of non-segmental. D. tonicity and tone. R. determines communicative types of sentences and clauses. rhythm. Pike. 5.

rising-falling-rising and level tone (the latter is not nuclear). Palmer has four basic tones: falling. Kingdon distinguishes high and low..rise (the latter is considered a conflation of two simple tunes). falling. O'Connor and Arnold give low and high falls and rises. tone (tonetic) units. complex and compound. rise-fall. v compound rising. and subordinating tonal sequences (■' " dissimilar tone groups). High. The change of pitch within the last stressed syllable of the tone-group is called a nuclear tone. normal and emphatic tones and gives rising. 4+ . .Low Rise. It may occur not only in the~nucleus but extend to the tail — terminal tone.— P. and a compound fall 4. fall-rise. 120. High Wide Rise. high rising. High Narrow Fall. \ '. Mid and Low level. 2 Crystal's terminology. medium and low pitch of the voice is shown on the staves. the system of Crystal D. falling-rising. Halliday recognizes seven major types. Each tone unit has one peak of prominence in the form of a nuclear pitch movement and a slight pause after the nucleus that end the tone unit and is usually shorter than the term "pause" in pausation system. Low Rise.level. which correspond to unstressed and stressed syllables within the voice range. He also mentions high-falling and "low level" and describes coordinating tonal sequences ("" identical tone groups). л+/ . He states that tones can be moving and level. staves with dots and dashes. or peak of prominence. л compound falling. The most common compound tones are: High Fall + High Fall.help of pitch. tone groups (phonological definition)a intonation groups. etc. The range usually depends on the pitch level: the higher the pitch..rising-falling-rising. ' high rising.— Cambridge. . the wider the range. Fall-Rise. which is often referred to as nuclear tone. pitch and stress patterns. They are: Low Fall. The inventory of tonal types given by different scholars is different. tonetic stress marks. л . High Wide Fall. low rising. rising-falling. The most important is pitch." L Successive contours of intonation singled out of the speech flow may be defined differently: sense-groups (semantic approach). Level Tones can be pitched at High. Vassilyev gives ten tone units. Rise-Fall. Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English. 1969. »low falling. Sweet distinguishes 8 tones: . low rising. v . The system of staves is the most vivid. High Narrow Rise. Moving tones can be: simple. Methods of indicating intonation are different: wedge-like symbols. 199 1 . The tone unit is one of the most important units of intonation theory. High Fall 4. falling-rising (divided and undivided). лhigh falling. The interval between the highesfand the lowest pitched syllable is called the range of a sense-group. quantity and quality variations. It contains one nucleus. numerical system. breath-groups (extra-linguistic approach). Rise-Fall-Rise.

within which fall or rise in the intona tion group is accomplished. 4. mid and low: rising • * • mid 4 f # low Scales can be: descending. that's why they are most popular in our textbooks. even ing for me. 3. According to the changes in the voice pitch preheads can be: rising. It's been a 'very igood . that follow the nucleus.* ascending sliding ascending scandent nmminiS 1C thef^ds sш the descending scale is made specially 1 arr ]aced before 200 SB5 th/f 4 rJ Pon the staves. unstressed and half stressed syllables preceding the first stressed syllable constitute the prehead of the intonation group. dash-mark which indicates the or before the word the stressed syllable . the syllables (or one syllable). body or scale of the intonation group. the syllable marked with the nuclear tone may take a level stress. the last stressed syllable. is called the nucleus.g. 'The tonetic units that constitute the total tone pattern (contour) are the following: 1. descending and ascending scales can be: stepping. ascending and level. Г prehead scale nucleus tail The most important part of the intonation group is the nucleus. descending stepping descending sliding descending scandent — _ * t * \ ascending stepping 4 I . which carries nuclear stress (nuclear tone). stressed and unstressed syllables up to the last stressed syllable constitute the head. 2.tonetic symbols is the most economical and vivid. sliding and scandent. consti tute the tail. e. According to the direction of pitch movement within and between syllables.

'John is |very tbusy. Nuclear stress is the strongest — it carries the most important information. which are made more prominent in an intonation group. see unstressed vocalism). anybody. F.g. Indefinite pronouns: somebody. "person". OR ACCENT Sentence stress is a greater prominence of words. The level tones may express hesitation and uncertainty. Of all the level tones mid level tone is used most frequently. nobody. something. The attitudinal function of different tonal types in statements. anything (used as subject). high partial stress can occur before a low head. The falling tones convey completion and finality. they are categoric in character. Full stress occurs only in the head of an intonation group. Emphatic pronouns. Partial stresses in the prehead are most frequently of a low variety. in the case of accent it is pitch. partial stress occurs also in the prehead and tail. The rising tones are incomplete and non-categoric. In tone-groups stress may undergo alternations under the influence of rhythm. none. no one. Given below is the list of words that are usually stressed: Nouns. commands and interjections is accurately and thoroughly described in the "Intonation of Colloquial English" by J. someone. Indefinite proSuch as "thing". O'Connor and G. anyone.1 Adjectives. SENTENCE STRESS. In the latter cases it is not only that the type of the nucleus is important but also the pitch of the utterance preceding the nucleus: prehead and head. Possessive pronouns (absolute form). Demonstrative pronouns. Interjections. 201 . "place" are unstressed. accompanied by changes in the quantity of the vowels under stress (in unstressed position vowels may undergo qualitative changes. The difference between stress and accent is based on the fact that in the case of stress the dominant perceptual component is loudness. e. but there are some rules concerning words that are usually stressed or unstressed in an utterance. Arnold and in our textbooks on phonetics. Numerals. Attitudinal function of intonation can be observed in utterances consisting of one word and in utterances consisting of more than a single word. nothing. The special prominence of accented words is achieved through the greater force of utterance and changes in the direction of voice pitch. D. Interrogative pronouns.made specially prominent in the text—f\/ accidental rise. Non-nuclear stresses are subdivided into full and partial. Degrees of stress in an utterance correlate with the pitch range system. Words given partial stress do not lose their prominence completely. Indefinite negative pronouns: no. they retain the whole quality of a vowel. This type of scale is called up broken descending scale. special and general questions.

also.T>. something. which tool he hid in the barn. — exceptions with the initial unstressed syllables. Two-word prepositions. The perception of boundaries between rhythmic groups is associated with the stressed syllables or peaks of prominence. Reciprocal pronouns. I gave2 him a spade. Indefinite pronouns: somebody. must changes depending on whether they "are stressed or unstressed. g. The'phenomenon of rhythm is closely connected with the phonetic nature of stress. e. even. The units of the rhythmical structure of an utterance are stress groups от rhythmic groups. Each sense-group of the sentence is pronounced at approximately the same period of time. 202 . Particles: only. Particles: there. Auxiliary verbs (negative contracted forms). Indefinite pronouns: all. someone. Indefinite quantitative pronouns: much. You may 'go — permission. unstressed syllables are pronounced more 1 The pronoun which in non-defining clauses is usually stressed. they help to perform constitutive. The meaning of the verbs may. non-initial unstressed syllables are enclitics: **^~^ — usual rhythm pattern. a few. any (expressing quality). each. RHYTHM AND TEM PO Rhythm is the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. as a rule. Auxiliary verbs2 (affirmative form). too. distinctive and identificatory function of intonation. to. e. The words that are usually unstressed: Personal pronouns. anyone. or to the following stressed syllables — proclitics.1 Possessive pronouns (conjoint form). Relative pronouns. Two-word conjunctions. every. In general questions the affirmative forms may be stressed and unstres sed. anybody. These functions are performed jointly with the pitch component of intonation. initial unstressed syllables cling to the following stressed syllables. any (when expressing quantity). other. should. You '•may go — possibility.g. One-word prepositions and conjunctions. Indefinite pronouns some. just. Modal verbs (contracted forms and general questions are exceptions). many. Reflexive pronouns. Articles. Stresses in an utterance provide the basis for identification and understanding of the content. a little. both. either. It^is' so'typical of an English phrase that the incorrect rhythm betrays the non-English origin of the speaker even in cases of "correct" pronunciation. anything (used as object). In English. Notional verbs. .nouns some. Unstressed syllables have a tendency to cling to the preceding stressed syllables — enclitics.

it is a more general concept. g. The tamber orTthe voice quality is a special colouring of the speaker's voice. performing a unifying. It is studied along the lines of quality: whisper. e. I \ \ L Pauses are usually divided into filled and unfil ed. They may be used for emphasis. and qualification: laugh. resonant. Attitudinal function of pausation can be affected through voiced pauses. s:/. to attach special importance to the word. which is the permanently present person-identifying background. They are marked I l t I \ l. suspence. They play the semantic and syntactic role. Pauses made between sense-groups are shorter than pauses made between sentences. It is an additional means of expressing the speaker's emotions. Rhythm is connected with sentence stress. falsetto. sadness. constitutive function. Another subdivision of pauses is into breathing and hesitation. cry (the list compiled by Cafford and Laver). 203 . Under the influence of rhythm words which are normally pronounced with two equally strong stresses may lose one of them. e. The number and the length of pauses affect the general tempo of speech. applicable to the inherent resonances of any sound. tremulousness. indignation. breathy. Their length is relative to the tempo and rhythmicality norms of an individual. Tamber should not be equated with the voice quality only. They are longer than pauses between sense-groups and are marked by two parallel bars /Ц/. Silent pauses are distinguished on the basis of relative length: brief. which length is controlled by the person who is about to speak. anger. sob. etc. or may have their word stress realized differently. g. which are used to signal hesitation. There was no love j lost between them (they did not love each other). A slower tempo makes the utterance more prominent and more important. creak. such as joy. giggle. Pauses play not only segmentative and delirnitative functions. unit. double and treble. husky. the quicker they are pronounced. which follows it.rapidly: the greater the number of unstressed syllables. they show relations between utterances and intonation groups. There was no love tost between them (they loved each other). Proclitics are pronounced faster than enclitics. Such pauses have the quality of the central vowels /э. doubt. The exception is "end-of-utterance" pause. 'Picca'dilly—-'Piccadilly 'Circus—'close to Picca'dilly I princess—a 'royal prin'cess lindiarubber—a 'piece of india'rubber—an Hndiarubber v ball PAUSATION AND TAMBER Pausation is closely connected with the other components of intonation. corresponding to voiced and silent pauses. It is used to express various emotions and moods. Pauses made between two sentences are obligatory.

Tempo. 3. Low Falls in final sense-groups. They are briefly the following: Sense-groups. In reading descriptive and scientific prose and in newspaper material it is mid. scientific prose style. but make cer204 . Compound tunes are frequent. newspaper style. it is quicker in parenthetic and absolute constructions. 5. Mostly falling with a High Narrow Fall in non-final sensegroups of descriptive and scientific prose (High. The tempo is moderate. they are normally short in public speeches. drama. newspapers. They are mostly logical. a Fall-Rise in non-final sense-group). publicistic style. The tempo of public speeches depends on the size of the audience and the topic. Pitch. tales or newspaper material they depend on the syntax or the contents. Complex tones are often used in the dialogical parts. It is constant and slow in poetry. The tonetic contour of tales is characterized by pitch fluctuations. tales. It is changeable and moderate in drama. than in reading the descriptive and scientific prose.STYLISTIC USE OF INTONATION There are five verbal functional styles (also referred to as registers or discourses): 1. They are shorter in drama than in descriptive and scientific prose. Pauses. In reading drama pausation depends on the structure and rhythmic organization. Mostly slow falling. the belles-lettres style. centralized in dialogues and emphatic parts. It fluctuates in reading tales. In public speeches Falling Tones in non-final sensegroups are more abrupt than in final sense-groups. Stress. The climax of a speech is characterized by a change in tempo. the style of official documents. Fall + Level. spontaneous speech and phatic communion. Mid. Tones. mostly constant in reading descriptive and scientific prose and in newspapers. Simple and complex in final and non-final sensegroups in reading drama. They are mostly Fall-|-Fall. Compound tones: Fall + Fall. The Rising Tone is more frequent in reading non-final groups of tales than in the descriptive prose. poetry. public speeches. It is rather wide in public speeches — narrow in reading poetry. In poetry the line usually ends in a pause (if there is no enjambement). It is wider in reading drama. In public speeches it is based on the rhythmic organization of rhythmic groups and sense-groups. 4. which corresponds to a sense-group and consists of more than six syllables. 2. Abrupt in reading newspaper. In the case of oral representation of written texts we speak about intonational peculiarities of: descriptive and scientific prose. In solemn speeches Level Tones combined with the High Level Scale are often used to convey the attitude of the speaker. rising and level (the Level Tone is often combined with the High Level Scale). Rhythmic organization. In reading descriptive and scientific prose. In reading tales it depends greatly on the syntactical and compositional structure. It is mostly decentralized in monologues and narrative parts. range and loudness. In poetry the main unit is the line. Rise + Fall — in reading poetry. In public speeches pauses not only divide the utterance into sense-groups.

Observe (a) the low falling tone and (b) the high fall ing tone.deed. poor thing (a) She is . what's up 3. clean the board. thank. (b) She is 'cold. right. Speak on the stylistic use of intonation. 2. good morning. quin sy. He is 'not 'well. 'Don't 'take the 'lamp. The most typical tones are: Fall + Fall. Exercises 1. A wide use of simple tones. The Level Tone is often combined with the High Level Scale. Observe the tone marks. Fall + Level. It is the main lexico-grammatical and intonational unit of poetry. b) sentence stress. cottage. You can 'have it. (5) fall-rise. wrong. There are hesitation pauses. what.coming? 2. 1. something. Read these sentences. go on. He is inot 4well. Read these words with the six main tones: (1) low fall. blackboard. (b) sit down. well. c) rhythm and tempo. London. cord. vdeeds Adeed feed. behind Tom. (a) please. (6) rise-fall. modern. 'Father is at 'home. I When are you . Read these sentences. long ago. country.Long pauses often anticipate the main information and isochronous units — lines. 'Don't I take the Jamp. 4. 3. 'Don't go a^lone. Poetry is characterized by the following intonational peculiarities: 1. 'Why are you 'late? 'Betty is in 'bed. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided fallingrising tone.. window. foreign. Mother is 'busy. (a) cousin. 'Why are you 4Iate? 'Betty is in vbed. d) pausation and tamber. husband. I When did you 'last 'see your . not large. bathroom. dear.morro\v. (b) with the divided falling-rising tone. (4) high rise. 'deed. How is intonation defined? 2. midday. . She 'never 'really 205 . Lines constitute a stanza.tain units prominent. Rise + Fall. (b) put down. 'Mother is vbusy. matter. (2) low rise. read. 'Father is at vhome. listen. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided risingfalling tone. begin. Model: vdeed. quarter 2. come up.hospital. Speak on: a) the melody or the pitch component of intonation. (b) with the divided rising-falling tone. She is at the 'hospital. What are the main approaches to the study of intonation? 3. (3) high fall. bedroom. parents? 4. come. 4. She is at the . write down. 'Don't go a'lone. 5. bad. to.cold. Questions 1. 'deed. good day.

didn't she? 3. 2. She 'won't Ido it any 'better than . 'What did you -say? 8.can't I? 7. 6. iDon't (go to the . It's tall .don't they? 1. . You ican't go to the Iparty idressed like v that. I 'want to v talk to you.new.doesn't she? 6.was there. He 'read this book. 11.you. grim attitude) low fall 1. Reipair the . 'Leave the idoor . (b) disjunctive questions (statement of a fact provoking the listener's reaction) They 4 know about it. I was Jbusy that day. I t ' s 'always the . 9. 7.isn't it? They Nknow about it. She (worked x hard at her English. . How Iquick the (young (people 206 . 5. 2. 'Sew the ibutton on to your ^coat. 6.over now! 4.open. iStop iteasing your vsisterl 5. 'Wash and 'iron your 4 dress.tape recorder.Üooks very v welL б. The iweather is Jovelyi 3. (d) exclamations (weighty and emphatic) iHow ridiculous! 1. . I ' m fso .) Read the same questions with the above shown sequence. . . I can 'do something. 14.How long do you *want to 'keep it? 10.isn't he? 5. 5. 4. 4.concert.same. 7. iTom is already 4en. 1. indifferent. 'Finish this 4 worlc 8. 6. Would you Hike a'nother I lump of 'sugar? 12. You iknew he .didn't he? 2. . You might have v warned me. . 13. They are in the Vater. reserved. (c) commands (firm and serious attitude) iShow me your xticket. Read the following communicative types with the appropriate attitudes: (a) categoric statements (cool. l My books are jfairly . lHang up the ^time-table. iTurn ion the flight. 3. I What k country are you from? 3. .aren't they? 4. I Ican't ispeak Spanish. Your isister (wants to Istudy 'German. It's (five o'clock. It's 'easier to ispeak than to (understand. Will you Iwait till I've lhad itime to 'look for it. .happy! 2. ^don't they? (You are sure that the listener agrees with what you say.

What's all this . Make the questions warm. 'What do you . 'What's the 'time? Pronounce the same questions with the falling-rising nuclear tone to plead for sympathy. responsible) What's the »time? 1.time? -v Pronounce the same questions with the rising-falling tone to make it challenging. 'What a itidy »room! 7.»are! 6. .fuss about? Pronounce the same questions with the rising nuclear tone. iSuch Iselfish lyoung »men! (e) special questions (serious. weary. What did you Mo in the „evening? 4. Who is igoing to !do the »shopping? Pronounce the saroe questions with the low rising tone to show interest. I Wonderful 'language laboratory! 9. What's the . "'What's the .When d i d you *come there? Pronounce the same questions with the high falling nuclear tone to show business-like interest. intense. I When did you Icome vhome? 2. antagonistic. iHow did you 'spend the 'time »yesterday? 5. 'Lovely »weather! 8. affectionate. What's the 'time? Pronounce the same questions with the high rising nuclear tone to ask for a repetition.time? (f) alternative questions (the final fall shows that the list is complete) 207 .do? 3. following the interrogative word to show disapproval.

matter? Does it . Make the final prepositions strong. Read these sentences. "I Van't answer this question. 3. oranges? 4. (n) requests (pleadingly./-/ — the high prehead . 9.fish or 4 meai? 3. IThis 'letter was «much talked about. 'Go . careful dissent. reluctance. I Can you have an [afternoon . Read these sentences. ~ I have no 1 time for . 'Will you in.lunch today. I ' l l Icome as 'soon as he ^pleases. 4 Come in. Don't stress the correlative conjunction "as . . IThis 'thing was ^theirs. 'This Iboy should be v sent for.late. IThis I thing was Jhis.oranges? Do you 'like . concern. 2. Make the auxiliary and modal verbs that begin sen tences stressed to show greater interest.help it? 8.done it. 1.lonel 6. polite correction. 2. 2. What is she 4 here for? 8.coffee or ^cocoa? (g) statements containing an implication. ~You are 'not .off? Can you have an lafterinoon . iWhat do you 4 want it for? 4. 1. 6. "1 'work systematically.bread or v meat? 2. Read these sentences. iNothing to be afraid of. It was iMary he was ^looking for.mine. it may be: suggestion. 4. IThis (thing was . iWhere did she t come from? 7. am 'not . 7. 'Do for. 'Would you like potatoes or to^matoes? 5. It's tnot as 'simple as v that. iCould they . (Would you like .late. I'll iread as Hong as the fchild Jikes. 1. iDo you like . 10. 9.fish or 4 eggs? 4. 5. 'This ithing was v yours. reassuringly) \ J 1. 4. 'Cheer . as"- 1. x 2. 5. Make the possessive pronouns that are used as predic atives stressed. 2. IThis 'thing was s ours.perfectly.vite me? 7. 7. (Jane was as 1 /. 4.on. Would you like . Read these sentences. 6.1.help it? Could they . "I 'should have .up.cucumbers or t beets? 7. l l s he going to . 'Don't . Would you like . 3.right.do it. It's a ithing unheard of. reproachfully. Would you like . 3. "I v hope I am 'not .come? Is he Igoing to . 'Don't |do it a.give me. 'Would you like . It was 'Bess he was v there with. . iDoes it . 5. 4. You 'can sing .off? 5. grateful admittance. «Would you like carrots or 4 cabbage? 6. 10.matter? 2.come? 3. 5. Whom are you t talking to? 3. J 1. What is implied is clear from the situation. 3.

Observe the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables according to the given stress tone marks. a) You will need a permit in order to visit that place. 2.high 'Like a'diamond Jin the vsky. 6. 5. I Up albove the I world so . 7. 'How I 'wonder iwhat you 4are. 1 's scale. He 'said """Good xmorning" or something. Pay attention to the differentiatory function of stress in the italicized words. and (Went |onwith his 4work. it does not permit of any delay. In 'summer jquite the 'other vway I _^bave to Jgo to J>bed by % day. 8. The mark Ijl indicates a stressed accented syllable In the scandent fi—182 209 . We'll ibuy a . lUria was as 'slippery as an »eel. This ifruit will be Ired in a 4 month or so.(pale as ä vghost. "one another". Uack and (Jill went fup the . He was a ^bootmaker and a vgood one. "or something". * * * In 'winter 'I get lup at x night And I dress by I yellow 'candle | light. The Ipassengers 'seemed to Jike one another.crown. iDid'you •say: "As I snug as a I bug in a jug?" 11. To I fetch a ipail of »water. 2. b') This is obviously a silver tip. Transcribe and intone the sentences below. 1. 1.down and I broke his . He will 'come in an vhour or so. a) He spoke with no trace of accent. 'Twinkle.'6.hill. Read these sentences. itwinkle. Read these rhymes. He' 'really 'wanted a 'couple of »books or so. 'little . no other metal would have been strong enough for the job.star. And 'Jill came 'tumbling vafter. 5-. 3. Don't stress the substitute word "one". г Control Tasks 1. Don't stress (or make weakly stressed) combinations: "or so". b) The job has to be done very quickly. b) The way you accent these words tells me you were not born in England. 5. "each other". •Jack fell .coat or something to project you from the 4cold. Я2. 4. We have 'never ^quarrelled with each other. a) That's very ab- what I call a silver'tip? thVtax'i-dr'iver"said contentedly.

It is inseparably linked with the basic. The main goals and directions of the international policy of the CPSU: — Provision of auspicious external conditions for refinement of socialist society and for advance to communism in the USSR.6. the famous English playwright.Add extra loudness to your voice. a) We entered a very dark room. The youth was in love with marry a penniless girl and refused pointblank to obey his father. 2. Out of patience with his son. 7. wanted his son Tom to rry a young woman of a large fortune. Read this text as a dictation: observe correct rhythmic groups andsenten stress. b) Spending money is easy. b) A darkroom is a room for photographic processing. A World Without Wars. Without Weapons is the Ideal of Socialism The international policy of the CPSU proceeds from the humane nature of socialist society. a) This is all the spending money you'll get from me for this month. which is free from exploitation and oppression and has no classes or social groups with an interest in unleashing war. 1 shall cut you off with a shilling. — Internationalist solidarity with Communist and revolutiona ry-democratic parties. Sheridan threatened him: "If you don't immediately obey me. with the international working class movement and with the national liberation struggle of the peoples. 2) Watch the tempo of speech. Cutting off with a Shilling Sheridan. — Constant development and expansion of cooperation between the USSR and the fraternal socialist countries and all-round promotion of consolidation and progress in the world socialist system. (From the draft new edition of the CPSU Programme) 3. a) Who is going to refund our losses? b) The refund did not amount to too much but it was extremely welcome." "When you 210 . making it may prove more of a problem. — Development of relations of equality and friendship with newly-free countries. Read this text äs a radio commentator: I). 3) Articulate clearly and distinctly. 8. — Maintenance and development of relations between the USSR and capitalist states on a basis of peaceful coexistence and business like mutually beneficial cooperation. strategic tasks of the Party within -the country and expresses the common aspiration of the Soviet people to engage In constructive work and to live in peace with all the peoples. removal of the threat of world war and achievement of universal security and disarmament.

An apple. and a vase of flowers. Without that bird That loves to crow? Who wakes him up. Learn the poem by heart. Read these jokes. I can't ask you to carry my bag as well. 8* аи . I'd like to know. I'd like to know. "Why don't you put your bag down?" he asked." 5. Rostron What would we do. "Thank you. Read these texts as if you were readinglthem to a) children. The manuscripts came back with'this curt note: ■"The one channel I can conscientiously recommend as the greatest outlet for articles of this type is the English Channel. * * * A young writer sent a number of manuscripts to a celebrated newspaper columnist. 4." * * * Soph: But I don't think I deserve ari"absolute zero. "you've given me a ride in your car." Sheridan burst out laughing and dropped the subject altogether. To tell him when It's time to crow. Prof. In a few minutes the driver saw that the Irishman was sitting with the heavy bag still in his hand. b) students. "Can I take you into town?" the Englishman asked. Define what intonation patterns should be used to convey humour. asking his advice as to the best channel for marketing the writings. sir. "you will have to borrow it first. but it is the lowest mark that I am allowed to give." answered the Irishman. "Well." and got into the car.really make up your mind' to cut me off with a shilling. Asking Too Much An Englishman was driving along a country road in Ireland and met a man carrying a heavy bag. Neither do I." said the youth." #** "You say that I am the first model you ever kissed?" "Yes. two oranges." "And how many models have you had before me?" "Four. a) The Rooster by Hilda I. The Irishman said.

