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FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
Marg uerite Hartill
Copyright © 2003 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Hartill, Marguerite. Vocabulary for civil service tests / Marguerite Hartill.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57685-474-4 (pbk.) 1. Civil service—United States—Examinations—Study guides. 2. Vocabulary tests—study guides. I. Title. JK716.H3532 2003 351.73'076—dc21 2003013197 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 First Edition ISBN 1-57685-474-4 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
INTRODUCTION 1 2 THE LEARNINGEXPRESS TEST PREPARATION SYSTEM RESOURCES—COMMONLY TESTED WORDS, PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND WORD ROOTS FOR SUCCESSFUL STUDYING VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS READING COMPREHENSION GRAMMAR SPELLING PRACTICE TEST 1 PRACTICE TEST 2
vii 1 23 67 83 103 123 157 177 191 205
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
APPENDIX: GLOSSARY OF VOCABULARY TERMS
Choosing a career as a government employee can be very rewarding. But before you begin your job, you will find that you must take a Civil Service exam. Generally, a Civil Service exam will be comprised of many different sections. Depending on your job field, the type of test you will take may include any or all of the following topics: math, judgment, map reading, number and letter recall, reading tables and graphs, and vocabulary. Vocabulary is a broad topic, and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension, grammar, and spelling. In general, the better your basic vocabulary skills are, the better you will do on the entire test. Civil Service exams require that candidates score well on all parts of the exam, so use the exercises and practice tests in this book to get a feel for the vocabulary topics you will face on the real exam.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks, this book will help you prepare. You should carefully read this introduction and Chapter 1—the LearningExpress Test Preparation System— so you can grasp effective strategies and learn to budget your preparation time wisely. Chapter 1 presents a 30-Day Study Plan and a 14-Day Study Plan. You can decide which of these plans is right for you, or you can create a more personalized plan. Remember to stick as closely as you can to your plan. Always keep your end goal in mind. If you study hard the ﬁrst time, chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever!
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
The structure divides common language arts strands into compact parts so that you can work on each concept and gain mastery. you feel you need more practice. after answering all the questions in a section. Grammar. These exams will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. and this can help you make educated guesses when taking your exam. and Word Roots—is also included in Chapter 2. If at some point you feel you need further practice or more explanation about vocabulary. you can ﬁnd it in these LearningExpress publications: 501 Grammar and Writing Questions 501 Synonym and Antonym Questions 501 Reading Comprehension Questions. look at the table of contents to see the types of verbal topics covered in this book. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition. And. 3rd edition . Reading Comprehension. or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. you will want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. If. Sufﬁxes. 2nd edition 501 Word Analogy Questions Goof-Proof Grammar Goof-Proof Spelling Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes a Day. Studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. there are two practice tests at the end of the book. As you answer the hundreds of practice questions in this book. Synonyms and Antonyms. You may want to answer the questions in sequence. ﬁnally. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes.viii VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS INTRODUCTION Once you have set a study plan for yourself. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. Repetition is often the key to success. you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy as you work through the questions in each section. and Spelling. The book is organized in six sections: Commonly Tested Words. In addition. reread the questions and try your hand at responding one more time. Vocabulary in Context. A helpful 500-word vocabulary list of commonly tested words can be found in Chapter 2.
Civilian government employees are grouped by the type of work they do. Speciﬁc beneﬁts may include: 10 paid holidays a year. . 13 sick days a year. The government workforce is diverse with career possibilities in a wide array of specialties and ﬁelds. from social work to cartography. whereas junior college graduates may enter at GS-4. and provide paid training for employees.INTRODUCTION VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS ix KINDS OF CIVIL SERVICE JOBS Civil Service jobs range from clerical work to forestry. medical and dental beneﬁts. have great holiday and vacation schedules. group life insurance. you may enter the government pay scale at different grades. The level of their relative positions (based on difﬁculty) is called the grade. The higher the step. offer health insurance. Each grade progresses upward through steps. including: Accounting Administration Agriculture Air Trafﬁc Control Biology Budgetary Work Cartography Chemistry Claims Work Clerical Work Conservation Court Work Custodial Work Defense-Related Work Drafting Educational Service Electrical Work Engineering Finance Fireﬁghting Health Services Human Services Information Technology Law Enforcement Legal Machinist Work Nursing Painting Postal Work Service Work Social Work Treasury Work Visa Examination EARNINGS AND ADVANCEMENT The government is the largest employer in the United States. from painting to nursing. Government jobs are secure. and a government pension plan. high school graduates may enter at GS-2 (“GS” means “General Schedule”). Depending on your prior education. This is called the series. For example. 13 to 26 paid vacation days a year. the more money you make.
381 85. (Lincolnwood. 2000. O’Connor. . Also. Source: United States Ofﬁce of Personnel Management’s USAJOBS website. 1997).x VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS INTRODUCTION BASIC PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE PAY PLAN. 2002). ( Jefferson. ed. Joseph.usajobs.952 23. et al.519 39. Krevisky. Ray. (New York: St.130 29. 2003). Martin’s. MD: University Press of America. Word Parts Dictionary. (New York: RHR Press. Contemporary’s Word Power. and medical ﬁelds. Random House Webster’s Pocket Bad Speller’s Dictionary. et al.opm.664 20.442 GS-6 GS-7 GS-8 GS-9 GS-10 26.214 17. 1996). so the majority of jobs pay more than the base salary listed above.976 51. CA: Crisp Publications. or GS. Bonet. ed.251 72. Spelling 101.140 Please note that GS pay is adjusted according to your geographic location. MA: Merriam-Webster. Claudia. Building a Better Vocabulary.) Sorsby. (Lanham. Exact pay information can be found on position vacancy announcements. 2001).037 32. Webster’s New World Compact School and Ofﬁce Dictionary. may have higher starting salaries. Sheehan. Pay rates outside the continental United States are 10% to 25% higher. 1997).64% to 19. Nadeau. 1998). basic pay under the General Schedule. 1992).158 35. Diana. Joyce. certain hard-to-ﬁll jobs. Locality payments in the continental United States range from 8. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.04% above base pay. usually in the scientiﬁc. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES If you feel you need even more verbal skills practice you might want to purchase or borrow the following books: Agnes. 2003 For 2003. (New York: Random House. (Springﬁeld.508 61.gov. (Menlo Park. NC: McFarland. IL: Contemporary Books. Vocabulary Improvement: Words Made Easy. pay plan is as follows: GS-1 GS-2 GS-3 GS-4 GS-5 $15.115 GS-11 GS-12 GS-13 GS-14 GS-15 42. Michael. (New York: Random House. Michael. technical. Roget’s Desk Thesaurus.106 18. www.
INTRODUCTION VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS xi For more information on starting your career in civil service.htm www.com/index.com/career/career-reports/federal2002-1st. you can understand more of what you read.gov www.net www.com/governmentjobcenter www. Take the time now and make the commitment to improve your vocabulary skills for your Civil Service exam. When you have an extensive vocabulary.cfm?page=jobView&jobID=1305 www.opm.usajobs.federaljobs. check out LearningExpress’s Civil Service Career Starter (New York: LearningExpress. you can write clear descriptions.black-collegian.shtml www. Achieving a good vocabulary does not come without hard work.careersingovernment.capitolpublications. 2000). The following is a list of government websites to check for job information and opportunities: www.fedjobs. you can speak more ﬂuently and with more conﬁdence.htm MAKE THE COMMITMENT A rich vocabulary gives you a strong advantage in the workplace. .va.com/howto.gov/jobs/beneﬁts. and you can read more sophisticated texts.
you will take your ﬁrst step toward achieving the career of your dreams. there are all sorts of pitfalls that can prevent you from doing your best on an exam. But don’t let the written test scare you! If you prepare ahead of time. This book focuses speciﬁcally on the language skills that are tested on the exam. developed exclusively for LearningExpress by leading test experts. you will have to score high on your Civil Service exam. irst. gives you the discipline and confidence you need to do your best on the exam. However. By honing in on these skills. you can achieve a top score. such as: ■ how to pace yourself through the exam ■ how to use the process of elimination ■ when to guess F The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 1 . the bad news: Getting ready for any test takes work! If you plan to obtain any Civil Service position. The LearningExpress Test Preparation System.= 1 CHAPTER The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Taking any test can be tough. Here are some obstacles that can stand in the way of your success: being unfamiliar with the format of the exam being paralyzed by test anxiety leaving your preparation to the last minute not preparing at all not knowing vital test-taking skills.
In just nine easy-to-follow steps. the good news: The LearningExpress Test Preparation System puts you in control. For each of the steps listed below you will ﬁnd tips and activities to help you prepare for any exam. Each step gives you an approximate time estimate. or you won’t be getting the full beneﬁt of the system. Step 1: Get Information Step 2: Conquer Test Anxiety Step 3: Make a Plan Step 4: Learn to Manage Your Time Step 5: Learn to Use the Process of Elimination Step 6: Know When to Guess Step 7: Reach Your Peak Performance Zone Step 8: Get Your Act Together Step 9: Do It! Total 30 minutes 20 minutes 50 minutes 10 minutes 20 minutes 20 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes 3 hours We estimate that working through the entire system will take you approximately three hours. It’s up to you—remember. you will learn everything you need to know to make sure that you are in charge of your preparation and your performance on the exam. If you can take a whole afternoon or evening. you or the exam? Now. though it is perfectly okay if you work faster or slower than the time estimates allow. you can work through the entire LearningExpress Test Preparation System in one sitting. You will have taken all the steps you need to take to earn a top score. Who’s in control. Here’s how the LearningExpress Test Preparation System works: Nine easy steps lead you through everything you need to know and do to get ready to succeed on your exam. Otherwise.2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System not being in tip-top mental and physical shape forgetting to eat breakfast and having to take the test on an empty stomach forgetting a sweater or jacket and shivering through the exam What’s the common denominator in all these test-taking pitfalls? One word: control. you can break it up and do just one or two steps a day for the next several days. Other test-takers may let the test get the better of them. . other test-takers may be unprepared or out of test-taking shape. It is important that you follow the advice and do the activities. but not you. you are in control.
you have to overcome one of the biggest obstacles to test success: test anxiety. you will learn how to use this book. There.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 3 STEP 1: GET INFORMATION Time to complete: 30 minutes Activity: Read the Introduction Knowledge is power. see an overview of the kinds of Civil Service jobs available. grammar. and be presented with a discussion regarding earnings and advancement for civil servants. STEP 2: CONQUER TEST ANXIETY Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Take the Test Stress Test Having complete information about the exam is the ﬁrst step in getting control of the exam. Learn these strategies now and practice them as you work through the exams in this book. If you haven’t already done so. you will then begin to apply the test-taking strategies you learn as you work through practice exercises in the above topic areas (Chapters 3 through 7). you will learn stress management techniques that will help you succeed on your exam. but it can even keep you from preparing. where you will take two practice Civil Service verbal examinations. You can see how well your training paid off in Chapters 8 and 9. In Step 2. Next. Topics that are tested include: Vocabulary in Context Reading Comprehension Synonyms and Antonyms Grammar Spelling After completing the LearningExpress Test Preparation System. review general reading comprehension. and spelling strategies. Test anxiety not only impairs your performance on the exam itself. Practicing and studying the exercises in this book will help prepare you for the verbal section of the Civil Service test. The ﬁrst step in the LearningExpress Test Preparation System is ﬁnding out everything you can about the types of questions that will be asked on the verbal section of a Civil Service examination. . stop here and read the Introduction of this book. vocabulary. so they’ll be second nature to you by exam day.
lift weights. practice these strategies in the weeks before the test. walking through the park. I’m going to ace this test. Rotate your shoulders. Being prepared will put you in control of test anxiety. Fight negative messages. Take a deep breath while you count to ﬁve. Visualize again. I’m full of self-conﬁdence. start telling them your self-conﬁdence messages above. Now close your eyes and imagine you are . Practice self-conﬁdence. I know I can do it. If the someone with the negative messages is you. and use the ones that work best for you. On the next page is the LearningExpress Test Stress Test. Every time someone starts telling you how hard the exam is or how it is almost impossible to get a high score. telling yourself that you don’t do well on exams or you just cannot do this. This is no time to be humble or shy. Stand in front of the mirror and say to your reﬂection. “I’m prepared. whether on a stage or in an exam room. vomited before every performance. the interior of your new ofﬁce.” Say it into a tape recorder and play it back once a day. don’t listen. you will believe it. Go for a run. There’s nothing like knowing what to expect. Many people ﬁnd these movements very relaxing. Exercise. To ﬁnd a comfort level. Shake your hands from the wrist. Hold it for a count of one. go swimming—and do it regularly. being in good physical shape can actually help you do well on the exam. If you hear it often enough. so much the better.4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Controlling Test Anxiety The ﬁrst thing you need to know is that a little test anxiety is a good thing. Visualizing success can help make it happen—and it reminds you why you are preparing for the exam so diligently. however. Use it faithfully. Deep breathing. Visualize. Repeat several times. Physical activity helps calm your body and focus your mind. Imagine yourself reporting for your ﬁrst day on the job. one of the foremost British actors of this century. Stress Management on Test Day There are several ways you can bring down your level of test anxiety on test day. Stop here and answer the questions on that page to ﬁnd out whether your level of test anxiety is something you should worry about. and you greeting your new colleagues. Picture the clothes you will wear. His stage fright didn’t impair his performance. and remind yourself that you are better prepared than most of the people taking the test. Think of the place where you are most relaxed: lying on the beach in the sun. Try rolling your head in a circle. Everyone gets nervous before a big exam—and if that nervousness motivates you to prepare thoroughly. in fact. it probably gave him a little extra edge—just the kind of edge you need to do well. here is what you need to do to bring the level down: Get prepared. Besides. Move your body. That’s why you are reading this book. or wherever. Stress Management Before the Test If you feel your level of anxiety is getting the best of you in the weeks before the test. Turn on your tape recorder and listen to your self-conﬁdence messages. then let it out on a count of ﬁve. It’s said that Sir Laurence Olivier. A positive attitude is a great way to combat test anxiety.
answering every question correctly and ﬁnishing just before time is up. “Hey. ______ I have had trouble ﬁlling in the little circles because my hands were shaking too hard. Say to yourself. you will ﬁnd that you need only a few seconds of this exercise to increase your sense of well-being. 0 = Never for it. The following questionnaire will provide a diagnosis of your level of test anxiety. I lost it there for a minute. 1 = Once or twice 2 = Sometimes 3 = Often ______ I have gotten so nervous before an exam that I simply put down the books and didn’t study . Skim over the test until you ﬁnd an easy question. Say them silently to yourself. ______ I have simply not showed up for an exam because I was scared to take it. It is normal. Find an easy question. Everyone loses concentration once in a while during a long test. there are still things you can do to manage your stress level: Repeat your self-conﬁdence messages. This time.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 5 actually there. My brain is taking a break. ______ Total: Add up the numbers in the blanks above. Take a mental break. Try these techniques ahead of time. Instead. Getting even one circle ﬁlled in gets you into the test-taking groove. Then you are ready to go back to work. accept what has happened. close your eyes. so you shouldn’t worry about it. and believe them. and do some deep breathing for a few seconds. You should have them memorized by now.” Put down your pencil. and answer it. In the blank before each statement. and see how well they work for you. Visualize one more time. ______ I have failed an exam because I was too nervous to complete it. When anxiety threatens to overwhelm you right there during the exam. visualize yourself moving smoothly and quickly through the test. ______ I have experienced dizziness and disorientation while taking an exam. this one works best if you have practiced it ahead of time. write the number that most accurately describes your experience. ______ I have experienced disabling physical symptoms such as vomiting and severe headaches because I was nervous about an exam. If you practice in advance. TEST STRESS TEST You need to worry about test anxiety only if it is extreme enough to impair your performance. Like most visualization techniques.
here they are. you are very lucky. Start now. you may want to seek additional professional help. But don’t let that long time span keep you from studying. If you have months before the exam. You cannot review everything you need to know for a Civil Service test in one night. Even ten minutes a day.6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Your Test Stress Score Here are the steps you should take. Twenty minutes daily will do you much more good than one two-hour session each week. depending on your score. 3–6: your test anxiety may be enough to impair your performance. STEP 3: MAKE A PLAN Time to complete: 50 minutes Activity: Construct a study plan Maybe the most important thing you can do to get control of yourself and your exam is to make a study plan. ■ ■ 7+: your level of test anxiety is a serious concern. If you scored: ■ 0–2: your level of test anxiety is nothing to worry about. Take control of your preparation time by mapping out a study schedule. In addition to practicing the stress management techniques listed in this section. Even more important than making a plan is making a commitment. and you should practice the stress management techniques listed in this section to try to bring your test anxiety down to manageable levels. Spending hours on the day before the exam poring over sample test questions not only raises your level of test anxiety. with half an hour or more on weekends. You have to set aside some time every day for study and practice. . The counselor may be willing to help you or may suggest someone else you should talk to. Try for at least 20 minutes a day. it also is simply no substitute for careful preparation and practice. Don’t fall into the cram trap. can make a big difference in your score—and in your chances of getting the job you want. If you are the kind of person who doesn’t like to follow other people’s plans. you can use the suggested schedules here to construct your own. Too many people fail to prepare simply because they fail to plan. Tell the counselor that you have a level of test anxiety that sometimes keeps you from being able to take an exam. If you are the kind of person who needs deadlines and assignments to motivate you for a project. it is probably just enough to give you the motivation to excel. Call your local high school or community college and ask for the academic counselor.
particularly noting areas you expect to be emphasized on the exam and areas you don’t remember well. Day 6 Answer Questions 41–50 in Chapter 3. answer Questions 1–10. Also. Day 5 Review any concepts in Chapter 3 that you feel are necessary for you to reevaluate. Review any Chapter 5 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb. Day 7 Day 8 Read Chapter 4. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. answer Questions 1–10. Score yourself. Answer Questions 11–30 and score yourself. Day 13 Day 14 Read Chapter 6. Day 12 Answer Questions 31–50 in Chapter 5. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. and score yourself. Review any Chapter 6 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb. Review any Chapter 4 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 7 Schedule A: The 30-Day Plan If you have at least a month before you take your test. Spelling. Score yourself by referring to the answer explanations at the end of the chapter. Grammar. skim over the written materials from any courses or training programs you may have taken. and score yourself. . Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. turn to Schedule B. Day 4 Continue Chapter 3 by answering Questions 16–30. Reading Comprehension. Vocabulary in Context. and answer Questions 1–10 and score yourself. Answer Questions 31–40 and score yourself. Answer Questions 11–30 and score yourself. Score yourself by referring to the answer explanations at the end of the chapter. Day 9 Answer Questions 26–50 in Chapter 4. Day 16 Day 17 Read Chapter 7. Day 15 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 6. Day 10 Day 11 Read Chapter 5. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. you have plenty of time to prepare— as long as you don’t waste it! If you have less than a month. TIME PREPARATION Day 1–2 Read the Introduction of this book. Check your answers at the end of the chapter. and practice these basic skills by answering Questions 1–15. Answer Questions 13–25 and score yourself. Review any Chapter 7 concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb. Synonyms and Antonyms. Day 3 Read Chapter 3. and answer Questions 1-12. Answer Questions 11–30 and score yourself.
Sufﬁxes. Compare your knowledge of Preﬁxes. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions. take Practice Test 2. Day 27 Day 28 In Chapter 9. Score yourself and review any incorrect questions. Day 21 Day 22 Day 23 Complete your review of the Commonly Tested Words and highlight unfamiliar words. Review the Word Roots and highlight any that you think are hard for you to remember. Day 20 Turn to the Preﬁxes. Choose ten words and quiz yourself to see if you can remember the deﬁnitions. Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to re-evaluate. Review the Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes and highlight any that you think are hard for you to remember. take Practice Test 1. Day 24 Return to your highlighted words and review them. and Word Roots to the Commonly Tested Words to see if you notice the ways these word elements are used in words. . Day before the exam Relax. and Word Roots on page 56. Highlight any words that you think may give you difﬁculty. Day 29 Identify your weaknesses in the Practice Tests and review the coordinating chapters to review those skills. Review any concepts that you feel you may need more time to absorb.8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Day 18 Work through Questions 31–50 in Chapter 7. Score yourself and make sure that you understand all of the concepts covered in this chapter. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. Day 19 Begin to review the Commonly Tested Words in Chapter 2. See if you can use those words in sentences. Choose ten more words from your highlighted vocabulary list and quiz yourself to see if you can remember the deﬁnitions. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour. Sufﬁxes. Work through similar questions in the appropriate chapters. See if you can use those words in sentences. Day 25 Day 26 In Chapter 8.
The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 9 Schedule B: The 14-Day Plan If you have two weeks or less before you take your exam. Day 6 Complete Chapter 7. Day 3 Complete Chapter 4. Reading Comprehension—including the Practice Questions. Day 12 Complete Chapter 9. Review any incorrect answers. Day 5 Complete Chapter 6. and score yourself. Grammar—including the Practice Questions. . Review the words you highlighted in the Commonly Tested Words. Day 11 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to reassess. Review any incorrect answers. Work through similar questions in appropriate chapters. Review any incorrect answers. Vocabulary in Context—including the Practice Questions. Practice Test 2. Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Review the Commonly Tested Words in Chapter 2 and highlight all unfamiliar words. Use this 14-day schedule to help you make the most of your time. Review any incorrect answers. Review the Preﬁxes. Work through similar questions in appropriate chapters. Review all of the questions that you missed. and score yourself. Complete Chapter 3. Day before the exam Relax. you have your work cut out for you. Synonyms and Antonyms—including the Practice Questions. Make sure you understand them before you ﬁnish. Sufﬁxes. Practice Test 1. Spelling—including the Practice Questions. Complete Chapter 8. and Word Roots list and highlight any troublesome areas. Review all of the questions that you missed. Day 13 Review any concepts that you feel are necessary for you to reassess. TIME PREPARATION Day 1 Day 2 Read the Introduction and Chapter 1. Day 4 Complete Chapter 5. Do something unrelated to the exam and go to bed at a reasonable hour. Review any incorrect answers.