" When the teacher came back he found a letter from the_boy on his desk. At last his teacher said: "You must stay after school this afternoon and write 'I have gone' a hundred times. and now I have went. Then you will remember it. I have wrote "I have gone" a hundred times. And shout out: "Cock-a-doodledoo-oo. It said: ■ Dear Sir..I'll get up early One day. too." b) Still not Perfect A small schoolboy often wrote: "I have went. ." instead of "I have gone".

it is spoken by educated Americans'. it is the GA /W. toward the hard palate. (2) the Northern English and (3) the Standard Scottish. Its pronunciation is accompanied by some slight protrusion of the lips.X. The sides of the tongue are in contact with the bicuspid and molar teeth. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Soviet Union because of (1) the degree of understandability in English-speaking countries. In the British Isles the regional types of the English language are: (1) the Southern English. Midwestern. (2) the extent of RP investigation. in scientific and business discourse. Standard pronunciation is the pronunciation . Since RP and GA are the most widely accepted types of pronunciation the learners of English should know the principal differences between them. It is the pronunciation of the educated circles. New Zealand and the greater part of Canada. Malta and Ceylon All the national varieties of the English language have very much 4n common but they differ from standard pronunciation. Western). In the United States of America the regional types of the American variant of the English language are: (1) the Eastern type. The rest of the RP and GA inventory of consonant phonemes coincides. In the United States of America the most wide-spread type is General American. the tip pointing to the area immediately behind the alveolar ridge (it does not touch it) — a retroflex position. /r/ This sound is one of the most characteristic of GA pronunciation. Australia. the United States of America. /r/ is more sonorous in GA than in 213- . Israel. It is native to many who live in India. (3) the number of textbooks and audio-visual aids'. ' The social standard within Britain is the so-called Received Pro nunciationor RP. In its articulation the tip and blade of the tongue are turned upward. as for /n/ or /d/. THE STfSTEM OF AMERICAN ENGLISH CONSONANTS The total number of RP and GA consonants differ in one phoneme. (2) the South ern type. it is used by radio and TV. and is regionally neutral. Like RP in Great Britain GA in America is the social standard: it is regionally neutral. The main peculiarities in the pronunciation of GA consonants concern the following phonemes. RECEIVED AND GENERAL AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION The English language is spoken in Great Britain. It is used by radio and television.governed by the orthoepic norm. (3) the General American type (Northern.

/fia7There are two allophones of /1/ phoneme in GA: dark and light. It is used by GA speakers before initially stressed vowels (sometimes between vowels) when the second vowel begins a stressed syllable. settle /se ? l/. prince. storm. (4) /1/ is dropped and a glottal plosive is inserted. Clear or light allophone of IM is commonly used in the South Atlantic regions of the USA. twenty. Ы another. /t/ This phoneme is highly variable in AE. The Glottal Stop /?/ f i It results from the compression^and sudden release of air at the glottis. which become homonyms of dents. d) between /n/ and an unstressed vowel as in twenty. but most of the GA speakers use the dark III in all positions: initially. lists. J7. ?/ did. it interrupts phrasing and distorts the rhythm of speech. GA /r/ is pronounced not only initially but also before a consonant and in the word final position. Indiafoffice. find another. mince. seventy. . wonderful. h) preceding a syllabic /1/ as in beetle. it is voiceless and unaspirated. з г / and /э. d. /t/ is not voiced initially or terminally. and as a transition sound from a final to an N initial vowel as in triumphant. if it is convenient. It is produced when the compressed air is pushed through the separating vocal bands. centre. prints. mints. When preceded by /t. posts. salted. when it is immediately preceding a syllabic /n/ or /I/ as in kitten /ki ? n/. g. subtle. (2) An unconsciously inserted /t/. blinding. or /d/ ("excrescent" /t. This sound is known as laryngeal stop. з7 are tense and lax allophones of /r/ phoneme in /faöa r /. г or. Ы him in.RP. sistsV. (1) A voiced variety of /t/ is used in a) intervocalic position before an unstressed vowel as in butter. width. (3) In careless or indistinct speech /t/ and /d/ may be lost a) as in eighth. American scientists consider that /я. these reasons. /fa r m. /тз г тэ т у. wanted. mitten /mi ? n/. or when it precedes syllabic /n/ as in button. e. b) after /n/ and before an unstressed vowel as in want to. land of plenty. /r/ is pronounced with an audible friction. 9. The dark/1/is pronounced when the major portion of the tongue is raised to the velar part of the mouth cavity. a^orta.medially and finally. want to see. c) between a nonsyllabic /1/ and an un stressed vowel as in malted. be r d.1 1 Used frequently. 214 . altogether. it is usually counseled against. bottle /bü ? l/. e) between unaccented vowels as in at another place. d/) is recognized to be standard in such words as dense. breadth.

cupid. tj\ d3/ or a consonant + /l/> [u]. f. duty. (3) After fa J1 . few. as in: has — Where has he gone? have — I have gone to the store. However the GA /h/ is frequently voiced in intervocalic position as in perhaps [f[]. "glides" because the initial area of their formation is closely. The words huge. Ire la n d a n d in th e N o rth o f E n g l a n d . when u. k. /j/ is the Hngua-palatal glide which in GA has^severalj modifications: (1) The [ju] variants are pronounced in words like tune. when. /h/ is omitted in a stressed word in: Come herel '/w> h r/ are called. [hwl is an aspirated on-glide to the /w/ sound. f N hi blue. June. /j/^-at or near [i. human. b. ul. duty. human. suit. beauty. flew. he — Did you see how he ran? /h/ has an independent phonetic value used initially before stressed syllables as in: he — He gave John the bag. is m o re usua l in S ou th ern ^ E n glan d . view. etc. [djl + [uj are assimilated in GA into '[tf] and [dg] as in tune [tfunl. (2) A slightly fronted [u] may be heard in all other instances as in tune. (4) In huge. iew eau are preceded by /p. h/ as in pure. humoristic and humorous can be pro nounced with the initial (hju) or [ju]. v. whose — Whose book is this? whole — The whole group came. Either of them is the norm. /W is a voiceless. human type of words /h + j/ combination is pro nounced as the German "ich laut" [9]. humorist. associated with a Vowel: /w/ begins at or near [v. 215- . fricative. i\ position. enthuse. music. labiovelar or a voiceless /w/. fricative or whispered GA /h/ is similar to the RP /h/./м/ and /hw/ Either of these symbols represent the pronunciation of words spelt with the initial wh as in where. /h/ is lost when used initially in unstressed or weak forms within a phrase. but /hw/ is the predominant lorau The glottal. his — I saw his car. shoe. humane. m. had — He had twenty of them. the glides appear only prevocally. /r/—near fc r . (6) Itj]. humor. due [dsub education d k j j 1 T h e /h w / is u s u a l in S c o t la n d . new. fronted [uj or [iu] are used by GA speakers as in rumor. chew. a r ].

fine [famj. 4. sicken [sikn]. c) "ich laut" in huge. Glottal stop /?/. Jones notes that in the words listed below Americans use /n/. [brsukn glaes] for broken. plenty. fricative. "English Pronouncing Dictionary" by D. glass. chicken [tjikn]. aspersion. [азаекд keit] for Jack and Kaie. man [msen]. /t/ may be omitted in twenty. The GA /r/ is more sonorous than the RPJ/r/. while RP speakers use both /n/ and /n/: conclude conglomeration concave enclose encompass congratulate encourage encrust engraft engrave engulf enquire incapacitate incline incapable inclement ingratitude inchoate inglorious synchron ic incognito panchromatic nonconformist Principal Peculiarities of^GA Consonants Voiceless. tune. /J7 is not vocalized in depressipn.kädi]. fai dei]. or turn into silence. duty. n. It is retroflex 3. 8. 1. 6. one fine day [ш. "Nasal twang" as in man. labiovelar /м/. intermediate between /d/ and /t/ and a one tap /r/. b) /as/ in due. /ju/ may change into a) fronted [a] in tune. [ai kg gau] for / can go._while the vowel is being spoken as in candy [. [baeg g bsegidg] for bag and baggage. Asia /eiga/.as in version !W$n/. g/ A common characteristic of GA is the so-called "American twang". v/ as in some vines [sAvamz]. /t/—short. which is the nasalizing of a vowel before a nasal consonant which results from the lowering of the soft palate. 216 . twenty. 5. human.ш This sound is vocalized in final unstressed syllables ending in -ion. 2. /h/—voiced in intervocalic position. voiced. manner [тагпэг]. GA speakers may pronounce [beikn] for bacon. /1/—predominantly dark. 9. -ia. lost initially in un stressed or weak forms within a phrase. come further [kÄf3röar]. Asia. m/ may be omitted followed by /f. Sometimes syllabic (g] is substituted for }$] or [эп1 as in taken [teikg]. Я/—vocalized in version. In. 7. Nasals /m. It may change into a glottal stop: that one.

bet /bi a t/. -О Э' зг Mid В. marry /imen/.. answer/iffi:ns3/. It is diphthongized in the final position in GA. parrot /iperat/.The Tongue and Lip Positions of the American English Vowels 1— 1 < 1 x' о U \ 11 Tense 1 е 1 т Front |Ч. Front Vowels This phoneme does not differ greatly in GA and RP. river.'E t . meat /rait/.* 2 ■ e ffi 1 1T ense )\ ( 1 о а э' .т5 *Л 3 ■ О. \ - f f i а р THE SYSTEM OF AMERICAN ENGLISH VOWELS ' The articulatory and distributional differences between GA and RP are the following. g.W V з 1 0 Central Bad: High i '<> . Diphthongization is less noticeable before voiceless stops as in beat /bit/. This phoneme is a little more open in GA than in RP. e. . . h v/ orM as^in will.g> 5^ДвеМ/. k/. bear./*/ In j3A /e/ is long. cc/T£i /iken/. In GA it is ■■often obscured.щб Low 1 \Ч . : /■/ N ' ^ T h e К г о п ц а д 1 в Шoп f A m e ric a n . The GA W differs from the RP /as/ distnbulionally: ( l ) i t is used in words in which the letter a is foltpwed by a consonant other than r. GÄ /б/ may"be diphthongized before /p t t. (3) 'in GA /e/ is used instead of /a/ in Ще words like. n/. . каЩШ1\ aurU /ant/. get /gs't/. as in see /sii/. when followed or preceded by Ix. n g)* . fill.'S. tense and nasalized before /d. ^ л \ . /•/ It is lower than the RP /e/ and resembles /ге/.and RP. m. as in answer /i«ns>/. e.

. The position of the tongue is close to low back /и. sceptre. stressed and usually long vowels. was. mid-open. of. actor.— Prentice Hall. The unstressed hi is common in words like parted. [from]. can. [эг. them. lire» yr. produced with the middle of the tongue slightly raised. It is the most commonly used vowel because of the extensive use'of uastressed syllables. hmrmur. better.the tongue-tip toward the hard palate. in the words can and just in the phrases: . The central part of the tongue is high. satyr. In colloquial speech [ WAZ ]. or. burn. an. ear. Eastern New England. see •Br<ms№itb*A'. [9 r ] is the sound of suns tressed syllabic /r/ in such words as father. a greater retraction of the tongue or a combination of both. Цй-лт] can be used instead of [WDZ ]. her. conjunctions. J Speakers of New York City and some in Eastern New England use [4i3ri] instead of /1плп/. or. N N . shall. [stb. [эг. thing. central vowel is heard throughout the JJSA.g. It is known as the "barred V and used in . ur. It results from a retroflexion of . 'see.Central Vowels /A / It is stressed. e. [ AV ]. unrounded. or.the words like sister. bird /ba r d/. from.' 1960 (^central vowels"). /з г /. The r-coloured. horses. [э г ] and its variant [9] vary as do the /з/. ax. з] are considered to be allophones of the hi phoneme. worst. . central. ir. э] * are used to represent unstressed er. [з. The Pronunciation of American English. J. /э/ is used in definite and indefinite articles. [1]. зг] are used to represent stressed er. as in better. fish. It is used in both syllables of the word children.. but. oar. as in subscribe [sabiskraib].я']. learn. cupboard. unrounded. pronouns and auxiliary and modal verbs. monosyllabic prepositions. except in the r-less areas.N . central. doer. The unstressed.thecposition for [i]. tapir. This sound is rarely heard in GA. It varies withVi/ in the words'me. but in colloquial speech it is found in all dialects of American English. chips. э/. wizard. The lips are in the neutral position. the. fir №/. the bulk of the tongue retracted] from . as in a. [t>v]. for. [з г ] variant is the more common of the two. re. pressure. such as the South. as in fern. fist. lax vowel that can occur in any position of a word. New York City. lax. ur. High. * t e . /3/ and its variant [з г ] are tense. When unstressed /л/ may be replaced by [э] or p].

/g/ both /a/ and /o/ can be used as in log /lag/—/log/. oi. o. as in a». It is used as a variant of N in hot. lock. This sound is commonly spelled with an a or o. frog /frag/ —/frog/. new. It is spelled oo. The forms with [ju] t f» are also possible. GA Diphthongs Soviet phoneticians distinguish five diphthongs in GA: /ei. lax vowel. N N м N . fawn. wolf. hok[ /«/ is а separate^phoneme. low. aw. oa.-» P. Back Vowels It is a back. as in boot. ou. duty. frod. or mixed and low. ou. full. on. Ate.. It is diphthongal in character. »fe. ai. au. broad. dolt. and of /D/ in rfog^. tense vowel. /eiset/. The lips are rounded and may> be slightly protruded./ and /«/■ In the production of the GA /a/ the lips are considerably less rounded than in artjculating^/o:/. The GA /o/ is intermediate in quality between theJRP /o. rob. Most people do not hear this sound because it has*no special form which can be associated with it. Other spellings are ail. Varieties of English Pronunciation. law." Emphasized w. In contrast to the RP N the GA /a/ has a different distribution. For those who distinguish between (bam. bum. b) in words before velar /rj/. cough. fn>0. Just a moment /km/. as in book. brought* /«/ It is a high.—M. suit. ftfe are pronounced with pj. It is central. al. fault. stop. A. hug. 1 * Shakhbagova D. л. i. i/. It is used a) in words like hop./ can do it. Slightly fronted [м] may be heard in tune. could. trift. back. etc. Many American scientists are convinced that the three high vowels /i. Ыт. halt. different from /a/ or /o/ in ca/m. especially when stressed and lengthened — [uu]. u. ou/. 1982. The GA /u/ sounds like RP /«/• As a variant it can occur finally in the word into. о/. 27. u/ "are as phonemically distinct from each other as the three mid vowels /s. not. The lip rounding is less than for /u/. solve. It is a slightly lower and fronted sound when compared with /u/. broad variation. fall. border. The GA /a/ is more front than the [RP /a/.

jit/. / еэ /. /ge/—long. rob. chaotic /keiatik/. /or/. quality. 2. his. carry. may turn into /e/ as in marry. 5. In GA the nucleus of the diphthong is aback mid-open vowel. It mostly occurs in word final position. M—"barred" /i/ in sister. /a/ may be used instead of /a/ as in ask. 7. horses. in RP it starts from the tongue position for the RP /a:/. 1. /at/. date /det/. /i/ may be obscured as in fill. In American books on phonetics and in dictionaries it is transcribed as /e/. as in holiday /'hahdei/. 6. In GA the distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs is not very consistent. in emphasized in. radio /'reidio/./e i/ ■ It differs from the RP /ei/ in diphthongization. transcribed by some British phoneticians as /эй/. In GA the glide of the diphthong may be reduced to /o/ before voiceless Consonants and in unstressed syllables. Ш . i/ These diphthongs are practically identical in RP and GA. or before voiced consonants. / иэ / In GA these monophthongs and centring diphthongs are pronounced respectively as: /ar/. with. game /geim/. 4. grade /greid/. dance. parted. 3. hop. It is transcribed as /of by American phoneticians. /e/—lower than the RP /e/. river. 9. Within the orthoepic system the pronunciation of words in GA is close to the reading rules and is therefore different from that of RP. therefore. A monophthongal variant of /ei/ may occur before voiceless consonants as in gate /get/. 10. mostly nasalized. /o/ instead of /э:/ as in law. the first variant usually predominates. as in boat /bot/. past./ ur/. It is. / ээ /. In RP the starting point is the position of the tongue for /a/. /3/—retroflex in medial and terminal position as in bird. as in vacation /veikei£n/. It may be reduced to /e/ in unstressed syllables. /аи/ This diphthong may be realized as /au/ and /аи/. /er/. better. /a /3 i/. Principal Peculiarities of GA Vowels No opposition between historically long and historically short. /a/ instead of / D / as in dolt. / ю/. /о:/. 8.

RP agile /ail/. or post-tonic stress in GA falls on the suffixes -ary. d) five syllable words: GA HP a) Mbrate viibrate b) confiscate (confiscate c) primarily 'primarily d) 'custoimarily 'customarily In five syllable words the American secondary stress may fall earlier than the British: GA RP igesticu'lation gesticulation There are exceptions: GA a'ristojcratic RP (aristocratic The major differences in the accentual types of compound words in GA and RP are the following: i) In RP compounds with two primary stresses are more common than in GA: GA New I York 1 RP iNew 'York 1 Exceptions are RP: \rainproof. b) three. c) four. The tertiary. GA \agik /il/. Other differences between British and American word-stress comprise a) two. g. Л/. unstressed syllables are weak). e. the tertiary stress is posttonic. the secondary stress is pre-tonic. Westminster. -on. -ery. \midsummer. e. -ative. g. -arily. .THE ACCENTUAL STRUCTURE OP WORDSJN AMERICAN ENGLISH The major differences in the accentual structure between RP and GA are mainly with the use of the tertiary stress (the primary stress isjonic. GA RP 'dictionary /en/ 'dictionary /эп/ I territory /эп/ 'territory /эп/ I monastery /en/ 'monastery /эп/ 1 testijmony /mouni/ \testimony /тэт/ 'ordinarily /enh/ 'ordinarily /arili/ ad'minisjtrative /eitiv/ administrative The suffix -ile is an exception. -oryf -mony. /э1/.

thereforeGA is only a variety of the English language and cannot be considered. General American and RP are summarized.2) Tertiary stress differences comprise compound place names ending in -borough. -shire4 -stead. -wood. in GA it is mid-level or mid-wavy-level. sometimes cold or dull attitude oti the part of the speaker. The rising tone'in'GA general questions is used to show politeness. Sit down. pronounced with a low head and lowfall would sound quite normal. Op. inRP unstressed syllables gradually descend. accentual structure■and intonation do not affect the main language structures. A. -burgh. -ham. GA RP lanyibody 'anybody 'Sunday 'Sunday INTONATION IN AMERICAN ENGLISH American English intonation differs from British English intonation mainly in tmemphatJc. dispassionate. e. "American language" as some of the American linguists claim. 2) narrow range of the utterance. -moor. The GA and RP differences in the direction of the voice pitch may lead to functional or attitudinal differences. -mouth. -gate. -bury.g. American English intonation produces an impression of level or monotonous melody. -land. unemotional. -heath."**-body. The unstressed syllables in GA fall' to a lower pitch. e.The GA general questions take a falling tone. -penny. -worth. In GA sentences like: Go out. GA iBirraing|ham RP 'Birmingham Tertiary stress^differences also comprise words with the second component -berry. unsympathetic. usual form Ars you | Veady? polite form The monotony of GA intonation is explained by the following factors: 1) pitch characteristics. eit. g. . 1 For details see: Shakhbagova D. 3) slow tempo.. in GA sounds in unstressed syllables are lengthened). -land. 4) more complicated than RP rhythmical structure of intonation (RP unstressed vowels are characterized by qualitative reduction. 1 The norms of GA and RP pronunciation are^highly variable. or emotionally neutral speech. For example.g. Given below are the diagrams in which vowel phonemes in Canadian English. in RP they are pronounced with the rising tone. TheVariability of standard pronunciation should be taken into consideration when teaching spoken language. e. "low head" in RP conveys detached. -ehester. etc. Pretenninal pitch contour in RP is gradually descending stepping. The differences between GA and RP sound. 222 . reserved.

Table 10 Comparative Chart of Vowel Phonemes in Canadian English. Hurry centre. e & i Seat set sat sit bird. data dot dance sort. Eu»] correspond to the QA дпи СЕ (»). lea]. shawl boot i i зг эг. [09]. 223 . & a (ar)ae 0 э Ц и л V л и er ai л и ei but book bake bike now go boy here there more sure ei SI ai ли ou au ou DI au ou 01 1Э (ir) (ir)1 (6Г) (er) (or) (иг) 1 еэ ээ иэ (ar) (or) I»j. e i e ж к e. General American and RP CE GA RP Examples i e. [srj. [srj. a 3r Э a: э и а: э: a a.

Bett у. g. bared. -Ш . which. bird. This opposition does not occur before voiceless. e. nationa^ 2. version. suit. when. sister. /6i >?a:nt/. c) accentual structure and intonation? 3.g. g. or before /1/. very. let. /pe:d/ /is/ is opposed to /еэ/ in open syllables. What is "advanced" RP? Exercises 1. /ba 3 d/. or in some circles for prestige purposes. noun. hear—hair. city. pared are pronounced as /bs:d/. /Ьз:п/ instead of /boim/ /ai/ turns into /a 3 / or /a/. Read the words below according to the GA standard. /ta a/. /san/ instead oi /sAn/ 3) The glottal stop is used between words and syllables. e. name. due. / БЭ / turn into /e:/ or long /ж/. berry. miracle. What are the main differences between the RP and GA a) systems of consonants. well. fill. Persia. g. /fs:d/. beer (b) with the vowel lei lower than the RP /e/: bell. g» /ni?jehti/. or /a/. /bad/ instead of /baid/ /аи/ turns into /a a/. or /t<t/ instead of Даиз/ /oi/ turns into /o:/. best. that one. /bo:/ instead of /boi/ {tall. merry. b) system^ of vowels. What is standard pronunciation? 2. by certain professions or social groups. e. Read the words below (a) with the vowel /i/ obscured: will. /Oet'?eib1/—that table. e. /tel/ instead of /teil/ /ou/ turns into /a:/. excursion. . get. and 3) the advanced RP.. Questions 1. 4) /r/ is pronounced like the GA retroflex /r/. nest. e. leave. lest. man.-detr met. call are exceptions) 2) The centring diphthongs are levelled with monophthongs: /оэ/—/о:/ /ia/. fear—fair. building. e. spirit. river. fared. The main differences between standard and advanced RP are the following: 1) The closing diphthongs are pronounced with the weakened or lost glide.neck. g. е. late. e. hell jc) with the vowel /el diphthongized /W. what.1 new. e.bottle* little. /л/ turns into /a/. g. used by young people.-check.There are three main types distinguished within RP pronunciation. certainly. / a »/: bet. g. • farm.iet. 1) conservative — used by older generation. mountain. 2) the general RP used by the BBC. g.

dance. a/. last. . doctor. radio. Webster 6. Read the words below. mare. squirrel />skw3 r3l/. gate. far. calm 7. perceiver. hurry PWij. rob. Mind the place of primary stress on thejsecond com ponent in RP and on the first component in GA compounds. palm. near. goat. Read the words below according to the GA standard. solve. mate. balm. father. Read the words below. nod. courage /^idg/. land. n/: bad. sister. dock. Read the words below (a) with the OA Ы more frönt arid longer than the RP /je/: ask. log. door 9. lock.Read the words below. answer. make. Kate. mister. on. poor. worry / lW3 r i/„ furrow /'{эг эи/. clerk /кЬЧ?/ г derby /Wbi/ 5. doll. bare. coat. Mind the tertiary stress differences in RP and OAl RP 'dictionary iFerbuary 'ordinary 'category •territory 'cemetery 'monastery 'matrimony 'testimony 'necessarily 'ordinarily RP 'apple'source 'beefsteak 'elseiwhere ifarraJhouse 'mean'time White 'House GA idictiojnary >FebrU|ary 'ordinary icateigory lterri|tcry 'cemetery 'monastery 'matrimony 'testimony 'necessarily 'ordinarily GA 'appleisource 'beefsteak 'elsewhere 'farmihouse 'meanitime «White iHouse 225 10. court 8. long. late. m. Read the words below according to the GA standardnot. man. winter. Compare the pronunciation of theJRP and GA diphthongs. answer 4. hop. date. not. aunt (b) with the RP /se/ nasalized before I A. of the Jong monophthongs /?:. Read the words below according to the GA standard. current /*кз т эп1:/. law. frog. crop.3. stirrup /Ыэ г эр/.' half. formr fare. Read the words below with the /r/-colouring terminally.

Come in. Sit down. Ojjen the book. RP * Birmingham gi iDartjinoor 'Moor | gate •Newfoundland 'Peterborough i D h i 'Bloombury (Buckingham iDartmöor ) Moorgate 'Newfoundland 'Peterborough 'Devonshire 'Ex moor 'Exmouth •Hampstead <Ex(mouth iHampistead 'High|gate ^ll j 'Highgate 'Hollywood 'Manchester Are you going? Does he care? (Chester yj ' Man 12. Read the place names below. 13. Read the GA casual requests with the falling tone (this intonation in RP would suggest a command). Shut the door. Mind a single primary stress in RP and a primary and a tertiary stress in GA. Read the GA general questions with a Jailing tone (the counterpart tone In RP would be rising).J-midf<Jay 'working 'man 'mid|day 'working GA iBirming|ham 'Bloomjbury ^ k i h 11. .

-vz/. -iz/V judges /dgAc^. worked /werkt/. -iz/. stopped /stupt/. gases /gaes. /sau/ так. skwi:k. /alkg. /Iblaekjait/ чернорубашечник. /haus—hauz/. suit—suite/sjujt—swH/. /greiv—Ignsviti/. /seil/ продажа. 7. /raut/ бунт. /ipetr(s)l/ венаин. ae. /Iblmkaut/ учащийся в щколе для бедных. -iz/. draughtdrought /draft—draut/. II. patrol—petrol /paltraul—Ipetral/. /sfct/ место. /Iblitjbtinit/ крестьянин. /tbluitsbkirj/ «синий чулок». shipped /Jtpt/. passed /past/. /sei/ продавать. -vz/. Сорец тяжелого веса. /Ibbsfeun/медный купорос.mt/. discussed /dislkAst/. admit — admittance /adlmit-adlmibns/. кроме. /iblumauz/ сорт картофеля. /breD/ дыхание. 6. /W8:6/ ценность.skt/. quay—queue /kis—kj. mistresses /Imistns. /Ibtekhaul/^ темница. /sju(:)lprtai—sjulprenrasi/. /Iblaäkrnss/ реквием 5. /. . /tiixs/ перемирие. depended /dilpendid/ 3. -iz/. значение. /rust/ маршрут 8. Thls h I e hel s to „\ I P P Practise their differentiation. calves /kaf. -iz/. /Idaian/ дневник. солдат. /IpühJ/ лоск. -vz/. foxes /ftjks./. -vs/. /Imeid-sa/ майор. /paltreul/ патруль. /lba:dzai/ первоцвет. /gaid/ проводник. таким образом. informed /mlfoimd/. /dilvais—dilvaiz/. /ikslkjirs — ikslkjua/.loaded /llsudid/. еще хуже. b ea / 8Э ^ Л1Ь1Э''.. 5. looked /lukt/. -iz/. стража. /slip/ сон. незрелый. -iz/. arrived /alraivd/. /IpauhJV польский. asked /a. ■sculptresses /IskAlptns.' — alkArsns/. hostesses /Ihaustis. knives /naif. /il/ больной. selves /self. /дм/ охрана. wrapped /rsept/. /Ш/ чув ствовать. /Ibreikipromis/ не хозяин своему слову. /Iblitbe]/колокольчик. invented /inlventid/. /Iredbuk/ красная книга. /j"Ifр/ овца. /Imudl/ модель. (b) The sounds /u.. /til/ наполнять. /liiv/ покидать. mJiE-mjur.fip/ корабль. -iz/. гид. /Ineifcn—Insejanl/.. /jus — jt*z/. elves /elf. /pml/ лужа. lionesses /Harems. waited /Jweitid/. 2. leaves /Itf. /zfcl— Jzebs/. ауптвахта. /Jredbrest/ малиновка. /liv/ жить. opened /laupand/. -vz/. 9. _./kiaus — Krauz/ 4.11. hair—hare—heir/hea—hea—ea/j 14. 8-. Rhythm. /Ьа9/ ванна. begged /begd/. 17 3 4. -vz/. спокойный.tuihu:. i.13.) жирный шрифт. -vz/. /Iblsekfeis/ (полигр. helpedi /helpt/. thieves /6l:f. /sjuit/ удовлетворять. /W3:s/ Худший. То give particular importance to the word think. bear-beer / 8ЭЬ1Э . /adlvais—adlvaiz/. /so:/ пила. -vz/. шотландец. very— vary /Iveri — Ivean/. /1:1/ угорь. permitted /palmitid/. . /stil/ неподвижный. halves /haf. lives /laif. юный. -vz/. /pul/ тянуть. year—ear /js:(jis)—ia/. /теэ/ мэр. riot-rout-route /Iraiat—raut. 8 ^ ' / j ( j ) / 9 /kik j / 10 d i t '227 . cancelled /Usensald/. -vz/. /bredG/ ширина. Onomatopoeia. lived /!ivd/. /slip/ ошибка. ненадежный человек. (a) Tne sounds /s. /bau-wau. 9. -iz/ 2. recognized /Irekagnaizd/. /Idean/ маслобойня. kau-kau. sheaves /Jif. wives /waif. kwffik-kwffikrmu.is/t 10. ri ot ro ut ro ut e / ra i a t r au t m t / . /lbred3n(d)tbAte/ детский. J/ are repeated to express the idea of sea movement. i0. wolves /wulf. /swtt/ свита. карцер. /lbto|bDtl/ василек. personal —personnel /Ipaisnal — tpa:saln el1/. crashes /kraj". glasses /glas./fheviweit/ боксер. идущие с севера на юг Америки. /pratvauk—pralvukstiv/. expected /ikslpektid/. compelled /kamlpeld/.. mayor—major s/. packed /psekt/. 7. affect-effect /elfekt-ilfekt/t 12. -iz/. 14 1. матрос. -iz/. /sit/ сидеть.imeidsa/. /tiu-9/ правда. witches /witj.KEY TO EXERCISES Exercises p. фашист. actresses /Isektns. .^. /sti:l/ сталь. -vz/. глянец. travelled /Itrsevld/. волнение. tf. 4. rained /rerad/. /IL^S—bz/. rested /Irestid/. -iz/. Control Tasks p. grAnt-grAnt. /Irraudi/ модальный. л/ are repeated in the rhyme to practise thei* pronunciation and differentiation. nodded /InDdid/. waitresses /Iweitns. -vz/. /bAt/ за исключением. pour—poor — /теэ. loafs /lauf./ibmlamz/ авиационные линии.

15. -э/. dishes /dij. /b/ is an occlusive plosive stop noise consonant. loaf /lauf. classes flalas. In the articulation of /m. -z/. t. rhyme. /laut(l)9reu—autlörau/ извержение—бро сать дальше (кого-л. -fcz/. расходы—тратить. analyses /alnselasis. g/ are voiced lenis. In the articulation of /b/ the noise is produced when the flow of air breaks the complete obstruction formed by both lips. -vz/. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of /s/ (lenis) its between the teethridge and the front part of the tongue. Exercises p. ei. /tf/ is occlusive-constricttve. -iz/. In the articu lation of /h/ the walls of the glottis are slightly contracted when the air goes out through it almost without any friction. -vz/. d. phenomena /fclnomman./3—9/. покорять. courage—carriage /Ikindg—Iksciij/. -vz/. /lautgau — lauttgau/ уход. /w/ is bilabial. мет—возражать. Alliteration. wolves /wulf. through which the air passes with friction: it passes through a round narrowing. -iz/. mice /maus—raais/. -vz/. hi is a constrictive noise consonant. -vz/. therefore /p. hostesses /lhaustas. inches /ratj". -vz/. -sai/ б. расходовать. -vz/. through which the air goes out rather freely. -z/. leaves /li:f. /i—«. k/ articulation the force of exhalation is much greater than that in the production of /b. tigresses /Itaigras. /lsAbd3ikt —sabldgekt/ предмет—подчинять. In the production of /b. -Iz/. k/ the vocal cords are taken apart and do not vibrate. In the articulation of /w/the active organs of speech are the lips.3-9/. In the articulation of hi the noise U produced when the flow or air passes through the incomplete obstruction formed by the lower lip and the edge of the upper teeth. t. syllabification and pausation. feet /flet—fit/. wives /waif. sheaves /jfcf. houses /haus. but forms a complete obstruction with the back part of the tongue. -vz/. /itoimsnt—talment/ мучение— мучить 8. baths /ba:9. calves /kaf. In the /p. theses /löfcsu. Through the repatition of the sounds /ju:. t. 4. -iz/. -vz/. -vz/./tu—u. There is groove-shaped depression in the front part of the tongue. The air passes through this narrowing with friction. selves /self. -iz/. potatoes /palteiteu./эи—"D.z—s/. echoes /lekau. The air escapes through the nasal cavity. knives /naif. boxes /bioks. 16. /lautiei —autflei/ издер жки.paw /ря— риэ—рх/. 228 . 33 8. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of III is between the lower iip and the edge of the upper teeth./ei—a. /Iprudjus — praldjt»/ продукция—предъявлять. -iz/. /v-f/ 7 /fmsilt—inlsAlt/ оскорбление—оскорблять. elves /elf. d. ai. men /msn—men/. rhythm. -vz/. or affricate. g/ the vocal cords are drawn close together and vibrate. 9. In the articulation of /j/ the active organ of speech is the middle part of the tongue which is raised to the hard palate and forms a narrowing with it. /j/ is medlo-lingual. k/ are voiceless fortis and /b. In the ar ticulation of/tf/ the noise is produced by the flow of air first breaking a complete obstruction between the tip of the tongue and the teethridge and almost imme diately passing through the narrowing formed between the tip of the tongue and the teethridge. дарить. A/. /Iprsutest—' praltest/ протест—протестовать. /v—S/. g/. d. crises /Ikraisis. 6. /Ipreznt—pnlzent/ подарок—преподносить. lives /laif. -iz/. -iz/. /v-f/.). выход—превосходить. halves /hccf. -fcz/. rj/ the soft palate is lowered. 5. /lautgreuO — lautlgrau/ отросток—перерастать. /lübdgikt—abtdsekt/ пред . geese ДИ8—gfcs/. -i:z/. In the articu lation of /ij/ it is not only lowered. inquire — acquire /mlkwais—elkwaia/ 6. z—s/. n.v—f/. -8s/. foci /Ifaukas. /h/ is glottal. 8. which form a round narrowing. The narrowing in III articulation is more or less flat. bases /ibeisis. In the articulation of /p.

/Iksmpas/. /pens/. /taiz/. /items/. /kcu/. /Iteeksiz/.10. /t«k/. вот—вод. /pst/. /k~g/ duck —dug. /kist/. /т—д/ кот—код. /ta:nd/. The beginning of the articulation of (k—u>/ coincides with that of /i — u/ 12. (a) /si :m—sins/ (b) /riid—nd/ /mi:l—mil/ /mi:n /Stfel — Stil/ —mins/ /sli. /taim/. /küst/. /tus/. /Iptpl/. /Iptsiz/. (a) /bed—b£ed/ /9en— /(eft—Ised/ Эаеп/ /tplenti— /le t s ia e k / — plasn/ /els—Iffilis/ /sillekt—nllseks/ /Itete—dsede/ (d) /end—and/ (c) /frentj1-—ran/ /Sen—Seen/ /pens—psents/ /leniwei—Ifsmih/ /Ibenal—Ibawau/ /bed—bsek/ /Itwenti —twffin/ /Ihelpin — Ihspi/ (f) /I mem—Imaetg/ /ten—tsen/ /men—man/ (e) /ded—deed/ /leni /sed—ssed/ —tjelrs/ / I J e b /bed—bsed/ J a l / /)men — /t Jest-t Jap/ (h) Imasrid/ /Ihenn — /lern —teokjbs/ lhaepi/ /bet—bffik/ <fi) /Iheti-hajt/ /Iplenti—iplffltfo:m/ /Isentral—Isaandi/ /fiej-flffij/ /ltjev»t-lt. /taun/. П. 44 4. /lke:tli/. /put/. /Ipiti/. debt —dead. /tm/. Дик/.-p/krfck—knk/ /slfct—sht/ slip/ /Ibst — list/ /sfck—sik/ (d) /sfcn— (c) /ttm—tim/ sm/ /Idtb—Idina/ /htt /Ш-fil/ /bto— —hit/' /bbt—bit/ ф (f) /f!:Z—fiz/ / ф/ /mt—mist/ /Jffcz— 9is/ /sttp—stik/ (e) /did—did/ / d d (h) /ht—him/ / /Glim—9in/ / 3 — dgtm/ /IfMin /sfets—sits/ —Ifilirj/ /fct-it/ /slits /Sti:p —Stlf/ —sits/ (g) /Itv-lw/ /Iffcve—Ihfti/ /Iblikan /Jptpl-pit/ —bil/ /tj-fck—tjm/ /btt—bit/ (b) /hed—had/ /ten—tsen/ 33. /to:ts/. 2 is pronounced with the position of the tongue narrower than for the Russian /e/ in the words месть. 3 is similar to the Russian /э/ in the words ахо. /lpa:p3S/. (a) /kam—клт/ / I S a — 1глтп/ 229 . /kauid/. это. тесть. /Unz/. /с—з/ кос—коз. 1 is pronounced with the position of the tongue higher than for the Russian accented /и/ in such words as пили. били. рос—роз. /)кл1э/ Exercises p. Dick —dig. /pua/. tuck — tug. /к—г/ док—дог. Cardinal vowel No. /hl/. bat—bad. лили. /Ipeni/. Cardinal vowel No. Cardinal vowel No. /tuk/. /Ikutwig/. /Ipusabl/. /Ikeaful/. /Itsutl/. /itfctjaz/. /IkAirad/. /Ipeipa/.fenl/ /Iraem—rneep/ /ivesl—Ivsljus/ /leldah — lenkfts/ (b) /ant—Unda/ /had —Hundred/ t4. /IkAraits/. 5. For instance: /t—d/bit—bid.

dtlsidjwgs/. foot—fit. problem. contrastive distribution of /u/: book—beak. throng. threepence. book—back. booth. try.m—ten—tsen/ /hid—hed — hjed/ /lift—left-ted/ /lit—let—tek/ /m tn—Imem— /torn—te:n—teen/ /кж1—кз:1—kffii/ /bad—bs:d—bsed/ / t j jk t j : t r J t /ss— j S3:—sad/ / I k j — Ik3:tn—kset/ [Control Tasks p. Ш . throw. free varia tion in the pronunciation of the words: decapitation /fäiiktepitteij'an. put—pot. tube. drop. dry. rouge. /bid-bed-bffid/ /nd—red—rat/ /mil—men—man/ /std—sed—saad/ /pit—pet—pat/ /bfct—bet—bast/ 16. tie—die. 57 2./ban— IbAtn/ /Iak-Uk/ /Iklasiz— IbAsiz/ (c) /Imaval — 1шлш/ /l<tf—IIAVII/ /past —IpAzhrj/ /'makit—тлд/ /last—Плпаэп/ (e) /fanld —1лЗэг/ /Imasta — ImAgki /Istatid — IsUdi/ / l l d lt /last—l (g) /frans —frAnt/ /lhabaz—IrjAndnd/ /adlvccntids—al Ьллг/ /haf—tut/ /post—bAt/ (i) /stffl—stAn/ /kamt—клт/ /had—Jut/ /Itccgit—|tApans/ /mask —inAst/ 15. pack—back. The allophones of the It! phoneme are for example: labialized in: rockr roof. thrust. be as follows: complementary distribu tion of /u/: pool. boot. duke. practice. dUjkseptIterjan/. which cannot be observed in other words. book—bark. As a result of palatalization in the Russian language consonants alwy occur аз soft phonemes and the vowel phonemes turn to the /j/+V positional" allophone of the vowel phoneme. 4. shoe.). deciduous /dilsldjuas. affricated in: tree. 3. devoiced in: present. protract. draw. single tap in. for instance. who. Exercises p. hoof. book—beck. rook. (Each word is given as an example of different /u/ environment. drain. trim. The examples may. cool.k—W3 :k — waek/ До:-fa: —fat/ /wim—wä:m—twsen/ /то:—lms:si—таэп/ /Ian—1зт—lsed/ /dak —/ /'baskit— э'Ьлу/ /lak—flAf/ (d) /dan—dAn/ /bat —bAt/ /kat—kAt/ /matf — mAtf/ (f) /lhadli —!плш/ / 1гаЭэ—rAbd/ /last—lAk/ fh) /am—1АЗЭ/ /lhadli—I h / /Istatid—istAdid/ /matf—nutf/ /haf —strAk/ /tl. voiced lenis: pin—bin. Work of the vocal cords: voiceless fortis vs. put—port. youth. troop. 62 1. /э:1-з:1—Jffil/ /ko:t—ka:t—ka /wD. food. raw. stoop. pie—bye.

(a) pine — fine. felt well. cue. sick—sing. constructive noise (fricatives) vs. /w/ after It/ in twelve is devoiced./1. pall—sail. /i/ afterIt/ in tube is devoiced. 4. seal real. lingual forelingual cacuminal: sob—rob. alveolar /z/ vs. labial. (b) wield — yield. backlingual /k/ vs. backlingual /k/. labial. /3:/ belongs to the group of central mid-open vowels of narrow variation. (c) boat — moat. Control Tasks p. apical Я/. /ds/. or /g/ vs. bitter— bicker.Active organ of speech and the place of articulation. sip—rip. (b) tame— «ame. vain— lane. fa) The force of articulation rather than the presence and absence of ■voice: /p— b. deed — need. (e) thine — wine. palato-alveolar /J/. sip—rip. The sub-minimal pairs: marry — measure. vs . day«. nasal sonorant or /d/ /m/. /3/. lingual backlingual: pole—coal. t— d. pharyngal:/ee — —he. /d — z/. Both vowels belong to the group of back high vowels.■sole— — role. (а) /в—ж/.labial. constrictive: pity—city. pen—ten. j/ after /p/ are devoiced. but /ш/ belongs to the subgroup of narrow variation and is fully bade. Active organ of speech: bilabial /p/ vs. Manner of noise production: occlusive vs. r. (a) man — nap. cream. fell—sell3. (b) Manner or noise production: occlusive /p/ vs. The shape of the narrowing. lame -~ same 5. r. (b) fare — chair. clue — cue. (d) /ш— u/. peel —seal. sight—right. came — lame. A ll the other pairs are m inim al. Both vowels are front. pay— say.. sight—right. constrictive with a flat narrowing vs. — •constrictive sonorants:fell—well. occlusive sonorants i(nasal): pine—mine. constriciive with a round narrowing: fail—sail. labio-dental vs. (c) pat — cat. (b) /e—se/. been—dean. debt net.63 1. occlusive-constrictive /tf/. (a) less — yes. Singual forelingual apical alveolar. seem — seen. Voice or noise prevalence: occlusive noise (plosives) vs. /n/. constrictive /3/. rudder — rugger. teasure— ledger. kick — king. but/13/ is an open vowel of broad variation and /a:/ is a mid vowel of broad variation. .gay 3. bHabial vs. Exercises pi67 1. /n/. kick—Nick. soul —role. coming — cunning. fully back mid-open vowels of broad variation. The number of noise producing foci: unicentral vs. foot—soot. thine —w ine. <d) fare— chair. constrictive It — s/. occlusive-constrictive /t|Y /t/ or /d/ vs. pole—sole. vain — lane. (e) Position of the soft palate: oral noise /b/ vs. genre— jar. (d) Place of articulation and the nurober of foci: interdental/6/ vs. whereas /u/belongs to the subgroup of broad variation and is a back-advanced voweL 231 . Manner of noise production: plosive /t/ vs. bad — bag» bat — hack. after /t/ the position of the tongue for hi in try is not so cacuminal andhi is affricated. rung — young. sinner— singer. supper — succour. fee—see. quite. HI. drew — due. bait—gait. labial bi labial: fee—we. those—rose. forelingual apical /t/. labio-dental vs. bee — thee. I. w/ after /k/ are devoiced in clean. /0:/ belongs to the group of back. (c) Manner of noise production: occlusive vs. к — g/. work — jerk. leap — leak 2. (c) /9: — D:/. constrictive /J7 vs. seek — seen. Both are back vowels. palato-alveolar alveolar /5/ vs. fat—sat. wail — Yale. »forelingual apical vs. fee— we. bicentral: fell—well. but /e/ is a mid-open vowe narrow l of variation and /se/ is a low (or open) vowel of broad variation. lingual. labial bilabial vs. /I.

(а) /и—ai/. IstAdi. Itpmas. lepildemik. (b) /в—еэ/ 4. Itventi. кгир. plaü. big. cart—card Boz—bars don—down wart—what caught—cot cord—cod 3. Uuggast. bsek. kamp. Ibiikan. tos (c) spent. algein. tuk. ga:Iz islpejeli. Istatid. ikslpekt. (b) /аг —э:— A / cab—curb—cub. lka:li. bt. /ее/ 1 is a frönt open vowel o! broad variation. sai. Iregiulö ЫрЫщ. ta:nd. Ididnt. stik. bit. ikslplem. keuld. lfce:li. pit.( e ) /se—ei/. ktp.t. ipi-siz. Iba'. teik. gets. IJugabM. m /я—эи/. di:l. ternd. ga:lz > ipsigativ. Ipe^i. Iplaitfwm. Igsuirj Iptktjg. stil. and the shortest is the third row. Ьэи8. Ipeni. get. р!азп.. lukt 6. kanldi^gn. Iksitn. Ibukei. kist. daunt. IkAvad. beer — bear. bed. Ikemist. tAnz. givz. Ipaipss. put. kept. ta:nz. (a) /t—e—a/ bead—bed—bad. Igivirj. they are shorter in the second. kaen. gauz Ipiisiz. aildia. misted. peitj tin. bed. Ihsn. 1Ьз:1эи. 74 5. Iksempes. Ipfcpl. Ы. keim. (splendid. dei. basd. Igivn. iklsept. Iginrz. 68 1. Ip3:fikt. fear — fair. ktp. Idim. tiaz. ded. deit. Ihffipi. tgetirj. bsek. bt. hay — high.. Ittiq. Stability of articulation. I gaust.ltju. dra. Iksrid3. The nucleus of the diphthong /эй/ is a central mid-open vowel. Ibsnkwit. The phonemes /fc. Idrinkirj. deed —dead—dad.' IkAbad. laarjks. . Itjielip. no — now..zdi. kbp. iwmza. /эй—аи/. (b) til. Ipnsrbl. Iteutl. plem. pirjk. teik. pölteiteuz. pens. geilz.tn. Iparpas. hat—hurt—hut 2. Icttsst*. tan—turn—ton. Iteksi. пряжа—МОЛОДОЙ 'бт—6in ТОНКИЙ —вещь Igivlra—Igivirj уступить—riaжертвование ldraiv'mw. Idsedr. albeid. Inwdid. 1лп. bum. ldju. stif. ifcslprerrans. no:. Iliikap. IkArants. bask. rear — rare. llukirj. hoe — how. stei. taim. Ipiti. btn. ki:p. tape — type (b) hear — hair.algaU' Iptenin. pAmpt. {a) known — noun. ksa. Iditarsnt. Idifrant lpi:siz. taiz. ear — air. iks'tensivh.h. Ikitjan. lukfupai. Isiti. a3kt. ac. Ibakbaun. geiv. teik. keuld. mldfcd. Ipranrj. bad —bird—bud. giv. algen. k<t. dt. Ipa:msn3nt'. Ikeafli. 5. get. Ibaskit. gaui 7. te:nd. Ibreikin. tel. krfck. /о:/ is a raid fully back vowel of broad variation. Ipsetan..ldraivirj Ъ 232 . baut. (a) kJ:p. best. phoned — found. depös. Ibaskit. Idaisfrsem. krept. nlpead. Ibiljsdz. get. Iklasiz.a:/ in the first row of each column are the longest. lkEeps]u:Iz. Control Tasks p. Iksandid. |nju(:)lmaunJ8. дз:1г„ дэи . greulteak. 3. glkeisenl. lh?arjkatfif. Iptpl. pleis. ikslpranans. tear — tear Exercises p. Itl-ffaz. Iklismrj. Iksembnan. (ptanad. beidz. staun. Igigl. eit Exercises p. 1ащ. Items. tin. aildra. pKz. Swtsl. nlpAblik. k-ost. die. Iditiz. ksuld. Kifttfcn. 77 6.ei. imjbserasinj IstAdi. Isikslttn. btri. Wsaid. sain. gest. pats. tiez. 1р1лтэ. Ipaesmd33. ibeta. Ipeitferz. kserid3. big. aildia. dilsaidid. nlpeid. Itainirj. Ibbin. pee. imAdi.'kuk. gest. jan—jAn. da-. t!:tj\ stik. Ikulidj. Ipjurplz. bay — buy. kxts. pet. deiz. Iwnntid. 1кл1э. peid. (Anbilltvablr Idifrsnt. tiaz. Ipendsltan.. The nucleus of the diphthong /ei/ is /e/ which is a front mid-open vowel of narrow variation. vslkeijent Iksempes.

gtm. sAg. wen. Ifijirj. 1э. Iwihrjli. Imiagld. 'iggland. Idramrjl вп. thin — sin ТОНКИЙ — грех thick — sick ТОЛСТЫЙ —> больной thought — sought думал — искал Forth — force вперед — сила mouth — mouse рот — мышь thumb — some большой палец — какой-нибудь worth — worse ценность — худший thick — tick толстый — тикать thought — taught думал — учил three — tree три — дерево seethe — seize кипеть — хватать lathe — laze токарный станок — безделье then — den тогда — логово though — dough хотя — тесто seethe — seed — смятение — семя heath — heat пустошь — жара both — boat оба — лодка forth — fought вперед — боролся clothe — close одевать — закрывать breathe — breeze дышать — бриз there — dare там — визов other — udder другой — вымя worthy — wordy достойный — многословный months месяцы the eighth zone восьмая зона withstand противостоять clothes одежда sixth шестой is thin тонкий it's this это who's that кто это 6. sAk. brig. . fat—9si. Btrj. Irk—Or*. IJAgga. Iraitirj. Isfcirj э Ifrend Inf. 1ллг. UiArjgn. fmz—6inz. Налддп. Isttpig. def—depö II.Ьт. IJAOgs Jt !юп. Öifc. fa:st—63:st. Imiggld Exercises p. 6io. liogiij. tteikirj it. lnA6irj av 9a' Ikamd. 84 4. ihaerja. frtdirj. rsQk. kaum. o:l—hal весь— зал 1Э—hia ухо— слышать aut~-haus внешний — дом at—hat искусство—сердце at—hut следовало бы —горячий is —hiz есть—его aust—haus выгонять—-дом it—hit это— удар il—hil больной —холм sez— 1иев как—имеет 233 SAH—ял о солнце—пропетый 1клщ1т— 1клтщ приходить—приход .klfcn — klm чистый—прилипать inutlBirj — 1плШд не вещь—ничто (дэЫгп— Igauirj входить — отъезд эип— 1эшд собственный—долг sein — IseiiQ нормальный—пословица < brerk/in — I breikrg врываться—торможение Uuklm—llukirj быстрый взгляд—смотрящий 6. Iem8in els. sprig. Igamrj. faund^ieauzand. Imocmrj. Пигщэ. Iklaspirj га 1Ьэи9 Ihsendz 7.