It is standard test-taking wisdom that you should always read all the answer choices before choosing your answer. It is a terrible feeling to hear the examiner say. First. Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book. Keep moving. Glance at your watch every few minutes and compare the time to the amount you have completed on the test. Though you should keep moving. many hours of practice! Activities: Practice these strategies as you take the sample tests in this book Steps 4. Check yourself every 5–10 questions to make sure the question number and the answer sheet number are still the same. Here are some tips to keep that from happening to you. “Five minutes left. skip the question and move on. If you are falling behind. Try to keep calm and work methodically and quickly. your next most important tool for taking control of your exam is using the process of elimination wisely. This helps you ﬁnd the right answer by eliminating wrong answer choices. Ask questions before the exam begins if there is anything you don’t understand. 5. STEP 5: LEARN TO USE THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Complete worksheet on Using the Process of Elimination After time management. make sure you skip it on the answer sheet too. which may give you more than enough time to complete all the questions—or may not. If you are allowed to write in your exam booklet. and 6 of the LearningExpress Test Preparation System put you in charge of your exam by showing you test-taking strategies that work. . write down the beginning time and the ending time of the exam. Civil Service exams have a time limit. and so on. Don’t rush. When one quarter of the time has elapsed. read them carefully. listen closely. Keep track of your place on the answer sheet. and then you can use them on test day. If they are written on the exam booklet. you should be a quarter of the way through the section. Pace yourself. If you don’t know the answer. If the directions are given orally.” when you are only three-quarters of the way through the test. Circle the number of the question in your test booklet in case you have time to come back to it later. pick up the pace a bit. Do not waste time on one question.10 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System STEP 4: LEARN TO MANAGE YOUR TIME Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. rushing will not help. Follow directions. take control of your time on the exam. If you skip a question.
The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
Choosing the Right Answer by Process of Elimination As you read a question, you may ﬁnd it helpful to underline important information or take notes about what you are reading. When you get to the heart of the question, circle it and make sure you understand what it is asking. If you are not sure of what is being asked, you will never know whether you have chosen the right answer. What you do next depends on the type of question you are answering. If it is a vocabulary question, take a quick look at the answer choices for some clues. Sometimes this helps to put the question in a new perspective and makes it easier to answer. Then make a plan of attack to determine the answer. This book will help you come up with strategies to answer difﬁcult questions. Otherwise, follow this simple process of elimination plan to manage your testing time as efﬁciently as possible: Read each answer choice and make a quick decision about what to do with it, marking your test book accordingly: ■ The answer seems reasonable; keep it. Put a smiley face next to the answer. ■ The answer is awful. Get rid of it. Put an X next to the answer. ■ You can’t make up your mind about the answer, or you do not understand it. Keep it for now. Put a ? next to it. Whatever you do, do not waste time with any one answer choice. If you can’t ﬁgure out what an answer choice means, don’t worry about it. If it is the right answer, you will probably be able to eliminate all the others, and if it is the wrong answer, another answer will stand out as the obvious right answer. If you have not eliminated any answers at all, skip the question temporarily, but don’t forget to mark the question so you can come back to it later if you have time. If the test has no penalty for wrong answers, and you are certain that you could never answer this question in a million years, pick an answer and move on. If you have eliminated all but one answer, just reread the circled part of the question to make sure you are answering exactly what is asked. Mark your answer sheet and move on to the next question. If you have eliminated some, but not all, of the answer choices, compare the remaining answers as you look for similarities and differences, reasoning your way through these choices. Try to eliminate those choices that do not seem as strong to you. But do not eliminate an answer just because you don’t understand it. If you have narrowed it down to a single answer, check it against the circled question to be sure you have answered it. Then mark your answer sheet and move on. If you are down to only two or three answer choices, you have improved your odds of getting the question right. Make an educated guess and move on. However, if you think you can do better with more time, mark the question as one to return to later. If You Are Penalized for Wrong Answers You must know whether you will be penalized for wrong answers before you begin the test. If you do not know, ask the proctor before the test begins. Whether you make a guess or not depends upon the penalty. Some standardized tests are scored in such a way that every wrong answer reduces your score by a fraction of a point, and these can really add up against you! Whatever the penalty, if you can eliminate
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System
enough choices to make the odds of answering the question better than the penalty for getting it wrong, make a guess. This is called educated guessing. Let’s imagine you are taking a test in which each answer has ﬁve choices and you are penalized 1 4 of a point for each wrong answer. If you cannot eliminate any of the answer choices, you are better off leaving the answer blank, because the odds of guessing correctly are one in ﬁve. However, if you can eliminate two of the choices as deﬁnitely wrong, the odds are now in your favor. You have a one in three chance of answering the question correctly. Fortunately, few tests are scored using such elaborate means, but if your test is one of them, know the penalties and calculate your odds before you take a guess on a question. If You Finish Early If you ﬁnish before the time is up for any section of the exam, use the time you have left to do the following: Go back to questions you could not answer and try them again. Check your work on all the other questions. If you have a good reason for thinking a response is wrong, change it. Review your answer sheet. Make sure that you have put the answers in the right places and that you have marked only one answer for each question. (Most tests are scored in such a way that questions with more than one answer are marked wrong.) If you have erased an answer, make sure you have done a good job of it. Check for stray marks on your answer sheet that could distort your score. Whatever you do, do not waste time when you have ﬁnished a test section. Make every second count by checking your work over and over again until time is called. Now try using your powers of elimination as you complete the exercise called “Using the Process of Elimination.” The answer explanations that follow show one possible way you might use this process to arrive at the right answer. The process of elimination—knowing when to guess—is your tool for the next step.
USING THE PROCESS OF ELIMINATION
Use the process of elimination to answer the following questions.
1. 2. 3. 4.
a a a a
b b b b
c c c c
d d d d
The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
1. Ilsa is as old as Meghan will be in ﬁve years. The difference between Ed’s age and Meghan’s age is twice the difference between Ilsa’s age and Meghan’s age. Ed is 29. How old is Ilsa? a. 4 b. 10 c. 19 d. 24 2. “All drivers of commercial vehicles must carry a valid commercial driver’s license whenever operating a commercial vehicle.” According to this sentence, which of the following people need NOT carry a commercial driver’s license? a. a truck driver idling his engine while waiting to be directed to a loading dock b. a bus operator backing her bus out of the way of another bus in the bus lot c. a taxi driver driving his personal car to the grocery store d. a limousine driver taking the limousine to her home after dropping off her last passenger of the evening 3. Smoking tobacco has been linked to a. an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. b. all forms of respiratory disease. c. increasing mortality rates over the past ten years. d. juvenile delinquency. 4. Which of the following words is spelled correctly? a. incorrigible b. outragous c. domestickated d. understandible
Here are the answers, as well as some suggestions as to how you might have used the process of elimination to ﬁnd them. 1. d. You should have eliminated choice a immediately. Ilsa can’t be four years old if Meghan is going to be Ilsa’s age in ﬁve years. The best way to eliminate other answer choices is to try plugging them in to the information given in the problem. For instance, for choice b, if Ilsa is 10, then Meghan must be 5. The difference in their ages is 5. The difference between Ed’s age, 29, and Meghan’s age, 5, is 24. Is 24 equal to 2 times 5? No. Then choice b is wrong. You could eliminate choice c in the same way and be left with choice d. 2. c. Note the word not in the question, and go through the answers one by one. Is the truck driver in choice a “operating a commercial vehicle”? Yes, idling counts as “operating,” so he needs to have a commercial driver’s license. Likewise, the bus operator in choice b is operating a commercial vehicle; the question doesn’t say the operator has to be on the street. The
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System
limo driver in choice d is operating a commercial vehicle, even if it doesn’t have a passenger in it. However, the cabbie in choice c is not operating a commercial vehicle, but his own private car. 3. a.You could eliminate choice b simply because of the presence of the word all. Such absolutes hardly ever appear in correct answer choices. Choice c looks attractive until you think a little about what you know—aren’t fewer people smoking these days, rather than more? So, how could smoking be responsible for a higher mortality rate? (If you didn’t know that “mortality rate” means the rate at which people die, you might keep this choice as a possibility, but you would still be able to eliminate two answers and have only two to choose from.) Choice d can’t be proven, so you could eliminate that one, too. Now you are left with the correct choice, a. 4. a. How you used the process of elimination here depends on which words you recognized as being spelled incorrectly. If you knew that the correct spellings were outrageous, domesticated, and understandable, then you were home free.
STEP 6: KNOW WHEN TO GUESS
Time to complete: 20 minutes Activity: Complete worksheet on Your Guessing Ability Armed with the process of elimination, you are ready to take control of one of the big questions in testtaking: Should I guess? The ﬁrst and main answer is yes. Some exams have a guessing penalty; check with the administrators of your particular exam to see if this is the case. In many instances, the number of questions you answer correctly yields your raw score. So you have nothing to lose and everything to gain by guessing if you know how to make an educated guess. The more complicated answer to the question, “Should I guess?” depends on you, your personality, and your “guessing intutition.” There are two things you need to know about yourself before you go into the exam: Are you a risk-taker? Are you a good guesser? You will have to decide about your risk-taking quotient on your own. To ﬁnd out if you are a good guesser, complete the following worksheet called Your Guessing Ability. Even if you are a play-it-safe person with terrible intuition, guessing is sometimes a good strategy. The best thing would be if you could overcome your anxieties and go ahead and mark an answer. But you may want to have a sense of how good your intuition is before you go into the exam.
1901. 4. 3.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 15 YOUR GUESSING ABILITY The following are ten really hard questions. 1830. . P = IV d. c. a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d 6. Newton’s ﬁrst law. Hubble ﬂow. American author Gertrude Stein was born in a. this is an assessment of your ability to guess when you do not have a clue. Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. the stars and other celestial bodies are all moving away from each other. c. 4. 2. This phenomenon is known as a. Costa Rica. Australia. d. 10. b. b. 7. 8. Rather. F = ma c. E = mc2 3. Because of the expansion of the universe. a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d 1. September 7 is Independence Day in a. 1713. Read each question carefully. just as if you did expect to answer it. c. d. 1. 1874. use that knowledge to help you eliminate wrong answer choices. 2. 9. b. You are not supposed to know the answers. Brazil. d. 5. Which of the following is the formula for determining the momentum of an object? a. the big bang. India. If you have any knowledge at all of the subject of the question. gravitational collapse. p = mv b.
the stem d. The winner of the Masters golf tournament in 1953 was a. d. c. c. Epicureanism. c. d. New York. John Blair. the ﬂowers 9. James Wilson.S. the bulb b. Alaska. Which of the following is the poisonous portion of a daffodil? a. Sam Snead. Supreme Court was a. The religious and philosophical doctrine stating that the universe is constantly in a struggle between good and evil is known as a. the I Ching b. Arnold Palmer. the Book of History 6. d. b. b. Cary Middlecoff. neo-Hegelianism. Texas. John Jay. d. the Book of Holiness c. 7. The third Chief Justice of the U. Connecticut. c. the Spring and Autumn Annals d. 10. the leaves c. The state with the highest per capita personal income in 1980 was a. b. Ben Hogan. Pelagianism. . b. Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Classics attributed to Confucius? a. Manichaeanism. 8. William Cushing.16 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System 5.
you should get 2 1 answers correct. Circle the numbers of questions you guess. your guessing was more successful if you were able to use the process of elimination on any of the questions. on a test with four answer choices. so getting either two or three right 2 would be average. How Did You Do? You may have simply been lucky and actually known the answers to one or two questions. 3. though. Keep in mind. b. you are at least an average guesser. 7. 5. c. Maybe you did not know who the third Chief Justice was (question 7). a.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 17 Answers Check your answers against the correct answers below. . 8. d. 1. or. maybe better—and you should always go ahead and guess on the real exam. So keep a separate “guessing” score for each exam. If you got four or more right. your chances of getting a right answer is one in four. you may be a really terriﬁc guesser. b. 10. 6. you would have eliminated choice d and therefore improved your odds of guessing right from one in four to one in three. if you do not have time during the practice tests. 4. if you guess only selectively— when you can eliminate a wrong answer or at least when you have a good feeling about one of the answer choices. a. d. According to probability. but you knew that John Jay was the ﬁrst. 9. 2. b. You should continue to keep track of your guessing ability as you work through the sample questions in this book. you should not guess on exams where there is a guessing penalty—unless you can eliminate a wrong answer. you may want to decide not to guess. In addition. If you got one or none right. go back afterward and try to remember which questions you guessed. a. On how many questions did you guess? How many of those did you get right? If the number you got right is at least one-fourth of the number of questions you guessed. though. that this is only a small sample. In that case. If the number you got right is signiﬁcantly lower than one-fourth of the number you guessed. If there is no guessing penalty. c. you would be safe in guessing. Remember. You may feel more comfortable.
cut out the junk. Foods that are high in lecithin (an amino acid). and then go to bed half an hour earlier that night. though. do not overdo it. How long you will have to do this depends on how late you are used to getting up. The next morning. and eliminate any alcohol for at least two weeks before the exam. Exercise If you do not already have a regular exercise program going. too.18 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System STEP 7: REACH YOUR PEAK PERFORMANCE ZONE Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. If you are already keeping ﬁt—or trying to get that way—don’t let the pressure of preparing for an exam fool you into quitting now. Go easy on caffeine and nicotine. First of all. your mind on test day. so might listening to music. you should reset your internal clock so that your body does not think you are taking an exam at 3 A. If you are not a morning person and your exam will be given in the morning. and so on. you will just toss and turn if you go to bed early without getting up early. along with protein and carbohydrates. Diet In order to succeed mentally. . every other day is okay. Exercise. for at least a week before the exam. You don’t want to exhaust yourself. for example. Jogging with a friend. rather than against. get up another half hour earlier. the time during which you are preparing for an exam is actually an excellent time to start one. But remember. might make the time go faster. What your body needs for peak performance is simply a balanced diet. Extra sleep will just make you groggy. so you will be at peak performance on test day. it’s important to give your body the fuel it needs to stay healthy. proper diet. even if you do not always get it. If you are really pressed for time. It also increases the oxygen supply throughout your body and your brain. as well as during your preparation time. Moderation is the key. Choose an activity you like and get out there and do it. Exercise helps reduce stress by pumping wonderful good-feeling hormones called endorphins into your system.M. you have to take control of your physical as well as your mental state. and rest will ensure that your body works with.” Rest You probably know how much sleep you need every night to be at your best. such as ﬁsh and beans. You have to start this process well before the exam. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Moderation is important here. Use the Physical Preparation Checklist on the next page to make sure you are in tip-top form. A half hour of vigorous activity—enough to raise a sweat—every day should be your aim. Do not try it the other way around. Make sure you do get that much sleep. weeks to complete Activity: Complete the Physical Preparation Checklist To get ready for the challenge of a big exam. are especially good “brain foods. The way it works is to get up half an hour earlier each morning.
do so on exam morning. either. Now it is time to make charts and gather the materials you need to take to the exam. lay out the clothes you will wear and the materials you have to bring with you to the exam. Plan on dressing in layers. Then write down what you ate for each meal. write down what physical exercise you engaged in and for how long. time to complete will vary Activity: Complete Final Preparations worksheet When you feel healthy and conﬁdent. A mix of protein and carbohydrates is best: cereal with milk. A sugar high will leave you with a sugar low in the middle of the exam. Have a sweater or jacket you can take off if it is warm. because you will not have any control over the temperature of the exam room. test preparation.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 19 STEP 8: GET YOUR ACT TOGETHER Time to complete: 10 minutes to read. you are ready to take charge of test anxiety. Exam minus 7 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 6 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: ______ for minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . and test-taking strategies. or eggs with toast. Don’t Skip Breakfast Even if you do not usually eat breakfast. Do not eat doughnuts or other sweet foods. PHYSICAL PREPARATION CHECKLIST For the week before the test. Gather Your Materials The night before the exam. A cup of coffee does not count. will do your body a world of good. you are trying for at least half an hour of exercise every other day (preferably every day) and a balanced diet that’s light on junk food. Use the checklist on the worksheet entitled Final Preparations on page 21 to help you pull together what you will need. Remember.
You made a study plan and followed through. you are better prepared than most of the other people taking the test with you. mental. In other words. You practiced your test-taking strategies while working through this book. and emotional state.20 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 The LearningExpress Test Preparation System Exam minus 5 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 4 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 3 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 2 days Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: Exam minus 1 day Exercise: Breakfast: Lunch: Dinner: Snacks: ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________ for ______ minutes _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ STEP 9: DO IT! Time to complete: 10 minutes. . You are ready. You are in control of your physical. plus test-taking time Activity: Ace Your Test Fast forward to exam day. You know when and where to show up and what to bring with you.
Go in there and ace the exam. When you complete the exam. 2 pencils ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ _________________________ _________________________ . and your performance on exam day. you will have earned a reward.The LearningExpress Test Preparation System CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 21 Just one more thing. And then look forward to your new career. So do it. Go into the exam. full of conﬁdence. Plan a celebration. Call your friends and get together for a party. Give yourself something to look forward to. Time it will take to get to the exam site: ___________ Things to Lay Out the Night Before Clothes I will wear Sweater/jacket Watch Photo ID Admission card Four No. make a trial run. or have a nice dinner for two—whatever your heart desires. And then do it. armed with the test-taking strategies you have practiced until they are second nature. FINAL PREPARATIONS Getting to the Exam Site Location of exam: Date of exam: Time of exam: ___________ ___________ ___________ Do I know how to get to the exam site? Yes ______ No ______ If no. your environment. You are in control of yourself. You are ready to succeed.
detest. Rather than having you read the dictionary. deviation from what is normal. being temporarily suspended or set aside. the more familiar it will become to you. you can count on them to help you with all forms of communication—or to pass any kind of test. Try to use the words in conversation. Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 23 . abjure (ab· joor) v. this chapter narrows down your study list by giving you 500 words that are commonly found on vocabulary tests. renounce under oath 2.= 2 CHAPTER Resources— Commonly Tested Words. His new scientiﬁc theory was ˘ ˘ ˘ deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. to regard with horror. the easier it will be for you to answer any vocabulary question that comes your way. it is a good idea to build your bank of words. 1. and Word Roots for Successful Studying Before embarking on any vocabulary study. Preﬁxes. When words are familiar. When Joseph became a citizen. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. Each night. COMMONLY TESTED VOCABULARY WORDS aberration (ab·e· ray·shon) n. Read the definitions and the way each word is used in a sentence. The more you use a word. to give up or reject. abeyance (a· bay·ans) n. Construction of the high˘ ˘ way is in abeyance until we get agency approval. Sufﬁxes. target ten words that you feel you do not know. I abhor such hypocrisy. suspension. The greater your base of word knowledge. distortion. abhor (ab· hohr) v. to repudiate. in your reports or memos. or even in an e-mail.
a ceremonial embrace in greeting 3. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt 2. as in an egg. allay (a· lay) v. . 1. a ceremonious ˘ tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. difﬁcult to comprehend. to calm. Without much ado. put to rest. 1. growth or increase by gradual. for a speciﬁc. The jury found the defendant ˘ addled at the end of the prosecuting attorney’s questions. especially to refrain from voting. It was unclear if the judge would ˘ abrogate the lower court’s ruling. or annul by authority. acrid ( ak·rid) adj. The remarks by the CEO did ˘ not allay the concerns of the employees. extremely bad. The alacrity she brought ˘ to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly. fuss. Criminals will often head south and abscond with stolen goods to Mexico. building up 2. 1. The Jeffersons’ atten˘ ˘ dance at every game proved that they were true aﬁcionados of baseball. I have decided to abstain on this issue. praise or approval 2. especially of a sport or pastime. ado (a· doo) n. alleviate 2. alacrity (a· lak·ri·tee) n. inﬂexible. abscond (ab· skond) v. or reason 2. She acted as the ad hoc scout leader while Mr. to choose to refrain from something. sharp taste or smell 2. abstruse (ab· stroos) adj. a fan or devotee. trouble. for this case only. extreme. 1. often temporary.24 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources abrogate ( ab·ro· ayt) v. purpose. absolution (ab·so· loo·shon) n. Davis—the ofﬁcial leader—was ill. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground. abysmal (a· biz·mal) adj. (in ˘ ˘ biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. abstain (ab· stayn) v. redemption. 1. appeals. she completed her book report. The senator ˘ ˘ was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget. obscure. having an unpleasantly bitter. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. to become rotten. adamant ( ad·a·mant) adj. to abolish. bother. often in order to avoid arrest or prosecution. a formal declaration ˘ ˘ of forgiveness. 1. a cheerful willingness. addle ( ad·el) v. 1. 1. to muddle or confuse 2. bitter or caustic in language or manner. very profound. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor. do away with. accretion (a· kree·shon) n. being happily ready and eager. successive addition. to run away secretly and hide. Tom’s last-place ﬁnish in ˘ ˘ the race was an abysmal turn of events for the team. ad hoc (ad hok) adj. to reduce the intensity of. ˘ aﬁcionado (a·fish·yo· nah·doh) n. limitless 2. unyielding to requests. ﬁrm. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. accolade ( ak·o·layd) n.
indifferent. something that is placed into an incorrect historical period 2. ˘ unresponsive. It is a moment I ˘ recall with great antipathy. resulting in lawlessness 2. anachronism (a· nak·ro·niz·em) n. amulet ( am·yu·lit) n. shapeless. ˘ political disorder and confusion. tip. the complete absence of government or control. thing. Brownstone was distressed by how apathetic her eighth grade students were. feeling or showing a lack of interest. The princess wore an ˘ amulet after being cursed by a wizard. an opening or gap. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood the arguments both for and against its construction. an object of aversion. or emotion. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. To prevent an altercation at social func˘ ˘ tions. one who abandons long-held religious or political convictions. The amorphous cloud of steam ˘ ˘ drifted over her head. ameliorate (a· meel·yo·rayt) v. uncertain. the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a person. ambivalent (am· biv·a·lent) adj. Winning millions of dollars from a slot machine would be considered an anomaly. The aperture setting on a ˘ ˘ camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light. a ˘ ˘ ˘ person. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons. antipathy (an· tip·a·thee) n. concern. 1. pointed end. peculiar or abnormal. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation or the end of the ˘ ˘ world. or idea that is out of date.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 25 altercation (awl·ter· kay·shon) n. Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry. especially one that lets in light. 1. a heated dispute or quarrel. not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain. 1. amorphous (a· mor·fus) adj. apex ( ay·peks) n. anarchy ( an·ar·kee) n. to make or become better. The days immediately following the revolution were marked by anarchy. or situa˘ ˘ tion. apathetic (ap·a· thet·ik) adj. 1. The authenticity and credibility of the 1920s movie was damaged by the many anachronisms that appeared throughout the scenes. one should avoid discussing politics and religion. apocalypse (a· pok·a·lips) n. Ms. Disillusioned ˘ with the religious life. a strong aversion or dislike 2. . having no deﬁnite shape or form. the highest point 2. one that is irreg˘ ˘ ular. apostate (a· pos·tayt) n. antithesis (an· tith·e·sis) n. The diplomat was able to ame˘ ˘ liorate the tense situation between the two nations. opposition or contrast. Upon reaching the apex of the mountain. Martin’s parenting style ˘ is the antithesis of mine. anomaly (a· nom·a·lee) n. custom. the direct or exact opposite. aperture ( ap·er·chur) n. to improve.