Jup. almenka. I Jugs. lhi. election. fa. change. page. Ineva. draiy. t/m. gray. Паз/. Jane. Inuend. tJ4:k. sad Exercises p. leasure. fhAndnd. rot. row. 11. lam. lAntf. reits. /w/ is biiabial and bicentral.zd. islpejali. Ijestadi. ilnAf. For instance: ел—ель. brjij. Idresig. te. Isimk. IdsentI. present 3. пол—Поль. rag. shook. reason. Imtidn. ju:fl.sed -— hged добавить—имел and — hsend и—рука am—ham рука— вред adz—hasndz добавляет— руки еэ—иеэ воздух-—волосы 14. Inrats. tdifrent. IhAzband. Jtp. Isenkjash. ran. jttlnait. Ivsijan. Ipraisiz. pas. Issfata. mevju(:}. right. Ikrasau. jinn. isertnh. it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. rash. lhauziz. age. cry. chess. rich. tfj:p. lreko:d. dflf/ consist 2 °3 / e n d 6 p h o n e me a cs h : n t e / V+ А Л d / + // / t / / / t / + / / / i / + / 6 A / coach. The Russian /л/ is pronounced with the back secondary focus. present. mAtf. aljira. /re—e/ are separate phonemes. IkAmfst. shine. 93 » ЛГ» dg/ are pronounced as* indivisible clusters of two sounds and represent single phonemes ДГ/ and /dj5/. which results in the more "noisy" character of the /ft/ articulation. IJepad. treason. station. lef I tenant. 2. raund. sAtf. Imsari. lkDlid3. . 234 3. mju(:)lziam. IbntiJ. llinkan. ^ 1р1езэ. ritf. ig Ivuik]. wud. laenkjas. ja:. price. Iflva. condition. Ikwaia. eidg. red. check. Ifwid. 1тд(?э.. mjut. shape. Ifiga. /W—v/. /e—ae/. ripe.9a. da:z. vision. ju. Ihjuansn. Germany. sheen. ride. Imseoju:. friend. measure 16. ram. Isaujal. ail. press. shake. Iststn. rilvjus. /ля. /1/ is "light".)id5. W3:k. shy. organization. Istreindge. h:. /fc—i/. dgstmz. Jack. Ispejal. bctm. iregj-ula. sai3. tfeiz. draund. alpmjen. room. written. ship. should. Ipiarrad. The combinations /tr. W3:ld. sheet. chin. WDtf. sheep. Isju(. ring. witf. risk. Isteijsn. chop.. shade. try. jet. read. ld3ent!i. ready. pf. Ikssnd. /U is pronounced with the middle of . П. Ikaepsjuiiz • ■ 9. crisis. ladj. 1к l k l 16. 90 ridge. Ibtids. rod. Jenny. Jim. road. linglij.the tongue raised not so high as for the Russian /й/. ka 5. /i/ is "dark" because it is pronounced with the back secondary focus. child. watch. it is pronounced with the front secondary focus. 10. June 4. Unjan. chalk. shave. Ireilwei. pleasure. Jimmy. frendz. ljust tu. reust. Ifiziks. Ik on Jans. WAHS . istgslret. fij. njnz. delegation. decision. ts. di!z9:t. rang. Jud. wa:. dr. IwAri. shed. pat. The Russian /в/ is labio-dental and unicentral. chain. Jes. Ijuarap. bread. 12. Iwran. reap. Itjfflnl. 1кз:Ь„ IkAlad. je:. jAt. rule. IkArents. red. much. lgac]zws:9i. Inaujan. competition. reach. wrong. talwo:dz. Injtute. Iburaud. witf. Inalr. rest. IJivaln. кол—коль. France. The Russian /л'/ is veiy "soft" which is the result of the front secondary focus in its articulation. 1глшп. shell. George. Jfi/ra. hu:z. liest?. roof. to:k. 'Juga. occasion. dl 1 Exercises p. Iterapritfa. draft. The English /r/ is a cacuminal sounds the Russian /p/ is a trilled one. fauk. tr». Istneri. China. p«d3. tz. great. Ijusual (р1езэ. shame. rsuz. sju:f t fjtt.

lo:[talgeSa. Ision. bo:t. laempl. lsi:n \vi 12. wik 2. bilgsen. 9!remd3mant. Iso:sid3. Irait/as. what^. Ifatmtin. Iheziteit. Iwe3a. klfcn. Id Control Task p. IfcsBiit. тз:. lads. (müdl. piij. btlgmz. d3s:d3. d3Db. iklsaitid. Ibercal 7. Isauld33. mashed^potatoes. dilpatja.m. Isphd. sset. кэ:1. Iwtndau. Ia:st. ka:d. |(c) tjfcp. mit. frctns. but_good. lenvid. past. sfcn. good^. at w the blackboard. lletis. гэ:. gad. 1квн 5. writedown.Imaentfista. Imedsin 4. Шагрэп. imBenjulfselctfaz. don't_Jike. gras. and^the guest. sun. 1р1езэ. po:t.country.. Inselfaral 6. pit. Iftjnd. rfcd. ' ( в ) . 1клп^. Ibakh. : 1. Ikntisizm. Ikotid3[z. Imtstfif. a:m. IglEdli. ha:d.. tea and^cake. rmlpoitans. plsed. got^to eat. 9э: 235 . Ibuksiz. ldij"[z. stllaist 10. sl:y. help. port. ibritsn. Ivilidj. Iksen. ig kig. flo:. leftist. tell^the girl. Ihnland. so:t. d lwo:ta. Iglsadli. двп. l ha fa d. raailself. Idccnsin. to:k. hctf. Imtsiz. lekspo:ts. like^to have it. (sets. trtt. bilfo:. trt. lv. la :s t. ho:s. Ikrpiz. wi. ba:. Imemba. rod. lbu|[E. vslkaebjularr. апиМз. will^you please. wo:. Idresirj. Inudid. 115 I. Isseknfais 8. CK . dro:. Iffidid. ha t 11. Ibsslkara. wuz.the city. djips.t. rfo:t[lfo: 14. Iheziteit. d3[lumitn. Ihaiba. bed. do:. b:kistra. Ismwei. laebssluitli. Imtnstid. la:k|ein{d)3(3)I. ]et. IkDnkrfct. IJsetau. sma. mlgeidjmant. fo:. itraeJik. . what^can I do. lc uf. (c) will^you read louder. Ifrendh. lbAd3it. lufa. get. Ihiostal. o:l. rounds. ded. d50i. Isaenwid3tz. misted. $Ъ. Jhtrlidi. Ivraikin. hed. mllctdj. зрпц. b:\mz. Isaeman. Isffidms. krtk. klifs. itnaänjulfsektj'araz. hit^nose. Ifnlsuitt. dtl. ft. Ibctskio. m. plsen. kasn.time. clean_the board. Igimz. Ikwestfen. fdukta. kfc. 1 ГСЕОЭ . bau». tfaild. Items. mldpimant. dsem. laebstrakt. nlsfcv. (b) sl. inldevs. Iseprit. la ns a. sakt. Ibizi.time. lhadlj. big. hed. online seventh. just^thirsty. lirjks. Ifraidr.text 1.the girl Exercises p. 1тэ:ти. Isimptamz. stik. fam. on^. Ы:. glsed. tel. Iruki. ask. read^. llaudid. Ikvli. on^this. Ikwohbi loümaritek. peck. Ipnvilid3. I'd. un. rsd. рэ:. Ibtldtg. silk^dress. . kD:s t ko:t. Isepkjas. 1э:1зэи. dak. п. ilmsedjm. mi. lfo. la:t[klz. hav. lleta. kalmit. nst. Ibaskit. Ifaä9. tot. drest. did.st. lpi:pl. j'pt 13. iWDznt. I WD J IZ .__like. lldasiz. swaem. (b) repeat^the noun. 1ЬвЭэ. IBZIII. Ikaemit. lid. fat get.t. stctt. bo:. Imimts. 105 (a) sit-down. ten t Isevn. fa. Igrsendäa. t a. difficult^to deal. 9э temz.the boy's plate. nlmemba. hau I tel. hi. drajgk. lrLK3is. II CU F EI ]. mustard_p lease. il. that^pub. lrna:si. fo. af tko:s. Isih. Ibsedli. Iknhds. iglzaekth. ■work_now. (a) si:. Ineitfa.fit. tgauin. IpraugrEem. diltstft. kfc 3. glad^to see you. bl©ok. Idsadi. faltfcg. hüt. sed. ilnitnt. bo:t f гз:0. pit. Iprüsparas. Ion. Ihulidi. Jsemlpem. m a. jo:n. I 9. sik. tell^. Ibunit. Iwimin. swi:p. ÖDit. Idessht. lfcst. lükjupai. Itempritfa. 'по1к1з. Ibiskit. niisk. in^the noun. Ifwm. nts. Ibudi. ka. pa:. IfrMi. next^. will^you tell^rae. illevn 6. ftt. wirjgz. bro:d. tftf. et. Jo:. Ictnsa. wiont. ionist. baad. nod. Bio. Ifaensi. .

ГЦ:Г. iffla:tl. iwAndalsend Iwudlsnd. (a) When preceded by /w. Juk. ШлтЬлд. tjun. rum. n/. with the velar closure in /bi:k. with the labiodental. ta 'step. Ibujrz. д. 1лЭэ. as retracted in /Igiva/. Idesalit. d3Ast. lka:tn. WAn. d. ts ipli:z. bru:z. blu:. n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced: 1 with the bilabial release in /gri:b/. fflAtJ". tru. Itaiki. B U TJJ ]» slbaut. jtS. irumd.15. wstk. hsid. An!d3Ast. клт. elbei. mAst. ikApJ. Ihjunra. alkros. lpa:fikt 23. J 1 . jufl. v. puj 1 . mAst. hv/. with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /Girjks. malnurva 19. bri:S/. I put laut. with the palatal position of the bulk of the tongue for /j/ in /ji:Id/. Itjuzdi. kju:. IwAndslaend. Irestful. kuk. h]u:d3. wa:d. ws^d. pslhseps. tnkalpitjuleit. with the apical position of the tip of the tongue in /dsd. j. nasali'ed before /m. IkAntn. m. Ikurra 17. jAn. Э. 236 . pglsent. TAf. hslself. glgen. hjuz 20. 134 1. Iwudnt. ighmarm. sit. as retracted Jn /kil/. nju:. Ibjir-tt. hs:. Iwustid. Isjusaid. r. rilvju:. fju-. 0. n/ the /i:/ phoneme is pronounced: as labialized in /wi:/. jits. Isbsslicth. bru:. 2 with the labiodental release in /if. I put Itm. tuk. Ibselksni Exercises p. Ztt.. a T h a i i s t h e f i n a l st a ge 'i s a ffe c t e d. kn. retracted. t. turn. Iprnbebli. (b) the /r/ phoneme is pronounced: as nasalized in /him/. tlS. salpauz. 1. kanldijan. tuk. j"ud. sjust. SlMl.s. wa:. Isa'. wulf. Ijusuah. tf. Ikudnt. I. IwAn. with the cacuminal position of The tip of the tongue in /ntJV. Irekagnaiz. ml. Ivffilju:. lift/. tf. Ээ Isüg. h. with the interdental release in /mi6. Iksafli 16. ta:nd. IkArgnts. frAnt. Inju(:)lmaunj3. m. gud. bAs. Iwuman. Uf 22. sslpraiz. d3«:n. with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hi:/. 0э lga:lz. Itg/. kud. with the interdental release in /Ji:6. tAn. ni:dnt/. Immvirj. ba:dz. IkAtnpas. lbs:tn. stud. Ьз:д. put. glpDn. 1пл8ц). ga:lz.pzl. md. W3:6. Injista. Iregjitla. with the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in /6i:m/. s. (b) When followed by / b. [intraIdkJ Ii 21. к. Iwarks. tongue in /fiJV. lhAndrad. mU:V. ipikaldili. lta:na. !a: 24. э1тл5/1тлш. Ifamsli. with the labio-dental release in /li:v/. /u:d. tit. IwAndaful. Imsenijists. г 1шл9э. 1галш. wund. 1|э:1эк. idekareit. fa:st. fju:. JAO. with the apical constriction (round narrowing) in /si:/. mlstrAkta. position. hu:. wud. lte:nnj. te IfiJ. flAd. kitl. ns. with the apical occlusion in the final stage in /i:t. gru:p. mi:. tjAkl. Iwudn. with the cacuminal position of the tip of the tongue for /r/ in Ihy. n/ in /mi:lz. gud I bar} Ijiffitjroli. fut. ta Idu. wa:s. Itrsevls. ISarti. imanjulfäektjaz. тртэ Ibjurfiful. [sigalret. ItrAbl. with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing for /h/ in /hid/. э1плЭэ. as nasalized after /m. put. falget. Iwudland. d3Ads. Ihjttmsn. lka:nl. глп. pul. kgnlfes. sts:. 9irj/. wiS/. sta:. 1рв:щэпэп1. Ipju^lz. luk. sut. fi:l/. I k t l t j j 18. lws:kaz.. 1злшэ. for /f/ in /Ifi:v9/. iba:bu. Isevinju:. lukt. IfAm. skis]. dAz. JUS. da:t. Ikvli. with the apical occlusion for /d/ in /di:l/. flu. with th& 1 T h a t i s t h e f i r s t st a ge a nd t he be gi nni ng of t he m e di a l st a ge of t he vowel are affected. J3:z.tnh.

shape. /au/ A. d) road. cacuminal. big/. (2) b) accordeon. (5) here. 143 1. b) face. motive. b) profile. t. speaker. lay. hotel. Wales. (4) make. (2) a) though. ears. (1) a) climb. realize. c) shoulder. cosy. b) wife.. hotel. coin. hold. forelingual. /ei/ A.l is modified under the influence of the forelingttal. motive. voiceless. while. labio-dental. loud. (4) i b) () ) y. apical.. in we — under the influence of the bilabial. (2) a) thousand. (1) a) boy. meals. son. alveolar. b) found. c) social. (1) a) hope. quantitative changes: it is the longest in: sea. (4) poker. down. nine. real. noticed. waste. (5) high. side. /01/ /au/ Г/ai/ A. constrictive sonorant /w/. mild. voiceless fortis constrictive/t]/. lake. isles. climb. my. in teach — the lingual. b) boating. (4) kind. point. fever. apical. gave. ray. (1) a) why. fortis. c) age. b) severe. motor. we. bil/. d) destroy. (4) like. Michael. b) foe. able. (1) a) boating. taken. idea. motor. now. drown. noticed.. forelingual. bright. (5) hope. found. d) right. face. /»/ A. b) David. mild. apical. with the palato-alveolar position of the tip of the tongue in the final stage in /паз/. sane. B. (2) b) oil. b) don't. The quality of the vowels depends on the articulatory characteristics of the consonants which precede or follow them. in fever ■— the labial. side. b) south. occlusive sonorant /ml. in sea I'v. day. Etc. b) over. case„ rain. wild. (3) year. (2) b) dear. (2) b) join. silence. in cheaper — the lingua]. apica]„ palato-alveolar voiceless fortis constrictive Ц1. near. enjoy. (I) a) game. cold. in meals — the nasal. David. (6) how. d) rain. (2) b) lake. round. (2) a) south. road. constrictive "light" /J/. fortis. (1) a) pay. kite. (1) museum. as nasalized in /tin/. constrictive /h/. teach. while. joint. (3) yolk. constrictive IV. (1) a) pound. pale. out. sane. famous. museum. voiceless. joint. paint. (I) a) Crimea. b) drown. B. A. rise. Control Tasks p. employ. m sheep — the lingual. make. sound. Michael. c) couch. social. wild. ocelusive III. 136 1. late. d) round. bright. palato-alveolar.... in speaker — the labial. case. (2) b) soil. c) shape. point. (2) a) both. d) weary. post-alveolar. way. don't. as retracted in /pik. bilabial. nose. idea. constrictive sonorant h/. mouth. bilabial. quite. Wales. shoulder. sleet. E. alveolar. forelingual. pain. (2) b) again. B. apical. in sleet — the lingual. B. kindly. (2) b) kind. occlusive /p/. (4) coin. poet. total. c) join. 23? .. lain. silence. thousand. voiceless. (4^ game. (4) couch. late. Control Tasks p. soil. pale. period. p o i t . poet.apical release in /iz. poker. forelingual. bureau.. (4) go. in he — the pharyngali (glottal) voiceless fortis. nine. B. gold. sheep. hold. profile. loud. It is shorter in: easily. eyes. keep. gold. pound. in tree — the lingual. fortis. takenA. gave. I /i:/. like. noise. yolk. noise. weigh. he. B. -waste. employ. jokes. follow. It is the shortest in: cheaper. g. old. down. total. forelingual.. mouth. (2) b) die.. right. cosy. pain. tree. voiceless fortis. jokes. kindly. nose. only. constrictive* /s/. Vowel No. ache.

r/ are devoiced most noticeably in the initial clusters Up]. usual. 3. Itaifbid. anywhere. (1) a) poor.пэ/ /Iwots ss Ipumt/ /I K I la Ibuks/ /Iwesz za ibrednaif/ ■9. sj. tr.g/ followed by /vu/. c) /k. (2) b) tour. farewell. IQiata. 9r. 2. kl. 1/ become dental followed by /Э. d) parents. (1) b) carefully. n. g.followed by /w/» 5. Imlaiz. /U9/ A. pair. a) /kief Ipeeldt/ /1Ьлд Itelafaun/ /weis Ipeipa/ /. /ж/ are labialized. (I) a) parent. a) / L E / before the mediolingual sonorant /j/ is a a advanced variant of the fully back / L E /. sw./89/ A. Mary. Post-alveolar /r/ becomes alveolar after/6. 1. Imsen. /p. (2) a) there. various. sauÖ. И. g/ followed by / L E /. d) during. lhaitn. 2. (2) b) stairs. Ifrafeuin.с|иэ Exercises p. despair. K /. Iwamdirj. b) stare. g/ are non-labialized. 9/. d) /Pit. Id3uanst. 8.3. bare. si. % Ih i. the back part of th e tongue m ov es forw ard closer to the position for the mediolingual /j/. palteitauz. dare. moor. B. t. b) various. s. ■Jd3em fsa. (stremdgli. stairs. in (b). Europe. during. Assimilation of place in final alveolars: a)/I/ to /p/ b)/d/ to /b/ c)/t/ to /k/ /braip blui/ /0з:Ь pat/ /jak keik/i /dap bo:d/ /heb boi/ /braik grtn/ /waipwoj"/ /reb rai:t/ d)/d/ to/g/ /hctb walk/ /haig kssj/ /heg ge:l/ e ) I n /t o / o / /in Iktudif/ /'sArj glcusiz/ g) reciprocal assimilation before /j/ /igetfa: Ikaut/ /ai Ih3:d5üi kAmlm/ /IbleJ Jtt/ /tkbu3 зэ: ibuks/ f) s / to /J / /Ikrismoj IJüpin/ /Iwauntja*/ /Ikudntju-/ /IJudntJiE/ /Ikantjus/ ) /Э/ is assimilated. smlsiak. In (a) /d. They are slightly pal atalized before Д/. 1. 1. lamralnait. /r/ is devoiced preceded 4. /!:/ are slightly rounded. (4) care. square. 4mauta. d. c) sure. b) /e/ before the dark /1/ is more open. fr. (2) b) usual. sn/ devoicing is less noticeable. Mary. falsiliteitid. kr/ when followed by a stressed vowel. lamdgilau. ljuarsp. Sonorants /w. fj. /in пэ 1ко. pr. j. Öj. 152 1. Öw. kw. Imaikal. (c) /d. риэ. S/. carefully. following /n. t. tw. /se/. 6/. sm. ml dormant. g/ are labialized '. lab ialized follow ed by / D :. g/ palatalized^efore /i:/. In the clusters M' tJ» kj. B. Alveolar /t. z.n n tf ifedsUfs/ f t f lL ? LL z 238 / /ln d3 Is e rf e s / /idaiv biflau/ /Ibaö Оэ Jbeibi/ r f t f * l s tL b n z / ? /l d I f e / .

muddle. (1) lateral plosion: curdled. id. ряд. slept. big books. great number. 1). sudden. ripe cheepe. black goat. поле. u:/ are pronounced with slight labialization (no lip protrusion). psekt. /Iwuts оэ Itaira/. f. (I) Aspiration in all English words beginning with /p. IpctsЗзт. partner. Exercises p. /Ipepa/. weg. поли. hiz Win. pra. frank. alfreid. (2) nasal plosion: Britain. farad. bs:8. tfcz. English consonants followed by /о:. 3. No aspi ration in Russian words beginning with /п. к/. /llets Igou/.n. с. red tight* huddle. с. 163 1. 239 . die. 5. ком. 6. d. с. z.b) /Itrap bai/ /lkra>k iputs/ /idAb Ifitm/ /kJauZ l /Ibffcö IdJpli/ c) /Islaem 9э Ida:/ /Iheabrem Iskfcm/ /istrirj Imjuizikl instranrant/ Control Tasks p. <r> = /r/ in rait. Isfchrj. oughtn't. fif8s f Isimös löea. d. bsa. сила.—close CV transition. at last. trai. 155 10. needless. p/ result from the loose CV transition in тина. begged. • v 12./Ibatfdej/. mottled. witness. с. ток. IweSa. 2) to pronounce alveolar /s. 1/ asdental. rait. a) Russian soft initial /т. /j/ —more high in /lpju:ta/. at night. top coat. 6. « (3) Labialization with the lip protrusion in: бук. <our>==/ua/ in tour T <ear>=/ra/ in tear. роль. t. /Iblakbsd/. Labialization with no lip protrusion in: топь. соль. bad. peil. Graphemes b-a-o-b-a-b v-e-s-t d-u-l-y sh-i-p d-i-sh aw-E-u-1 d-aw-n 1-igh-t h-igh w-or-k ar-ch-a-i-c ai-r-y 1-au-gh w-a-tch-ed ou. prei r rein. дуло. d/. /10» Ibuk/. ough Phonemes /Ib-ei-a-b-as-b/ /v-e-s-t/ /ld-jui-1-i/ Я-1-Р/ /d-i-J/ /la-f-u-1/ /d-a:-n/ /1-ai-t/ /h-ai/ /w-3:-k/ /a-lk-ei-i-k/ /lea-r-i/ /1-cc-f/ /w-D-tJ-t/ Letters b-a-o-b-a-b v-e-s-t d-u-I-y s-h-i-p d-i-s-h a-w-f-u-1 d-a-w-n 1-i-g-h-t h-i-g-h w-o-r-k a-r-c-h-a-i-c a-i-r-y 1-a-u-g-h w-a-t-c-h-e-d 4. good looks. (3) loss of plosion: actor. what kind. etc. день. Коля. captain. id. lsu:3z öam. wit/. т. ssul. д. ttel 9эт. Care should be taken 1) to avoid regressive voicing or devoicing of thesounds given in bold type: /laenikdaut/. cotton. Э/: /stksö. реэ. /Imedsm/. /a/—more back in /ka/. prei. лом. Im 9э/. d. pi:s. etc. /pit/. liz Iflaet. sl. admit." /t/ more back In Д 13. bred. since they are followed by-the interdental /9. back to back. madness. еэ. tven. ffct. (2) Short English vowels are not affected by loose GV transition in /top/. pemz. bau. eau. <ed> indicates the past indefinite morpheme -ed which is pronounced* ft. k/. drai..

raud. 164 1. серийный — овсянка. рассказ — хвост. vain. Ifauntin. голый — медведь. nic-er. голубой — дул. солнце — сын. right. child-'s. оштрафованный — находить. engage-ment. Ikumphnrentr'hea. eigh = 4. rag-ing. right. бригада — кишеть. outrage-ous. Isferral. change-able b) /Ikjua-nrj/ 2. парус — продажа. /«Ml«. Jerepans. /Itfra-nn/ red-der chee-ring sed. ai=/er. ceiling. huge-ly. bu!g-y. bear. Бернард. dis-like.3>!:tj\ hra. cul-ture /Inei-Jan/ Ы. гнуть — сук. sour-Iy. vanes. комплимент — дополнение. просить. i(b) pray-s. vein. (poitnt. ay. Эндрю. бить — свекла. хлеб — воспитанный. sfc. чай — дразнить. погода — ли. write. ключ — набережная 7. praise. Ьегз/. ceiling. ведро — бледный. tfcrn. Джин. Мейбл. франк — искренний. right. Эстер. worked /ША-Г8-11/ /eid. ровня — дам■<5а. read-able. старания. pear. продавать — ■ячейка. труды — оконные стекла. sealing. *!■/. Стричь — груша. breik. wi:k. мясо — встречать. fea. подвиг — ноги. (e) indicate historical length or the diphthongal nature of the preceding vowel phonemes (second columns a). Марта. мех — пихта.fires /Itjia-lis/ d oc-curr-ed /kjuad/ stirr-ing stirr. кукурузные хлопья. sole. vain. (а) me-ter. change-ling. sure-ly. meiz. ворота —походка. 9. Лайонел. колдунья — который. sei. urg-ent. -seil. ео cit-y /lred-э/ — /%!/: /freit. un-known. ель. bare. сцена — увиденный. vein 240 . цент — посланный — запах. beau-ty.cured /alka:d/ ed pin-ing /Ista: -no/ o-ccurred pine-d work-er stir-ring /sterd/ work-ing work. soles. смородина — течение. ее. 'jlepad/. 1 arg-er. sole. (rr) indicate the short character of the preceding vowel phonemes (second columns b). пара — подрезать. волосы — заяц. 'bear. pair. носить — где. Болдуин. церемония. penni-less. Кит. soul. soul. mis-rule. cc/r/lagast. Дороти.wor-ker /IW3:-kirj/ er cheer-ing /W3>kt/ wor-king 3. Пий Control Tasks p. ffesri. teil* nidil. Эйбел. . rage-cl. Эни. дождь — царствование. bb. Джеральд. койка — рождение. э/. мужской — почта. еэ е. princ-ess. ехал верхом — дорога. aigh=/ej/: =/i. (nn). ei = na-tion /Isit-i/ /ei/. ягода — хоронить. cry-ing. SD:S. г. burg-ess. гас-y. плата за проезд — ярмарка. умолять — добыча. мир — кусок. age. face-d. tea-cher. far. IkArsnt. gert. Ivilan/. bfct. хриплый — лошадь. choic-est. face. дорогой — олень. nice-ly. hi=l. bear. потолок — скрепленный печатью. /streit/. wei/. ho:s. ломать — тормоз. pair. пляж — бук. au tho-rough-ly /IkAl-tJa/ = /o:. кукуруза — лабиринт. kl: договор «-1 упакованный. ■plem. six-ty. im-mortal. (tt).stirred /lpai-шп/ ed thorough-ly pi-ning /pamd/ cult-ure nat/ I k / pined ion cit-y redd. слабый — неделя. sent. sAri. (ss). Iben. тщетный — вена — флюгер. ca-ring. ясный — самолет. под запором — засов. a) cur-ing fire-s cu-ring c) /1Е а(1 )э г/ cheer-less cure. ir-rational 8. слышать — здесь. правый — писать — обряд. Джереми. подошла — душа. Eac-ing.Хыого. море — видеть. Mute (r). воздух — наследник. mit. vein. bear. e/: /Ipfcpl. Аира. исцелять — пятка.

сон. ГСС'ПО) VCCG (VSCC). астр (b) рад. lbsd-ru:m. эк-lteu-ba. pud-ding. strays. CV— CVC. 4. (11) CCSVSC. 4. 178 1. boy. гц-ral. clenched. CV— SVSCC. play-ing. CV— CS. V SVSCC. Itrai-fl. writ-ing. bi-ffad. что 2.' Itju-zdi. Imai-dan. Ihe-raldz. ba-na-nas. 5.CSVS. IstA-dr. Ifai-m-tfa. CV-CVSCC. grade A 9-182 241' . СГСССС (13) CCCVC (CCSVS). a blacked eye. (9) VCC (VSG). здесь. fret. . V — CSVS. Isse-tfal. 6.СГС. fact. dis-ap-pear. piu-ral. всласть. lifts. от. tAp-lstsaz. le-randz. ССГС (5) CV. price (c) pray. ЗАГС. CVC CVSCC. CSV CSC. thrust. texts. . nau-lvem-ba. CV — CVSC. illek-ltn-si-ti. (2) CVCC. 3. 4. . CV— CS. CV— CVSC. iskse-falds Exercises p. 3. Itaan-d39nts. CV CVSC. СГ. mar-ry. sap-ltem-Ьэ. beer. keeps ticking. Is-gast. взрыв.rlij kjuad (tfis-lis lkjua-пл f tfta-rtrj lred-(d)a (net-Jan ikAt-tfa J9A-r9-Ii lfa(i)9-ni] wor-ker pined pi-ning stir-ring o-ccurred cured cheer-less cu-ring chee-ring li-rtng red-der na-tion cul-ture tho-rough-ly Control Tasks p. (b) CV— CS. fpaen-trr. CCV-CVSCC 3. pears. (8) CCCV (CCSV). 2. break-fast. to-rnatoes. Jpsa-rents. Is:-d3ant. asks. straw. ГС. злак (c) мгла. ССГСС (151 CCVCCC (CSVSCC). 177 1. Ik-o-hds. fish-ing 5. гипс. 3. горсть. Ipei-Jants. . that stuff. (a) at. 2. pas-sing.СССГСС (12) ГССС . SV CSC. house-work. 5. shop-pmg. Inaisa-rr. an aim for it. Шэе-рэпг. V— CSVS. mis-take. Imai-blz. di-lsem-Ьэ. 10s:-zdi 4. pea (a) ил. ebbed (b) took. СССГС (14) CSVCC (CSVSC). isev-ral. ili-snd. pa-rents. IkAm-fe-ta-bl. Syllables W3:k Syllabographs work ■wor-king 1\уз:-кэ pamd Э-lljgid Ipai-mq Jsta. I saw her eyes. lfeb-шэ-п. Isai-vant. elks. 2. СГССС (4) CSVS. I saw the meat. speak-ing. Ips-tanz. might rain. ib-kwal. (7) VC. fire. aunt. idrse-gnz. 4. 6 7. Минск. СССГ . din-ner. iron-ing. CVC (V) SCC. Iwen-zdi. ber-ries. Ibjtc-gl. (I) CVC. 9un. . walk-ing. (6) CCV (CSV). — — — SV — CSC. 1Ьа9-гшт. V— CVSC. In-äm. СГСС (3) CVCCC. ССГССС 2. Ikt-tfan. (a) lpf>pJ. graund. а) Ь) | «) Ь) I а) Ь) I а) Ь) | а) Ь) I а) Ь) I а) Ь) s t | l m | b k | m s | s k | g v | t p etc. чувств. . cof-fee. скетч. CV — — — — CVSCC. . CV SVSCC. 3. not a tall. 3. white shoes. cab-bage. 2.ССГ. lei-pnl. сфинкс. struck. the way to cut it. stand-ing. po-ta-toes. та. tip. Idsae-njue-n. кто. bet. 4.

/lestimabl — lestimeit/ /э—ei/ 2. реорганизовать. /lfa\red—foitaraid/ /э—э:/. авторучка. кузнец. плохое правление. вновь открывать. нечистый. Ishop [keeper. lekspoit. лютик — желтая чашка. lekspait. писать с орфографиче скими ошибками. /Ы—8«V /э—«/. чернильница. покидать lautlei—autllei издержки — тратить Exercises p.)—втыкать. неотчужденный. переутомиться — сверх работы (задания). яблоня. согласие—договариваться Idezat — dilzs:t пустыня—бросать. Ikaenut. Iwashstand. Idikfansn. Iteapot. /ikslpenmsnt —ikslpenment/ /э—е/. младший офи цер. /sam—sAm/ /э—л/j /Itetem—ltel(h)im/ /э—i/. высокий комод (бокал на высокой ножке) — высокий мальчик Control Tasks p. /lama—lami/ /э—i/. малонаселенный. дрозд — черная птица. с не покрытой головой. ШлтЬлд. противоциклонный. масленка. классная доска — черная доска. бывший министр. Iknee-ldeep. оплаченный заранее.. кэп. /vslraiati—Ivesnss/ /э—еэ/. чемодан.) — общаться Iprodjurs—praldjtns продукция—предъявлять linfiks—mlftks инфикс {гром. a) /iilmijn/ /eilo:ta/ /u:lgand3/ /Itil/pemtirj/ /lllevn/ /enlsam/ Mpltain/ /Ikoiaut/ /sebsltrskt/ /з:1Ьет/ /ubldsektiv/ /aildie/ /hrarUnda/ /orlkestral/ /autlwit/ /jualrei3J3n/ Ь) в/л/да х/л/жу пл/л/дбв пр/л/вёл н /л/га с/л/сна Др/Л/Bl гр/л/за п/л/шу г/л/лбв п/л/ля ц/ыв/на 242 . камин. Isejan. (радио)вещание. домашняя хозяйка. всё. вставлять Ikumbam—kamlbain комбайн—объединять lknnsa(:)t-kanlsa:t концерт. ультрасов ременный 2. I hand | writing. мужское пальто (ши нель).Exercises p. /Isite— Isiti/ /э—i/. неправильное применение. Uadybird. день рождения. hav /ju:lza:p/ 4. вновь прибывший. закладка для книг 6. неправильно. рассвет. вице-консул. прическа. I labour exchange. Isesfselt. Ikuntent. 196 1. цитировать. старомодный. (grandfather. Icoalmine. /э11и. невооруженный. школьник. la&bstreekt. вице-адмирал. перепаковать. IktHnent. Ikunferans. Imail-bag. любой 5. свидетель. waste-lpaper-jbasket. Imsti'tjutt 3. лишенный помощи. рассеянный. предыстория. leipral. Ivice-1 chancellor. антинациональный. неаспирированный. 188 1. I dinner-1 jacket.. не уплата. овчарка. Ispejel.. 136 1.зэп—• 111ц:зад/ /э—i/. l£ebs(a)nt—ablsent отсутствующий—уклоняться I k u mpres—kaml pres компресс—сжимать IkDnsDit—kanlSDjt супруг Q/cm. красивый. Idifikalt. Ibirdcage. Ishop-lwindow. самолет. IcrossIquestion. домашнего изготовления 4. Iflat-lfooted. ldance-|rnusic. сейф — проч* ная коробка. неизменный. lbl»ga:d. Ipost-lgraduate. растяпа. Ibpuk. 5эт. IgrornidUloor. Iprautest. без остановок. Iwaiting-room. наволочка. lo:fn. соусник. бабочка. lair-raid. злой (раздражительный). Isecondhand 2. иногородний. положить не на то место. расписание. василек. одетый слишком просто. hot-iwater-|bottle. loffice-boy. Itape rejcorder.

Iremkaut. Irembau. Iktmvoi. 197 1. Iskailik. simlphstti. Undswea. IhAmpbsk. lautda: (damtgrum. Isimplifai 4 haibrau. Ээ Igcudian Injuspeipar | izfeimas far its misprints l| wai 13saz i:vn э Igadian ■imisprmt | pralza:vd in Ibras fa prlstenti | злт ]э:г эГдэи | Bfi= el vinau Iwam ba | dalsaidid ta Iput лр a Iplaak | m innar av Iftiip haup Iwnhs | its moust JfeiÖf| l ip iprobabh Iwitnst halbitjuei j| ^ Isau Imenjnn) iz lemmens эг э Iwit | ■Irsekanlts: j TQ Ikntik i it waz Idjirii ipleist J э1Ьлу iz ljugual !stt т>п пэ lwo:l | эп l l d et э lsmo:l IritfualJ ai daunt IwBnt э sta At)lgreitf| sed 9a relsipiant | at it fkbusli j bat öez aunlr liwin el in filip ] p Jju:v put in JtiK || lhau t bi: l Igaspt 9э Imsenid3mant [| wi wa lkeaf| ta I tfek wt0 9a Igadian || . Imtu. paniOten. tomatjua 4. Iprautest. Ihaiwei. Ibuldug. IwudkAt. Imildju:. lhatbam. llaätjkfc.«т/л/рбн б/л/рбдка ст/л/лй дв/л/рбв /д'и е /р£вня /в'и е /сёлье Control Tasks p.

have — has — had. See STRESS. and in Russian: руки (pi). ACCURACY OF PRONUNCIATION /'aekjurasi av pre.th?s transcription as a unity of all its allophones. ! ALVEO L K ftffl™ 18 'P«nt/ . Stress in such words is usually weakened because there is no change of pitch accompanying them. be'low. ACCIDENCE/'eksidens/— grammatical rules about the changes in the form of words connected with different modifications of their sound nature. A pho2TvJS reü?fteä in. Tin* transcription provides a special sign for each variant of each phoneme. ALLOPHONES /'selafaunz/ — qualitative variants or members of one and the same phoneme. V c k m -lltr ° a the &YSW C0NS gU for exallS /t d s' }hIch makeS a comPlete obstruction with the alveoles. It also performs form-distinctive functions in Englishr 'import — to im'port. primary and weak word accentemes perform word distinctive functions in English: 'billow.changes oj fЙА Äm fferent denvat>ves from the same rV h Sor in e S a m em O rP root f th different grammatical n a E a tn ^ H-' . in /tut/ /t/ is labialized under the influence of /и/ and Ы1 is a little bit advanced under the influence of /t/. e.nAnsi'eiJan/ . If a stress occurs in the stepping head without a downward step in pitch. The sym-ets [1 аП allophomc trans cription are usually placed between square brack- th. . руки (genitive). AFFRICATES /'tefnkits/ — the sounds formed during the separation of the articulating organs: in their articulation the complete closure gradually and uninterruptedly opens into a flat-slit narrowing: /tf. ACCENTUAL NUCLEUS /a5k'sentju3l 'njtrkhss/— that syllable in the word which is effected by a change in pitch direction. e. or prosodic phonological unit.GLOSSARY OF PHONETIC TERMS ACCENT /'ffikssnt/ is stress and pitch combined.bow-lifie prominence behind 244 S^^issegi™**"—* A"" "ne"liti .correct and distinct pronunciation. Jones and other foreign phoneticians.bow-lifie prominence ^V'^T 1 *"#• o r ALVEOLI /el'vielai/ . ACCENTEME /' ajksentfcm/. 'bns3nants/ . which never occur in identical positions. ALLOPHONIC TRANSCRIPTION imWtvmk trens'knpjenl .kuma'deijen/ — adaptation to different adjacent sounds. ™S*NAT I0N* ?F S0UNDS tfllWiuaSm ev 'saundz/ . ä^U ALLOCHRONES /'telekraunz/ — quantitative variants of a phonemeThe term is used by D.depressions in the 8 оске / * tbe upper teeth.g. in Russian: мука.9NANTS Ä8Ä. For example: foot — feet. ACCOMMODATION /e.this type of transcription is based on the principle "one symbol per allophone". му~ка. the word concerned is not accented. but are said to be m complementary distribution.g. _ ACOUSTIC PHONETICS /a'kuistik fau'netiks/ — a branch of phonetics which deals with physical properties of sounds.the central point of the upper № JppeTterth! /el'viele 'ri-dsen/ . The distinctive function makes word accent a separate suprasegmental.articulated by ALVEOLK ftffl P p the JppeTterth! /el'viele 'ri-dsen/ . ADJACENT SOUNDS /a'^eisant 'saundz/ — sounds that follow each other.

ASSIMILATION /9. . I. b. иэ/. CARDINALS /'ka-draelz/ — an international standard set of artificial vowel sounds which. 2. which are formed with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth cavity. regressive or reciprocal. Bilabial consonants are: /p. аз/. abstractional and generalized. E. real and objective. according to D. . when it is raised towards the junction between the hard and the soft parts of the palate. /w/ and "dark" [1] are pronounced with the back secondary foci. k/ in initial position. . at. o:/ and the nuclei of the diphthongs /oi. Jones. j> 3i tS.the whole. л ASPIRATION /.it is formed by raising the back part of the tongue towards the soft palate (velarisation). BULK /bilk/ see BODY. t. BODY /'b-odi/ . because one place. 3. material. BLOCK [bluk/ — to prevent the air from flowing out of the mouth cavity when the soft paiate is lowered and the air passes out of the nasal cavity. BRONCHI /'brarjkai/ — two main divisions of the trachea. It can be progressive.simi'leiy9n/ — the result of adaptation of one sound to another.a slight puff of breath which is beard after the explosion of /p.shoe Is/ is pronounced as /j/ under the influence of Ц1 which follows it. For example in сдал Id is voiced under the influence of Ы. В BACK-/bask/— the term is used in phonetics to characterize the vowels. ASPECTS OF A PHONEME /'jespakts sv э 'faunfcm/: a phoneme is a dia lectical unity of three aspects: I. which are lowered. which are formed with the back-advanced position of the bulk of the tongue: /u. w. e. Ivl is. BICENTRAL CONSONANTS /bai'sentrsl 'kunsötlents/ — consonants articulated with two centres of complete or incomplete obstruction: /w. can be produced with the bulk of the tongue at the four cardinal points in the front part of the mouth cavity and at the four cardinal points in the back part of the mouth cavity.ARTICULATORY PHONETICS /o/tikjtiteitan fsu'netiks/ — the description and classification of speech sounds articulated by the speech apparatus. BICENTRAL /bai'sentral/ — formed with two places of articulation. BLOW /blau/ — to'direct the air from the mouth or nasal cavity.the term characterizes vowels. The other centre of articulation is formed by the back of the tongue raised to the soft palate. С CACUMINAL /b'kju-mmsl/ — articulated by the tip and the blade of the tongue raised against the back slope of the teethridge. in hotse. or centre of articulation is formed by the sides (or one side) of the tongue.a cacuminal sound. BODY OF THE TONGUE /'budi sv 5a 'Urj/ — the whole of it. BACK ADVANCED VOWELS /'bak ad'vcwist 'vauslz/ . л/ and the nuclei of the diphthongs /эй. ml. or blowing it into the lungs.sespi'reijW . BREATH /breOA— the process of blowing the air out of the mouth or nasal cavity through the bronchi and the wind-pipe. back vowels are: /u-. BACK SECONDARY FOCUS /'bask 'sekenden 'fsukes/ .g. functional. Most commonly the sounds which undergo assimilation are immediately adjacent in the stream oh speech. leading into the lungs. eeti'tjudinl 'fArjkjW — this function fs" performed by intonation when the speaker expresses his attitude to what he is saying by intonation alone. ээ/. English "dark" [1] is bicentrai. The air passage through the mouth cavity is blocked in the articulation of /m. . ATTITUDTNAL FUNCTION /. . n/. v. BILABIAL /bai'leibial/ — articulated by the upper and the lower hp. 245 . which produces the effect of "hardness".g.

CLOSE TRANSITION /'klaus trsn'si3an/ — articulation of two neighbouring sounds when the first stage of the second sound takes place already during the medial stage of the first sound. COMMUNICATIVE TYPES /ka'mjmnikativ 'taips/ .sirm'leijW . hi in the word city. 7. COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION /. COMMUTATION METHOD /. еэ.g.g. A. light and bill. sustained /-*-/. Commands. Special questions. CHECKED VOWELS /'tfekt 'vaualz/ — short stressed vowels pronounced without any decrease in the force of articulation and immediately followed by consonants. CENTRING DIPHTHONGS /'sentnrj 'difGDrjz/ ha. CENTRAL VOWELS /'sentral 'vauslz/ — vowels formed by the central part oi the tongue. e.CARRYING POWER /'каггид 'раиэ/— inherent properties of sounds connected with their sonority. which shows that length is phonemicaliy relevant (there are three chronemes in the Estonian language and only one in English and in Russian}.keus'lesnt/ — bilateral assimilation of two sounds when in the result they give a new sound.g.komplementär! /hstn'bjujW — arrangement of allophones of one and the same phoneme. Vassilyev gives the following communicative types: 1. the raising of the middle part of the tongue to the hard palate (front secondary focus) "softens". эе. . A. CHEEKS /tffcks/ . CLASSIFY /'klaesrfai/ — to arrange the common properties of (phonetic) phenomena according to their typical characteristics. which consists in the discovery of minimal pairs. For example: /i+t/ in the word city.klassifi'keifan/ — the method which studies common properties of the investigated phenomena and which is used to arrange them systematically.assimilation when one of the two adjacent sounds fully coincides with the other. Categoric and non-categoric statements. CLASSIFICATION /. Alternative questions. иэ/ — falling diphthongs. CLEAR SOUND /'klia 'saund/ — the sound which is made softer due to additional articulatory work. General questions and 8.sides <A the mouth cavity. which are due to their individual articulatory and acoustic characteristics.the types of sentences which are differentiated according to the type of intonation. CHRONEME /'krauntm/ — a unit.this branch of phonetics studies the correlation between the phonetic system of two or more languages. which occurs in different contexts. rising I/I. but in a definite set of them.komjar'teijen 'meGed/— one of the basic methods of phonemic investigation. palatalization in the Russian word пил. which glide to hi which is considered to be "central". For example: /s/ + /j7 -+ISI in mission /'misjen/ -+ /'mijW. COMPLETE ASSIMILATION /kam'plfct 9. hilt. 5. COMPARATIVE PHONETICS /ksm'paarstiv fou'netika/ . E. Russian phoneticians refer hi to mixed vowels. COALESCENT /. 2. 6. Requests. CLAUSE TERMINAL /'kbas Чз:ттэЦ — this term is used by American descriptivists. a central high vowel is the Russian vowel /ы/ and a central low vowel is the Russian vowel /a/. COMMUNICATIVE CENTRE /ka'mjurmketiv 'sentg/ — a word or a group of words which conveys the most important point of communication in the sensegroup or sentence. labialization in the word two /tu:/. CLOSE NEXUS /'klaus 'neksas/ — close connection between a short checked vowel and a consonant which follows it. e. COMBINATORY ALLOPHONES /kam'birotan ' ffllaufsunz/ — variants of a phoneme which appear in speech as a result of assimilation and adaptation or of the specific ways of joining sounds together. 246 . For example: less sugar /lej 'Jugs/. 3. 4. V. Exclamations. compare: lily. Disjunctive questions. According to H. Gleason there are three clause terminals in English: fading /\/. or clears III in initial position.

n/. CONTIGUOUS /ksn'tigjues/— adjacent or neighbouring syllables or sounds (usually consonants). Pike to characterize noise consonants. words and sentences. 6. CONSONANT /'krnssnsnt/ — a sound of noise. No 5 resonance is possible in the production of pure fricatives /f.COMPONENT /kam'psunant/ — a part of the whole. DEFECTS OF SPEECH /di'fekts ev 'spltf/ — drawbacks in pronunciation. the system of its pronunciation. DIALECTOLOGY 7. DEPRESSION OF THE TONGUE /di'prejen ev 6a 'ton/ — low position of the tongue in the mouth cavity. CONTACT /'kxntsekt/ — a closure made by the organs of speech. b r z.e. which helps to attribute this sound to a certain type. Voiced consonants are gradually devoiced in the terminal position and under the influence of the adjacent voiceless consonant (not so much as in the Russian language). and gives a description of all the phonetic units of this language. As a rule. J1. without enlarging it. 3/. CONTOID /ken'toid/ — the term is used by the American linguist K. CONSTRICTIVE SONANTS /kan'striktiv 'saunants/ (resonants) — in the articulation of these sounds the narrowing for the air passage is not wide enough to eliminate the noise or friction completely. s. They are: /w. 1. h/. CONTINUANTS /kan'tmjuants/ — consonants that can be prolonged during the stop-stage of their articulation. 247 . [w] and [1] "dark are pronounced with the back secondary focus. the German Ü. on the other hand it is wide enough to make the cavity function as a resonator. DIACHRONIC APPROACH /. consonants are non-syllabic. i. For example: im. CONSTRICTIVE FRICATIVE SOUNDS/ksn'stnktiv'frikativ'saundz/— in the articulation of these sounds the air passage is narrowed or constricted tosuch an extent that the air passing through it produces noise or friction.daie'krtmk a'prgutf/ _ analysis of the phenomena which refer to different periods of development. pronounced by different people. j/. DESCRIPTIVE PHONETICS /dis'knphv feu'netiks/ — studies the contemporary phonetic system of a language. DENTAL CONSONANTS /'dentl 'ktnsgnents/— consonants produced with the tip and the blade of the tongue placed against the upper front teeth. DIAPHONE ['daiafaun/ — allophone of one and the same phoneme. • DIAPHRAGM /'daiafram/ — that part of the power mechanism which separates the cavity of the chest from the abdominal cavity. Diacritic marks help to use the inventory of the letters of the alphabet. which is formed by A complete or incomplete obstruction. Voiced fricatives are produced with an admixture of musical tone. 1. r. n. DEFINITION OF A SOUND /. DESCENDING SCALE /di'sendirj 'skeil/ — gradual lowering of the voice pitch. CONSTITUTIVE FUNCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS /'kunstitjtttiV 'fArjkJsn ev 'spirtf 'saundz/ — the function to constitute the material forms of morphemes. d. the Russian й.daie'krifik 'masks/ — additional symbols used to characterize separate phonemes or their allophones. For example: It. 3/. ^_ DARK SOUND /'dak 'saund/ — the sound which is made harder due to additional articulatory work — the raising of the back part of the tongue to the soft palate {back secondary focus). For examples. they are: /v.daialek'tolEd3i/ — the branch of phonetics which studies the dialectal differences in pronunciation. r.defi'mjan av a 'saund/ — the description of the complex of properties characteristic of a sound. DIACRITIC MARKS /. DEVOICE /di'vois/ — to pronounce with the vocal cords switched cut.

DICTAPHONE /'diktafsun/ — the apparatus that records and reproduces oral speech. DICTION /'dikjW — a way of speaking. The selection and control of «words to express ideas (command of vocabulary, grammatical correctness, affective word order, etc.). DIGRAPH /'daigrcuf/ — combination of two letters equivalent to one phoneme. For example: ее /fc/, sh /J/, th /0, 5/. DIMINUTION OF INTENSITY /,dimi'n]u>Jan sv m'tensiti/ — lowering of the voice intensity, which results from the gradual weakening of the vocal cords vibration. DIPHTHONG /'difSDrj/ — a vowel phoneme which consists of two elements: a nucleus and a glide. The first element of a diphthong is more loud and distinct, the formation of the second element of a diphthong is not accomplished. English diphthongs can he normal — this term is used because they are similar to the diphthongs normally occurring in other languages: /ei, ai, 01, аи, au/ and centring: /ia, еэ, ээ, ua/ — they are called so because their glide /a/ is considered to bö a central vowel. DIPHTHONGIZATION //Ш ongai'zeiJan/ — slight shifting of the organs of speech position within the articulation of one and the same vowel (these organs are mostly — the tongue, the lips and the lower jaw). Diphthongization changes the quality of the sound during its articulation, DIPHTHONGOIDS /'difÖarjgoids/ — diphthongized sounds. In English they are /!:/ and lal. The /I;/ articulation begins with /i/ which glides up to the l'\l position and ends up in the /j/ position. The /it/ articulation begins with /u/ which glides up to the /u/ position and ends in the /w/ position. DISCREPANCY /dis'krepansi/ — non-coincidence, divergence of properties. DISJUNCTIVE QUESTION /dis'dsAnktiv 'kwestjan/ — a question which consists of two parts, characterized by the succession of falling and rising tones (nuclear or terminal), used to express alternative ideas. DISSIMILATION /,disimi'leijW — substitution of one sound for another, similar in tamber but different] articulatorily: пролубь, лыцарь instead of DISTINCTIVE FUNCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS /dis'tirjktiv ЧлпкХэп av 'spJitf 'saundz/ — it is manifested most conspicuously in minimal pairs when the opposition of speech sounds is the only phonetic means of distinguishing one member of that pair from the other. DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS /^istn'bjutfangl a'naälisis/ — this method helps to establish the distribution of speech sounds, i.e. all the positions or combinations in which each speech sound of a given language occurs (or does not occur) in the words of the language. DISYLLABIC /'disi'lffibik/ - consisting of two syllables. DORSAL CONSONANTS /'dasl 'konsanonts/ — pronounced with the blade the tongue against either the upper teeth or the alveolar ridge. For example: Russian /T/. DORSUM /'do:sam/ — back. DORSUM OF THE TONGUE /'dasam эч бэ 'Urj/ — the middle and back parts of the tongue. DOUBLE STRESS /'diibl 'stres/ — two stresses within one and the same word, e.g. disagree /'diss'grt/. DRAWL /drwl/ — to pronounce slowly. DURATION /djua'reifan/ - length. DYNAMIC ACCENT /dai'nasmik 'ffiksant/— force accent based mainly on the expiratory effort.
прорубь, рыцарь.