& adv. asperity (a· sper·i·tee) n. Even the pictures on the wall stood ˘ askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. the grumpy accountant. The chair˘ man’s remarks about the founding fathers were apropos since it was the fourth of July. laborious. an original model from which others are copied. often without permission. belonging to former or ancient times. appropriate (a· proh·pree·ayt) v. mysterious. The ardor Larry brought to the ˘ campaign made him a natural campaign spokesperson. soothe. to judge critically. crooked. put to a test 2. . apprise (a· pr¯z) v. deiﬁcation. arduous ( ahr·joo·us) adj. not straight or level. irritability. an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. The asper˘ ity that Marvin. give notice to. to set aside for ˘ a special purpose. not allowing oneself pleasures or luxuries. passionate enthusiasm. to make calm or quiet. secret. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment. Part of Susan’s job as a public defender was to apprise people of ˘ their legal rights. original pattern or prototype. very difﬁcult. to examine 3. to try. His ability to appease his constituents ˘ helped him win reelection. to take for one’s own use. evaluate after an analysis. to inform. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. askew (a· skyoo) adj. to still or pacify. austere. assay (a· say) v. zeal. characteristic of the past. Lancelot was the apotheosis of ˘ chivalry until he met Guinevere. to one side. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway.” archaic (ahr· kay·ik) adj. Some ˘ religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. requiring great effort 2. ascetic (a· set·ik) adj. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. ill temper. 1. archetype ( ahr·ki·t¯p) n. The local authorities issued an approbation to close the street for ˘ ˘ a festival on St. appropriate to the situation. apropos (ap·ro· poh) adj. ardor ( ahr·dor) n.26 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources apotheosis (a·poth·i· oh·sis) n. practicing self-denial. harshness. Samantha laughed at her grandfather’s archaic views of dating and relationships. beyond comprehension. appease (a· peez) v. suitable to what is being said or done. roughness of manner. Patrick’s Day. approbation (ap·ro· bay·shon) n. approval. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. severity. difﬁcult to traverse or ˘ surmount. arcane (ahr· kayn) adj. ﬁery intensity of feeling. 1. The ˘ chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project.
poison. unquestioning obedience to authority as ˘ ˘ opposed to individual freedom. Todd has ˘ ˘ an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. the interior of the Shaker meeting hall was considered austere by many people. audacious (aw· day·sh us) adj. Though Tom and Susan had hoped for ˘ an adventure. constant in application or attention. in the 1950’s. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. auspice ( aw·spis) n. With its simple but functional furniture and its obvious lack of decorative elements. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. The small ˘ cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. favorable. menacing. avant-garde (a·vahnt· ahrd) adj. Whether it’s a man. assuage (a· swayj) v.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 27 assiduous (a· sij·oo·us) adj. harmful. Valerie ˘ believed it an auspicious beginning when it rained on the day that she opened her umbrella store. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. 1. attenuate (a· ten·yoo·ayt) v. baleful ( bayl·ful) adj. ˘ ˘ The nurses in the intensive care unit are known for providing assiduous care to their patients. a forecast or omen. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. to satisfy (as hunger or thirst). persevering. distress. to soothe. they found that driving cross-country on the interstate offered mostly banal sites. restaurants. 1. . severe or stern in attitude or appearance 2. simple. or ani˘ mal. cutting-edge. patronage 2. to make something less severe. trite. cause of trouble. 1. destructive. aversion (a· vur·zhon) n. and attractions. especially in the arts or literature. auspicious (aw· spish·us) adj. or harm 2. unrestrained by convention or ˘ propriety. innovative. to make thin or slender 2. bane ( bayn) n. intense dislike. authoritarian (a·thor·i· tair·i·an) adj. a strong. banal (ba· nal) adj. august (aw· ust) adj. woman. showing signs that promise success. misery. majestic. propitious. the object of this feeling. unadorned. venerable. reduce in force. car. very plain. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. diligent. ˘ The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. repugnance 2. value. obvious and uninteresting. inspiring admiration or reverence. 1. or degree. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. unremitting. Andy Warhol’s art was viewed as avant-garde. Though it seems very conventional now. favoring complete. to weaken. and they often achieved results. 1. austere (aw· steer) adj. sinister. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. protection or support. commonplace.
cheat. Ms. divert. and lacking restraint or discipline 2. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. attitudes or writings against ˘ God or other things considered sacred. eager to make war. belligerent. contemptuous or irreverent acts. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. a large group or assemblage 2. ˘ ˘ The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. to show to be false. with inﬂated self-importance. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. two children. something that causes this condition. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. and carefree. blight (bl¯t) n. two cars. completely obvious. an unsightly object or area. casual. speaking pompously. boor (boor) n. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. to distract the attention of. bourgeois (boor· zhwah) adj. Coach Edmond’s speech bolstered ˘ the team’s conﬁdence. utterances. bellicose ( bel·˘·kohs) adj. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. and three TVs are key indicators of a bourgeois lifestyle. blithe (bl¯th) adj. not attempting to conceal in any way. 1. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. stormy and rough. hostile and aggressive. 1.28 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources beguile (bi· ¯l) v. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. bolster ( bohl·ster) v. to contradict. disrespect of something sacrosanct. such as air pollution 3. causing him to miss his secret meeting. . quarrelsome. especially to evade paying one’s debts. belligerent (bi· lij·er·ent) adj. 1. to pass time in a pleasant manner. to deceive or defraud. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die 2. blatant ( blay·tant) adj. a crude. to swindle. 1. Violet was able to beguile the spy. misrepresent 2. something that impairs or destroys 4. to support or prop up 2. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. Rivera always ˘ ˘ kept an eye on Daniel during recess. as his belligerent attitude often caused problems with other children. bevy ( bev·ee) n. noisy. light-hearted. to amuse or charm. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. offensive. loud. a ﬂock of animals or birds. ill-mannered person. bilk (bilk) v. typical of the middle class. blasphemy ( blas·fe·mee) n. to buoy or hearten. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. to give a false impression. belie (bi· l¯) v. bombastic (bom· bas·tik) adj. boisterous ( boi·ste·rus) adj. A house in the suburbs. There was a lively bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the bingo hall for the game to begin. 1. to deceive or cheat through cunning. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. you would be tortured and killed.
to beg. to obtain by begging. especially through art.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 29 bravado (bra· vah·doh) n. careen (ka· reen) v. demon˘ ˘ strates a most capricious nature even when he is not performing. whimsical and unpredictable. to begin to sprout. bumptious ( bump·shus) adj. to lurch from side to side while in motion 2. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. introduce. caste (kast) n. blossom. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. Congress unanimously agreed to censure him. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a facelift. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. castigate ( kas·t˘· ayt) v. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal teapot. she realized that it was. The bumptious man couldn’t stop talking about himself ˘ or looking in the mirror. After ˘ the senator was found guilty of taking bribes. to criticize harshly. to punish severely. a scheme or conspiracy 2. as in to draw off liquid. conceited. the comedian. impulsive. able to ﬂoat 2. a distinct social class or system. to chastise severely. a rebuke or condemnation. light-hearted. the children tried to iden˘ tify which objects on the table would be buoyant. rub to a shine. to rush carelessly or headlong. The ˘ tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring. With Antonio as ˘ their leader. in order to begin a discussion of 2. relieving emotions via the experiences of ˘ others. providing there was no late frost. catharsis (ka· thahr·sis) n. In science class. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. buoyant ( boi·ant) adj. Robin Williams. Maya knew her mother would castigate her. to bring up. burgeon ( bur·jon) v. 1. chastise (chas· t¯z) v. cabal (ka· bal) n. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. cheerful. 1. a show of pretended bravery. censure ( sen·shur) n. Kyle’s bravado often got him in ˘ trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the coup. rebuke. cadge (kaj) v. capricious (ka· prish·us) adj. ˘ Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. to tap or pierce. in fact. grow new buds. as with a beating. broach (brohch) v. 1. to polish. . to inﬂict a severe punishment on. When she was caught stealing for the second time. While visiting India. a small group joined in a secret plot. solid silver. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. the act of ridding or cleansing. arrogant. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. 1. false courage. burnish ( bur·nish) v. to begin to grow and ﬂourish.
cogent ( koh·jent) adj. soothe. conciliatory (kon· sil·i·a·tohr·ee) adj. appeasing. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. complaisant (kom· play·sant) adj. churlish ( chur·l˘sh) adj. Ella’s cogent arguments helped the debate ˘ team win the state championship.” remarked the police ˘ chief. boorish. wary. a hard riddle. a feeling of deep. consternation (kon·ster· nay·shon) n. rude. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. incapacitating horror or dismay. persuasive. watchful. a puzzling question or problem. a private or secret meeting. a secret agreement between two or more people for a deceitful or fraud˘ ˘ ulent purpose. contentious (kon· ten·shus) adj. willing to do what pleases others. obliging. cautious. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. As ˘ ˘ she walked down the aisle. The ﬁrst-graders made cornucopias for ˘ ˘ Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. enigma. circumspect ( sur·kum·spekt) adj. collusion (ko· loo·zhon) n. Alex’s logic pro˘ ˘ fessor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend.30 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources chauvinist ( shoh·v˘n·ist) n. a horn of plenty. With two contentious candidates on hand. countenance ( kown·te·nans) n. convincing. abundance. facial features and expression. To ˘ ˘ preserve family peace and harmony. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. conclave ( kon·klav) n. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. coeval (koh· ee·val) adj. an extreme nationalist. The captain was circumspect as she guided the ˘ boat through the fog. causing ˘ ˘ contention. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. controversial. conundrum (ko· nun·drum) n. compelling belief. Lenny became very complaisant when his in-laws came to visit. making or willing to make concessions to reconcile. mollifying. tending to comply. the appearance of a person’s face. craven ( kray·ven) adj. “This craven act of violence will not go unpunished. . or ˘ ˘ comfort. of the same time period. quick to ﬁght 2. cornucopia (kor·nyu· koh·pi·a) n. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. 1. The growth of personal computers and ˘ CD players were coeval during the twentieth century. competitive. contemporary. cowardly. The look of ˘ ˘ consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. quarrelsome. it was sure to be a lively debate. ill-mannered. conspiracy.
a leader who obtains power by appealing to people’s feelings and prej˘ udices rather than by reasoning. jeering. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. deprecate ( dep·re·kayt) v. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. to intimidate. to express disapproval of. to make afraid or discouraged. scornful. expressing ridicule. All the tables. propriety. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. to blacken the reputation of. to belittle. decency in manners and conduct. so those scenes were removed. decorum (di· kohr·um) n. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. to portray. describe. sketch. appropriateness of behavior. defame. General Ashtononi was the de facto leader of the country. a sudden breaking ˘ up or breaking loose. demur (di· mur) v. Though there was a ceremonial head of government. to condescend. . demure (di· myoor) adj. de facto (dee fak·toh) adj. Hilter was the most infamous demagogue of the twentieth century. Sharon could be very demure. debacle (di· bah·kel) n. deign (dayn) v. derisive (di· r¯·siv) adj. mocking. When it was to her advantage. disparage. daunt (dawnt) v. a sudden disaster or collapse. Grandpa’s tendency to dep˘ recate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. Polly hated to demur. 1. in reality or fact. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. too willing to believe things. Members of the opposing team were trying to daunt the home team by yelling loudly and beating their chests. depict. a total defeat or failure 2. In order to promote freedom of expression. actual. ˘ When questions concerning decorum arise.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 31 credulous ( krej·u·lus) adj. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. hesitate. or pretending to be so. gullible. denigrate ( den·i· rayt) v. to draw or outline. to destroy a large portion of. and charts made ˘ ˘ the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. demagogue ( dem·a· aw ) n. depreciate. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the Queen. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di· lin·i·ayt) v. graphs. denouement (day·noo· mahn) n. modest and shy. I always refer to Emily Post. to raise objections. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. violent ﬂood waters. decimate ( des·˘·mayt) v. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would make it taste good.
but they didn’t listen.” desecrate ( des·e·krayt) v. ˘ Resentful for having to work the holiday. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. 1. especially to gain time. falsely ˘ pretending to be unaware. dither ( dith·er) v. unoriginal.32 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources derivative (di· riv·a·tiv) adj. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. . 1. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives behind a false appear˘ ance. moving from one subject to another without log˘ ical connection. disconsolate (dis· kon·so·lit) adj. Someone desecrated the local cemetery ˘ by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. When the teacher ˘ broached the subject of the election. During a crisis. dissemble (di· sem·bel) v. disconcert (dis·kon· surt) v. to undeceive. dejected. be indecisive and uncertain 2. The word “atomic” is a derivative ˘ of the word “atom. it is ˘ important to have a leader who will not dither. belittle. shy and timid. insincere. slow or late in doing something. Tom needed to dissemble his desire for his boss’s job by acting supportive of her planned job change. The family became concerned listening to Steven’s desultory ramblings. hopelessly unhappy. disabuse (dis·a· byooz) v. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. disparage (di· spar·ij) v. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. correct a false impression or erroneous belief. to frustrate plans by throwing into ˘ disorder. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. division into two usually contradictory parts or kinds. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. haphazard. aimless. to hesitate. rufﬂe 2. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. dichotomy (d¯· kot·o·mee) n. intended to delay. 1. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance. to profane. disingenuous (dis·in· jen·yoo·us) adj. difﬁdent ( dif·i·dent) adj. especially the right to vote. inconsolable. disappointed 2. dissuade (di· swayd) v. sad. Natalie needed ˘ to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. ˘ The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. to upset the composure of. not straightforward or frank 2. lacking self-conﬁdence. derived from another source. desultory ( des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. Alan’s difﬁdent nature is often misin˘ terpreted as arrogance. to shake or quiver. dilatory ( dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. to violate the sacredness of. disenfranchise (dis·en· fran·ch¯z) v. 1. calculating.
vigor 2. and economic rights for all persons. edifying ( ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. of or relating to dogma. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. effrontery (i· frun·te·ree) n. or trivial. vivacity. president. eke (eek) v. ﬂuent. producing the desired effect or result. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. His edifying sermon challenged the congregation to devote more time to charitable causes. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of equal political. The new designer’s élan and originality was sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. acting effectively. a system of principles or beliefs. a prescribed doctrine. brazen boldness. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. 1. sweet-sounding. 1.S. absolute. enthusiasm. egalitarian (i· al·i· tair·i·an) adj. social. something worthless. Some ﬁnd the dogma inher˘ ent in religion a comfort. harmonious. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a powerful. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class 2. elite (i· leet) n. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 33 dogma ( daw ·ma) n. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. and per˘ ˘ suasive manner. dross (draws) n. Margaret’s efﬁ˘ cacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. bubbling over with enthusiasm. exuberant. melodious. distinctive style or ﬂair. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. His dogmatic style of conversation was not very popular with his young students. éclat (ay· klah) n. impudence. great acclaim or applause. sludge 2. dulcet ( dul·sit) adj. commonplace. arrogant way 2. 1. . The ebullient children were wait˘ ing to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. eloquent ( el·o·kwent) adj. to earn or accomplish laboriously. asserting something in a positive. élan (ay· lahn) n. effusive (i· fyoo·siv) adj. The customs ofﬁcials were infuri˘ ated by the effrontery of the man who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. a person or group regarded as superior. ebullient (i· bul·yent) adj. efﬁcacious (ef·˘· kay·shus) adj. Within the student orchestra. ˘ civil. dogmatic (daw · mat·ik) adj. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. instructing. 1. profuse. waste product. conspicuous success. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. overﬂowing. gushy. insolence. improving. brilliant performance or achievement. Anne’s unexpectedly effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable.
give rise to. With his ten-gallon hat. equanimity (ee·kwa· nim·i·tee) n. Stephanie’s ˘ cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. engender (en· jen·der) v. Numerous ephemeral ponds and ˘ ˘ pools can be found in the desert during the rainy season. a hairy. excessive wickedness 2. was actually imported from Japan.. larger territory. western shirt. a representative example or a typical model 2. epitome (i· pit·o·mee) n. empirical (em· pir·i·kal) adj. even-temperedness. enigma (e· ni ·ma) n. endemic (en· dem·ik) adj. . to produce. especially the ˘ enjoyment of good food and comfort. enormity (i· nor·mi·tee) n. to make feeble or impotent.34 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources eminent ( em·˘·nent) adj. especially under stressful circumstances. The chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. Professor Sorenson’s support worked ˘ to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a Ph. 1. 1. Kudzu. a brief summary or abstract. enclave ( en·klayv) n. deprive of strength or vitality. calmness of temperament. reputation. Joan became a true epicurean. atrocity. character. equivocate (i· kwiv·o·kayt) v. a bafﬂing problem or difﬁcult riddle. but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. something or someone that embodies a particular quality or characteris˘ tic. etc. 1.) The enormity of Jeffery Dahmer’s crimes will never be forgotten. a perplexing or inex˘ ˘ plicable thing that cannot be explained 2. the enormity of the task). ephemeral (i· fem·e·ral) adj. based on observation or experience rather than theory. epicurean (ep·i· kyoor·i·an) n. patience and com˘ posure. to weaken. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people 2. transitory. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. 1. How Winston came to be the president of this organization is a true enigma. enervate ( en·er·vayt) v. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and luxury. and rugged jeans. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew.g. distinguished. native to a particular region. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the standoff was remarkable.. bring into existence. Alex was the epitome of the American cowboy. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size (e. a monstrous offense or evil act. standing above oth˘ ers in quality. lofty. towering above or more prominent than others.D. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal ˘ the truth. lasting only a very short time.
demanding. opinion. . a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone or something. exacerbate (i · zas·er·bayt) v. facetious (fa· see·shus) adj. euphoria (yoo· fohr·i·a) n. 1. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. to make worse. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. evince (i· vins) v. having or showing great learning. inor˘ dinate and excessive. delete. When Anthony admitted to the crime. to try to partially excuse. region. requiring immediate action or attention. eulogy ( yoo·lo· ee) n. expedient (ik· spee·di·ent) adj. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. Weston’s face˘ ˘ tious remarks always made people laugh. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. exculpate (eks· kul·payt) v. annihilate. exigent ( ek·si·jent) adj. to free from blame. etc. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. profoundly educated. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm. to eliminate completely. it served to exculpate Marcus. ethos ( ee·thos) n. Ms. scholarly. attitude. After ﬁnishing probation. it is not uncom˘ mon to experience feelings of euphoria. the spirit. moving or behaving in an irregular. extenuate (ik· sten·yoo·ayt) v. 1. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. to show or demonstrate clearly. When falling in love. Richard ˘ was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. critical 2. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s twomonth marriage. erudite ( er·yu·d¯t) adj. etc. or bitterness of. We ˘ should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. During an earthquake. jocular. cleverly amusing. violence. serving to ˘ promote one’s own interests rather than principle. uneven. The schol˘ arly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young author. a suitable means to an end 2. to make evident. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. or inconsistent manner 2. to wipe or rub out. humorous and witty. urgent. requiring much ˘ effort or precision. to clear from a charge of guilt. erratic (i· rat·ik) adj. Fred claimed that extenuating circumstances forced him to commit forgery. exterminate.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 35 eradicate (i· rad·˘·kayt) v. to annihilate. appropriate for a purpose. to root out and utterly destroy. exorbitant (i · zor·bi·tant) adj. epoch. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. expunge (ik· spunj) v. 1. to increase the severity. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. sportive. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records.
to give the false appearance of. to impede or restrict. ˘ Norman had a fervent belief that aliens had already landed on earth. lacking purpose or vitality.36 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources fatuous ( fach·oo·us) adj. 1. careful and economical. feeble-minded and silly. having or showing great emotion. 1. Since Sam was such an intellec˘ tually accomplished student. to reject. to give up. elaborate. to pretend. feckless ( fek·lis) adj. patience. incompetent and ineffective. fervent ( fur·vent) adj. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. ﬂabby. The fervor of the fans in the stands helped propel the team ˘ to victory. fervor ( fur·vor) n. tolerance. disrespectful. forbearance (for· bair·ans) n. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. put in chains 2. go against (as in a tradition or convention). ardent. frugal ( froo· al) adj. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. ardor. 1. intense emotion. fetter ( fet·er) v. . weak. complacently stupid. preempt. suitably expressed. ﬂout (flowt) v. Gustaf dreaded the security check ˘ in the airport. My grandparents sur˘ vived the Great Depression by being very frugal. mock. zealous 2. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. ˘ feign (fayn) v. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. The felicitous ˘ turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the bestseller list. to shackle. careless. saucy. The presence of two security guards ˘ fettered their plans to get backstage. fecund ( fek·und) adj. apt. not ﬁrm. ﬂaccid ( flak·sid) adj. feeble. to deny under oath. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. renounce 2. forswear (for· swair) v. 1. costing little. ﬂorid ( flor·id) adj. willingness to wait. weak 2. Mr. 1. ornate 2. hanging loose or wrinkled. 1. fertile. The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. zeal. apropos 2. burning. extremely hot. sparing. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the growing community. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. thrifty 2. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. marked by good fortune. ﬂippant ( flip·ant) adj. 1. rosy. to disobey openly and scornfully. (of complexion) ruddy. forestall (fohr· stawl) v. not showing proper seriousness. Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks ˘ in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. felicitous (fi· lis·i·tus) adj. Flappers in the early 20th century would ﬂout convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts.
haughty ( haw·tee) adj. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. elegantly polite. ˘ a forerunner or precursor. a person. well-bred. contradict. gregarious ( re· air·i·us) adj. unlucky. to make holy. seeking and enjoying the company of others. harangue (ha· ran ) n. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. berate 2. talkative. gaudy. tending to ˘ ˘ form a group with others of the same kind. 1. The religious leader proclaimed the new worship hall a hallowed space. a tirade. The senator was prone to fulminating when other legislators questioned her ideology. treacherous cunning. creating great stress or torment. gainsay ( ayn·say) v. often scolding or bombastic speech. gigantic. sociable 2. or event that foreshadows or indicates what is to come. 1. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 37 fulminate ( ful·m˘·nayt) v. to deny. Andrew had the unfortunate luck of being seated next to a garrulous ˘ ˘ young woman for his 12-hour ﬂight. unfortunate. hallow ( hal·oh) v. It was a gargantuan supermarket for such a small ˘ town. to oppose. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. offensive due to excessiveness. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. or declare false. guffaw ( u· faw) n. and a very late arrival. . coarse burst of laughter. Her new ˘ coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Malinda. excessively bright or overdecorated. thing. harbinger ( hahr·bin·jer) n. distressing. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. scornfully arrogant and condescending. consecrate. missed connections. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. shrewd. garrulous ( ar·u·lus) adj. John was a gregarious fellow who always had fun at social events. harrowing ( har·oh·in ) adj. fulsome ( fuul·som) adj. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations. crafty deceit. reﬁned. Members of the audience ˘ began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. garish ( air·ish) adj. especially excess ﬂattery or praise. a noisy. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. guile ( ¯l) n. gargantuan ( ahr· an·choo·an) adj. disdainful. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. huge. genteel (jen· teel) adj. to explode or detonate. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. a long. tastelessly showy. hapless ( hap·lis) adj.