EAR TRAINING /'la'tremin/ - training of the ear in differentiating and distinguishing phonetic phenomena. EDGES OF THE TONGUE /'etfeiz av 5a 'Urj/ — the rims ol the tongue.
243

ELISION /i'Ii3sn/ — dropping off of a vowel in initial or terminal position. For example: 'tis instead of if is, th' eternal instead of the eternal. EMOTION /i'msujan/ — display of excitation, irritation, joy and other feelings. In speech they are expressed by different phonetic and lexicostylistic means, such as emphatic stress, emphatic intonation, etc. EMPHASIS /'emfesis/ — combination of the expressive means of the language to single out emphatic words, groups of words or whole sentences. EMPHATIC /im'fffitik/ — that which refers to emphasis, ENCLITIC /m'khtik/ — unstressed word or syllable, which refers to the preceding stressed word or syllable. For example: be, not in 'may be, 'cannot Together with the stressed word enclitics form one phonetic unit., EPENTHESIS /e'penössis/ — the occurrence of a sound in a word, in which it is not pronounced. For example: length may be pronounced as/Ierj(k)8/, glimpse — as /ghm(p)s/ with the epenthetic /k/ and /p/. EXHALATION /^kshe'leijen/— breathing the air out of the lungs and the mouth cavity. EXHALE /eks'heil/ — to breathe the[air out of the lungs and the mouth cavity. EXPERIMENTAL PHONETICS /eks,pen'mentl fsu'netiks/ — the branch of phonetics which studies phonetic phenomena through observation and calculations with the help of different apparatus and devices'. EXPIRATION /.ekspai'reijen/ — breathing the air out. See EXHALATJON. . EXPLOSION /iks'plsussn/, or plosion /'ркизгп/^-nofse made by the air, when it is suddenly released through a ccmplete obstruction. The sounds /p, t, k/ are pronounced with a plosion, or explosion. EXPRESSION /iks'prejW — thoughts and emotions expressed by words end i tonation. FACULTATIVE PHONEMES /'fsfcsltativ 'faunlmz/ — such phonemes inJEnglish are Ы and /ээ/. They are not used in all idiolects, where they are replaced by /w,»/. But in those idiolects in which they are used they may distinguish words in minimal pairs, e.g. which — который, witch —- ведьма, more — больше, maw — пасть. PALL /Ы/ — lowering of the voice pitch within a stressed syllable, FAMILY OF^SOUNDS /'famuli ev 'saundz/ — D. Jones' term in his phoneme definition, FAUCAL CONSONANTS /'fokal, 'kxnssnants/ — occlusive noise consonants which are articulated by the soft palate raised against the back wall of the pharynx, which is accompanied by a nasal plosion and results in opening the nasal cavity for the flow of air. Combinatory allophones,articulated in that manner are [t] in the word button or the Russian [6] in обман. FIXED ORGANS OF SPEECH /'fikst 'otgsnz'av 'spW/, —they are: the upper teeth and the teethridge, the hard palate and the pharyngeal wall. FIXED WORD,ACCENT /'fikst 'ws:d 'absent/ — this type of accent is characterized by the fixed position, of stress. ' ' . ^ FLAPPED CONSONANTS /'flsept 'komssnents/ — articulated by a single tap of the tip of the tongue against the teethridge. For example: [r] in sorry, very. FLAT NARROWING /'flset 'naramrj/ — passage for the flow of air, which is m °« »г less flat. The sounds /f, v/ are pronounced with the flat narrowing. FLOW OF AIR /'flau sv W —the stream of air. FOCUS /'fsukss/ (pi. FOCI /'fsusai/) — the place in the mouth cavity, in which the obstruction (complete or incomplete) is formed in the articulation of a consonant. Front secondary focus is formed by the middle part of the tongue raised against the hard palate. Back secondary focus is formed by the back part of the tongue raised against the soft palate. ?•" FORELINGUAL /'blingwal/ — articulated by the tip'of the tongue raised agams,t the upper teeth or the teethridge. For example: /t, d, n/are lorelingual consonants.;
249

FORMANTS /'foments/ — the regions of the spectrogram, which are correlated with the qualities of vowels or their tembral characteristics. FORTIS /'foctia/ — strong. FORTIS CONSONANTS ['tehs 'kpnsanants/ — voiceless plosives and constrictives, which are pronounced with strong muscular tension and strong expiratory effort (compare with Ienis consonants). The consonants /f, p, if are fortis. FREE ACCENTUAL VARIANTS /'frt ajk'sentjual 'vsariants/— they are variants of individual pronunciation — interidmlectal variants. E.g. 'hospitable, hos'pitabte,' рапорт, рапорт. FREE VARIATIONS — intraidiolectal and interidiolectal variations which are spontaneous, unintentional, non-functional, non-distinctive. FREE WORD ACCENT /'Frt 'wa:d 'asksant/ — the type of accent which is characterized by the free accidence of the word accent; in different words of the language different syllables can be stressed — the first, the second, the third. Free word accent has two subtypes: a) constant, which always remains on the same morpheme: wonder, wonderfully and b) shifting, which changes its place: FRICATIVE CONSONANTS /'fnkativ 'künsanants/ - produced by friction of the flow of air through the narrowing formed by articulatory organs. For example: /v, s. z/. FRICriONLESS /'frik/anlrs/ — produced without any audible friction. FRICTIONLESS CONTINUANTS /'fnkfanlis kan'trajuants/— the term may be used in reference to constrictive sonants /w, r, j/, which are pronounced with little noise and can be prolonged or continued. "A consonant having the articulation of a fricative but pronounced with weak force so that little or no friction is audible." (D. Jones) FRONT OF THE TONGUE /'frAnt sv 9э Члп/ — the blade and the tip of the tongue. The blade and the middle of the tongue in the terminology of English phoneticians, FRONT-RETRACTED VOWELS /'frAtit n'trsktid 'vaualz/ — produced with the front but a bit retracted position of the bulk of the tongue. The vowel /i/ is a front-retracted sound. It is retracted in comparison with the vowel /k/ which is fully front. The nucleus of the diphthong /au/ is also frontretracted. FRONT VOWELS /'fmnt 'vaualz/ — vowels articulated when the bulk of the tongue moves forward and its front part is raised highest towards the hard palate: /fc, i, e, ae/ and the nuclei of the diphthongs /ia, ei, еэ, ai, au/. FULLY VOICED /'fuh 'voist/ — consonants pronounced with the vocal cords vibrating from the first to the last stage of their articulation. FUNCTIONAL /'lAnkJanl/ — phonological, connected with differentiatory function. FUNCTIONAL PHONETICS /'fAukJanl fau'netiks/ - the branch of phonetics which studies the purely linguistic aspect of speech sounds, FUNCTIONS OF A PHONEME /'lAnkJanz av э 'faunfcm/ — in speech a phoneme performs three functions: 1. distinctive, 2. constitutive and 3. recognitive; they are inseparable. FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY /Дп da'mental 'frtkwansi/ - the frequency of the vibrations of the vocal cords over their whole length. FUNDAMENTAL TONE /,knda'raentl 'taun/ - the sound wave which results from the vibrations oE the whole physical body and which has the lowest frequency.
G сад, садовод.

GENERAL AMERICAN, G.A. /'cfcenaral e'raenkon/ - the most widespread type of educated American speech. GENERAL PHONETICS /'dgeneral fou'netiks/ — analysis, description, and comparison of phonetic phenomena in different languages. GENERAL PHONOLOGICAL RULES /'азепэгэ! yfauna'bdgrksl 'rulz/ — these rules make it possible to establish the phonemic status of sounds without direct reference to their distribution; they are; 1. the law of great phonemic dissimilarity; 2. the law of conditioned allophonic similarity. 250

GENERAL QUESTION /'cfcenaral 'kwestjW — the type of a question which demands a yes or no answer, it is pronounced with the rising tone. GLIDE /glaid/ — that part of a diphthong which constitutes its additional element, the full articulation of which is not accomplished. For example: hi and hi in /ai, ei, is, еэ/ are glädes. GLOTTAL SOUND /'glutl 'saund/ — when the glottis is narrowed during exhalation, the air, passing out of the mouth cavity, produces an /h/ like sound; that is why /h/ is considered by Prof. A. L. Trakhterov and British and American phoneticians to be a glottal or laryngeal consonant (not a pharyngeal one). GLOTTAL STOP /'glut! 'sttp/ — a sound which reminds a slight cough and is articulated by the vocal cords, before a vowel sound is heard, in cases of emphatic speech. GLOTTIS /'gltitis/ — the space between the vocal cords, which is the entrance to the trachea, or the windpipe. GRAPHEME /'grssffcm/ — an orthographic unit with which a phoneme can be correlated, e.g. t, e, n are graphemes in ten. GROOVE-SHAPED DEPRESSION /'gruv 'jeipt di'prejen/ is formed in the middle part of the blade of the tongue in the articulation of Is, z/. H HARD PALATE /'had 'pmhtl ~ the roof of the mouth. HEAD /hed/ — stressed syllables preceding the nucleus together with the intervening unstressed syllables. ■ HEIGHT /halt/ — the width of the resonating cavity in the articulation of vowels. HEIGHT OF THE TONGUE /'hait av бэ 'W — the height to which the bulk of the tongue is raised and which determines the level of the raised bulk of the. tongue: high, mid, or low. HETEROGENEITY /.hetarabi'nfciti/ — mutually differentiating properties 1 in the sounds which are compared. HETEROGRAPHY /,het9'rt graft] — the use of similar letters for different sounds, for example the letter с corresponds to the sound /k/ in the word can and to the sound /s/ in city. HIATUS /hai'eitas/ — combination of two vowels which belong to different syllables, For example: doirtg/'dmrj/ — internal hiatus, to order /tu 'o:ds/ — external hiatus. HIEROGLYPH /'haiaraghf] — a written sign which may be equivalent to a sound, syllable, or a whole notion. HIGH-PJTCHED SOUND /'hai 'pitjt 'saund/ — a sound, which is high in tone. HIGH POSITION OF THE TONGUE /'hai ps'zijan sv öa 'tArj/—the position when the dorsum and the front part of the tongue are raised high to the roof of the mouth, but not so high as to produce an audible friction. High narrow vowels /'hai 'nasrau 'vauslz/ /!:, и, ы, у/ are pronounced with the bulk of the tongue raised more higher than for /i, u/, which also belong to the group of high vowels but to their broad variety. HIGH SPEED X-RAY PHOTOGRAPHY /'hai 'spM 'eks'rei ШтэдгэЫ -one of the methods used in experimental phonetics, wnich consists in the photography of X-rayed organs of speech in the process of articulation, HISS /his/ — noise produced when the air passes through a round narrowing and produces hissing noise. The sounds /s, J1/ are hissing consonants. HISTORICAL ASSIMILATION /his'tunksl a^imi'leijen/ — sound changes, which are the result of the historical development of the language. HISTORICAL PHONETICS /his'tunkalГ fau'netiks/ - that branch of phonetics, which studies phonetic components on the diachronic level; it is a part of the history of a language, which studies the history of the development of the phonetic laws, HOLD /hsuld/ — the second stage of a single sound articulation (retention, central, medial stage). HOMOGENEITY / #hum9d3&'nhti/ — articulatory similarity of two ■sounds, which is based on similar articulatory work of the speech organs. The 251

sounds /p, b/ are homogeneous because they are both plosive and bilabial noise consonants. HOMOGRAPHS /'hnmagrcufs/ — words'.that are similar in orthography but different in pronunciation and meaning^ For example: tear /tea/ разрывать and tear /tia/ слеза. HOMOPHONES /'hnmafaunz/ — words that are similar in pronunciation but different in orthography and meaning. For example: air — hair воздух — волосы; buy — bye покупать — что-л. маловажное; knight — night рыцарь — ночь; not — knot нет — узел; or — ore либо — руда. HYPHEN /'haifan/ — a graphic sign which serves to show syllabic boundary.

IDEOGRAM /'idja(u)graem/ — 1. a symbol or a picture which represents and conveys an idea of an object without using its name, for example: a numerical or a pictorial road sign; 2. a symbol representing a word, but not the sounds which constitute it. IDIOLECT /'idraulekt/ — the individual speech of a member of a language community. IDIOPHONE /,idia'foun/ — one and the same speech sound which is pronounced differently in different idiolects. IMPEDE /im'plid/ — hinder or bar (articulation, a stream of air, etc.). IMPLOSION /im'plsu3an/ — the first stage of a single plosive Sound articulation. INALIENABLE (INDISPENSABLE, CONCOMITANT) FEATURES /m-'eiljanabl, ,irtdis'pensebl, kan'komitant 'ffctjW — these features are always present in all the allophones of a phoneme, e.g. two foci in /J, 3, w, 1/ articulation, lip rounding in /us/ articulation. They may be distinctively relevant and irrelevant, e.g. seem vs. theme, /s—9/ are opposed due to the flat, round narrow* ing difference, in same vs. fame the shape of the narrowing is irrelevant, /s—f/ are opposed due to the place of articulation difference. INHALATION /jinha'leijW — breathing the air in. INITIAL PHASE /t'ntXal 'feiz/ — the first phase of a sound articulation. INSTRUMENTAL PHONETICS /,mstru'mentl fau'netiks/ — different techniques and devices used In experimental phonetics. INTERALLOPtfON 1С ALTERNATION /rintergle'ieunik,oiIt9:'iHH,ren/ — alternation between different allophones of one and the same phoneme, e.g. /n/ alveolar alternates with /n/ dentaf In nine — ninth. INTERCOMMUNICATION /'intako.mjuaii'keijW — giving or passing information by means of oral speech. INTERDENTAL ARTICULATION /.mta'dentl o.-,tikj4i'leijW — articulation characterized by the interdental position of the tip of the tongue in articulating/9, 5/. In speech these sounds are often pronounced as dental, with the tip of the tongue placed behind the upper teeth. INTERIDIOLECTAL PHONETIC VARIATIONS /7inta(:),idiau'Iekt9l fau'netik jVsan'etJsnz/ — variations in the pronunciation of one and the same phoneme, word of sentence in the same phonetic context and the same style of speech by different speakers of the language. INTERMITTENT CLOSURE / ; Tnta'mitent 'к!эиза/ - this type of closure is formed when the tip of the tongue is rapidly tapping against the teethridge as in the articulation of trilled, or rolled /p/. INTERPHONEMIC ALTERNATION /.mtefau'niimik /»Its:'net Jan/ -> alternation between different phonemes, which are represented by their different ailophones, e.g. /as/ alternates with /e/ in man — men. INTONATION /,tnteu'neif9n/ — a component of the phonetic structure which is viewed in the narrow meaning as pitch variations, or speech melody. It manifests itself in the del imitative function within a sentence and at its end; see PROSODIC FEATURES. INTONATION GROUP /.mteu'neijen 'amp/ — an actualized sensa group. INTONEME /'rnbtmfcnt/ — a phonological unit created by two or more
252

idiau'Iektel fau'netik /vsan'eijanz/ — variations In the pronunciation of one and the same speaker. Open or plus juncture is marked by /+/: a + name. ? LABIAL SOUNDS /'leibial saundz/ — articulated by the Hps. where two sounds . For example: /о.of or pertaining to the larynx. LARYNGEAL /.e. INTRUSIVE SOUNDS /m'trissiv 'saundz/ — alien to the word. JAWBREAKER /'dä^brerka/ — a word. which is difficult to pronounce. e.. /'pleijirj/ instead of /'plenrj/. LABIALIZED VOWELS /'leibialaizd 'vaugla/ — vowels produced with a more or lessJip rounding. LATERAL /'lateral/ — having to do with the sides of the tongne. partial devoicing of terminal voiced consonants. ' " LAW OF CONDITIONED ALLOPHONIC SIMILARITY /'la av ken'diJand . which helps to LATERAL SOUNDS ch the air passages (or j 1 . e. see CARDINAL VOWELS. у.g. (''dra-msr and 'mjuszik/ instead of /'drcuma and 'mjttzik/.g. JUNCTION /'d^rjkjen/ — the joining of two sounds or words. u/.or words are joined together.aim KINETIC /kai'netik/ — relating to motion.g. _ о LARYNX /'Ianrjks/ — an organ of the respiratory tract above the windpipe.sels fünik jSimi'lsenti/ — two more or less similar sounds. variation in the positional length of vowels.Ieibiatai'zeijW — Up rounding. an -f. ■». LATERAL SOUNDS /'lastaral 'saundz/ . In the Russian language there are 36 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes. 1д'пп^э1/ . For example: /p. JUNCTURE PHONEME /'ctäArjktfa 'bunfcm/ — the syllabic boundary at the junction of words or morphemes that can be characterized by distinctive difference. KYMOGRAPH /'kaimagra-f/ — the apparatus used to record speech sounds graphically. and the glottis. IRRELEVANT FEATURES /I'reltveni 'tttfez/ — different articulatory and acoustic features of speech sounds.lserin'азЫ. producing motion. i. It consists of an elaborate arrangement of cartilage and muscles and contains a pair of vocal cords. What difficulty? What difficulty/ These two sentences are pronounced with two different intonemes.. At the same time the contact is made by the tip of the tongue pressed against LARYNGOSCOPE /U'ringaskaup/ -. ». b/. JUNCTURE /'ДзлпЩэ/ — the place.«». a name — an aim. LABIALIZATION /.components of intonation.e Ul[. №. JAWS /d3o.laryngeal mirror. which bear teeth and by means of which the mouth can be opened and closed. the same time the con . which are at 253 К . INTRAIDIOLECTAL PHONETIC VARIATIONS /'intra. or by a combination of various types of tonemes or accenteraes. within one and the same idiolect.. They are of two types: free variations and those conditioned by different styles of pronunciation — stylistic Variations. which do not make them allophones of different phonemes. e.sounds in the articulation of which the air passages (or passage) are formed at the lateral sides of the tongue. observe the vocal cords epiglottis.uc the teethridge as In /I/ articulation. . JONES' VOWEL TRAPEZIUM /'d39Unzi2 'vaugl tra'pfczjam/ — Jones* system of vowels based on 8 cardinaljpoints of articulation. Kymograms help to ascertain the quality of various sounds L LABIAL /'Ieibial/ — relating to the lips.z/ — parts of the mouth. INVENTORY OF PHONEMES /'mventn av 'feuntmz/ — in the English language the inventory of segmental phonemes consists of 25 consonant and 21 vowel phonemes. For example: /'himpjudant/ instead of /'impjudant/.

lessen the length. and the walls of the resonating cavities is not so great as in the articulation of tense vowels. protruded. The main positions of the lips are: rounded. LINGUISTIC FUNCTIONS /hrj'gwistik 'Unkjanz/ . LINGUAL /'hrjgwal/ — articulated with the help of the tongue. if their difference is due to non-distinctive factors. as in Ы articulation.aela'fiomk .distn'bju:j3ri/ — 1. are allophones of the same phoneme. syllable. d. LIQUID CONSONANTS /'Iikwrd 'ktmssnants/ — some phoneticians use . waves in the articulation of a sound. It! is a lingual sound because it is articulated with the tip of the tongue pressed against the teethridge. av 'greit fau'nimik jdisimi'lsnti/ — entirely different sounds such as a vowel and a consonant cannot be allophones of the same phoneme. LAWS OF PHONEMIC AND ALLOPHONIC DISTRIBUTION /'bz sv fau'nfcmik and . LINGUAPHONE CLASS /'lirjgwafaun 'klcus/ — class equipped with magnetic tape recorders. LIP POSITIONS /'lip pa'zijanz/ — different positions of Hps. LAW OF GREAT PHONEMIC DISSIMILARITY /'lar. 9. 03/. LITERARY PRONUNCIATION /'htaren pr©. gramophones and earphones used for listening and reproducing foreign texts. and intonation. LENIS /'Itais/ (pi. if similar speech sounds occur in different positions and never occur in the same phonetic context. LENES /'li:ni:z/) — pronounced with weak articulation: /b. 2. for instance) representing a complete word. * LIPS /lips/ — two muscular folds bordering the mouth. if different speech sounds occur in the same phonetic context'. For example.this term to characterize the sounds /3.. LAX VOWELS /'lseks 'vauslz/ — vowels in the articulation of which the muscular tension of the tongue. lotidness or tension of sounds. LISP /hsp/ — to pronounce /8/ instead of /s/ and /Ö/ instead of /z/. which seems to be most important in the sentence. LOGICAL STRESS l'lvdßiksl 'stres/ — the singling out of the word. For example. spread as in /i=/ articulation. LIGHT /lait/ — in phonetics this term Is equivalent to clear. o:/. stress. Compare: /i. non-protruded as in /e/ articulation. v. LOCAL DIFFERENCES /'Isukel 'difarsnsiz/ — dialectal differences im the pronunciation of the same sounds or words. unrounded.the same time more or less different. 3. significative properties of sound.r»Ansi'eiJen/: RP PRONUNCIATION (RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION) or PUBLIC SCHOOL PRONUNCIATION — the pronunciation of educated people in Southern England. which change the articulation of sounds and their tamber. they are variants of one and the same phoneme. LEVEL TONE /'levl 'tsim/ — tone neutral in its communicative function. they are allophones of different phonemes.in phonetics they are connected with phonemic. 254 . LESSEN /'lesn/ — to make less. as in hi articulation. r/. LINGUAPHONE /'hngwsfaun/ — having to do with teaching languageswith the help of phonetics. LOGOPAEDIC //bgeWptdik/ . u. Ö.having to do with the correction of speech defects. z. ю/ and /t f u. LIAISON /lfc'eizurj/ — in the English language cases of liaison are the "intrusive" /r/ or the pronunciation of In/ in an indefinite article when it is followed by a vowel: an apple /an 'sepl/. neutral as in /э/ articulation. LOGOGRAM /Чюдэдгэет/ — an arbitrary symbol (in shorthand. LENGTH OF THE SOUND /'Ierj9 av 8э 'saund/ — length of the sound. lips. as in /y/ articulation. LENITION /li'mjan/ — gradual weakening in the articulation. which is used mostly in poetry. in articulatory phonetics referred to as "upper" and "lower lip". LETTERS /'letsz/ — printed or written symbols of an alphabet used in representing speech sounds.

о:. MEDIAL. u/ belong to low vowels of broad variety. lip. LIP.g.wal 'k«nsanants/ — con sonants articulated with the help of the middle part of the tongue. LOW VOWELS /'1эи 'vaualz/ — vowels pronounced with the low position •of the bulk of the tongue. u)/ are low front vowels. It is usually used in the narrow range <of tone-pitch.the discovery of as many pairs of words as possible. . A similar system has been devised for operation with a television camera. '(&:/ — all these organs are ■more active and important in the process of articulation than the upper jaw. that differ in one phoneme. си. /EB. For example: /as. MEMBERS OF A PHONEME /'membaz av a 'feunfera/ . а.g. MEDIAE) /'medjls/ see LENIS.LOGOPAEDICS /. act — loss of plosion in /k/. LOOSE TRANSITION /'lus tr«en'si3an/ — articulation of two neighbouring sounds -when the final stage of the first sound is not affected by the initial stage of the second sound. . For example: /w. ге. /se. The latter also regulate the force of the air pressure and produce ■vibrations in the intensity of speech sounds. з:.-/.о. for example /I + i + t/ in the word lit. LOW LEVEL TONE /'lau 'levl 'taun/ — characterizes unstressed but prominent syllables of parenthetic groups or long tails. /л. j/. teeth. /'aisbwg/ compare with the Russian [збор] — «lose transition. MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDER /mseg'netik 'teip n'tada/ — the apparatus that converts sounds into electrical signals and then into variations in ihe magnetization of a wire or tape of magnetic material. си. recording television pictures as magnetic information which may be used later to reproduce the images «(videotape). и). To this group belong English /J/ and Russian /й/. commutation. LONG VOWELS /'1гц 'vaualz/ — in English they are /I:. W are low back vowels. ISTINCTIVE OPPOSITIONS ZmeGad jUpa'ziJ'anz/ — this method enables to prove whether the phonetic difference is relevant or not. Merging of stages usually takes place when sounds of a different •nature are joined. e./'mfcdjsl/ — passing through the middle of the air-passage. ml. METHOD OF MINIMAL PAIRS /'meOad av 'minimal 'psez/ .positional and •combinatory allophones belonging to the "family of one and the same sound ■{D. О:/. се.. LUNGS /Unz/ — the source of the air stream that makes it possible to produce sounds. r.kig3(u)'pl:diks/ — a branch of phonetics. LOOSE NEXUS /'Ins 'neksas/ — loose connection between a long monophthong or a diphthong and a consonant which follows it. e. LOW PITCH /'1эи 'pitj1/ — low tone. MELODY /'metsdi/ — changes in the voice pitch in the process of speech. LOW-NARROW VOWELS /'1эи 'паэгэи 'vaualz/ — these vowels are '/Л. к/ belong to low vowels of narrow variety. It is based on the substitution of one sound for another. Loss <of plosion. MEDIA /'mirdjs/ tot. MERGING OF STAGES /'ma:d3in av 'steicfeiz/ . LOUD /laud/ — producing a powerful stimulus on the ear. LOWER TEETH. For example: /t -j-z/ an the word bees. MEDIAL SONANTS /Wdjal 'sounants/ — sounds articulated with the airpassage through the middle part of the tongue. MEDIOLINGUAL CONSONANTS /'mi:dJ9(u)hna.. JAW /'1эиэ 'ti:9. etc. LOSS /IDS/ — in phonetics it is absence of some articulatory work. . which studies speech defects and the ways of correcting them. 'lip. 255 METHOD OF DISTINCTIVE OPPOSITIONS Z'meGad av dis'tinktiv ' J ' / thi thd b t h h t i diffnce M . a(i. sound. . Jones).coincidence of the last ■stage of the first sound in the articulation of a word with the first stage of the -second sound. ъ. л. . a(i. . LOUDSPEAKER /'laudspfcka/ — a device that converts electrical impulses into sounds loud enough to be heard some distance away./л.

. MIDDLE PART OF THE TONGUE /'midl 'pcut av бэ 'tAn/ — the centrar part of the dorsum of the tongue which is opposite the hard palate. which results In the stationary nature of the vowel. (that do not affect the meaning of words). _ MONOSYLLABISM /'muna'silabizm/ — linguistic phenomenon characterized by monosyllables.. : t MONOPHTHONG /'тттвГввп/ — a vowel sound in the articulation oi which the articulating organs are more or less stable. Positional and combinatory modifications of phonemes in. their fortis /p/ — lenis 1Ы distinctions. MODIFICATIONS IN CONTEXT /jmudifi'keifanz in 'ktsntekst/ — sound' changes in context. MONOTONE /'munatsun/ — equal tone. MIXED VOWELS — G./e/. л.the smallest differences. The pair pill — bill is minimal. non-phonological. MONOPHTHONGIZE /'mtinafe-ongaiz/ — to acquire equal quality.. <$. Monosyllabism is characteristic of the English language. причем вся спинка языка лежит максимальноплоско». which amplifies and transmits sounds. Ы and the first element of the diphthongs /эй/ and le. MID CENTRAL VOWELS /'mid 'sentral 'yaualz/ — Ы and /a/ in'theterminology given by British phoneticians. з:. the first element o£ the diphthong /еэ/ and the Russian /э/. ъ. MIDDLE PHASE /'midl 'feiz/ —the second phase of articulation. си. that help to recognize and differentiate words. mistakes. mixed. MICROPHONE /'maikrsfatm/ — an instrument. MID NARROW VOWELS /'mid 'n«rau 'vauslz/ — /e/. or the holdMINIMAL DISTINCTIONS /'minimal disMinkj-gnz/ . palatalization. а/. е(э}/. V. Shcherba suggested that mistakes should be divided into 1. connected speech. Mid vowels are: /e. MONOSYLLABLE /'imma'silebl/ — a word consisting of one syllable. MINIMAL PAIR /'minimal 'pea/ — a pair the distinctive differences between the members of which are based upon one distinctive difference. э/. e. Russian authorities define them asmid. MID WIDE VOWELS /'mid 'waid 'vaualz/ — /э/ and the first element of the diphthong /е(э)/. This term is widely used in our terminology. Academician L. In the terminology given by some foreign phoneticians the term "middle" is used in reference to the border between the predorsal (that is front> and dorsal (that is middle and back) part of the tongue. It is used in phonetics to teach rhythm. /ou/ and the Russian /of. They are /з. MISTAKES IN PRONUNCIATION /mis'teiks in prs. MID /mid/ — neither high nor low position of the bulk of the tongue when. which can be regulated to different speeds and used to markequal periods. MID FRONT VOWELS /'mid 'frjint 'vau 9 lz/ . Torsuyev defines them in the following way: «тело языка приподнято.METHODS OF PHONETIC ANALYSIS /'meÖadz av fau'netik a'nsshsis/ — different methods used in the stujJy and investigation of different pho netic -phenomena. ' METRONOME /'metranaum/ -/a clockwork device with a moving. MID BACK VOWELS /'mid 'Ьгек 'vauslz/ — the nucleus of the diphthong. u. In Jones' classification mid corresponds ta hall-close and half-open. MISPRONOUNCE /'mispra'nauns/ — to pronounce sounds or words with-. English monophthongs are /i. it moves in the vertical direction. The middle of the tongue plays an important role in the process of.. з:. э(и). audible indicator. P. phonological (altering the meaning of words) and 2. э. according to their terminology the middle part of the tongue corresponds to the term "front part of the tongue". lacking the necessary variations in the voice pitch. because its members are differentiated due to /p — b/ phonemes. It lies between the blade and the back of the tongue.nAnsr'eiJan/ — different deviations from the teaching norm in the pronunciation of a foreign language. 556 . аэ.il.

MUTUALLY DISTINCTIVE SOUNDS /'mJtrtjiiBli dis'tinktiv 'saundz/ -the sounds that belong to different phonemes and are realizations. * MOUTH CAVITY /'mau8 'kseviti/— the cavity between the teeth and the pharynx. The head syllable of medium range will be represented by a dash 6 mm from the bottom range line. the air passage is narrow in 1Ы articulation and it is also narrow in /s/ articulation. NARROW RANGE /'пазгэи 'reindg/ (see WIDE RANGE. . NARROW PASSAGE /'гш-au 'pjesKb/ — the term is conventional and characterizes the state of the passage for the flow of air in the articulation of vowels or consonants. NARROWING /'nserauin/ — a passage of small width or length. when two assimilating sounds equally influence each other.. Nasal sonants are Im. MUTATION /mju:'teijan/ — umlaut. and low positions of the bulk of the tongue when it moves in the vertical direction. so the length of a long syllable was equal to two rooras. the lower jaw. then the head syllable of the) wide range utterance will be arbitrarily represented by a dash 2 mm from the top range line. Narrowings can be formed by the lips. or letter combinations which are not pronounced. MORAE I'vmti) — the length of one short syllable ■which was considered the unit of length in the antique versification. See HIGH-NARROW. but remain in words due to traditional spelling rules. For example. bilateral assimilation of /s/ + /J/ results in /J/: issue /'isju — '1Ш — 'iW. NARROW TRANSCRIPTION /'шегеи .„. MURMUR /'ma:ma/ — soft speech. . MUTE LETTERS /'mjwt 'letez/ — letters. .MONOTONOUS /ma'ntitsnas/ — pronounced with equal tone. MID-NARROW. the back wall of the pharynx. it is separated from the mouth cavity by the upper jaw with the teethridge and the palate. N NARROW /'naersu/ — the variety of high. MORPHOGRAPH /'mafsgraf/ — separate graphemic unit which is a graphemic reflex of a morpheme. The head syllable of the narrow range will be repreaenied by a dash 2 mm frcm the bottom range line.g. t MOUTH /mau6/ — the cavity in the head containing the teeth. different analyses that are carried out to study muscular — kinetic work of speech organs.. p/ in park — bark. mid or back part). sometimes indistinct. variants or allophones of different phonemes. This is effected by lowering the soft palate. e. MOVABLE ORGANS OF SPEECH /'nravabl 'tcgenz av 'spfctf/— the organs of speech that move during articulation: the lips. NASAL SONANTS /'neizl 'saunents/ — they are articulated with the blocked passage for the flow of air through the mouth cavity. or the tongue and the palate (its front. the tongue. the soft palate with the uvula.tr sens'Imp jW — the system of transcription signs into which additional symbols are included which correspond to allophones of seme phonemes. • . MUTUAL ASSIMILATION /'mjtttfual s^imi'leijen/ — bilateral assimilation. the tongue and the palate with the uvula. NARROWING THE RANGE /'nasreuin 8в 'renufe/ — characterizes emphatic speech which is uttered within the limits of narrow range. /b. rj/. mid. MEDIUM RANGE) — if the range of the voice pitch is represented by two horizontal parallel lines 10 mm wide. NASAL CAVITY /'neizl 'ksaviti/ — immovable cavity inside the nose and the nasopharynx. MORA /'more/ (pi. LOW-NARROW. MURMURED VOWELS /'m8:mad 'vaualz/ — obscure vowels. For example. a. . MOUTHPIECE /'mauOpiis/ — the part of the kymograph which is applied to the mouth. r i MYOKINETIC ANALYSIS /'maie(u)kai'nefik e'nehsis/—'a complex of.nrafufs'nulafei/ — this branch of phonology studies the distribution of morphologically correlated sounds in order to establish their phonemic status. _ . MORPHOPHONOLOGY /. 257 .

the low falling. t. which is heard between sounds. OFF-GLIDE /'o:f. which are drawn together and vibrate. the rising-falling-rising. school. that ■which follows. Sweet). For example. dn/. first stage). e/. ei/ are /a. a group of words. NEXUS /'neksas/ — articulatory dependence between a vowel and consonant. it takes place in the combinations like /tn. followed by a sound. broad variety — /э/. the rising-falling. OBSTRUCTION /ab'strAkJan/ ~ in articulation it is either a narrowing (incomplete obstruction) or a complete closure of the speech organs (complete obstruction). Voiceless consonants are "pure" noises.NASAL PHARYNX /'neizl 'faenrjks/ (nasopharynx) — the upper part of the pharynx 4 cm long. sonorants /m. high. excursion. n/ — nasals (see PLOSIVE CONSONANTS). NASAL TWANG /'ne:zl 'twserj/ is characteristic of American pronunciation and results from the laxness of the soft palate which does not cover the nasal cavity completely and the air escapes partly through the narrowing formed. NEUTRAL VOWEL /'njutral 'vaual/ — a mixed vowel of mid-open position. the nuclei of /ai. g/ — stop or plosives and 2. which is heard after terminal consonants (according to H. as in /p. k/.glaid/ — a short and not definite vowel. OCCLUSION /э'к1шзэп/ — a complete obstruction made by the speech organs. e. /k/ in cool. which is more prominent. NON-DISTINCTIVE SPEECH SOUNDS /'nmdis'tirjktiv 'spttf 'saundz/ — similar sounds which occur in different positions and are incapable of being opposed to each other in minimal pairs. NEIGHBOURING SOUND /'neibanrj 'saund/ — adjacent sound. NOISE /noiz/ — characterizes consonants. back. which are formed when the flow of air passes through a narrowing and produces audible friction. OCCURRENCE /s'kArans/ — frequency with which sounds. a word. the fallingrising. OBSOLETE /'ubsalfct/ — not used nowadays. LOOSE NEXUS. the high rising. In RP they are the following: the high falling. t.neiatai'zeijan/ — nasal twang. NON-FINAL /'non'faml/ — not terminal. and voiced consonants are a combination of noise and voice. produced by the vocal cords. NUCLEUS OF A DIPHTHONG /'njtckhas 9V э 'dif8ürj/ (pl. or words are used. the level tone. b. For example: -ism /iz(9)m/. and low positions. NASALIZATION /. d. phonemes. Nasal vowels exist in the French language. the low rising. Occluslve consonants are 1. looked. It is situated above the soft palate. NASAL PLOSION /'neizl 'рЬизэпА — plosion formed when the soft palate is separated from the back wall of the nasal pharynx and the air quickly escapes through the nasal cavity. k. NEUTRALIZATION /(njictralai'zeij'an/ — the loss of qualitative and tembral characteristics of vowel sounds in unstressed positions. NUCLEAR TONE /'nju&lia Чэип/ — the tone associated with the nucleus of a sense-group is a nuclear tone. OCCLUSIVE /o'klissiv/ — the sounds pronounced when the air on its way out breaks up a complete obstruction. Some authors consider that it is a neutral vowel. See CLOSE NEXUS. 258 . /p. NASAL VOWELS /'neizl 'vaualz/ — vowels articulated when the flow of air is directed from the lungs both through the mouth and the nasal cavity. ONSET /'unset/ — the first stage of a sound articulation (initial phase. n. NUCLEI /'njakliai/) — that part of the diphthong. NUCLEUS OF A SENSE-GROUP /'njuklias av a 'sens'gricp/ — the last stressed syllable of a sense-group. NEUTRAL POSITION /'njistrsl pa'zijgn/ — the position when the tongue is equally removed from front.g.

ORTHOGRAPHY /»'Bugrefi/ — the system of spelling rules.. which are carried out for retention of oral speech habits.pajletdai'zeijW — softening of consonants. 259» ORTHOGRAPHIC SYLLABLE /^ee'gneftk 'siiebi/ . . . They do not always coincide with phonetic syllables. can be affected Dy palatalization when they are followed by /I-. л. „. a(i. . They are produced when only parts of the vi огашг mechanism oscillate. vj. J1. и). . .a unit into which . . or low position of the bulk of the tongue. OVERLAP /.OPEN /'oupsn/ — characterized by the low position of the bulk of the tonöus OPEN SYLLABLE /'aupsn 'silebl/ — the type of syllable which ends I» a vowel — CV-type..« OSCILLOGRAPH /o'silsgrasf/ — an instrument which makes it possible to record speech in the form of graphs..-Dp3'zi. 3. The result of sucti overlapping is partial or complete assimilation. ORAL SOUNDS /'o=ral 'saundz/ — the sounds which are produced with the raised soft palate. PALATE /'pasbt/ . ORTHOEPHY /oi'Geuipi/ — the correct pronunciation of the words of a language. .. which results from the secondary place of articulation — front-secondary ipcus. cfc/ under the influence of the Russian language it is a mistake. tf. i.. The interpretation of the rules of reading cannot be done without з good command of phonetics.. . OPEN VOWELS /'эирэп 'vauslz/ — the group of vowels which are pronounced with the open. ш. . eloquent and moving traits. the vibrator. . such as breathing. . . In the English language Palal talization is non-phonemic. Open or low vowels in English are: /аэ.. separating the mouth cavity from the nasal cavity.suve'Isep/ . . . that are phonologically relevant or irrelevant. ORAL METHODS /'о:гэ! 'me0adz/ — different methods of teaching a foreign language. . words or morphemesalong the lines of their qualitative and quantitative characteristics which re sults in singling out their minimal distinctive features. the soft palate with the uvula and the teethridge. which gives the consonant sou colour ing. *i OVERTONE /'suvstsun/ — one of the tones above the fundamental tone in a harmonic series. serve tocarry out intercommunication through the elaborate work of the four mechanisms:.the roof of the mouth. the opposition between /kab — кар/ isbased on voiced — lenis voiceless — fortis distinctions in /b — p/ which istheir minimal distinctive relevant feature (other features.. . . with the exception of medio-lingual. smelling and tasting. e. . .. Palatalization is phonemic in the Russian language (compare: пыл — пыль). .. which characterize these sounds are irrelevant). OPPOSITION /. thus the air goes out of the mouth cavity. This fact makes grammar and lexicology dependent °n ORTHOGRAPHIC SYLLABLE /^ee'gneftk 'siiebi/ . .fsn/ — comparison of sounds. OSCILLOGRAM /s'silsgram/ — a record made by an oscillograph or by an oscilloscope. 11 takes place when the middle part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate ana the air passage is narrowed or constricted. rang-ing. e or]/. and when it takes place in the articulation ot sounds other than /1. al-ien. ORATORICAL STYLE /дгэЧюпкэ1 'stall/ — the type of speech with which orators address large audiences..D . In articulatory phonetics it is divided into the Hard paiate. . PALATAL SOUND /'psektl 'saund/ — the sound that is connected with the palate articulatorily. the power..the term is connected with the phases of articu lation which partly coincide in the neighbouring sounds. For example. ORGANS OF SPEECH /'o:ganz av 'spttj/ — the organs that together witft biological functions. . All consonants. It is characterized by slow rate. the resonator and the obstructor.. . feeding. P PALATALIZATION /. .a unit into which d d i i d di i ti it h d t ls words are divided in writing or print.g. .

The sound waves produced by the vibration of the whole body are called fundamental.tikju'leijen/ . Each 260 . PECULIARITY /pi. PHASES OF ARTICULATION /'feiziz av as." In speech it is expressed by lowering the pitch of the voice. ^азпп'ОзЫ/ — connected with the pharynx. stop stage and recursion. PHARYNGAL(-GEAL) /fa'nnggl.sepU'bihti/ — in phonetics it is usually connected with hearing. PAUSE /pas/ — a short period of time when sound stops before starting again. or such that are fixed but can be movable.ptana'disitr/ — the quality or fact of recurring at constant intervals. PARTIAL WAVES /'parjal 'weivz/ — waves produced by the vibrations of the parts of the physical body. or overtones. PEAKS OF PROMINENCE /'pfcks av 'prpmmans/ — the points oJ maximal acoustic activity of tone. For example: "I shall not go there. PHONEMATIC /." he replied. PHARYNX /'fzennks/ —. Most sound waves are complex: they consist of the fundamental and partial waves. PERIODICITY /. 3/PALATOORAMS ЛраеШэцдгаатг/ — the drawings of the tongue — palate contacts.the last but one syllable. PHONEME /'fatinlim/ — the shortest functional unit of a language.the cavity between the mouth and the oesophagus communicating with the nasal passages and ears. for example. PENULTIMATE /pi'iultrmit/ .Ы .раггэп'8еШ — constituting a parenthesis. . During this process some-of the powder is licked off ai the points of the tongue — palate contacts. and final. PARENTHETIC /. 0 PASSAGE FOR THE AIR STREAM /'p»sid3 f? 81 'ее 'strbm/ — the way through which the ■flow of air goes out of the mouth or nasal cavity. Palato-alveolar consonants are / J. PASSIVE ORGANS OF SPEECH /'psesiv 'wganz av 'spfctf/ — the organs that are either constantly immovable. The underside of the artificial palate is sprinkled with some tine white powder and then carefully fitted into the mouth. PHONATE /f3{u)'neit/ — to pronounce outloud with the vocal cords vibrating and producing voice. PERCEPTIBILITY /p9.three phases in the articulation of a single sound: initial.kj№li'ffinti/ — a feature which characterizes some phonetic phenomenon. "I ask you. "to go there immediately. such as the hard palate and the upper teeth. Theyfmay be called differently: excursion. After this the artificial palate is removed and carefully examind. g/ it is active and moving to the soft palate. PHARYNGOSCOPE /f a'rrngasksup/—the apparatus which is used for the observation of the pharyngaf cavity.PALATE ARTIFICIAL /'ра. Pauses are non-obligatory between sense-groups and obligatory between sentences.phrase or sentence usually having its own complete meaning. PARTIAL TONES /'ра\Гэ1 'taunz/ — partial waves which result from the vibrations of the parts of the vibrating body are perceived as partial tones. medial (or central). with which it forms a complete obstruction. the back part of the tongue in the articulation of /r/ is fixed and in /k. inserted into a sentence which is grammatically complete without this insertion. PALATO-ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS /'pal stsu'al vials 'kionsanants/— the consonants articulated by the tip of the tongue raised against the teethridge (there is a narrowing between them) and the middle part of the tongue which is -simultaneously raised to the hard palate. containing a parenthesis." she demanded. and marked off from it by punctuation. after this a sound is articulated. or harmonics.ati'fij 1«!/ is made of metal or vulcanite for each experiments tor individually and corresponds exactly to the shape of bis palate.faunl:'mastik/ —< possessing functional properties. PARENTHESIS /pa'ren9asrs/ — a word.

coat — goat.the sound which follows a consonant. e.tikju'teijW — the place. The sym bols of a phonemic transcription are placed within two slanting lines / /. its allophones. think — sink. d. PHONOLOGICAL OPPOSITION /»feuns'lodgikal .a pair of words in which any one phoneme is usually opposed to'any other phoneme in at least one lexical or grammatical minimal or subminimal pair. and intonation. for example /t/ — /d/ in the words tree — ary. POST-CONSONANTAL SOUND/poust#kt»nee'nenU 'saund/ . PLACE OF ARTICULATION /'plets av a. the phonemic component. dark and light /I/. POINT OF ARTICULATION /'point av cujtrikju'leifan/— this term te used by Ameriean^linguists instead of the term "fixed or passive speech organs. PHONOLOGY /fö'nolad3i/ — the science that deals with phonemes and their sequences. e.e. PHONETIC SYSTEM /fau'netik 'sistim/— a systemic combination of iive components of the language.fauna'Iud3ik{9)l mis'teiks/ — mistakes connected with the alteration of the meaning of words. POST-ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS /'paust ' sei v] als 'konsanantsl' . It is functional phonetics since it investigates the functional side of phonemes. nasalized vowels pro nounced in some words borrowed from French. PHONOGRAPH /'faunsgrarf/ — а machine invented by Edison for recording and reproducing sounds (1877). PLOSIVE CONSONANTS /'plausiv 'konsanants/ . the accentual component. in tonation. The organs of speecti that form the obstruction produce a kind of explosion on their abrupt separation. n/. For example. Each speech sound is an allophone oJ some phoneme. PLOSION /'р1эизэп/ — an abrupt separation of speech organs at the place of articulation. accent. A phoneme is reflected in this transcription as an abstraction and generalization. See PURE PLOSIVES. i.ирэ'гфэп/ . /k — g/ in ten — den. Plosive consonants are /p. PHONOLOGICAL MISTAKES 7. PHONIC /'faunik/ — acoustic. the syllabic component. as.phoneme exists in speech in the form of mutually non-distinctive speech sounds. PITCH /pitf/ — the degree of highness or lowness varying with the number of vibrations of a note. syllable. wiiHie a complete or incomplete obstruction is formed in the articulation oi consonants. PHONETIC SUBSYSTEM /feu'netik sab'sistim/ — the speech sounds which occur in interjections and borrowed words. Vassilyev defines it as "perception of the frequency of repeated1 pressures on the ear-drum". t. mispronunciation of /9/ may lead to the confusion of thought — fought. g. This principle is realized in phonemic tran scription.g. PHONEMIC COMPONENT /fsu'niimik kam'paunant/ — this component of the phonetic structure manifests itselS in the system of separate phonemes and their allophones. its semantic functions and the lines of development. /t — d/. b. etc. PHONETIC PRINCIPLE OF ORTHOGRAPHY /feu'netik 'prmsapl av 3!'9Dgrafi/ is a one-to-one correspondence: one grapheme corresponds to one phoneme.consonants that are articulated by the tip of the tongue which moves behind tne back slope of the teethridge. PHONETICS /fsu'netiks/ — the science that studies the sound matter of the language. k. 261 . connected with voice or sounds.g. n. mouth — mouse. A. e.g. POSITIONAL ALLOPHONES /pa'zifanl 'telafaunz/ — variants of a phoneme which are used in definite positions due to the tradition of a language pronunciation. PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION /fau'nfcmik trsens'kripJan/ — this type of transcription is based on the principle "one symbol per phoneme". or sequence of phonemes.the consonants that are articulated by forming a complete obstruction which bars the flow oi air sent from the lungs through the mouth or nasal cavity. the system oi segmental phonemes. which prevent communi cation. m. V.

For example. 262 . PRE-DORSAL CONSONANTS /'prfc'dosl 'ktmssnants/ — this term is connected with the term "dorsum".e. In phonetics this term isconnected with the protrusion of the lips. z/. PURE PLOSIVES /'pjU9 'ptsusivz/ — voiced and voiceless occlusive consonants pronounced with distinct and quick separation of the obstruction.. they constitute intonation in the broad sense — prosodation or prosodization. PUFF /pAf/ — a short light gust of air blown out of the mouth cavity. PROCLITIC /pra(u)'khtik/ — a monosyllabic word or particle with no> accent of its own. clause terminals /-* / \/ are viewed by them as "secondary" distinctive units. d. PROMINENCE/'prummans/ — singling out acoustically. pitches / 1 2 3 4 / . PRIMARY PHONEMES /'praiman 'fauntmz/ — the term is used by those scientists who consider phonemes proper "primary" distinctive «nits and open transition /+/. which produces. tamber. Is. o/. PROSODIC FEATURES OF THE SENTENCE /pra'stidiJc 'fiitfsz sv Ö» 'sentans/ — they are: speech melody. POST-TONIC STRESS /'psust'timik 'stres/ — tertiary stress is defined as post-tonic. on the knowledge of the distribution of the sounds. /d/). /id/ after /t/. For example. which is pronounced with the following pre-tonic or accented syllable as one phonetic unit.g. PRACTICAL PHONETICS /'ргакикэ! fau'netiks/ — teaching to pronounce sounds correctly. /kan'grsetjuleit/. Pre-dorsal consonants are articulated by the blade and the tip of the tongue.. QUANTITATIVE /'kwuntitetiv/ . In speech they are connected with acoustic prominence. its positional and phonemic length. when unstressed. Q QUALITATIVE /'kwnhietiv/ — connected with the tamber of the sound. /d/: dropped /drupt/. articles before nouns. after vowels and voiced consonants (except /d/). b.sim/leij9n/ — the process when the iirst of the two neighbouring sounds influences the second and makes it similar to itself. Lax separation of the articulating organs resultsin affricated plosion which characterizes indistinct colloquial speech and dialects. PURELY DISTRIBUTIONAL METHOD /'pjueh #distri'bjisjenl 'meGsd^ is based on the fact that it is possible to establish the phonemic status of anysound of a given language without knowing the meaning of words. k. PRINCIPAL ALLOPHONE /(typical) /'pnnsipal 'aslaufeun/ — that variant of a phoneme which is considered to be free from the influence of theneighbouring sounds.POST-POSITION /'paustpa'zi/an/ — the position of some phonetic element after a word. PRONOUNCE /pra'nauns/ — to articulate. the particle to before verbs in the infinitive. i. e. e. they are: /p. the effect of greater loudness. stresses /' " » "/. PRIMARY STRESS /'praiman 'stres/ — the stress which is the strongest compared with the other stresses used in a word. or cases like forgive lis'aiv/.g. that is with its spectral characteristics.83tu'meiten/. rhythm and pausation. PRE-VOCAL /'pri'vauksl/— a consonant that stands before a vowel. the pitch (fundamental frequency). PULSATION /pAl'seiJan/ — regularly recurring beats.referring to the length of the sound. remained /n'memd/. PRE-TON 1С STRESS /'prfc'txmik 'stres/ — secondary stress is defind as pre-tonic. begin /bi'gin/. /. this element may be termed enclitic after a stressed word. extended /iks'tendio/. t. the pronunciation of the suffix -ей о£ regular verbs is based on progressive voicing and devoicing: it is pronounced /t/after voiceless consonants (except /t/. tempo. PROTRUDE /pra'imd/ — to move forward. PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION /pra'gresiv s. accent.