characterized by sudden. usually involving disagreement. beliefs. 1. a confused or difﬁcult situation. It was a tragic end to the protester’s life when. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged religious hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. the policy of extending the rule or authority of a nation or empire ˘ ˘ by acquiring other territories or dependencies. a deadlock. a difﬁculty without a solution. Using words as weapons. Great Britain embraced imperialism. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. impetuous (im· pech·oo·us) adj. A military takeover in the impoverished country secured the hegemony of the Centrist Party in its bid for power. impecunious (im·pe· kyoo·ni· us) adj. marked by shame or disgrace 2. overbearing. 1. impasse ( im·pas) n. and a strike seemed imminent.38 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources hegemony (hi· jem·o·nee) n. bossy. immolate ( im·o·layt) v. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. 1. impassive (im· pas·iv) adj. or institutions 2. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. to kill. ignominious (i ·no· min·i·us) adj. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. protected from outside inﬂuences. ignoble (i · noh·bel) adj. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. especially of one government over ˘ others. ˘ common. iconoclast (¯· kon·oh·klast) n. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a well-respected leader. imperialism (im· peer·i·a·liz·em) n. he decided to immolate himself in public. not of the nobility. domineering. Many impecunious ˘ ˘ immigrants to the United States eventually were able to make comfortable lives for themselves. imbroglio (im· brohl·yoh) n. impulsive. 1. Astronauts go for space walks only when wearing hermetic space suits. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre 3. to destroy (one thing for ˘ another). ˘ unduly hasty and without thought 2. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. penniless. marked by violent force. dishonorable 2. forceful energy or emotion. imperious (im· peer·i·us) adj. leaving thousands of commuters stranded at the bus station with no way to get home. as a sacriﬁce 2. out of desperation. Stella was relieved with her new job trans˘ fer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. . deserving disgrace or shame. lacking nobility in character or purpose. hermetic (hur· met·ik) adj. having an airtight closure. stalemate. ˘ ˘ despicable. poor. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. An imbroglio developed when the bus drivers went on strike. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. and many members of the organization resigned. 1. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. having little or no money.
importune (im·por· toon) v. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. indomitable (in· dom·i·ta·bel) adj. incredulous (in· krej·u·lus) adj. ineluctable (in·i· luk·ta·bel) adj. impute (im· pyoot) v. unconquerable. indolent ( in·do·lent) adj. insolent 2. not yet fully formed. guaranteeing women the right to vote. Iris’s indolent attitude did not bode well for her professional future. incursion (in· kur·zhon) n. not easily ˘ ˘ discouraged or subdued. as they mature. The ineluctable out˘ ˘ come of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. immod˘ ˘ est. incomplete. 1. to attribute to a cause or source. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. make incessant requests 2. incipient 2. indefatigable (in·di· fat·˘· a·bel) adj. an invocation of evil. inevitable. 1. the gypsy queen ˘ ˘ levies an imprecation on the lead character. shamelessly forward. imprecation (im·pre· kay·shon) n. skeptical. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. (Note: Do not confuse with incredible. just begun. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. but most are relatively easy to serve. Some of the peo˘ ˘ ple who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. causing little or no pain. and a human. to ask incessantly. 1. 1. to beg persistently and urgently. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. unwilling to believe. not to be avoided or overcome. inchoate (in· koh·it) adj. . inexorable. incapable of being placated or appeased. tireless. of or involving arson 3.”) The members of the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 39 implacable (im· plak·a·bel) adj. In the book I’m reading. inclined to avoid labor 2. it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow. tending to incite or inﬂame. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. a curse. certain. burning readily 2. 1. not able to be vanquished or overcome. impudent ( im·pyu·dent) adj. in an initial or early stage of development. undeveloped. lethargic. ˘ ˘ meaning “implausible or beyond belief. the act of enter˘ ing or running into a territory or domain. lazy. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s territory. credit. incendiary (in· sen·di·er·ee) adj. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. inﬂammatory. not easily exhausted or fatigued. ascribe. boldly showing a lack of respect. slow to ˘ ˘ grow or heal. The indefatigability of ˘ ˘ the suffragette movement led to the passage of the 20th Amendment. a frog. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays.
The tax reform committee faces an extremely involute prob˘ lem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. Young children can be intransi˘ gent when it comes to what foods they will eat. it was no surprise that he was viewed as a heathen and an inﬁdel by his family when he refused to be married in the church. inimitable (i· nim·i·ta·bel) adj. undaunted. inured (in· yoord) adj. 1. brazen. deep rooted. haughty and contemptuous. The intrepid nature and fortitude of the U. carefree. inveigle (in· vay· el) v. for even though he didn’t know her well. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. unable to mask feelings. brave. habitual. lacking sophistication or worldliness. inveterate (in· vet·e·rit) adj. doctrine. indifferent. incapable of being understood. unruly. Parents of ˘ ˘ teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. inscrutable (in· scroo·ta·bel) adj. ingenuous (in· jen·yoo·us) adj. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. Vanessa ˘ inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Marie.”) Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. stubborn. intransigent (in· tran·si·jent) adj. a person with no religious beliefs 2. not cunning or deceitful. 1.40 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources inﬁdel ( in·fi·del) n. sin˘ cere 2. intrepid (in· trep·id) adj. and it no longer bothered her. adapted. one who does not accept a ˘ particular religion. It was com˘ ˘ pletely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. to entice. unconcerned. a very small amount. (Note: Do not confuse with ingenious. accustomed to. artless. ﬁrmly established. or system of beliefs. I am an inveterate paciﬁst and am ˘ unlikely to change my mind. and train˘ ˘ ing had to be cancelled temporarily. unmatchable. Because Tom had been raised with strict religious beliefs. to prohibit. Carlos argued that the agriculture department should inter˘ dict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. . defying imitation. forbid. frank. Marines is legendary. and he won three championships. His performance on the tennis court was ˘ ˘ inimitable. meaning “remarkably clever. insolent ( in·so·lent) adj. 1. involute ( in·vo·loot) adj. intractable (in· trak·ta·bel) adj. intricate. who expected her to go to college. bafﬂing. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. iota (¯· oh·ta) n. complex. insouciant (in· soo·si·ant) adj. stubborn. impertinent. disrespectful.S. unwilling to compromise. unfathomable. fearless. interdict (in·ter· dikt) v. The young colt was intractable. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂattery. unmanageable. the smallest possible quantity. a nonbeliever. Wendy’s insouciant attitude toward her ˘ future concerned her father. Professor Carlton is so unpopular ˘ because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students.
noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. often exaggeratedly or ridiculously ˘ so. but ˘ unfortunately it is not very lucrative. proﬁtable. irresolute (i· rez·o·loot) adj. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. they’re just a bunch of libertines. but in my opinion. very small. hands-off policy. lucrative ( loo·kra·tiv) adj. Sandra is still irres˘ olute. clumsy. hot tempered. vex. inept. you might help her make up her mind. very clear. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. but they won’t win our vote. lugubrious (luu· oo·bri·us) adj. wrath. and inspirational. irk (urk) v. The loquacious woman sitting next to me on the six˘ hour bus ride talked the entire time. Alexi’s jocund nature makes it a pleasure ˘ to be near her. libertine ( lib·er·teen) n. a feeling of illness or unease. I believe a more laissez-faire approach by management would make everyone more cooperative and productive. sane or rational. easy to understand. feeling or showing uncertainty. tiny 2. irritate. I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. easily aroused to anger. . laconic (la· kon·ik) adj. terse. acting so lugubrious over losing a silly bet. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible way. jocund ( jok·und) adj. Her irascible temperament caused ˘ many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. Morrison’s ten-minute commencement address was every˘ thing we could have asked for: laconic. lucid ( loo·sid) adj. to the point. maladroit (mal·a· droit) adj. merry. so if you talk to her. malaise (ma· layz) n. trivial or petty. one who acts accord˘ ing to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. ire (¯r) n. cheerful. irritable. brief. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. anger. sprightly and lighthearted. Nicholas ˘ went to see a doctor. bungling. lilliputian (lil·i· pyoo·shan) adj. Teaching is a very rewarding career. excessively dismal or mournful. After his malaise persisted for more than a week. to annoy. comical misuse of words.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 41 irascible (i· ras·˘·bel) adj. hesitant. especially those that are similar in sound. My troubles are lilliputian compared ˘ to hers. The maladroit waiter broke a dozen plates and spilled ˘ coffee on two customers. producing much money. 1. intelligible 2. laissez-faire (les·ay fair) adj. powerful. ˘ ˘ His malapropisms may make us laugh. loquacious (loh· kway·shus) adj. Billy looks like a fool. talkative. malapropism ( mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. 1. indecisive. They claim to be avant-garde. garrulous.
to distribute. (Note: Do not confuse with meddlesome. high-spirited. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. rebel. she’s quite a malleable person. volatile. especially by a public ofﬁcial. misconduct or wrongdoing. as with studied reﬁnement 3. to walk or speak affectedly. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. apportion. Stop malingering and ˘ ˘ give me a hand with this job. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. easily adapting to changing circumstances. meretricious (mer·e· trish·us) adj. tawdry. mélange (may· lahnzh) n. improper ˘ ˘ professional conduct. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. minutiae (mi· noo·shi·ee) n. showily attractive but false or insincere. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. mince (mins) v. one who hates or distrusts humankind. sounding sweet and ﬂowing. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. courageous. 1. a falsehood or lie. mirth (murth) n. allot. 1. liable to change moods suddenly 2. nonconformist.. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and removed from ofﬁce. easily controlled or inﬂuenced ˘ ˘ 3. 1. joyous laughter. With its casi˘ ˘ nos and attractions. maverick ( mav·er·ik) n. misanthrope (mis· an·throhp) n. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. easily molded or pressed into shape 2.”) Alice’s mettlesome attitude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. His attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. to cut into very small pieces 2. mercurial (mer· kyoor·i·al) adj. a mixture or assortment. Pay no mind to his criticism. mete (meet) v. Madonna has always been ˘ a maverick in the music industry. honeyed. lively. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful 2. mean˘ ˘ ing “inclined to interfere. malinger (ma· lin · er) v. There was a very interesting mélange of people at the party. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. gaudy. malleable ( mal·i·a·bel) adj. great merriment. trivial or triﬂing matters. mettlesome ( met·el·som) adj. pl. very small details. 1. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. he’s a real misanthrope. melliﬂuous (me· lif·loo·us) adj. Fiona ˘ ˘ is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect.42 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources malfeasance (mal· fee·zans) n. one who acts independently. who don’t feel they can trust him. changeable. Her melliﬂuous voice ﬂoated in ˘ through the windows and made everyone smile. . mendacity (men· das·i·tee) n.
1. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. Victoria tried ˘ to be nonchalant. to soothe the anger of. The miscreant had eluded the police for months. a villain. coming into existence. commonplace. having many aspects. calm 2. ordinary 2. soften. agent ˘ of retribution or vengeance. The noxious smell drove everyone from ˘ the room. In “Frankenstein. the cause of one’s misery or downfall. criminal. moot (moot) adj. narcissism ( narh·si·siz·em) n. melancholy. Although this is a moot issue. but it is secure and it pays well. noxious. Mar˘ cus’s argument started off strong. admiration or worship of oneself. ˘ but today he was ﬁnally captured. emerging. nascent ( nas·ent) adj. offensive. nonchalant (non·sha· lahnt) adj. to moderate the force or intensity of. mollify ( mol·˘·f¯) v. sullen. not showing anxiety or excitement. undecided. to lessen in intensity 3. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. The unusual extenuating circumstances mitigated her punishment. 1. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. a connected ˘ series or group 3. morose (mo· rohs) adj. gloomy. noxious ( nok·shus) adj. 1. mitigate ( mit·˘· ayt) v. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. My job may be mundane. unwholesome. worldly as opposed to spiritual. 1. evil person. make less rigid. The job ˘ requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. the lowest point. source of harm or ruin. to make less intense or severe 2. My daughter has been morose ever since our dog ran ˘ away. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. a link or tie between a series of things 2. The nascent movement gathered strength quickly ˘ and soon became a nationwide call to action. What a noi˘ some odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non sek·wi·tur) n. 1. routine. diminish. foul. . nemesis ( nem·e·sis) n. noisome ( noi·som) adj. a means of connection. harmful. very varied. especially in odor. but I could tell she was nervous. greatly diversiﬁed. nexus ( nek·sus) n. putrid 2.” the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother. alleviate. the core or center. a conclusion that does not logically follow from the evidence. bane 2. dull. to soften. unpleasant and harmful. indifferent or cool. 1. nadir ( nay·d˘r) n. multifarious (mul·ti· fair·i·us) adj. mundane (mun· dayn) adj. debatable. the very bottom.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 43 miscreant ( mis·kree·ant) n. excessive interest in one’s own per˘ sonal features.
beyond ˘ ordinary understanding. opprobrious (o· proh·bri·us) adj. hardhearted. obstreperous (ob· strep·e·rus) adj. bringing ˘ ˘ shame or disgrace. but he was not omnipotent. obtrusive (ob· troo·siv) adj. The ˘ ˘ obstreperous child refused to go to bed. undesirably noticeable 2. eagerly offering unnecessary or unwanted advice. detestable. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. incomprehensible. 1. get rid of. 1. 1. My ofﬁ˘ ˘ cious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. but it is clearly an oligarchy. Instead of clarifying the matter. bossy. prominent. oligarchy ( ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. not sharp or pointed. invalidate 2. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. aggressively boisterous. task. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. It was Clark’s idea. hidden. obfuscate (ob· fus·kayt) v. to make null (without legal force). projecting. stupid and slow to understand 2. hateful. 1. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand 2. he is the most obdurate person I know. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. In a story with an omni˘ scient narrator. unruly. occult (o· kult) adj. obviate ( ob·vi·ayt) v. 1. having unlimited or universal power or force. The rights and beliefs of the occult organization were ﬁnally made a matter of public record after a long investigation. blunt. abusive 2. tend˘ ing to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. Thankfully. scornful. burden. involving the realm of the supernatural 3. Walter only obfuscated it further. knowing all things. omniscient (om· nish·ent) adj. contemptible. Minsun survived the accident. so the onus ˘ is on him to show us that it will work. obdurate ( ob·du·rit) adj. . intrusive. odious ( oh·di·us) adj. stubborn and inﬂexible. onus ( oh·nus) n. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. secret. thrusting out 3. 1. omnipotent (om· nip·o·tent) adj. meddlesome. obtuse (ob· toos) adj. to dim or darken. ofﬁcious (o· fish·us) adj. concealed 2. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. you know what I mean. duty or responsibility of doing something. In Greek mythology. ˘ ˘ Zeus was the most powerful god. since even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. forward. This is an odious policy that will only damage the ˘ environment more.44 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources nullify ( nul·˘·f¯) v. for she is also a classical pianist. I doubt he will ˘ change his mind. expressing contempt or reproach. not easily moved to pity. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. to make obscure or unclear. to make unnecessary. having inﬁnite knowledge. Please don’t be so ˘ obtuse. but she was left with several obtrusive scars.
Lee is very wealthy. easy to understand. 1. but I believe they have already made their decision. 1. to make something less intense or severe. cast out from a group or from society. presumptuously arrogant. 1. to provide relief from pain. seeming. overbearing 2.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. to reject. dull. pedestrian (pe· des·tri· an) adj. put a positive spin on 2. scarcity.. a small sin or fault. afﬂuent 2. (e. appearing as such. The term “non-working mother” is a contemptible oxymoron. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. something that serves as a model or example 2. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a group or cause 2. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly contradictory combination ˘ of expressions. alleviate. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. Elected “Employee of the Month. excessive. 1. immod˘ erate. possessing great wealth. paucity ( paw·si·tee) n. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. luxurious. ostensible (o· sten·s˘·bel) adj. peccadillo (pek·a· dil·oh) n. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. trite. beliefs. palliate ( pal·i·ayt) v. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. pellucid (pe· loo·sid) adj. tiresome focus on or display of learning. smallness of supply or quantity. set of assumptions. ˘ paradigm ( par·a·d¯m) n. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote.g. pedantic (pi· dan·tik) adj. paleness. pretended. but her pallor remained for several weeks. ostracize ( os·tra·s¯z) v. . Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. such as friendly ﬁre. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. able to be seen through with clarity 2. pallor ( pal·or) n.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 45 opulent ( op·yu·lent) adj. pariah (pa· r¯·a) n. overweening ( oh·ver· wee·nin ) adj. of writing) very ˘ clear. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. Kendall was ostracized after he ˘ repeatedly stole from his friends. Although the ˘ ˘ ﬁlm received critical acclaim. to gloss over. mitigate. partisan ( pahr·ti·zan) n. 1. translucent. 1. unremarkable. marked by a narrow. ¯ ˘ values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. commonplace. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. a rejected and despised person. lack of color. After he told a sexist joke. especially of ˘ rules or trivial matters. unimaginative. a ˘ guerilla. Jason was treated ˘ ˘ like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. Don’t make such a big deal out of a lit˘ tle peccadillo. ˘ ˘ but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. The fever subsided. abundant. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. a trivial offense. put forward (as of a reason) but not nec˘ essarily so. an outcast. oxymoron (oks·i· moh·ron) n.
46 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources penchant ( pen·chant) n. or dread. offensively self-assured. to forcibly rob of goods. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. not thorough. imperative. perjury ( pur·ju·ree) n. extreme poverty. ignorant person. to stun or paralyze with fear. superﬁcial. personable ( pur·so·na·bel) adj. 1. violating good faith. pillage ( pil·ij) v. putting an end to debate or action. especially in time of war. penury ( pen·yu·ree) n. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. or course of action. to plunder. Sandra is personable and ˘ ˘ ˘ well-liked by her peers. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). petrify ( pet·r˘·f¯) v. dishonest. I have a real penchant for science ﬁction and spend ˘ hours reading my favorite authors every night. petulant ( pech·u·lant) adj. a strong inclination or liking. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. ˘ ˘ not allowing contradiction or refusal 3. The perﬁdious ˘ ˘ knight betrayed his king. harmful. very destructive. The father’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. phoenix ( fee·niks) n. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. pernicious (per· nish·us) adj. but he’s really just a philistine. to make hard or stiff like a stone 2. misleading. disloyal. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. peremptory (pe· remp·to·ree) adj. After ten years of penury. done out of a sense of duty or routine but without much care or ˘ ˘ interest. extremely stubborn or persistent. dictatorial 2. astonishment. deadly. The pouting and sulk˘ ˘ ing child could only be described as petulant! philistine ( fil·i·steen) n. pur˘ pose. a smug. commanding. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence 2. 1. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work. attractive. . unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. pleasing in appearance or manner. treacherous. it’s good to be ﬁnancially ˘ secure again. holding ﬁrmly to a belief. or incomplete testimony while ˘ under oath. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. next to last. pertinacious (pur·t˘· nay·shus) adj. peevish. the deliberate willful giving of false. Nancy’s opponent started a pernicious rumor ˘ ˘ that destroyed her chances of winning. perfunctory (per· fun k·to·ree) adj. destitution. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. 1. perﬁdious (per· fid·i·us) adj. penultimate (pi· nul·t˘·mit) adj. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan.
a trite or banal statement. free from disturbance or tumult. 1. to stray from or evade the truth. mournful. melancholy. rash. Driving ˘ through the state park. foolhardy. placid ( plas·id) adj. The analyst presented a highly polemical view ˘ ˘ of the economic situation. practical.” is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. experience. pompous. deeply moving. 1.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 47 piquant ( pee·kant) adj. Hannah thinks that being pretentious ˘ will make people like her. There was a plethora of food at the reception. expressing sorrow. keenly distressing. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. plaintive ( playn·tiv) adj. idea. extremely steep. the ˘ “Crocodile Hunter. precipitous (pri· sip·i·t us) adj. plethora ( pleth·o·ra) n. the essential or central part. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. showy. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. especially one uttered as if it were new. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. calm and peaceful. pretentious (pri· ten·shus) adj. favoring utility. prevaricate (pri· var·˘·kayt) v. extreme excess. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. sharp or tart in taste 2. to tell lies. 1. matter-of-fact. to arouse or provoke. touching 2.) 2. but concise. a phony. arousing emotion. 1. poseur (poh· zur) n. Her brief. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. Steve. pique (peek) v. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. polemical (po· lem·ik·al) adj. etc. controversial. the heart or essence (of the matter. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm. pierc˘ ing or incisive. My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. someone who takes on airs to impress others. argumentative. but she is sorely mistaken. 1. agreeably pungent. ˘ ˘ poignant ( poin·yant) adj. an overabundance. pleasantly stimulating or provoca˘ tive. putting on airs. pragmatic (pra · mat·ik) adj. (in biology) the soft. to offend. pith (pith) n. to wound (someone’s) pride. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. Since we don’t have money or time to waste. precarious (pri· kair·i·us) adj. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. platitude ( plat·i·tood) n. hasty. . dropping sharply 2. precept ( pree·sept) n. a rule establishing standards of conduct. fraught with danger 2. sponge-like central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. dangerously unsteady or insecure.
The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. Don’t be so ˘ pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. In Native American mythol˘ ogy. presenting favorable circumstances. ancient. prodigal 2. 1. original. clean. wisely providing for future needs. unadulterated 2. propitious (proh· pish·us) adj. versatile. especially in regard to etiquette. pristine ( pris·teen) adj. The primeval art found in ˘ the caves was discovered by accident. taking many forms. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. proscribe (proh· skr¯b) v. proximity. dull. quarrelsome. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. prosaic (proh· zay·ik) adj. puerile ( pyoo·e·r˘l) adj. in its original and unspoiled condition. Because my parents ˘ were so provident. immature 2. to prohibit. auspicious. suitable only for children. proxy ( prok·see) n. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. one who is an authority on a subject. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. to banish or outlaw 2. 1. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another 2. lacking moral restraint. proletariat (proh·le· tair·i·at) n. belligerent. The two scientiﬁc elements demonstrate a remarkable propinquity. a learned person or scholar. variable. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. pundit ( pun·dit) n. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. 1. protean ( proh·tee·an) adj. prodigal ( prod·˘· al) adj. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. pure. nearness 2. afﬁnity. protocol ( proh·to·kawl) n. those who do manual labor to earn a living. belonging to or of child˘ hood. These are propitious omens ˘ indeed and foretell a good journey.48 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources primeval (pr¯· mee·val) adj. contentious. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune. changeable. a document authorizing this substitution. given in great ˘ abundance. The parable of the prodigal son shows what can happen when money is wasted. very conscientious and precise. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. proﬂigate ( prof·l˘· it) adj. 1. or procedure with regard to people’s rank or sta˘ tus 2. Kira is as punctilious in her personal affairs as she is in the workplace. The ˘ ˘ proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. eager to ﬁght. forbid. propinquity (proh· pin ·kwi·tee) n. pugnacious (pu · nay·shus) adj. unimaginative. provident ( prov·i·dent) adj. 1. ceremony. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. free from contamination. dissolute. 1. childish. 1. . belonging to the earliest ages. to denounce or condemn. economical. lavish or profuse. similarity in nature. punctilious (pun k· til·i·us) adj. 1. paying great attention to details or ˘ trivialities. ordinary. the working class. frugal. etiquette. especially with money 2.
quintessence (kwin· tes·ens) n. disorderly. impractical. purloin (pur· loin) v. 1. the perfect example or embodiment ˘ of something. to be intended to seem. a thing given in return for something. a bitter feeling of ill will. quiescent (kwi· es·ent) adj. Let’s come up with a quid pro quo arrangement that will create a winning situation for both sides. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. I love ˘ the pungent taste of a good. The volcano is quiescent at the moment. penetrating. 1. at rest. and this causes tension at family gatherings. quid pro quo (kwid proh kwoh) n. 1. rancor ( ran ·kor) n. a pigtail. unconventional and disreputable. the essence of a substance 2. queue (kyoo) n. having a strong. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. dormant. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. but I love him. quotidian (kwoh· tid·i·an) adj. quiet. stinging. peevish. to drink hurriedly or heartily. voracious. to draw back in fear. inactive. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. querulous ( kwer·u·lus) adj. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn 2. rapacious (ra· pay·shus) adj. Prudence took her quotidian dose of ˘ medicine. pedestrian. debonair. propose or intend. romantically idealistic. an equal exchange or substitution. 1. smartly dressed or mannered. ˘ purport ( pur·pohrt) v. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. raucous ( raw·kus) adj. long-lasting resentment. ˘ The raucous music kept us awake all night. 1.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 49 pungent ( pun·jent) adj. commonplace. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. daily 2. quail (kwayl) v. dissolute or debauched. rakish ( ray·kish) adj. boisterous. 1. to swallow in large draughts. to have the appearance of being 2. ﬂinch. 1. Greg is full of rancor toward his ˘ brother. discontented. strong curry. quaff (kwahf) v. disturbing the peace. unpleasantly loud and harsh 2. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of dollars. cower. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for money). He’s a cantankerous and querulous old ˘ ˘ man. plun˘ ˘ dering. sharp taste or smell 2. jaunty in appearance or manner 2. Mona quailed as soon as Otto entered the room. complaining. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. caustic. latent. ˘ but who knows when it will erupt again. quixotic (kwik· sot·ik) adj. to steal. .
widely known and esteemed. to scold or reprove. one who rejects a cause. 1. refusing to obey authority. reprieve (ri· preev) n. unmanageable. 1. reprehensible (rep·ri· hen·s˘·bel) adj. 1. 1. a quick. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular with both scholars and the general public. Elena is a coun˘ selor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. famous. etc. or opposition 2. stubborn. repartee (rep·ar· tee) n. not easily understood. 1. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. especially of the death sentence 2. a relapse or backslide. . the ability to make witty replies. group. replete (ri· pleet) adj. recalcitrant (ri· kal·si·trant) adj. regale (ri· ayl) v. a deserter. calmness. obscure. remonstrate (ri· mon·strayt) v.50 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources reactionary (ree· ak·sho·ner·ee) n. gorged. one who is opposed ˘ to progress or liberalism. dealing with abstruse or ˘ profound matters. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of inﬂicting at least as much ˘ harm in return 2. disobedient. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. 1. tranquility. resisting control or discipline. The recalcitrant child ˘ was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. peace of mind. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. unruly. 1. reprisal (ri· pr¯·zal) n. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. recondite ( rek·on·d¯t) adj. The reprehensible behavior of the neigh˘ borhood bully angered everyone on the block. repose (ri· pohz) n. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. refractory (ri· frak·to·ree) adj. The house was replete with expensive antiques. to say or plead in protest. 2. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. objection. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. and abstruse 2. He wasn’t expecting ˘ such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. 1. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. The children remonstrated loudly when their babysitter told them they couldn’t watch that movie. well-stocked or abundantly supplied 2. renowned (ri· nownd) adj. recidivism (ri· sid·˘·vizm) n. witty reply 2. resting or being at rest 2. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerilla ﬁghters. renegade ( ren·e· ayd) n. full. a person who favors political conservativism. deserving rebuke or censure. a person who rebels and ˘ becomes an outlaw. Allowing prisoners to earn their GEDs or college degrees has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. postponement or cancellation of punishment.
to repeal or cancel. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. rambling. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved.” sacrilegious (sak·r˘· leej·us) adj. resonant ( rez·o·nant) adj. conspicuous. The new announcer at the stadium has a wonderfully res˘ ˘ onant voice. Yesterday. resounding. 1. rigmarole ( ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. reject completely. . today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. 1. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. reticent ( ret·i·sent) adj. an immoral or unprincipled person. a criminal. to anger or annoy. disrespectful or irreverent toward something regarded as sacred. That you could even think such a thing really roils me. perceptive. salient ( say·li·ent) adj. echoing. composure. a heading. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. salutary ( sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. To promote better ˘ health. ˘ The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him.” not “alternative medicine. highly noticeable. having or showing sound judgment. ˘ silent. Her ˘ book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. rogue (roh ) n. My sagacious uncle ˘ ˘ always gives me good. to disown. ˘ petty procedure. confusing. sound advice. excessively self-righteous. disavow.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 51 reprobate ( rep·ro·bayt) n. 1. repudiate (ri· pyoo·di·ayt) v. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. sangfroid (sahn· frwah) n. a class or category 2. They have rescinded their offer. Annette is very reticent. rescind (ri· sind) v. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. title. or note of explanation or direction. sagacious (sa· ay·shus) adj. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. 1. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. untalkative. remedial. so we must ﬁnd another buyer. a dishonest. reserved. wise. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. to stir up or agitate 3. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy 2. 1. Edgar deemed ˘ himself a reprobate. Ms. spring up or jutting out. a complicated. unprincipled person 2. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. a pleasantly mischievous person 3. and a traitor in his written confession. sanctimonious (san k·t˘· moh·nee·us) adj. rubric ( roo·brik) n. drawing attention through a strik˘ ing quality 2. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances. hypocritically pious or devout. prominent. to void or annul. incoherent talk 2. one without scruples.
The deer slaked its thirst at the river. scurvy ( skur·vee) adj. of the color of blood. graceful tact. sodden ( sod·en) adj. ˘ The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. connotation. soaked 2. lazy and inefﬁcient. pithy 2. conﬁdently cheerful. full of maxims and proverbs offered ˘ in a self-righteous manner. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings.52 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources sanguine ( san · win) adj. sententious (sen· ten·shus) adj. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. serpentine. thoroughly saturated. to satisfy. or purpose. allay. symbols. sarcastic. but the matter is not open to interpretation. I was amused by his sophistry but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. sedulous ( sej·u·lus) adj. the meaning. semantics (si· man·tiks) n. slake (slayk) v. red. After years of sedulous research. sinuous ( sin·yoo·us) adj. expressionless or dull. I was looking for your honest opinion. clever but faulty reasoning. or other forms 3. 1. sophistry ( sof·i·stree) n. moderate. mean. iota. simian ( sim·i·an) adj. Creationists do not believe that humans have simian ˘ ancestors. violation of good manners or etiquette. quench 2. not a sententious reply. the study of meaning in language 2. initiative. diligent. or interpretation of words. hard working. a separation or division into factions because of a difference in belief or opinion. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. scintilla (sin· til·a) n. the ˘ ˘ researchers discovered a cure. She has not one scintilla of doubt about his ˘ guilt. contemptible. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. . to reduce the intensity of. minute amount. expressing oneself tersely. optimistic 2. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. 1. Savoir faire is essential if you want to be a successful diplomat. shiftless ( shift·lis) adj. Caught ˘ in an unexpected rainstorm. dark. schism ( siz·em) n. ˘ savoir faire ( sav·wahr fair) n. a trace or particle. 1. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. unimaginative. sullen. ˘ ˘ impropriety. 1. mocking scornfully. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. The saturnine child sulked for hours. of or like an ape or monkey. persevering. 1. winding. 1. saturnine ( sat·ur·n¯n) adj. He claims it’s a matter of semantics. a mistake in the use of language 2. It is dangerous to drive fast on such a sinuous ˘ road. gloomy. undulating. solecism ( sol·e·siz·em) n. lacking ambition. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. sardonic (sahr· don·ik) adj.
not genuine or authentic. specious ( spee·shus) adj. wretched. adoration. 1. 1. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. one who beseeches or entreats. dirty. to undermine. bad-tempered. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. disdainful. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. squalid 2. He remained ˘ stoical while his wife told him she was leaving. requirements or standards. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 53 sordid ( sor·did) adj. subvert (sub· vurt) v. or reverence. 1. impassive. gruff. ﬁlthy and wretched 2. various. miscellaneous. deceptively pleasing in appearance. squalid ( skwol·id) adj. sordid. surly ( sur·lee) adj. 1. stultify ( stul·t˘·f¯) v. stoical ( stoh·i·kal) adj. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. to prevent the accomplishment of something. supplicant ( sup·l˘·kant) n. cripple 2. below the threshold of consciousness. impassive. The expert conﬁrmed that the ˘ Willie Mays autograph was spurious. indifferent. a person who asks humbly for something. to ruin. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. so it will be difﬁcult to tell how she feels. spurious ( spyoor·i·us) adj. sublime (su· bl¯m) adj. destroy completely 3. counterfeit. ˘ The supplicants begged for forgiveness. 1. inspiring awe. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. Subliminal advertising is devious ˘ but effective. Sunil’s supercilious attitude and sarcas˘ ˘ tic remarks annoy me greatly. to impair or make ineffective. subliminal (sub· lim·˘·nal) adj. stringent ( strin·jent) adj. . Vin˘ nie did not fool me with his specious argument. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. obstruct. morally degraded. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. haughty. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ( st¯·mee) v. thwart. to hinder. not easily aroused or excited. having noble or majestic qualities. very strict. false. lofty. to overthrow 2. The ˘ stringent eligibility requirements greatly limited the number of candidates for the scholarship. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. according to very rigorous rules. ˘ supreme. stolid ( stol·id) adj. supercilious (soo·per· sil·i·us) adj. sundry ( sun·dree) adj. scornful. Maxine is a very stolid person. seemingly plausible but false 2. not feeling or showing emotion. morally repulsive.
supporting a particular cause or posi˘ tion. temerity (te· mer·i·tee) n. real or concrete. There is no tangible ˘ evidence of misconduct. toil (toil) n. not impartial. biased. tenet ( ten·it) n. a form of government in which those in control neither recog˘ nize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. holding ﬁrmly. The president is surrounded by sycophants. reserved. opinion. palpable. This is no time for temerity.54 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources surrogate ( sur·o· it) n. a fawning parasite. ˘ ˘ stubbornly unyielding 2. afraid. . tawdry ( taw·dree) adj. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. sycophant ( sik·o·fant) n. brashness. foolish disregard of danger. fearful. tenacious (te· nay·shus) adj. having little substance or validity. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. holding ﬁrmly to something. v. able to be perceived by touch. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. difﬁcult or laborious work. svelte (svelt) adj. so how will he really know if his ideas have merit? taciturn ( tas·i·turn) adj. ﬂimsy 2. 1. slender and graceful. partisan. she is the most tenacious person I know. tendentious (ten· den·shus) adj. ﬂashy and tasteless. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. This city is teeming with tourists during the summer months. Martha agreed to be a surro˘ gate mother for her sister. gaudy or showy but without any real value. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. tangible ( tan·j˘·bel) adj. such as a right or principle. (of memory) retentive. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. cohesive 3. a belief. timid. totalitarian (toh·tal·i· tair·i·an) adj. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. it’s all hearsay. one who takes the place of another. 1. to be full of. or organization. adhesive 4. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or powerful people through ˘ ˘ ﬂattery. to work laboriously. exhausting labor or effort. and it took a great deal of coax˘ ˘ ing to get him to come near the car. a substitute. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. timorous ( tim·o·rus) adj. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. labor strenuously. tenuous ( ten·yoo·us) adj. unsubstantial. persistent. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. sticking ﬁrmly. suave. to be present in large numbers. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. audacity. Though the con˘ nection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. group. ˘ we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. The stray dog was timorous. habitually untalkative.
easily bribed or corrupted. penetrating. perverse. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. bitterly expressing opposition. upbraid (up· brayd) v. The venal judge was removed and disbarred. clear˘ cut. obedient. 1. wordy. or agitation. highly reﬁned in manners. noisy 2. truncate ( trun ·kayt) v. vacuous ( vak·yoo·us) adj. elegant. resentment. 1. umbrage ( um·brij) n. undulate ( un·ju·layt) v. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. inconvenient. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. urbane (ur· bayn) adj. stupid. tribunal (tr¯· byoo·nal) n. truculent ( truk·yu·lent) adj.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 55 tractable ( trak·ta·bel) adj. senseless. a corrupt or depraved act. He will be sentenced for his war crimes by an international ˘ tribunal. improper. offense. empty. but he’s really quite pedestrian. dignity. lasting only a very short time. 1. transient ( tran·zhent) adj. tumult. untoward (un· tohrd) adj. long-winded. disorderly. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. character or posi˘ ˘ ˘ tion. Her verbose letter ram˘ bled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. violent 3. ˘ ˘ the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. ﬂuctuate. a state of confusion. 1. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. inane. troublesome. adverse 2. This TV show is yet another vac˘ uous sitcom. to reprove. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. using more words than necessary. The venerable Jimmy Carter has just won the Nobel Peace Prize. ˘ turbulence. It was a trenchant argument. ﬂeeting. docile. and ﬂuctuating prices wreaked havoc for investors. deﬁantly aggressive 2. wickedness 2. transitory. forceful. extremely tactful and polite. sharply deﬁned. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. . extremely perceptive. 1. easily managed or controlled. ˘ venerable ( ven·e·ra·bel) adj. In the novel Brave New World. condemn. trenchant ( tren·chant) adj. verbose (ver· bohs) adj. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. admonish. venal ( vee·nal) adj. unprincipled. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. unseemly. effective 2. tumultuous (too· mul·choo· us) adj. incisive 3. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. purposeless. reproach sharply. a court of justice. Their relationship ˘ was transient but profound. ˘ ˘ The outspoken council president gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. The curtains undulated in ˘ the breeze. turpitude ( tur·pi·tood) n. ﬁerce. brief. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. creating an uproar.
Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. turning or rotating easily on an axis. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. Hyde. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. irritate 2. talking a great deal and with great ease. Many atrocities have been ˘ ˘ committed because of xenophobia. Einstein was a veritable genius. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. I have always been a voracious reader and go through dozens of books every month. 1. 1. their meanings. top. vitriolic (vit·ri· ol·ik) adj. . ˘ devouring greedily.56 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources verisimilitude (ver·i·si· mil·i·tood) n. sufﬁxes. the highest point. xenophobia (zen·o· foh·bi·a) n. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. PREFIXES. real. the point in the sky directly above the observer. rapacious. and word roots. sufﬁxes. explosive. nimble speech 2. caustic. or word root. inconstant. ˘ ˘ rapid. to cause worry to. changeable. and word roots can dramatically improve your ability to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words. AND WORD ROOTS A familiarity with common preﬁxes. voracious (voh· ray·shus) adj. sufﬁx. and a sentence that demonstrates the meaning of that word. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. Jekyll and Mr. peak 2. genuine. 1. true. SUFFIXES. 1. or fear of foreigners. savagely hostile or bitter. volatile ( vol·a·til) adj. language marked by great ﬂuency. likely to ˘ change suddenly or violently 3. Refer to this list often to refresh your memory and improve your vocabulary. varying widely. a strong dislike. distrust. to annoy. ﬁckle 2. excessively greedy. zenith ( zee·nith) n. the meaning of that word. the appearance of being true or real. veritable ( ver·i·ta·bel) adj. The tables below list common preﬁxes. having a great appetite for something. Dan’s volatile personality has been compared to that of Dr. unstable. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. an example of a word with that preﬁx. voluble ( vol·yu·bel) adj.
something representing something else on a very small scale Some people say that Brooklyn Heights. duality n. Dr. one who speaks or understands several languages It’s no wonder he’s a polyglot. They are grouped together by similar meanings. Deﬁnition to form into a single unit. Most of Shakespeare’s sonnets are written in iambic pentameter. This is a multifaceted issue. “Time Zone” was the fourth and ﬁnal work in Classman’s tetralogy. is a microcosm of Manhattan. he’s lived in eight different countries. Some quadrupeds evolved into bipeds. quintpent- ﬁve ﬁve quintuplets n. Preﬁx uni- Meaning Example one unify v.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 57 PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables added to the beginnings of words to change or add to their meaning. tetralogy n. novels. omni- all omniscient adj. to unite Sentence The new leader was able to unify the three factions into one strong political party. operas. This table lists some of the most common preﬁxes in the English language. and we must examine each side carefully. she knows what all of us are thinking in class. pentameter n. Perez seems omniscient. ﬁve offspring born at one time a line of verse (poetry) with ﬁve metrical feet multi- many multifaceted adj. such as plays. The novel explores the duality of good and evil in humans. Each quintuplet weighed less than four pounds at birth. In an isosceles triangle. . having many sides poly- many polyglot n. a long speech by one person or performer to divide into two equal parts having two sides or parts a ﬁgure having three angles I was very moved by the monologue in Scene III. the Brooklyn district across the river from the Wall Street area. two of the three angles are the same size. an animal with four feet series of four related artistic works. you will get two rectangles of equal size. quadritetra- four four quadruped n. If you bisect a square. triangle n. little or miniature world. etc. knowing all micro- small microcosm n. bisect v. monobiduotri- one two two three monologue n.
quiet Zeke was a real introvert. to mark the limits of subsuper- under above. . general agreement After hours of debate. to bring in (to a group) to drive out or away to draw a line around. intervene v.58 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources Preﬁx mini- Meaning Example small minority n. ante- before anticipate v. Deﬁnition small group within a larger group Sentence John voted for Bridget. Alex accepted the promotion to supervisor and was comfortable with the duties and responsibilities of the ofﬁce. inexcircum- in. a shy or withdrawn person Unlike his ﬂamboyant sister. intro- into. The appetizers preceded the main course. the group ﬁnally reached a consensus and selected a candidate. His attempt to subvert my authority will cost him his job. into out. from around induct v. to bring about the destruction of. His postscript was almost as long as his letter! Romeo. any great whole Any change to the microcosm will eventually affect the macrocosm. intervened in the ﬁght between Tybalt and Mercutio. most people voted for Elaine. trying to make peace. intra- within intravenous adj. Let’s expel the invaders! She carefully circumscribed the space that would become her ofﬁce. foresee. a person whose attention is largely directed inward. the large scale world or universe. overthrow. postscript n. over subvert v. expel v. She was inducted into the honor society. to act upon or inﬂuence each other The psychologist took notes as she watched the children interact. toward himself or herself. circumscribe v. but he was in the minority. together consensus n. to come before in time or order message added after the close of a letter to come between inter- together interact v. His decades of experience enabled him to anticipate the problem. to undermine one who watches over con- with. macro- large macrocosm n. supervisor n. within introvert n. within or into a vein She could not eat and had to be fed intravenously for three days. to give advance thought to. expect prepostinter- before after between precede v.
fake pseudonym n. to use wrongly mal- bad. Complaining is counterproductive. uncontrolled or unruly Two people were hurt when the crowd became disorderly during the protest. The workers on the assembly line looked like automatons. I know we don’t have to agree on everything. North is the antipode of south. cohesive adj. to state the opposite of Sentence The farmer explained that the seedling was nonviable. he swore he would never maltreat another animal. by itself together with. untidy. She misused her authority when she reassigned Charlie to a new team. united Mark Twain is a pseudonym for Samuel Clemens. to treat badly or wrongly After the dog saved his life. not having order. against against nonviable adj. feeling of discomfort or illness The malaise many women feel during the ﬁrst few months of pregnancy is called “morning sickness. mis- wrong. exact or direct opposite working against production to drive away dis- not. a person who seems to act mechanically and without thinking having a tendency to bond or stick together. invariable adj. anticounterdis- against. he is unmindful of ofﬁce politics. To dispel rumors that I was quit ting. opposing away antipode n.” pseudoautoco- false. false or fake name a robot. ill misuse v. jointly . contradict v. I scheduled a series of meetings for the next three months. mal- ill malaise n. unmindful adj. by oneself or automaton n. forgetful to state that (what is said) is untrue. messy. Though they came from different backgrounds. The weather here is invariable— always sunny and warm. but she contradicts everything I say. wrong maltreat v. opposite against. they have formed a remarkably cohesive team. dispel v.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 59 Preﬁx noninuncontra- Meaning Example not not not. counterproductive adj. For better or worse. Deﬁnition not able to live or survive not changing not conscious or aware of. opposite of disorderly adj.
meaningful adj. lovingly He held the newborn baby tenderly in his arms. practical adj. Though he was never rich or powerful. -ify/-fy -ize -al -ial -ic to make or cause to be to make. full of humor. to bring or come back to life or consciousness. Commercial vehicles must have special license plates. we were able to resuscitate the study-abroad program. to charge with electricity to put in alphabetical order suitable for use. Deﬁnition to make more broad. he stepped boldly onto the stage. commercial adj. painless adj. without pain. . aristocratic adj. Despite his fear. This table lists some of the most common sufﬁxes in the English language. Please alphabetize these ﬁles for me. he has very aristocratic manners. unsuitable for a grown person The doctor assured me that it is a painless procedure. alphabetize v. on-the-job experience. having the qualities of tenderly adv. The letter was so descriptive that I could picture every place he had been.60 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the ends of words to change or add to their meaning. He has years of practical. in a bold manner signiﬁcant. involving activity. They are grouped together by similar meanings. not causing pain like a child. He didn’t get the job because of his childish behavior during the interview. -ly resembling. to give capable of. childish adj. suitable for pertaining to pertaining to electrify v. done with tenderness. full of meaning -ous/-ose full of -ive having the quality of -less -ish lacking. gently. -ly -ful in the manner of full of boldly adv. funny giving a description His humorous speech made the evening go by quickly. Sufﬁx -en Meaning Example to cause to become broaden v. delicately. -ate to cause to be resuscitate v. as distinct from study or theory of or engaged in commerce of or pertaining to the aristocracy The singer electriﬁed the audience with her performance. free of having the quality of humorous adj. to revive Thanks to a generous gift from an alumnus. she cast me a meaningful glance. descriptive adj. widen Sentence Traveling around the world will broaden your understanding of other cultures. When Robert walked into the room with Annette.
optimism n. state or quality of being moral -itis inﬂammation tonsillitis n. The indeterminacy of his statement made it impossible to tell which side he favored. -ity quality or state of morality n.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 61 Sufﬁx -ance/ -ence -acy Meaning Example quality or state of quality or state of tolerance n. indeterminacy n. pertaining to sanctuary n. gives an account of arboretum n. The second siren signaled the completion of the ﬁre drill. state or condition of. -ment act or condition of judgment n. He exercised good judgment by keeping his mouth shut during the meeting. state or quality of being undetermined (without deﬁned limits) or vague completion n. Ellen frequently sought the quiet sanctuary of the library. act of judging -ology the study of zoology n. a refuge -cide -ism kill quality. a garden devoted primarily to trees and shrubs -tion -or/-er act. tendency to take a hopeful view of things This pesticide is also dangerous for humans. state or condition of one who does narrator n. ability to judge or make decisions wisely. Her optimism makes people want to be around her. A ﬁrst-person narrator is usually not objective. substance for killing insects belief that things will turn out for the best. doctrine of pesticide n. Deﬁnition willingness or ability to tolerate a person or thing Sentence He has a high level of tolerance for rudeness. of inﬂammation and infection of the tonsils Her tonsillitis was so severe that doctors had to remove her tonsils immediately. the state of being completed or ﬁnished one who tells the story. a sacred place. the act of completing. With three noisy roommates. She took a summer job at the zoo because of her strong interest in zoology. He argued that the basic morality of civilized societies hasn’t changed much over the centuries. the scientiﬁc study of animal life . or performs the action of -atrium/ -orium -ary place for place for. They built a deck with an arboretum for their bonsai tree collection.