QUASI-HOMONYMS /'kwcuzi'tiDtnanimz/ — tnis is L. supposition or want of some information is expressed in the form of a ■question: interrogative. as'similate. to reduce the quantity of a sound. In studying a foreign language recitation plays a very important role. e.nAnsi'eijW — the type of pronunciation which is the most widely understood one in England and in ■English-speaking countries. in alternation with op posite or different elements or features" (Webster s New World Dictionary). RETROFLEXED VOWELS /'retra(u)flekst 'vauaiz/ — the vowels that are articulated by the tip of the tongue curled back behind the back slope of the teethridge irrespective of the articulation of the vowel itself: this results in a special tembral colouring of the retroflexed vowel. RECITE /ri'sait/ — to repeat outloud something memorized. e. RECESSIVE STRESS /n'sesiv 'stres/ — stress that falls on the first syllable or the root of the word if it is preceded by a prefix that has lost its meaning.the process -when the second of the neighbouring sounds influences the first one and makes it similar to itself. American ftl. when the neighbouring sounds are equally affected by assimilation. which are almost homo-. alternative. or special.g. REDUCE /n'djuis/ — to make smaller or less. in the combination In the /n/ is regressive I y assimilated by /6/ and becomes dental and is pronounced with the tip of the "tongue against the upper teeth (its free variant is pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teethridge). QUESTION /'kwestjW — the communicative type of a sentence in which ■doubt. RESONANT /'reznant/ — the term is used by H. Gleason for vowels and sonorous consonants. RECESSIVE TENDENCY /n'sesiv 'tendsnsi/ — the tendency which consists in gradual shifting of word accent to the first syllable (which is usually the joot of the word). as beat. It is the teaching norm in England and in most «countries where English is taught as a foreign language including the Soviet Union. Articles.bilateral . сэ/ or even /d/. . Shcherba's term whan hs speaks of ths mambers of a minima! pair. . RETENTIVE TENDENCY /n'tentiv 'tendonsi/ — this tendency is char acterized by the retention of accent in the derivative on the same syllable on ■which it falls in the parent word. . RECORD PLAYER /'reload . The same can be said about the verb to have /hav. Rhythm in speech is the periodic recurrence of stressed 263 . 'import. etc.tiyras. conjunctions. movement. For example. REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION /n'gresiv a. For example. v/. and /w/ in its turn is de voiced under the influence of It/.sitni'leijan/ . especially before an audience. general. in the word twice ill is labialized under the influence of /w/. RHYME /raim/ — the repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds. RETRACTED POSITION /n'treektid pa'ztW — the position of the bulk of the tongue when it is in the front or in the back part of the mouth cavity but a bit retracted in the horizontal direction. RECIPROCAL ASSIMILATION /n'sipraksl 8. near-homonyms. forward — back-advanced.assimilation. Thus the verb to do can be reduced and pronounced as /du.pleig/ — an instrument for playing gramophone records by means of a pick-up and one or more amplifiers. V. procedure. RHYTHM /nöra/ — "rhythm is a flow. or accent. characterized by basically regular recurrence of elements or features. prepositions and pronouns are mostly affected by reduction. RETENTION /n'ten/эп/ — the ability to preserve the most stable properties in spite of assimilation or reduction. R RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION /n'stvd pra. i/.. which sounds weaker in the ■process of speech. REDUCED FORM /n'djicst 'fo:m/ — a word. e.g.simi'leijon/ . sound combinations or words. 'simitar. av. or backward — front-retracted: /u. to reduce the intensity of a sound. be'fore. For example.g.

For example. 3. R ONT G E NO GRAM /rant' gen sgraem/ — a photograph made with the help of X-rays. RHYTHMIC STRESS /'nömik 'stres/ — the term refers to the cases when there are equal number of unstressed syllables between two beats. so that the flow of air is momentarily obstructed by the vibrating organ (or organs). the soft palate (velum) 5. 'sit 'down. SCALE OF SONORITY /'skeil av ss'nvntif — the arrangement of phonemes according to their degree of loudness.I«mva'sei. for symbols of phonetic transcription. Rhythm exists both in prose and in \erse.g. Rontgenograms help to observe directly the ^ork of speech organs in the process of speech. the gums. 264 . w. the teethridge. SEMANTIC FUNCTION /si'msentik 'fAnkJen/ — in phonetics the term is used in connection with the differentjatory function (semantic role) of phonetic means. conversation /.hospi'tality. SEGMENT /'segment/ — in phonetics it is the shortest part of speech continuum — a sound or a phoneme.the vowels weaker in tamber which is the result of qualitative reduction: intermediate between full and1 neutral phonation of the vowel. explanation /. SCALE /skeil/ — the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables о a syntactic whole. ROLLED CONSONANTS /'rauld 'kimsansnts/ — such consonants are pronounced when the tip of the tongue (or the uvula) vibrates in the How of air and interrupts it repeatedly. the back slope of the alveolar ridge. SEMI-WEAK VOWELS /'semi'wtk 'vauelz/ . SEMI-VOWELS /'semi'vauslz/ — the term is almost out of use nowadaysv It refers to /j. especially in four-syllable words of foreign origin. ROMIC /'rgumik/ — the term is used in connection with the use of Latin letters. According to this scale the most sonorous are front low vowels.fsn/. ' twenty-one^ 'eye-witness. e. 2. SANDHI /'saaidhli/ — the term is connected with different modifications of the sound. 'tin'known. . • RULES OF READING /'mlz ev 'rfcdirj/ — the system of rules dealing with the correspondencies between the reading matter of the language and its pro» nunciation. The Russian sonant /p/ is a rolled consonant.ekspla'neijW. SEGMENTAL PHONEME /seg'mentl 'fsimian/ — the shortest part of speech continuum that is capablejof differentiating words. SAGITTAL /'saufcitl/ — the sagittal division of the articulatory apparatus into right and left halves makes it possible to represent the position of speechorgans in the production of sounds.syllables. It can be regarded as one of the forms in which a language exists. This tendency gave rise to the origin of the secondary stress. Voicelessconsonants are characterized byl minimal sonority. 'telt them to 'go there at 'once. e. then go sonants and voiced consonants. caused by assimilation. the uvula. r/. RHYTHMIC TENDENCY /'riÖmik 'tendensi/ — the tendency to alternate stressed and unstressed syllables. SEMANTIC TENDENCY /si'msentik 'tencEensi/— according to this type of tendency words with separable prefixes and compound words have two equally strong stresses. ySCHWA VOWEL /'Jwcu 'vauel/ — the neutral vowel Ы.g. ROMAN ALPHABET freumen 'aelfebit/— Latin alphabet. For example. SECONDARY ACCENT /'seksndgri 'aekssnt/ — this type of accent appears in words of five or more syllables. SENSE-GROUP /'sensgrup/ — a word or a group of words that conveys some idea. 4. » ROOF OF THE MOUTH /'ru-f ev 6э 'mau0/^ for purposes of consonant analysis and description it is conventionally divided into: 1. It falls on the'second pretonic syllable.

SHAPE /Jeip/ — form.. rj. SPEECH MELODY /'spMJ 'irieledi/ .the vowels having a relatively smaller length. . produced by speech organs. interjections.. Sonorants in English are /m» n. 3/. . Different vowels have different arrangement of formants on the sP ec "°f^' . auxiliary. soft part of the hardIt'alate-. modal. „ . SLIT /sht/ — a flat narrowing. adjeciyes. why. SHARP /j"cup/ — strong and shrill. demonstrative. . SONOR ANTS /se'narwrts/ . .плпы f eij3n/ see RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION. partfcles to and there. SPECIAL QUESTION /'spejsl 'kwestjsn/ — the type of a 4t«sHoii begins with the interrogative words who. SHADE /Jeid/ — a slight variation.[on when tne corners of the lips are widened in the horizontal direction. J".and functional pomw ■of view. The back slope of the teethridge . . • „„ « SENTENCE STRESS /'sentans 'stres/ — the greater degree of prominence given to certaitfwords in a sentence.h a i SOUND SPECTROGRAPH /'saund 'spektr9 grcuf/T an apparatus tnai is used in phonetics for purposes of spectrographic analysis pf s P ee ^ e ^" tr a a spectrogram it is possible to see different configuration of the *°vreu specif. . the teeth are siignuy 265 . as a rule. and connective verbs.moiiBr SHORT VOWELS /'Jat 'vaualz/ . Shcherba s CSNSONANTS /'swft 'kunsanants/ — palatalized /' / th bk ft t ft C S N N N T S /swft kunsanants/ palatal ^ *SOFT PALATE /'st)ft 'palit/ . where. V.the pos^.an in cline at the back part of the teethridge. д d SOUND /saund/ . acoustic.an incline. SPIRANT /'spaierent/ see FRICATIVE. SINGLE STRESS / 'sing! 'stres/ .the back.. L. one-syllable : prepositions.. . In English sibilants are Is. .variations in the pitch of the voice in connected speech.* SOUTHERN ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION /'элоэп 'inglij ргэ. A souna can be viewed from the articulatory. Special questions may refer to any part of the They are pronounced with the falling tone. board. notional verbs and>dverf». .. unstressed. „ chnWha 1« SLOW STYLE/'slau 'stall/ . SIMILARITY /'swii'lfflnti/ — likeness. interrogative words and two-syllable prepositions Ar ticles. or RP.the medial stage in /p. personal reflexive and reciprocal pronouns. I» J> w> r/ * SONORITY /sa'nonti/ — a degree of loudness. Short English III and /u/ differ from the long HI and /u/ alS ° SIBILANTS /'sibilants/ .only one stress in awora. b llf „1 nm SILENT LETTERS /'sadaot 'let«/ . . the shape. what. t.the sounds of a whistling or hissing nature. These words are usually nouns. . »Д information required. etc. z. numerals.a material unit. or quantity in comparison with the long vowels {other conditions re maining the same). .corresponds to Acad.. the shape of the mouth cavity. i.letters that are spelt but not pron0 Ut SILENT STOP/'sailant 'stop/ .pronounced with the single beat of the tip of the tongue against the teethridge. conjunctionsand conjunctive words . The distribution of sentence stress is determined by the semantic factor.the sounds in the production of which voice prevails over noise. n i_ • SLOPE /sleup/ . formed by the lips. SINGLE TAP I T / /'sirjgl 'tap 'r/ . ■ SPREAD LIP POSITION /'spred 'lip рэ'яJen/ . emphasizing pronouns. possessive.are.SENTENCE ACCENT /'sentsns 'sfcsant/ — a constituent part of the pho netic structure of the spoken sentence and one of the components of intonation In the broad sense of the term (see PROSODATION). -„^„Hnna! misSLIP OF THE TONGUE /'slip sv бэ 'W — a small unintentional mis take. auditory^. eight days. Id«JJ that is characterized by the "loss of plosion" in cases like: past perfect.

Jones. STRONG FORMS /'stn>n 'famz/ — the forms that can be observed in accented words. diphthongs and diphthongoids. or a commonly recognized and separable subdivision of a word. forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance. They constitute words and their forms. phrases and sentences. All this makes their detailed analysis of phonemes abstract and schematic. Zhinkin's theory). w/.division of the word into arcs of articulatory effort" (N. which they consider to be external to linguistics (R. Ы in blackboard /'blsekbwd/. natural style. there are the following varieties of style: rapid familiar style.g. SYLLABEME /'silabtm/ — a unit which is responsible for a few minimal and sub-minimal pairs. (b) with greater force of exhalation and greater muscular tension. slower colloquial style. STAVES /steivz/ — two parallel lines for intonation recording {by meansof special symbols). or the beginning of a syllable. pen. STABILITY OF ARTICULATION /sta'biliti ev o=. acquired style. L. According to D.k pa-'zijenz/ — vowels the quantity of which is not reduced in unstressed positions.SAbsli'tju. Structuralists consider the sound structure as a system of relations between! phonemes. Jacobson. The greater force of articulation is accompanied by an increasein the length of the sound in the stressed syllable.g. SUBSTITUTION METHOD /. lightening — lightning differ only due to /n/ syllabicity in the first word. which are realizedl as distinctive units in words. STATISTICAL METHOD /sta'tistikal 'meOsd/ — the method which-. STRESS or ACCENT is a greater degree of prominence which is effected! mainly by pronouncing the stressed syllable (a) on a different pitch or with & change of pitch direction in it. STRUCTURALISTS /'strAktfaralrsts/ — those scientists who analyse phonetic phenomena without recourse to meaning. syllables. This position of the lips can be observed in the articulation of Ы. den. L. slow conversational style.fan 'me6sd/ — the method of replacing of one speech sound by another in the same position to see whether it results in a minimal pair. According to J. aid. Compare day. Hjelmsley. They are subdivided into I. For example. formal style. positional. especially vowels. probability and predictability oi occurrence of phonemes and their allophones in different positions. SYLLABLE DIVISION /'silgbl di'vi3an/ . A strong-end consonant begins the arc of loudness and a weak-end consonant terminates it. SYLLABIC /si'laebik/ — capable of forming a syllable. According to the stability of articulation English vowels are divided into: monophthongs. helps to establish frequency. SUB-PHONEMIC VARIANTS /'sAbfs(uyntmik 'variants/ see SUBSIDIARY MEMBERS. I. combinatory and 2. Shcherba suggested two types of style in pronunciation: full style and colloquial style. SUBSIDIARY MEMBERS (allophones) /ssb'sidjsn 'membsz/ — variantsof phonemes that appear under the influence of the neighbouring phonemes with which they are in complementary distribution..visible. STYLES OF PRONUNCIATION ■ /'stailz av pr 9 / nAnsi'eiJan/ — L. they are vowels and sonants other than /i. Kenyon the syllable is one or more speech sounds. Nida). In the second word /d/ 266 . e. Vowels in the stressed syllables are not reduced. V. Syllables are material carriers of words.tikju'leijW is thestate when the shape. /se/ in climax /'klaimaks/. SYLLABICATE /si'laebikeit/ — to divide into. ten. STRONG VOWELS IN WEAK POSITIONS /'strun 'vaualz in 'Wr. SYLLABIC SOUNDS /si'isebib 'saundz/ — sounds that can form the peaks of prominence. They carry out the investigation of the phonetic structure without recourse to history and' to the material aspect of phonemes. Bloomfield. E. SYLLABLE /'silabl/ — shortest segment of speech continuum. and the lips come close to the gums. in the first word /d/ constitutes the beginning of the arc of loudness. volume and orifice-size of the mouth resonator are stable. e. it is progressively voiced. phrases and sentences. which may be a word.

'not /once — "many times .fhe marks suggest ed by R. the auditory impression of periodic waves is a musical tone. TEETHRIDGE /'thönto/ see ALVEOLES ce.of. TIMBRE /'timba/ see TAMBER. or linguistically narrow transcription is ciple "one symbol per allophone". \once — "never". „н-иЫапг orfian. . TENSE VOWELS /'tens 'vaualz/ . The symbols of an alloph are usually placed between square brackets [ ]. rhythm. or perceived by the sense of touch. . TABULATE /'tffibjuleit/ . Traditionally they are long vowels: /b. The advantage ош system is that it indicates high and low falling and rising tonö j£ Ä nw el and emphatic tones) in the text proper which enables the pupil to do without StaV TONETie TRANSCRIPTION /teu'netik trens'knpjenj '. because it performs distinctive function. They are used as trainm B exercises in teaching pronunciation. duration. The symbols of phonemic transcription are placed between slanting An iilophonic. . or the end of the syllable. small and big dots.. it is progresS Ve ' SYLLABLE PATTERN /'silgbl 'psetsn/ — the type of syllable most common for the language. ail snori vowels are considered to be lax.these vowels are articulated wt muscles of the lips.to arrange in tabular form TACTILE /'tektail/ .a change of pitch at the junction of two sense-groups. The American descriptivists use the term: clause terminal .short rhymes 1 /» |" cult sounds and sound combinations are included. <s:l. tongue. TABLE OF VOWELS /'teibl av 'ktjnsanants. transcription is based on the P™ CI P\ ehl?t™Kantlng phoneme". cheeks and the back wall of the pharynx made hard er by tensing. w. etc.the most important and movable аг . TAMBER /'tsernba/ — the quality of a musical sound. TAMBRE .g. « ™ v brationsof a'physical body are rhythmical.inteti'neijW — it consists of pauses.constitutes the end of the arc of loudness.the toneme of a sentence or of a мпае-grottp в а separate phonological unit. TAIL /teil/ — unstressed or partly stressed syllables (or syllable) that follow the nucleus of the intonation group. They indicate the intonation as well as the stress. They are placed before the stressed ^'e^JS in the same positions as the ordinary stress marks used in pbonetic *nnserg tions.: nn TERMINAL TONE /'tammel 'taun/ . TONOGRAM /'taun3. In ift»etta?% transcription is more convenient. . relating to.grssm/ . T TABLE OF CONSONANTS. wedge-like signs.graphic representation of „TRACHEA /trg'kfca/ see WINDPIPE. 1 ' с " 1а Х4 dlffV TONGUE TWISTERS /'Urj 'twists/ . TONE /teun/ . v. 4tunsstTONETIC STRESS MARKS /teu'netik 'stres . 'teibl av 'vau9lz/ ~ an orderly arrangement of consonants or vowels in verti cal and horizontal columns. 5„„_4. or in speech — a speech-tone. « ^ j between or beside the line of the text. An altophonic transcripti to scientific phonetic work. «TONGUE Лад/ . TEMPORAL COMPONENT OF INTONATION /temperэ1 paunant av . .^^W . . of sig infiS ii t i t i o n is b"^on^ prin- 267 . English and Russian are characterized by CV syllabic pattern.sounds may be periodical and non-periodical. / t ' k j / th system ■or linguistically broad. TONEME /'teuntan/ . depending on what overtones are present and their respective amplitudes. e. Kingdon. dashes ana dots.tone and stress indicators shown by plac ing special signs on an inlmed sea« . cu. These symbols are different. It helps to visualize the system of vowels and con sonants and to compare them with the similar systems of the mother tongue.

the first element is a diphthong and the second — a neutral vowel /a/. VARIANTS CONDITIONED BY STRESS /'vesnants ksn'diyänd bai 'stres/ — variants of phonemes which depend on positional (accentual) conditions. words and sentences oculiar to different styles of speech.. TRIPHTHONG /'tnföürj/ — a vowel sound that consists of three elements. k. d. In slow. UTTERANCE /'Atarsns/ — v. f. ш/. rate-of-pitch-change tonemes. when the glottis is narrowed so that the tensed vocal cords approach escb other or touch lightly.stai'hstih/— variations in the pronunciation of speech sounds. velar stops /k. VARIANTS FREE ryeansnts 'frfc/ — two different allophones of a phoneme pronounced in identical positions by one and the same or different speakers. A. TUNE TWO /'tjrai 'Ы — a rising tone. g/. e. u VIBRATION OF THE VOCAL CORDS /vai'breijen av бэ 'vsukl 'ko:dz/ — .formation of the back-secondary focus which makes the sounds "dark" in tamber /w.vtlorai'zeifon/ . b. pre-head tönernes. when the soft palate is lowered the flow of air is directed through the nasal cavity. TYPICAL TONEMES /'tipikal 'tsunfcmz/ — they are hypothetical^ the following: terminal tönernes. these'may be set in vibratory motion by the outgoing breath pressure and brought together again by their own elasticity and by mus cular tension" (V. Xl and the Russian /ж.the lateral sonant 71/ pronounced with only one side of the tongue lowered (usually it is the left side of the tongue). — . TWANG /twasrj/ — a sharp nasal quality of a vowel sound. UNACCENTED /'Anak'sentid/ — unstressed. rj. TUNE ONE /'tjim 'WJUI/ — a falling tone.ocal expression of some idea. UNICENTRAL CONSONANTS /'jttni'sentrsl 'ktinsanants/ — consonants pronounced with a single articulatory obstruction (complete or incomplete). VELARIZATION /. pitch-level and pitch-range tonemes.g.TRANSLITERATION ^traenzlita'reijan/ — the representation of the sounds oJ one language as nearly as possible by the letters and letter combina tions of another language. 263 .g. h/. VARIETY /va'raiati/ — the term is used in connection with the vowels of low and broad variety. VARIATIONS STYLISTIC /. UNROUNDED VOWELS /'jm'raundid 'vaualz/— vowels in the articulation of which the lips are not rounded la. UNILATERAL /'j mil'lateral/ —. /t. the Russian ж is represented in English by the letter combination zh. VARIANTS CONDITIONED BY DURATION /'vsanants ken'dijend bai djue'reijan/ — quantitative variants of phonemes (positional and combmatory allophones different in length). p. scale tönernes. UNDERTONE /'jtndateun/ — a low tone of voice. e. style they are pronounced as a two-syllable unit: /aus/ — /au/ + /э/. e. head tönernes. VELAR /'vMa/ — the term is used in the classification о Consonants which are articulated with the help of the soft palate: velar nasal sonofant /rj/. When the soft palate is raised the air passes out of the mouth cavity. r. v. Vassilyev). i.veari'eijenz . For-ex ample. tables. z. .. g./'peer ant/ — /pe'rentl/. s. VISUAL AIDS /'vizju9l 'eidz/ — devices which serve to assist understand ing or memory by displaying what is to be understood or memorized in a vi sible form: charts. aV. ' UVULA /'jttvjuJa/ — a fleshy conical body suspended from the soft palate over the back of the tongue. pictures. . diagrams. VELUM /'vfclem/ — the soft palate.. films.

VOICED CONSONANTS /'voist 'tomsansnts/ — the consonants which are produced with the vocal cords brought together and vibrating. sometimes they are reduced to the neutral vowel /si.VOCAL BANDS /'vault! 'baendz/ — elastic folds of membrane inside the larynx which vibrate to produce voice. It is a singling out of one or more of its syllables by giving them a greater degree of prominence as compared withthe other syllable or syllables in the same word. WORD TONEME /'vraid 'tsunfcm/ — a distinctive movement or change oS pitch within the syllable. VOCALISM /'vsukshzm/ — the system of vowel phonemes. VOCOID /'vokoid/ — the term is used by the American linguist K. widening the pitch-levels of sense-groups. There arelanguages where vowel reduction does not take place (Japanese. or modification of a vowel caused by assimilation to a vowel or semivowel (now generally lost)] in the following syllable. WIDENING THE RANGE /'waidmrj Öa 'remcfe/ — one of the emphaticmeans which consists in deliberate. VOICE /vois/ — vocal tone produced by the regular vibrations of the vocal cords. . VOICELESS CONSONANTS /'VDISIIS 'kunsanants/ — the consonants which are produced with the vocal cords taken apart and not vibrating. Italian. » WINDPIPE /'windpaip/ — trachea or air passage. WORD /ws:d/ — in phonetics the term refers to the word as a phonetic unit. a vowel resulting from such assimilation has a mark • * placed over it.every disyllabic and polysyllabic word pronounced in isolation has word-stress. a vocoid may form a syllable. WORD-STRESS or WORD ACCENT . see VOCAL CORDS. Weakening or reduction of vowels is a characteristic feature of Russian and English. It exists in the so-called tone languages. Unlike contoid. VOLUME /'vrcljum/ — force or Joudness of sounding speech. VOWEL MUTATION /'vauel mju'tei/эп/ — umlaut. Polish). W WEAK VOWELS /'wfck 'vaualz/ — the vowels which are shorter and lessdistinct. Pike to express the articulatory closeness of sonorants to vowels. VOWEL DIAGRAMS /'vaual 'daiagrsemz/ — schematic representationsof the system of vowels which are based on physiological principle (genetic principle) and which represent qualitative differences in the articulation of vowels.

М.— М. Klngdon R.. I960. 1975. Мориса Тореза. 1969. Egorov G. А.. Davidov M..— Минск. Энгельс Ф. Фонетика современного русского языка. Система английской речевой интонации. Введение в языковедение.. Аванесов Р. Кочергина В. 1980. 1979.. Русское литературное произношение. 1973. The Sounds of English and Dutch. 1972.— Киев. 1960. Зиндер Л. А. 1964.— Cambridge.— М. Швейцер А. I960. Гинтовт К. Я. 1979. Общая фонетика. Р.— М.— М. 1977. 1962.— М. Основы фонологии. Jones D. American Pronunciation. 2. Брызгунова Е. 270 . П. 1979. Фант Г. 1975.— М. Графика современного английского языка. Торсу ев Г.— Bucuresti... Теоретическая фонетика английского ■языка. Workbook in English Phonetics and Phonology. Л.— Longmans. 1961. Г. Chitoran. Д..— 9th ed.. The Practical Course of English (Second Year). Трубецкой И. Богданова И.. Г.— М.. Фонология. [951.. и др. Inger. 1983. Методическое пособие по курсу теоретической фонетики английского языка. Метлюк А. соч. Торсуева И. Немецкая идеология // Собр.. В. 1982. Mees. Якобсон. Текст лекций по теоретической фонетике английского ■языка для студентов-заочников МГПИИЯ им. 1976.. Строение слога и аллофоны в английском языке.Эволюция фонологических систем.— С.—М. D.— Cambridge.— М. Acoustic Phonetics.Интонация и смысл высказывания. 1981. Карневская Е. А. Интонация.— Минск.— Л. Y. А.—Ann Arbor. Crystal D. S. 1984.. V. Русская фонетика. Плоткин В. М.Cambridge.— Leiden. G.— М. Ленин В. 1976..— М. Ахманова О. Степанов Ю. 1978. Буланин Л. 4971. Щерба Л. Борисова Л.— М.—М. Arakin V... М. Философские тетради. Халле М. J.—№ 6. В. 1967.— London. И. 2. А.. Антипова А.— М. An Outline of English Phonetics. 1975. Панов М.— Д.— М.—М. 1979. А. B. — M.—М.—М. Кантер Л... Kingdon /?. Фонетическое описание языка и фонетическое описание речи. •Gleason^H. В.. 1971.. 1954.. The Pronunciation of English... языжознания. Фонология и ее отношение к фонетике. Я. Соколова М. История лингвистических учений. Dumiiru.. 1964. 4.— М. Б. Клычков Г. Bronstetn A. Практическая •фонетика английского языка. The Groundwork of English Intonation. 39—50. Энгельс Ф.BIBLIOGRAPHY Маркс /f. Fry D. Нормативные основы английской речевой интонации. 1958. 73—81. Балинская В. С. Kenyan J.—M. Шахбагова Д.. Prosodic Systems and Intonation. С. ■Jones D..— М. К архитектонике фонологической системы // Вопр. English Pronunciation Practice.— Prentice Hall. The Pronunciation of American English. И. 1979. English Phonology.. Фонетика французского языка. Основы общего языкознания. Бондаренко Л.— Вып.. А. Tpaxmepog А. 1981. Л. Дубовский Ю.— Longmans.. и др. Практический курс фонетики английского языка. 1967. С An Introduction to Pronunciation of English. Р.— Т..—N.. Collins. 1.—С. A.— М. Березин Ф. Литературный английский язык в США и Англии. 1981. И.. 1960. М. Анпшпова А. 1960. С. С. 1957. В. 1980. Диалектика природы. GimsonA. Bavertey. Введение в анализ речи // Новое в лингвистике.. 1968.—Cambridge. 1984. Торсуева И..— М.. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics.

—2nd ed. 1980. Shakhbagova D. A. 1929. A.—M.. Varieties of English Pronunciation. Perception and Language. 1973. Intonation. D. Intonation of Colloquial English.— Massachusetts.—M. . 1970. English Phonetics / A Theoretical Course. Ward I. eta!. Vassllyev V.— London. 1967. F. Arnold G. The Sounds of English___Oxford. Sweet H. 1948. ( 1982. The Phonetics of English.. English Phonetics..Lieberman Ph. Vassilyev V.— M.— Cambridge. A. O'Connor J.

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