The word roots are listed in alphabetical order. hostile. conduct v. facere lucere to make or do to light manufacture v. dicere duco equus to say. people within hearing The audience was stunned when the game show host slapped the contestant. preﬁxes. lucid adj. Root amare Meaning Example to love amorous adj. The Latin words serve as roots. to say what needs to be written down to lead or guide (thorough) a state of balance She began to dictate her notes into the microphone. audire to hear audience n. assembled group of listeners or spectators. equilibrium n. sufﬁxes. and other alterations give each word its distinct meaning. Deﬁnition readily showing or feeling love Sentence She told him to stop his amorous advances as she was already engaged. cosmetic treatment of the ﬁngernails To maintain her long ﬁngernails. The table below shows the original Latin words that we have used to create various English words. to make or produce very clear The clothes are manufactured here in this factory. speak to lead equal dictate v. mittere to send transmit v. inclined to ﬁght. middle in a set of numbers The median household income in this wealthy neighborhood is $89. bellum war belligerent adj. manus hand manicure n. she gets a manicure every week. to send across . providing the core meaning of the words.000. He conducted a detailed tour of the building. The citizens feared that their belligerent leader would start an unjust war.62 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS Many words in the English language have their origins in Latin. aggressive capere to take captivate v. to capture the fancy of The story captivated me from the beginning. middle point. I couldn’t put the book down.. I have ﬁnally achieved an equilibrium between work and leisure. adj. No one could possibly have misunderstood such a lucid explanation. The message was transmitted over the intercom. medius middle median n. to state or order.
investigation. verbum word verbatim adj.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 63 Root omnis Meaning Example all. ponere/ positum protare quarere to place position n. everywhere I go. stretch out His respiration was steady. he holds a very powerful position in the company. . making a formal request His loan application was denied because of his poor credit history.. to carry across act of inquiry. inquiry n. person who makes copies of writings sentire specere to feel to look at sentient adj. word for word The student failed because she had copied an article verbatim instead of writing her own essay. The scribe had developed thick calluses on his ﬁngers from years of writing. plicare to fold application n. Although he is only 22. every omnipresent adj. the place a person or thing occupies to carry to ask. adv. you should have seen the candidates attack one another. capable of feeling striking or impressive sight spirare tendere to breathe to stretch respiration n. No sentient beings should be used for medical research. scribere to write scribe n. spectacle n. extend v. Deﬁnition present everywhere Sentence That top-40 song is omnipresent. putting one thing on another. but he remained unconscious. The inquiry lasted several months but yielded no new information. I hear it playing. The debate was quite a spectacle. the act of breathing to make longer. question transport v. or questioning The goods will be transported by boat. Please extend the deadline by two weeks so we can complete the project properly.
but I refuse to join the Democratic Party. The table below shows the Greek words that we have used to create various English words. chronological adj. the practice or custom of having more than one spouse or mate at a time Throughout history. The recent genocide in Bosnia has created a crisis in orphaned children. kind genocide n. . secret cryptic adj. providing the core meaning of the words. beautiful or elegant handwriting krates member of a group democrat n. The Greek words serve as roots. concealing meaning. He left such a cryptic message on my answering machine that I don’t know what he wanted.64 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 2 Resources COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS Many other English words have their origins in the ancient Greek language. the deliberate extermination of one race of people geo earth geography n. Deﬁnition the science of living organisms arranged in the order in which things occurred branch of medical science dealing with the skin and its diseases Sentence He is majoring in biology and plans to go to medical school. and other alterations give each word its distinct meaning. certain cultures have practiced polygamy. She has decided to study dermatology because she has always been plagued by rashes. device with a pendulum that beats at a determined rate to measure time/rhythm She used a metronome to help her keep the proper pace as she played the song. puzzling metron to measure metronome n. the study of the Earth’s surface. the surface or topographical features of a place graphein to write calligraphy n. derma skin dermatology n. The geography of this region made it difﬁcult for the different tribes to interact. She used calligraphy when she addressed the wedding invitations. kryptos hidden. Root bios chronos Meaning Example life time biology n. sufﬁxes. union polygamy n. sex. preﬁxes. gamos marriage. genos race. The story is confusing because she did not put the events in chronological order. The word roots are listed in alphabetical order. but it is uncommon today. one who believes in or advocates democracy as a principle of government I have always been a democrat.
George Eliot is a pseudonym for Mary Ann Evans. ingrown toenail had become infected. philos loving xenophile n. or customs Alex is a xenophile. insulated jug or bottle that keeps liquids hot or cold . The thermos kept my coffee hot all afternoon. false name one who has a compulsion to set things on ﬁre soma body psychosomatic adj. of or involving both the mind and body tele distant telescope n. arousing feelings of pity or sadness Willy Loman is a complex character who is both pathetic and heroic. an expert in diagnosis and treatment The podiatrist saw that the pseudein pyr to deceive ﬁre pseudonym n. podiatrist n. photobiotic adj. physical symptoms are caused by emotional distress. he was the ﬁrst to use it to study the planets and stars. a person who is attracted to foreign peoples. optical instrument for making distant While Galileo did not invent the objects appear larger and nearer when viewed through the lens telescope. therme heat thermos n. person who fears or hates foreigners Don’t expect Len to go on the or strange cultures or customs living or thriving only in the presence of light of ailments of the human foot trip. Deﬁnition having many forms Sentence Most mythologies have a polymorphous ﬁgure. pathos suffering. feeling pathetic adj. pyromaniac n. In a psychosomatic illness.Resources CHAPTER 2 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 65 Root morphe Meaning Example form polymorphous adj. Plants are photobiotic and will die without light. I doubt he will ever come back to the States. it was set by a pyromaniac. cultures. phobos photos podos fear light foot xenophobe n. The warehouse ﬁre was not an accident. a “shape shifter” who can be both animal and human. he’s a xenophobe.
your favorite magazine. Simply put. This is a skill you can practice every day. For practice. a memo was written to help hiring supervisors present information about new procedures that beneﬁt company. it is important to develop vocabulary strategies that will boost your score and give you the advantage you need. and new employees during a new employee orientation seminar. To prepare for this section of the test. A s you might expect. staff. recall the skills you developed at an early age. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. try the following exercise to see how this can be done.= 3 CHAPTER Vocabulary in Context The vocabulary section of a Civil Service test often includes a section of vocabulary in context questions. have a dictionary handy. The new procedures create a win-win situation for all Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 67 . or a good book. FINDING MEANING FROM CONTEXT As a result of many meetings held by the Human Resources Department. Since you will not be able to use a dictionary during the test. be aware that you can use the context of a sentence to help you detect the meaning of a word. you will be asked to identify the meaning of vocabulary words used in sentences. it is a good idea to be an active reader. For this part of the test. As you read the daily newspaper. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. Second. First.
note that the manual begins with basic ofﬁce etiquette. Circle any words that are unfamiliar to you. you see that the sections of the manual cover many aspects: etiquette. As you leaf through the manual with new hires. . but it gives them a sense of the new family they are about to join. you may have circled protocol or segue. Imagine that your title is Hiring Supervisor. TO: Hiring Supervisors FROM: Human Resources RE: New Employees In order to acquaint new employees with ofﬁce practices and procedures. this tells you that protocol must be a procedure or system designed to make things run smoothly in the ofﬁce. The beneﬁts of the orientation seminar. During orientation. As you read the next sentence in the memo. Explain to your orientation group that with this manual in hand. you can begin to consider the deﬁnition of protocol. the New Employee’s Introduction Manual has been compiled. What does protocol mean? Reread the sentence with the word protocol. and dress codes and then there is a segue to important information about pay schedules and beneﬁts. This manual should be distributed to all new hires during an orientation seminar that you will conduct one week before a new employee begins work. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. Even if you have no idea what protocol means. During orientation. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. be sure to point out that not only does the information in the manual inform new employees about ofﬁce protocol and employee beneﬁts. procedures.68 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context concerned. will make our workplace a more cohesive and productive environment for all employees. and the Human Resources Department wants to make sure that those people who are instrumental in making the program work have all the information they need. They will know what to expect and can ask questions that will make their new position a little more comfortable on the ﬁrst day. but do not use a dictionary to look them up just yet. Since the manual informs new employees about ofﬁce protocol and employee beneﬁts. in addition to the manual. As you read. be sure to point out that not only does the information in the manual inform new employees about ofﬁce protocol and employee beneﬁts. Given the sentence you have here. and you receive the following memorandum from the Human Resources department. but it gives them a sense of the new family they are about to join. Read it carefully. By looking for context clues—the way the words are used in the paragraph—you can ﬁgure out what these words mean. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. new employees will have a more global view of the company. This is called determining word meaning through context.
The correct answer is choice b. you know this word is a word of a. Since the word segue falls between a list of basic ofﬁce etiquette. There is one context clue. Choice a cannot be correct. b. 2. 1. At this point. salaries. transition in the sentence. As you leaf through the manual with new hires. . uninterrupted movement from one stage to the next. d. b.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 69 procedures. merely sketchy details and descriptions. Segue. and employee beneﬁts. Again. highlighting the basic elements contained in the opening chapters and then notes that the chapters switch or move to important facts about salaries and beneﬁts. because nowhere in the passage does it state that protocol is a list of items covered in a meeting. procedure. a code of correct procedure. is determined by a certain procedure. interference in the sentence. 3. wordy and verbose language. it is only part of the scope of an ofﬁce system. and dress codes and then there is a segue to important information about pay schedules and beneﬁts. even if you have no idea what segue means. he or she pages through all sections of the text. dress codes. procedures. Choice a is not a suitable answer because the manual. you can still tell what kind of word it is by the way it is used in the sentence. a disorganized ﬂow of ideas. While a salary schedule. as it is outlined. c. c. appears to be well-ordered. in this case. The correct answer is choice c. a meeting’s agenda. can be deﬁned as information that is a. note that the manual begins with basic ofﬁce etiquette. Choice b is correct. wordy or verbose. choice c. you should be able to take a pretty good guess at the deﬁnition of the word protocol. What does segue mean? Look again at the sentence in which segue is used. As the hiring supervisor leafs through the manual. and dress code and important information about pay schedules and beneﬁts. It cannot be choice b or d because there is no indication that anything in the manual is omitted or for that matter. segue signiﬁes a transition. a code of correct procedure. b. The best deﬁnition of the word protocol is a. uninterrupted movement from one state to the next. a salary schedule.
The new policy will adversely affect all employees. More often than not. immediately or swiftly. Remember. because the sentence says nothing about the time frame in which this change will take place. choice d. Thus. More deﬁning clues for the word adversely will help you know whether it is something good or bad. though. can you understand the following sentence without knowing what adversely means? The new policy will adversely affect all employees. limit their vacation time. negatively or unfavorably. The correct answer is choice c. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. adversely most nearly means a. The only change is in the endings. then you know that adversely is not likely to be something positive. In some cases. Sometimes you will encounter unfamiliar words whose meaning is indecipherable without a dictionary. . your understanding of a sentence depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. For example. and there are no facts in this sentence to support the assumption that the changes will take place immediately. c. 4. You do not know if it is an immediate or swift change. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnitions. and reduce their beneﬁts. The addition of the second part of the sentence now tells you exactly how the new policy will affect the employees: “It will freeze their pay. regularly or steadily. and if you are an employee. mildly or slightly.” It certainly is not choice a. You might not understand it in this short sentence. good detectives do not make assumptions they are not able to support with facts. choice c is the best answer. a regular or steady change. negatively or unfavorably. nor is it choice b. b. All of these words share the same root: advers-. limit their vacations. it will freeze their pay.70 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context How Much Context Do You Need? In the previous example. d. if you know the word adversity—hardship or misfortune—then you know that adversely must mean something negative or difﬁcult. and reduce their health beneﬁts. Or. though. a slight or mild change. you certainly would want to know how you are going to be affected. You may also have noticed that adversely is very similar to the word adversary. If you know that an adversary is a hostile opponent or enemy. you would still be able to understand the main message of the memorandum even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of protocol and segue. In the sentence.
12. 10. 46. 9. 21. 34. 43. 24. 6. 17.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 71 PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank. 33. 41. 48. 15. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 44. 32. 35. 47. 13. 42. 5. 49. 11. 23. 29. 14. 50. 30. 7. 4. 38. 25. 20. 37. 40. 28. 3. 39. 27. 2. 18. 45. 8. 16. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 19. 31. 22. 1. 36. Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions.
The suit had a/an ________ odor. a. Since his workplace was so busy and noisy. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. he longed most of all for ________. a. aged b. blasé 5. talkative b. loneliness d. nadir 6. dedicated b. decrepit 7. solitude b. fulcrum d. The ________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. a. She pretended to be ________ about the new job opportunity. receptive c. musty d. irrelevancy . circumference b. candid d. summit c. The ________ union president differs from the past union president on employee reform issues. scented c. domain b. a. incumbent 2. practical d. demographic c. The ________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. remainder c. nocturnal 3. a. assessment 4. association c. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. revenue d. We were tired when we reached the ________.72 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 1. artiﬁcial d. but secretly she was very excited. accomplished c. a. nominal b. a.
a. a. quest c. adversely b. a. George developed an ________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. cadence 11.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 73 8. current b. docile . he is a ________ and obedient pet. commonplace c. artistic 13. unnecessary d. dedicated c. shamelessly c. a. receptive c. Visiting all the coffee shops in the city. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. ambiguous 9. but now it is ________. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. expressive b. irrational c. discovery d. delectable b. ingenious 12. outmoded 10. eloquent d. aloof d. elitist b. reserved d. she was very ________. secretive c. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. a. they were on a ________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of coffee. favorably 14. a. a. I have always liked your positive attitude. accessible b. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them ________ to the young children. surge b. candidly d. meddlesome d. it has ________ affected our working relationship.
priority b. a. Rachel ________ a plan to become a millionaire by age thirty. concept . Since Mark needed to pass the exam. encompassed b.74 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 15. redundancy c. potable 17. a. condoned 19. quenchable c. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it ________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. devised c. it could cause serious health problems. conformed b. arduous c. a. a. decreased d. embodied 16. dispersed 18. a. The directions to the new ofﬁce were ________. a. prestige b. reminisced d. perplexity d. valid b. explicit d. he found himself in a ________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. he made studying a ________ over watching his favorite television show. released c. quandary d. impure d. priceless b. conformity c. If your drinking water is not ________. Wanting to make a good impression. deﬁcit 20.
audibly . Brad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very ________ plot. approvingly b. reunion 25. symbolically d. ventilated c. virtuously c. a. obscurely 22. a. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. dissented b. The ﬁre alarm ________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. the car ________ down the steep mountainous road. To get the promotion she wanted. The narrator’s description was an accurate ________ of a true southern family. ample d. conspicuously d. surmised c. careened d. eminently b. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. a. winding highway. supposed b. agitated 26. a. a. resolved 24.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 75 21. monotonous b. torrid c. a. council c. vital 23. disguise d. signiﬁcantly c. Mark dressed ________ in bright red suspenders and a purple tie. she ________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. presumed d. portrayal b.
76 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 27. a. generously d. pummeled c. a. optional b. rebuked d. The hail ________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. Understanding the world economic conditions. scatter c. Being a direct relative of the deceased. a. vicious c. dynamically b. luxuriously c. beneﬁcially 28. belittled b. Simone ________ devoured a hearty breakfast. rendezvous b. her claim to the estate was ________. pacify c. narrowly 31. measurably d. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to ________ Saturday’s cleanup. the recent graduates spoke ________ about job prospects for the future. confound b. duplicate 29. attraction c. a. prominent d. a. integrate d. mishap b. a. warily b. reﬂex d. The participants in the road rally agreed to ________ near the village commons at ﬁve o’clock. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor ________. legitimate 32. commended 33. voraciously c. After running an early 5K race. ﬁlibuster d. disperse 30. facilitate . a.
a. fundamental c. straightforward 38. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. comprehensive d. Do you have the ________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. delude b. depreciate c. seclusion d. The intricate and ________ language of the contract needed to be interpreted by an attorney. constricted d. embellished 37. When you address the members of the committee. conﬂuence c. grandiose c. diverged c. requisite 39. Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce ________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. principled b. essential b. convoluted d. The ________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. inﬂated b. The abundant mutual fund research information on the website was ________ with tips for new investors. exempliﬁed d. determined c. relinquish d. treatise 36. massive . a. a. restorative d. a. prohibit 40.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 77 34. replete c. punitive b. assumption b. be sure to give a ________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. a. Do not ________ yourself. a. prevailed b. varied 35.
Martin Kemp ________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. germinated c. reputedly c. animated d. customary b. evoked 45. consummate d. Florin became a ________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. ________ watered his neighbor’s plants once a week while they were on vacation. preference d.78 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 3 Vocabulary in Context 41. principally 44. a meticulous young man. perpetually d. Anthony. perpendicularly c. voluntary 42. superﬁcial c. The darkening skies in the west were a ________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. a. diligently d. a. After years of experience. reticent c. terminally b. a. acute b. a. After an hour of heavy rain. a. and we were able to continue our golf game. haphazardly . The news was no longer secret. constricted d. precursor c. a. tedium b. ample 46. he soon began to talk more than anyone. Although Hunter was ________ to reveal information to us when we ﬁrst met him. repulsively b. momentum 43. abated b. the thunderstorm ________.
otherwise. comical c. My cousin claimed to be ________. reconnoiter 50. disconnected d. a. Poaching c. Irritating b. criminal d. separated b. submerge d. I was afraid we would ________ and have an accident. The two cats could be ________ only by the number of rings on their tails. Smuggling 48. ________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. clairvoyant . operate b. dreamlike b. they were exactly alike. a. differentiated 49. a. Provoking d. hydroplane c. On each slick curve in the road. evidently she was right. because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. divided c. a.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 79 47.
15. 25. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. d. can be a desirable thing. attracting attention. . 20. where the hikers would have a good view. 32. The summit means the highest point. d. d. Encompassed in this context means included. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. 18. 5. a. 28. and it would be something a person who worked in a busy ofﬁce would crave. Blasé means to be bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. d. 2. c. 13. unlike loneliness. 6. c. 16. 21. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. d. 11. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. and cleverness in conception. Incumbent means the holder of any post or position. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. c. and watchful prudence. a. b. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. b. c. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. 8. Revenue is the income of a government. a. d. 22. 4. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. 30. Solitude. a. a. 14. d. or obliging. 26. b. 10. d. Facilitate means to make easier or help to bring about. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. 23. 33. Ingenious means marked by originality. b. d. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. d. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. Docile means easily led or managed. b. a. in this case for the perfect cup of coffee.80 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 1 Chapter Title ANSWERS 1. 7. cunning. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. 24. c. a. Explicit means clearly deﬁned. 29. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. 12. c. 17. to lurch or swerve while in motion. 19. Favorably means gracious. 34. to plan to obtain or bring about. resourcefulness. 27. 31. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. kindly. b. a. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. a. d. ravenously. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. c. a. Pummeled means to pound or beat. 3. 9.
Replete means to be ﬁlled or abundantly supplied. 43. 46. it is called hydroplaning. b. d. Delude means to mislead the mind. c. 49. Requisite means essential or necessary. c. or a gathering at one point. reserved. b. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. 38. d. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. a meeting. 45. b. 37. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. a. 50. Convoluted means presented in a complex and complicated form. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. 47. a. c. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. 36. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. 40. . Reputedly means according to general belief. Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. to deceive. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. c. Precursor means something that comes before. b. 48. 42.Vocabulary in Context CHAPTER 3 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 81 b. b. 44. 39. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. b. 41. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. d. 35.
Antonyms are words with opposite meanings. too. Not only do you need to know the word in question. Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS A 83 . Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices.) For instance. Frequently. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. and credit. you will be able to understand the meanings of incredible. which means to trust or believe. it provides useful tips and practice exercises that will help you increase your chance of success on this part of the exam. the root of credible is cred. If you are lucky. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. Test questions often ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. (See Chapter 2 for a list of word roots. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. This chapter covers both of these types of questions. synonym and antonym questions are used to assess your vocabulary aptitude. your grasp of the English language will be measured with many different types of vocabulary questions. sacred. common measure of verbal skills on standardized tests like a Civil Service exam is the ability to recognize synonyms and antonyms.= 4 CHAPTER Synonyms and Antonyms On a Civil Service test. In this case. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context—see Chapter 3). Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. Knowing this. In addition.
state of b. toward d. perform d. Preﬁxes come before the word root. over c. behind 2. see c. etymology a. congregation a. time 4. For instance. study of d. To identify most word parts— word root. A sufﬁx like less can change the meaning of a word: pain to painless. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. proactive a. forward c. sufﬁx. and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word. 3. quality of . with b. conﬁne b. unnecessary. 2. or preﬁx. apart d. a a a a a b b b b b c c c c c d d d d d 1. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. prior to c. 5. preﬁx. inscribe a. Practice Choose the word or phrase below that best describes the section of the word in bold type. 1. after b. 4. write 3. Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar.84 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes.
. or lasting. The preﬁx con. lazy—unfavorable. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. A congregation would gather together with each other. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. 3. Etymology is the study of word origins. The preﬁx pro. an action Answers 1. a state of being b. to engrave on a surface. Sometimes. 5.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 85 5. To admit to this trait is considered acceptable. unfavorable. a property d. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. In other words. Look again at the three words listed above. a. The word root scribe means to write. 2. slow-moving or sluggish inactive: not active or tending to be active. c. which is similar in deﬁnition to procrastination. The sufﬁx -ology means the study of. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions for the following words. not functioning or operating The connotation of a word is its tone. You may have heard people say that they succumbed to procrastination. procrastination—favorable. If someone is proactive. a. Then again. or neutral designation. d. For instance. 4. the connotation can be favorable or positive. wisdom a. is most assuredly unﬂattering. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right.means for. and that admission is received sympathetically and somewhat approvingly by others because everyone has procrastinated at one time or another. a relationship c. The connotation or tone of this word brings up feelings that are definitely unappealing. procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. true. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply the dictionary deﬁnition. Laziness. Their connotations are listed below with an explanation for a favorable. b.means to be together with. it is the feeling or emotion you get when you hear a word.
CLARITY Mark Twain said. neutral. The keynote speaker for today’s meeting plays an ________ role in the political arena. yet its connotation does not yield either of the strong feelings of the ﬁrst two words in this group. eminent ________ 2. 4.86 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms inactive—neutral. 6. It is essential to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. This word does not elicit any favorable or unfavorable emotions. wellknown. However. but it is fame associated with something dishonorable. important ________ The senator ________ the efﬁciency of the new commerce system in her reelection speech. 1. While you can have a bountiful. 5. it is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. 3. An eminent person is distinguished. For instance. You will note that the sentences take on a new tone and meaning based on each of the words used. or renowned in a ﬁeld. ample. yet its meaning is similar to the others. The word does not conjure up negative or positive emotions. unfavorable. “The difference between lightning and the lightning bug is the difference between the right word and the almost right word. evaluated ________ 5. unfavorable. favorable. and this can be viewed unfavorably. unfavorable. infamous ________ 3. the words bountiful. To blast a system means the senator has unleashed a violent. or neutral based on their connotative meanings. it is done favorably as part of a bid for reelection. or plentiful supply of food on the table for . ample. It is considered a neutral word in this group of three. To be infamous is to be famous. To criticize a system suggests that the senator is ﬁnding fault. Practice Read the following sentences three different times using each of the words listed below the sentence. plentiful. and glut suggest abundance. Label the words favorable. 2. yet in the context of this sentence. To evaluate a system suggests a rational and calm exercise. 4. To be eminent is considered a good thing. blasted ________ Answers 1. they are rarely identical. verbal assault. criticized ________ 6. neutral. While some synonyms can be similar. To be important is to have a high position.” Taking this comment into consideration. one of these words suggests an overabundance. favorable.
Their conversation was considered playful ________ between two old friends. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. 1. sustain b. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. antics b. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. foster c. 2. a partial report a. identiﬁable b. visible d. whereas sustain means to keep something at an existing level. Note the similarities in the questions below to see the importance of using just the right word. Look for answers and explanations at the end of the practice. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. enhanced . bolster d. c. or deﬁnitions. a. incomplete c. behavior d. nourish Answers 1. a. It is important to choose your words carefully. banter c. He tried to ________ the morale of his friend in the hospital. Synonym Practice In the following questions. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that are playful and teasing. but the ﬁne difference between the two is in the fact that bolster means to boost. 1. b. sufﬁxes. preﬁxes. Bolster (choice c) and sustain (choice a) can both be deﬁned as supporting. Choices b and d are incorrect because they do not mean to boost or raise. Practice Choose the clearest synonym for each of the following questions.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 87 Thanksgiving dinner. activities 2.
proven d. harmonious d. inconclusive b. manufactured goods a. conﬁrm b. covered with debris a. challenge 4. an incoherent answer a. scattered rubble d. transparent material c. experienced . gifted b. good excuses b. compatible workers a. negate c. corroborate the statement a. not likely c. weighty c. inadvertently left a.88 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 2. a substantial report a. undeniable d. mistakenly b. reverted b. alleged 3. deny d. protective material 7. regressed d. purposely c. carefully 8. processed 5. cautiously d. not understandable b. transgressed c. competitive c. challenging 6.
The trick is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. which means with or together. slack c. 7. 6. The root of the word here is part. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. 2. To corroborate is to conﬁrm. and collide. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. The key part of the word substantial is substance. Notice the preﬁx co-. Look for answers and explanations at the end of the practice.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 89 Answers 1. coworker. Inadvertently means by mistake. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. pause d. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance. c. regular 10. desist . a. Very often. Antonym Practice Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. b. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. Incoherent means not understandable. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. 5. punctual b. A partial report is only part of the whole. prompt payment a. d. delay the decision a. Some related words are cooperate. Choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word in the questions below. Partial means incomplete. a. 3. 8. which means not. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. If you are allowed to mark in your test booklet or on the test paper. tardy d. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. a. c. 9. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. hasten c. slow b. b. The preﬁx in means not. 4. To cohere means to connect. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in. A substantial report is extensive. Otherwise.
moderate work ﬂow a. To delay is to postpone. If a decision is delayed. outrageous 16. ungracious Answers 9. belligerent attitude a. comical 15. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. zealous pursuit a. expensive b. appeasing c. hostile b. c.90 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 11. envious b. it will happen more slowly. crisis c. excessive 12. ﬁrst b. average c. b. ﬁnal d. instinctive d. absurd c. capable employee a. unexpected c. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. unskilled b. right 13. to hasten is to hurry. original b. ﬁnal d. reasonable d. tardy means late. initial impression a. To delay is to slow. exorbitant prices a. Prompt means punctual. idle d. Context clues are important as well. eager c. . apt d. able 14. 10.
excessive means extreme. which means out of or away from. a. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—are incorrect. c. eager. Initial means ﬁrst. so idle is most nearly the opposite. unskilled means unable. The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. b. You may have heard the word zeal before. 12. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. Zealous means eager. 14. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. Moderate means average. c. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. 13. The antonym would be appeasing.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 91 11. which means warlike. 15. d. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. . ﬁnal means last. Capable means able. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. The key element in this word is the root belli-. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. c. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. choice b. very high. 16.
23. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 27. 7. 15. 17. Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. 37. 3. 2. Select the synonym or antonym for the word in italics according to the directions in each question. 13. 47. 12. 16. 19. 6. 43. 4. 21. 42. 32. 10. 49. 46. 38. 30.92 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms PRACTICE QUESTIONS The 50 questions in this exercise are a mix of synonyms and antonyms. 40. 25. 41. 35. 9. 24. 39. 44. 8. 48. 29. 5. 28. 14. 45. 20. 31. 22. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 36. 34. 33. 11. 50. 1. 18.
cheerful. accomplish. ﬂatter. mediocre. A synonym for comply is a. d. eager. d. attentive. slight. obey. inconsistent. bizarre. b. 6. d. c. proﬁcient. c. b. d. b. 2. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. immense. cause. subdue. d. diverse. A synonym for adequate is a. b. c. d. d. 4. 5. A synonym for vast is a. sicken. steady. b. dissembling. c. 7. available. c. sufﬁcient. A synonym for affect is a. inﬂuence. An antonym for uniform is a.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 93 1. wild. average. b. adamant. . 3. entertain. slovenly. b. c. c. positive. A synonym for ecstatic is a. thrilled.
13. alert. A synonym for courtesy is a. c.94 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 8. An antonym for optimum is a. 12. An antonym for novel is a. An antonym for wary is a. c. worried. adaptable. conviviality. leery. c. adjacent. contiguous. congruity. mediocre. uninterrupted. blessing. dangerous. civility. worst. unsettled. b. delicate. intermittent. c. d. d. 9. robust. weakness. fable. b. c. 14. . b. A synonym for frail is a. An antonym for fallacy is a. b. A synonym for continuous is a. old. careless. d. d. b. d. c. d. b. rudeness. d. 11. truth. suitable. c. vivid. rational. 10. victorious. b.
b. relocate. A synonym for garnish is a. endorse. agitation. A synonym for enlighten is a. An antonym for disperse is a.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 95 15. 17. c. 16. persist. worsen. disclose. unite. c. gather. conﬁrm. confuse. embellish. satisfy. d. 19. poise. d. b. 20. insigniﬁcant. primary. praise. c. d. teach. b. c. . comply. previous. d. c. mend. c. depart. d. b. necessary. refute. stimulation. An antonym for subsequent is a. 18. A synonym for composure is a. 21. b. agree. d. A synonym for verify is a. c. b. A synonym for recuperate is a. tarnish. b. liveliness. please. d.
b. 26. inactive. solemnity. b. 25. An antonym for liberate is a. d. d. formation. 24. restrain. 27. irresponsible. rebellion. d. d. ruin. admirable. atomize. A synonym for domain is a. c. An antonym for mirth is a. d. 28. d. accountable. lively. complicate. A synonym for passive is a. b. conserve. c. territory. excite. height. frugal. expense. A synonym for eccentric is a. b. b. b.96 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 22. b. An antonym for pacify is a. c. c. dismiss. entrance. c. . A synonym for commendable is a. 23. c. c. peculiar. normal. selective. preparation. attack. woeful. noticeable. emotional. d.
d. verbose. lenient. c. disorderly. attentive. reluctant. b. minimize. c. b. c.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 97 29. temporary. c. c. 33. tolerable. intelligent. An antonym for succinct is a. b. 34. concerned. irritate. b. d. An antonym for nonchalant is a. 35. laconic. An antonym for ephemeral is a. d. explanatory. b. adoring. d. respect. stimulating. 31. An antonym for faltering is a. internal. d. b. enduring. c. steady. demanding. . popular. An antonym for exonerate is a. blame. hidden. An antonym for tedious is a. A synonym for rigorous is a. reckless. 30. intemperate. c. 32. d. d. b. tranquil. feeble. alarming.
whisper. d. c. unbelievable. deter. An antonym for plausible is a. credible. ignorance. d. simplify. insufﬁcient. d. c. d. 39. apologetic. 38. c. organize. arouse. sink. visible. retain. confuse. c. 37. b. b. An antonym for orient is a. 40. An antonym for excise is a. . sleep. courtesy. An antonym for levitate is a. d. 41. c.98 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 36. b. c. conscious. staple. veracity. An antonym for prevarication is a. b. b. d. b. undulate. A synonym for oblivious is a. serenity. plod. unaware. sinister.
b. d. b. A synonym for idle is a. b. c. c. A synonym for attribute is a. A synonym for subdue is a. b. b. d. mild. unkind. conquer. d. immobile. partial. painful. quality. c. forceful. effective. unenthusiastic.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 99 42. d. d. A synonym for rational is a. respect. c. prompt. 44. functional. c. complain. 45. . working. penalty. 46. d. b. 47. sound. equal. c. deny. polite. speech. An antonym for avid is a. admission. An antonym for meek is a. invalid. 43. deliberate.
b. An antonym for ambiguous is a. conﬁde. c. convinced. An antonym for complacent is a. promise. concerned. d. 50. happy. refuse. . indeﬁnite. d.100 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 48. consult. equivocal. b. A synonym for confer is a. c. apathetic. c. pleasant. d. 49. b. certain.
d. to be diverse is to have variety. 20. 31. it is sufﬁcient. 21. 8. 11. worst means the least desirable or good. 18. To be nonchalant means to have an air of easy indifference. b. To garnish means to adorn. calm. To be passive is to accept or submit without rejection or resistance. or to be inactive. d. 4. a. d. prejudice or superstition. Mirth means merriment. ﬁxed or secure. a. 33. 13. Optimum means the most desirable. d. a. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. 14. Disperse means to scatter. Subsequent means coming after or following. To be tedious is to be tiresome. 3. To verify means to establish the truth or accuracy. b. 27. Faltering means stumbling. you instruct. it is characterized by civility. inform. c. d. or tranquil. 2. a. you have poise. b. Ephemeral means short-lived. 15. a truth is something which conforms to the facts. solemnity means seriousness. a. 23. or teach to make them free of ignorance. immense. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. 28. 32. A domain is an area governed by a ruler. If you have composure and are self-assured. 34. A frail person is weak and delicate. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. To exonerate means to clear from accusation or guilt. c. enduring means without end. If you enlighten someone. b. to be verbose is to be wordy.Synonyms and Antonyms CHAPTER 4 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 101 ANSWERS 1. c. d. a. to be stimulating is to be exciting. Comply is synonymous with obey. to gather means to collect in one place. d. 7. 29. 17. steady means unfaltering. d. To be novel is to be new. a. d. To be succinct is to be concise. 19. Commendable is the same as admirable. unsteady. c. 16. b. 5. Vast means very great in size. careless is the opposite of watchful. c. b. previous means coming before. 6. 30. To pacify means to calm. 22. d. the opposite is old. Enthusiastic means eager. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. 24. b. If something is adequate. to conﬁrm. 26. 12. a. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea. Recuperate means to heal or mend. b. 10. To liberate means to release. to blame is to accuse or hold responsible. trickery. 25. to excite means to stir up. to be concerned means to be interested and involved. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. c. d. . To affect means to inﬂuence. decorate or embellish. 9. An eccentric person is considered to be odd or peculiar. to restrain means to deprive of liberty. a. a territory is an area for which someone is responsible.
become familiar. 42. 41. To orient means to adjust. Meek means not violent or not strong. consult. to retain means to keep. Avid means characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit. 46. still. 38. Confer means to compare views or to take counsel. veracity is truthfulness. Plausible means likely. A prevarication is an evasion of the truth. 44. meaning not moving. 39. you are unaware of them. b. d. to be certain is to be deﬁnite or ﬁxed. 43. Idle is synonymous with immobile. To levitate means to rise and ﬂoat. 36. b. a. c. 50. 48. smug. a. To be ambiguous is to be equivocal or obscure. 49. to confuse means to bewilder. d. the opposite is concerned. d. To excise means to remove. Complacent means self-satisﬁed. 40. to sink means to submerge or descend to the bottom. If you are oblivious to your surroundings. a. To subdue means to bring under control. b. Rigorous is synonymous with demanding. An attribute is a characteristic or quality belonging to a person or thing. a. A rational decision is a sound or reasonable decision. b. 45. a. 47. unbelievable is unlikely. c. conquer. the opposite would be unenthusiastic.102 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 4 Synonyms and Antonyms 35. 37. b. forceful means powerful. c. . or unworried.
As you study this reading comprehension section. especially since the choices are deliberately designed to mislead you. or even impossible. select the topic sentence. Second. you will be tested only on the information presented in the passage. This somewhat stressful combination makes it easy to choose one of the wrong answer choices. you should be able to find the main idea of a passage. it is easy to make a mistake. to interpret. much like the standardized tests you probably took in school. First. just one difﬁcult word can skew your understanding of a sentence. discern fact from opinion. most Civil Service exams include a reading comprehension section that tests your ability to understand what you read. To read effectively. you do not need any prior knowledge about the topic of the passage. locate basic support material or details.= 5 CHAPTER Reading Comprehension Because understanding what you read is such a vital skill. If you are in a hurry. Sometimes. Reading comprehension questions offer you two advantages as a test taker. Two or three unknown words can make a passage difﬁcult. and make inferences. This chapter reviews each of these skills. understand that your vocabulary skills play a vital role when you have to decipher any written text. It is important to understand that the study of vocabulary in combination with reading comprehension go hand in hand as you continue your test preparation. Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 103 . T he reading comprehension portion of the written test is usually presented as a multiple-choice test and will ask questions based on brief passages. The disadvantage is that you have to know where and how to ﬁnd the information you need under certain time constraints and in an unfamiliar text.
Postal Service offers Priority Mail and Express Mail services. facts. you must be a discriminating reader and know where to look for the information. If your letter or package is urgent. Certain words and phrases indicate that key information will follow. identify the topic sentence. If you highlight four sentences in a ﬁve-sentence paragraph. Questions most frequently ask you to: determine the main idea of the passage. or italicized. and then to know how to respond to these questions. and signiﬁcantly are clues to watch out for. Priority Mail is guaranteed to go anywhere in the United States in two days or less. 3. discern fact from opinion. First class mail usually moves from New York City to Los Angeles in three days or less. underlined. Key words and ideas are often boldfaced. or your money . Words and phrases such as most important. Be selective. (Refer to Chapter 3 to practice this skill. read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow. deﬁne a vocabulary word from the passage. you can develop some strategies to help you choose correct answers. The answer explanation following each type of question—main idea. To do this. Here are three guidelines for highlighting or underlining your text. and details you need to help you choose correctly. Today’s postal service is more efﬁcient and reliable than ever before. One strategy used by many readers is highlighting and underlining. The key is to identify what is most important in the paragraph. and inference—will point out reading comprehension strategies that help you choose the correct answer. the U. Mail that used to take months to move by horse and by foot now moves around the country in days or hours by truck. you can make important details stand out. This helps you quickly ﬁnd the information later when you need to answer a question or write a summary. identify a speciﬁc fact or detail in the passage. Express Mail will get your package there overnight. Ask yourself two questions: What is the main point the author is trying to make—what is the main idea of the paragraph? What information is emphasized or seems to stand out as especially important? 2. train. you must be able to determine which facts and ideas are most important. this will not help you. They may be boxed or repeated in a sidebar as well. and plane. make an inference based on the passage. 1. For practice. Watch for word clues. topic sentence.) Once you know the kinds of questions that will be asked. detail/support material. By highlighting or underlining key words and phrases. To highlight key words and ideas.S.104 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension The best way to do well on a reading comprehension test is to be very familiar with the kinds of questions that are typically asked. Watch for visual clues. the key is. fact/opinion.
overnight services. and plane as well. b. The main idea must say something about the subject. d. it is something more. The other sentences and ideas in the passage will all relate to that main idea and serve as evidence that the assertion is true. Choices a and b are mentioned in the paragraph.S. To accurately ﬁnd the main idea of a text. remember that it is usually an assertion about the subject. Mail service today is more effective and dependable.” but it “now moves around the country in days or hours by truck. Choice b is too speciﬁc to be the main idea. The post ofﬁce offers many services. trains. train. b. if you read more closely. Each sentence offers proof that the postal expresses the writer’s purpose—to show the efﬁciency and reliability of today’s postal service.” choice c. the U. The rest of the sentences in the paragraph support the idea that this sentence asserts. Main Idea Question 1. . What is the main idea of this paragraph? a. and planes. and plane. You might think of the main idea as an umbrella that is held over the other sentences. It is the idea that holds together or controls the passage. Additionally. It does not include any information about Priority Mail or ﬁrst class mail. Choice d is general enough to encompass the entire passage. so this choice can be excluded. train. horse. If you selected choice a. c. Choice c is also too speciﬁc. not the main idea. and you may mistakenly choose one of these if you only scan the paragraph quickly. It must be general enough or big enough to cover all of these ideas underneath it (in the paragraph or passage). d. First class mail usually takes three days or less. Express Mail is a good way to send urgent mail. Postal Service offers lower rates for the same services offered by many competitors. you will see that in the past. Today’s mail is transported by a. c. “Mail used to take months to move by horse and by foot. An assertion is a statement that requires evidence or proof to be accepted as true. Fact/Detail Question 2. foot. trucks. However. it tells you only about Express Mail. Choice d is a misleading answer. It tells you about ﬁrst class mail only. you would be choosing the subject of the paragraph. While the main idea of a passage is an assertion about its subject. Overnight mail services are transported by truck. so it cannot be the main idea of the paragraph.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 105 will be refunded.
facts are not. b. it is safe to say that a. Opinions are things believed to have happened. Choices a. b. not what we know. or to exist. As you can see. and it needs proof. the old fashioned pony express system of mail delivery did not work. c. there is no way to deliver urgent mail. and d are sentences that offer speciﬁc facts and ideas that support choice b. you will ﬁnd the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. Based on the information in the paragraph. believed to be true. Facts are things known for certain to have happened. The proof is found in the facts and ideas that make up the rest of the paragraph. based on the evidence . or believed to exist. c. Of the following sentences. but this is not a hard and fast rule. Mail that used to take months to move by horse and by foot now moves around the country in days or hours by truck. the key difference between fact and opinion lies in the distinction between believing and knowing. or your money will be refunded.S. choice a.” is a fact. Express Mail will get your package there overnight. choice b. In many cases. opinion. d. Today’s postal service is more efﬁcient and reliable than ever before. but they are still what we think. for the sentence to be labeled a topic sentence. “Express Mail will get your package there overnight. “Express Mail will get your package there overnight or your money will be refunded. train. ﬁrst class mail service is unreliable. c. However. If your letter or package is urgent.106 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension Topic Sentence Question 3. fact. to be true. You can infer that businesses could take advantage of Express Mail service to speed up deliveries. d. and plane. The topic sentence can be found in the middle or at the end of a paragraph. Opinions may be based on facts. it must be an assertion. Opinions are debatable. The statement in the question. b. You will notice that in the paragraph. Postal Service offers Priority Mail and Express Mail services. the main idea is expressed clearly in the ﬁrst sentence. Fact/Opinion Question 4. it is economical for businesses to take advantage of Express Mail services. An inference is a conclusion that can be drawn based on fact or evidence.” This statement is a/an a. A sentence such as this one that clearly expresses the main idea of a paragraph or passage is called the topic sentence. Inference Question 5. the U. choice a. which one is the topic sentence? a.
fact/opinion. c. Add a few test strategies—knowing where and how to look for the information. and details—and you will feel comfortable and conﬁdent when it comes time to take the test. detail. topic sentence. Choices b. “Express Mail will get your package there overnight. and d cannot be inferred based on any concrete evidence from the paragraph. facts.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 107 in the paragraph. or inference questions is a practical beginning for reading comprehension skills.” justiﬁably supports this inference. Knowing that reading comprehension questions can include main idea. .
31. 22. 47. 21. 33. 7. 32. 19. 27. 30. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 11. 39. 37. 14. 16. 24. 13. a a a F F F F F F F F F F a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b O O O O O O O O O O b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c d d d c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d . 12. 2. 20. 38. 10.108 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension PRACTICE QUESTIONS Read the following paragraphs and answer the reading comprehension questions based on your knowledge of the main idea of each paragraph Use this answer grid to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. 25. 44. 45. 42. 15. 43. 41. 1. 40. 5. 6. 34. 3. 9. 36. 4. 8. 49. 35. 18. 50. 48. 29. 17. 28. 46. 23.
b. b. Shakespeare’s characters are more interesting than ﬁctional characters today. There are no effective boundaries when it comes to pollutants. ﬁtness walking is a better form of exercise than weight lifting. perform speciﬁc operations on the text. critical reading requires thoughtful and careful attention. b. . This paragraph best supports the statement that a. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. Your neighborhood can be your health club. but essential process. more pollutants ﬁnd their way into polar climates than they do into warmer areas. dull. even today. c. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. Studies have shown that toxic insecticides—already banned in many countries—are riding the wind from countries where they remain legal. d. studies show that many countries have ignored their own anti-pollution laws. either. 2. Mark up the text with your reactions. you must slow down your reading and. c. Critical reading is a demanding process. In other words. 3. walking outdoors provides a better workout than walking indoors. readers should get in the habit of questioning the truth of what they read. One New York publisher has estimated that 50.000 to 60. c. become an active participant. Compounds such as DDT and toxaphene have been found in remote places like the Yukon and other Arctic regions. there is no need for a commute to a health club. when you read. c. To read critically. b. people today are interested in Shakespeare’s work because of the characters. conclusions. DDT and toxaphene are the two most toxic insecticides in the world. What accounts for this renewed interest in Shakespeare? As scholars point out. d. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. 1. with pencil in hand. critical reading is a slow. and questions. his psychological insights into both male and female characters are amazing. You do not need a lot of fancy equipment to get a good workout. New Yorkers have a renewed interest in the work of Shakespeare. All you need is a well-designed pair of athletic shoes. d. academic scholars are putting together an anthology of Shakespeare’s work. 4. d. ﬁtness walking is a convenient and valuable form of exercise. bans on toxins have done little to stop the spread of pollutants.000 people in the United States want an anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 109 If you are a ﬁtness walker. a membership in a health club is a poor investment. the best critical reading happens at critical times in a person’s life.
This paragraph best supports the statement that a. legal authorization. stone tools were in use for two and a half million years. cooked slowly over low heat. the power of numbers is that they cannot lie. and stir or mix together. and the growth of populations. add tomato paste. . No search of a person’s home or personal effects may be conducted without a written search warrant issued on probable cause. zucchini. the study of mathematics is dangerous. d. read the person his or her constitutional rights. a reasonable belief that a crime has occurred. stone tools were not really technology. Mix the vegetables together. c. Human technology began with the development of the ﬁrst stone tools about two and a half million years ago. but it can also perpetuate misunderstandings and untruths. Ratatouille is a dish that has grown in popularity over the last few years. mix them together. Figures have the power to mislead people. and hundreds of thousands of years passed without many technological changes. and add tomato paste. 7. Today. sauté them. As the vegetables cook slowly. and ﬁnally. tomato. Which of the following is the correct order of steps for making ratatouille? a. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. peppers. and this can be extended with a little tomato paste. d. Read the following paragraphs and choose the correct fact or detail to answer the questions. d. the study of mathematics can be both beneﬁcial and confusing. in today’s world. The name ratatouille comes from the French word touiller. c. Cook the vegetables slowly. 8. b. mixed. b. This means that a neutral judge must approve the factual basis justifying a search before it can be conducted. b. patterns of disease. In the beginning. It features eggplant. c. they make their own broth. b. Math is good at exposing the truth. sautéed. there is no way to know when stone tools ﬁrst came into use. 5. Chop vegetables. This paragraph best supports the statement that police ofﬁcers cannot search a person’s home or private papers unless they have a. and garlic chopped. Mathematics tells us about economic trends. the rate of development was slow. and add tomato paste. 6. the study of mathematics is more important than other disciplines. new technologies are reported daily on television and in newspapers. meaning to mix or stir together.110 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures. direct evidence of a crime. Mathematics allows us to expand our consciousness. new technologies are constantly being developed. d. c. Add tomato paste to extend the broth and cook slowly over low heat.
the temperature at the time of treatment b. If the snowfall is light. French pastry. b. d. The new containers hold more than the old containers did. d. the plants and trees along the street c. the city road crews will not salt the streets because this would be a waste of the salt supply. whether there is ice on the street d. b. According to the snow treatment information in the paragraph above. Additional recycling containers may be purchased as needed from the Sanitation Department. The new containers are far better than other containers in every way. Major roads are always salted ﬁrst. b. 13. d. In deciding whether to use ordinary rock salt or the salt and calcium chloride mixture on a particular street. which is more effective in below-zero temperatures and which melts ice better. c. Many cities have distributed standardized recycling containers to all households. the city streets are treated with ordinary rock salt. which of the following is true? a. c. each household a. Crews must wait until the snow or ice stops falling before salting streets. Ratatouille can best be described as a a. must buy a new recycling container. c. should use the new recycling container. If the temperature is below zero. whether the street is a main or secondary road 11. pasta dish extended with tomato paste. a salt and calcium chloride mixture is effective in treating snow and ice-covered streets. as this will expedite pickup of recyclables. According to the directions in the paragraph above. 10. This combination of salt and calcium chloride is also less damaging to foliage along the roadways. In some areas. the salt is combined with calcium chloride. After a snow or ice fall. . The new containers are less expensive than the old. c. 12. sauce to put over vegetables. must use the new recycling container. According to the directions. d. which of the following is true about the new containers? a. vegetable stew. which of the following is not a consideration? a. The new containers will help increase the efﬁciency of the recycling program. b. may use only one recycling container.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 111 9. One city attached the following directions: We prefer that you use this new container as your primary recycling container.
Gary is a very distinguished looking man with a touch of gray at the temples. c. have changed the course of history. The taste and aroma of spices are the main elements that make food such a source or fascination and pleasure. plots and schemes. and easily holds more information than all the libraries on earth. 15. and it can be ﬁlled with danger and intrigue. b. Conceit is the beginning and the end of Gary’s character. In the past. Indeed. b. Spices is a pleasant word. 16. scientists say that each person uses only 10% of brainpower over the course of a lifetime. planned and executed wars. He can buy whatever he desires. nations have actually gone to war. a. The ﬁrst. d. d. The only objects of Gary’s respect are others who hold positions in society above him. The human brain is made of gelatinous matter and contains no nerve endings. however. Nevertheless. It thinks and dreams. It is exciting to ﬁnd a good cookbook and experiment with spices from other lands— indeed. he is still the one to turn heads. It has created poetry and music. ________. ________. 14. It weighs less than three pounds and is hardly more interesting to look at than an overly ripe cauliﬂower. ________. Gary checks the mirror often and feels great delight with what he sees. c. individuals traveled the world seeking exotic spices for proﬁt and. and he loves the power his wealth has given him. . a. b. d. He was fortunate enough to be born into a wealthy family. however. to gain control of lands harboring new spices. He enjoys spending most of his time admiring his proﬁle in the mirror. whether it connotes ﬁne French cuisine or down-home cinnamon-ﬂavored apple pie. in searching. However. a. is money.112 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension Read the following paragraphs and choose the topic sentence that best ﬁts the paragraph. The history of spices. In fact. conceit of person and situation. Even in his early ﬁfties. is another matter altogether. The term might equally bring to mind Indian curry made thousands of miles away or those delicious barbecued ribs sold down at Harry’s. The science of neurology has found a way to map the most important areas of the human brain. he considers his good looks to be his second-most important asset in the world. Gary feels blessed to be wealthy and the joy consumes his every thought. it is one way to travel around the globe. the human brain is the most mysterious and complex object on earth. c. Gary’s gray hair is his worst characteristic. devised intricate scientiﬁc theories.
c. but she changed it to Marilyn. when the ﬁrst molecule ﬂoated up out of the ooze with the unique ability to replicate itself. she selected samples from her display to show her audience the size. c. The continuing fascination of the public with movie star Marilyn Monroe is puzzling. and bulbs was available for all participants at the conclusion of the presentation. d. One reason might simply be her life’s sad and premature end. convinces us that the universe was not always as it is now.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 113 Read the following topic sentences and choose the sentence that best develops or supports the topic sentence. She became a star in the 1950s and died in 1962. The ﬁlm that most clearly demonstrates her talent is The Misﬁts. she described how gardeners can keep color in their gardens well into November—in sun or in shade. It will produce red ﬂowers in February—just when gardeners need to see something blooming. a. The guest speaker developed a rapport with her audience. a. d. perennials. Scientists place its beginnings at some three billion years ago. 18. unimaginably complex. of course. Physicists now believe they can construct what happened in the universe during the ﬁrst three minutes of its beginning. and color of each variety. The big-bang theory. . Her name was originally Norma Jean. A list of fall annuals. texture. From the most common mums and Montauk daisies to the more exotic euphoria and helenium. c. and at its ﬁrst appearance. Darwin’s theory of evolution was one attempt to explain what essentially remains a great mystery. The most complex life form is. if accepted. and it was evident that she had a great deal of experience and knowledge. but this is far too simple a description. a. Many scientists believe that. d. b. b. c. we can actually “hear” echoes of the big bang. 20. It is unknown exactly where life started—where the ﬁrst molecule was “born” that had the ability to replicate itself. during microwave experiments. b. even after many decades. 19. As the speaker identiﬁed various plants found in the fall garden. d. One scientiﬁc theory of the origin of the universe is the much misunderstood big-bang theory. a. yet it is still strong. 17. Life on earth is ancient. shape. The popular notion is that the big bang was a huge explosion in space. the mammal—and the most complex mammal is humankind. b.
Today. On Sunday. a. 26. a. French explorers probably taught the Inuit Eskimos how to play dominoes. Six counties in the north—where Protestants outnumber Catholics two to one—remained a part of Great Britain and became known as Northern Ireland. Ranchers and some biologists are protesting the reintroduction of the wolves. The Puritans established a wide variety of punishments to enforce their strict laws. The Puritans believed that some lawbreakers should be shamed in public by the use of stocks and the pillory. Serving as feelers. c. 25. all of Ireland was ruled by Great Britain. c. Tennessee. Disobedient children would feel the sting of the whip. The success of an attempt to reintroduce red wolves to parts of North Carolina is not yet clear. b. It may be hard to believe. The game of dominoes has been popular for centuries. Irish Catholics continued to ﬁght against British rule. The struggle today is over the control of these six counties. it was introduced to the rest of the world. In Oklahoma. This is most important for a cat that does its prowling at night. d. Political violence has claimed many lives in Northern Ireland.D. many of the punishments used by the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay seem cruel and excessive. b. The gray wolf will be taken off the list of endangered species in the northern Rocky Mountains when ten breeding pairs reside in a region for three years. d.114 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension 21. 24. From Italy. A cat’s whiskers are among the most perfect organs of touch. It is illegal to parade an elephant down Main Street in Austin. b. The Eighth Amendment of the Bill of Rights prohibits cruel and unusual punishment. a girl is forbidden to take a bite from her date’s hamburger. a. It was known in 181 A. c. in China. a. but these strange laws are still on the books! d. The hairs themselves are very sensitive. Indiana. b. c. c. Texas. b. d. The roots are provided with highly sensitive nerve endings. children may not spin yo-yos in Memphis. d. d. For centuries. a. b. It is illegal for teenagers to take a bath during the winter in Clinton. . 22. they aid the cat’s ability to move in the dark. c. There are active efforts to reintroduce wolves to national parks in the United States. 23. a. The reintroduced wolves are producing more offspring than expected. Also. it was played during the 1700s in Italy.
He left a trail of train and bank robberies. Jesse was gunned down on April 3. It is a fact that people are now living longer than ever before for many reasons. For sixteen years. b. Many people invest in stocks and bonds. The people in this region do not seem to gain anything from medical science. b. 38. Mark F on your answer sheet if the statement is a fact and O if it is an opinion. Mr. Savings accounts and CDs are fully insured and provide steady. 35. Stocks and bonds are often risky investments. 34. 33. 31. secure interest on your money. c. Wednesday is the longest day of the week. d. 29.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 115 27. 37. 36. There are many different ways to invest your money to provide for a ﬁnancially secure future. a. 28. he spread violence and death throughout the west. His crimes were committed during the late 1860s. a. 1882. No one seems to understand this phenomenon. Jesse Woodson James was the most legendary of all American outlaws. Orenstein is a terriﬁc boss. Read the following questions that ask you to differentiate fact from opinion. 32. Savings accounts and CDs (certiﬁcates of deposit) are the best way to invest your hard-earned money. c. 30. Many companies have dress-down days on Fridays. Dress-down days improve employee morale. . Wednesday is the fourth day of the week. Some people in the Russia’s Caucasus Mountains live to be over one hundred years of age. d. Advances in medical science have done wonders for longevity.
The best choice is the Dvorak keyboard. . business cards. Before you begin. are careless with sharp objects such as lancets. needles. the ﬁrst stage of any proposed DTP project should be organization and design. 39. c. 41. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. c. d. Studies have shown that people using the Dvorak keyboard can type 20–30% faster and are able to cut their error rate in half. computer software is continually being reﬁned to produce more high quality printing. The use of desktop computer equipment and software to create high quality printing for newsletters.116 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension Read the following paragraphs and respond to the questions that ask you to make inferences. The most important part of any DTP project is planning. you should know your intended audience. Dvorak puts vowels and other frequently used letters right under the ﬁngers—on the home row—where typists make 70% of their keystrokes. This paragraph best supports the idea that sanitation workers can be injured if they a. b. Many ofﬁce professionals have expressed an interest in replacing the currently used keyboard. and what form your message will take. This paragraph best supports the statement that the Dvorak keyboard a. DTP is one way to become acquainted with a new business audience. and syringes in their homes. has more keys right under the typists’ ﬁngers than the QWERTY. and syringes. with a keyboard that can keep up with technological changes and make ofﬁces more efﬁcient. d. d. is—on average— 70% faster than the QWERTY. and brochures is called Desktop Publishing. The containers should be clearly marked and should be puncture resistant. they can injure sanitation workers. If not disposed of in puncture-resistant containers. These sharp objects include lancets. or DTP. the planning stage of any DTP project should include talking with the intended audience. b. the message you want to communicate. do not mark the containers they pick up with a warning that those containers contain sharp objects. known as the QWERTY keyboard. is more efﬁcient than the QWERTY. c. is favored by more typists than the QWERTY. Every year Americans use over one billion sharp objects to administer health care in their homes. letterhead. do not place sharp objects in puncture-resistant containers. needles. 40. Sharp objects should be disposed of in hard plastic or metal containers with secure lids. b. come in contact with sharp objects that have not been placed in secure containers.
44. c. there is a lack of skilled labor in many other ﬁelds. b. something must have happened to Mars billions of years ago that stripped away the planet’s atmosphere. b. Mars now has little or no atmosphere. However. 45. 42. Close-up images of Mars by the Mariner 9 probe indicated networks of valleys that looked like the stream beds on Earth. c. would do 20% more work if they were to work in an ofﬁce. are more ﬂexible in their ideas than workers who travel to the ofﬁce. Telecommuters produce an average of 20% more than if they were to work in an ofﬁce. If this is true. including police work. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. People who work for the Peace Corps are volunteers. unemployment in computer-related ﬁelds is not as widespread as some people think. the Mariner 9 probe took the ﬁrst pictures of Mars. c. This paragraph best supports the statement that Peace Corps employees a. d. there is a shortage of skilled workers in a variety of ﬁelds. are hired for a limited term of employment. d. d. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. trained criminal investigators are often underpaid in rural areas. It is a myth that labor shortages today center mostly on computer jobs. c. In addition. The beneﬁts of telecommuting allow for greater productivity and greater ﬂexibility. must train for about ﬁve years. produce a better quality work product than workers who travel to the ofﬁce. There is a shortage of uniformed police ofﬁcers in many cities and a shortage of trained criminal investigators in some rural areas. have both academic and work experience. These images also implied that Mars once had an atmosphere that was thick enough to trap the sun’s heat. d. These jobs may utilize computer skills.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 117 One of the missions of the Peace Corps is to bring trained men and women to work in countries who need trained professionals in certain ﬁelds. This paragraph best supports the statement that telecommuters a. no staff member can work for the agency for more than ﬁve years. are highly intelligent people. 43. get more work done in a given time period than workers who travel to the ofﬁce. but they are not essentially computer jobs. b. b. people with computer skills are in demand in police and criminal investigator jobs. Although it is true that the lack of computer-related skills accounts for many of the problems in today’s job market. More and more ofﬁce workers telecommute from ofﬁces in their own homes. their ﬂexible schedule allows them to balance their families with their work responsibilities. . in order to keep the Peace Corps dynamic and vital. Mars is closer to the sun than Earth is. Mars once had a thicker atmosphere than Earth does.
c. c. suggesting a gas tax has usually been considered a political blunder. hiring in the private sector is inherently unfair. not enough doctors give time and money to those in need of medical care. more reasonable goals. medical resources in emerging nations have diminished in the past few years. states with low income tax rates are increasing their gas taxes. In the past. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. federal employers must be able to justify their decision with objective evidence of candidate qualiﬁcation. taxes on fossil fuels are more popular than property taxes. It is well known that the world urgently needs adequate distribution of food. skills. federal hiring practices are simpler than those employed by the private sector. or sex. the best approach to a demanding job is to delegate responsibility. 48. 49. jobs often remain only partially completed because of lack of time. gas taxes produce more revenue than income taxes. but adequate distribution of medicine is just as urgent. many people who live in emerging nations are not receiving proper medical care. c. ksa is not as important as test scores to federal employers. What should you do when the demands of the job exceed the time you have available? The best approach is to divide the project into smaller pieces. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. d. 47. d. state legislators no longer fear increasing gas taxes. d. b. b. This paragraph best supports the statement that a.118 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension The competitive civil service system is designed to give candidates fair and equal treatment and to ensure that federal applicants are hired based on objective criteria. d. the majority of the people in the world have no medical care. Different goals will have to be divided in different ways. Whereas employers in the private sector can hire employees for more subjective reasons. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. the civil service strives to hire on the basis of a candidate’s abilities. but one seemingly unrealistic goal can often be accomplished by working on several smaller. b. but that does not seem to be the case today. Medical expertise and medical supplies need to be redistributed throughout the world so that people in emerging nations will have proper medical care. b. Several states are promoting bills in their state legislatures that would cut income or property taxes and make up the revenue with taxes on fossil fuel. Hiring has to be based solely on a candidate’s knowledge. religion. . and abilities—sometimes abbreviated as ksa—and not on external factors such as race. the best way to tackle large projects is to problem-solve ﬁrst. Whether you can accomplish a speciﬁc goal or meet a speciﬁc deadline depends ﬁrst on how much time you need to get the job done. c. 46. the best way to complete projects is to make sure your goals are achievable.
. for many different kinds of writing tasks. sit down and think about your purpose for writing the letter. b. brainstorming and writing take approximately equal amounts of time. d. c. planning is an important ﬁrst step. 50. Always keep your objective in mind. Do you want to request information. This paragraph best supports the statement that a. business letters are frequently complaint letters. while some people plan ahead when they are writing a business letter. order a product. or apply for something? Do some brainstorming and gather information before you begin writing. others do not.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 119 Before you begin to compose a business letter. register a complaint.
Choice a is incorrect because the writer never makes this type of comparison. d. The paragraph also states that ﬁtness walking will result in a good workout. There is no support for choice c. The main part of the passage describes how to cook vegetables. there is no indication that the scholars are compiling the anthology. 5. 3. 7. Choice d can be ruled out because there is nothing to indicate that DDT and toxaphene are the most toxic. the author stresses the convenience of this form of exercise. Choice c is clearly wrong because the paragraph states when stone tools ﬁrst came into use. b. which states that in some countries toxic insecticides are still legal. d. 6.120 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension ANSWERS 1. The last sentence in the paragraph clearly gives support for the idea that the interest in Shakespeare is due to the development of his characters. Only choice d indicates that vegetables are included in the dish. Choice b may seem like a logical answer. d. but the paragraph refers only to people who are ﬁtness walkers.. 4. This answer is implied by the whole paragraph. Choices b and c are not supported by the paragraph. See the second and third sentences for the steps in making ratatouille. Choice c is not mentioned in the passage. Choice c is not supported by the passage. The statement stresses that there must be a judge’s approval (i. there is no support for the idea that warmer regions are not just as affected. b. 9. so for others. The last sentence states that new technologies are reported daily. The other choices are not reﬂected in the passage. but they were not necessarily in use all that time. b. a. stone tools were ﬁrst used two and a half million years ago. a health club might be a good investment. 2. With regard to choice b. . Choice a can be ruled out because there is no support to show that studying math is dangerous. a. legal authorization) before a search can be conducted. 8. Choice b is incorrect because even though polar regions are mentioned in the paragraph. Choice c is wrong because even though scholars are mentioned in the paragraph. Choice d is a contradiction to the information in the passage. Choices b and d are incorrect because it is not enough for the police to have direct evidence or a reasonable belief—a judge must authorize the search for it to be legal. The author stresses the need to read critically by performing thoughtful and careful operations on the text. Choice a is incorrect because no comparison to weight lifting is made. Only choice b reﬂects the correct order. There is no support for choice a. By stating that ﬁtness walking does not require a commute to a health club. The second and third sentence combine to give support to choice a. Choice d is wrong because there is no support to show that most New Yorkers are interested in this work. The support for this choice is in the second sentence. and this implies that new technologies are being constantly developed. Choice a is incorrect because the author never says that reading is dull.e. This answer is clearly stated in the last sentence of the paragraph. d. There is no support for choice c.
24. but are unrelated to the content of the topic sentence.g. and c are merely facts about Marilyn and are not about people’s fascination with her. and d do not reinforce the context of the topic sentence. c. 17. This choice introduces the idea that some laws are strange. but does not require. 26. Choices a. Choice a gives a reason for the use of punishment in early America. c. b. . Choice a deals only with Gary’s vanity of person. The topic sentence speaks of the big-bang theory being much misunderstood. b. b. 20. d. fall gardens and the garden in November. e. The directions state use of the new containers will expedite pick-up of recyclables. and d give other details that do not directly support the topic sentence. The directions indicate that the city prefers. 19. b. Choices b. Choices a. c. 22. customers may use more than one container if they purchase an additional one. Choice c deals only with his vanity of position. c. Choice d is less relevant to the topic sentence than the other choices. Choice b addresses both of Gary’s vanities: his person and his situation. The mention that searching for spices has changed the course of history and that nations have gone to war over this condiment implies that the subject of the paragraph is history. Choice d is not supported in the passage. not cooking. 14. and d are about longevity but do not give any reason. 27. Choices a. c. 16. The other choices may be true but are not mentioned in the passage. This choice states the popularity of the game. choice c lists the different types of ﬂowers the speaker identiﬁes in the topic sentence. 23. but not the topic sentence. Choices a and b state the game’s origin. In addition. chances are they will be taken off the endangered species list. Choices a. and d are less relevant and speciﬁc. a. choices a. b. The topic sentence refers to punishment used in early America. c. a. Choices a. This topic sentence states the importance of a cat’s whiskers. and c only show what led to the situation. This choice refers both to age and complexity. The passage mentions nothing about main or secondary roads. b. 13. c. d. 18. the use of the new containers. d. 25. not fall. Choice a speaks of a red ﬂower—unknown to the reader at this point—that blooms in winter.Reading Comprehension CHAPTER 5 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 121 10. The use of the word war involves danger and intrigue 15. Choices b and d give details about the speaker and available hand-outs. Choices a. and c. Choice d reveals the fascination fans had with Marilyn. There are words in this sentence that can be linked to the topic sentence. c. Also. choices b and c refer only to complexity. Because the wolves have produced more offspring than expected. 11. b. The mention of the amazing things the brain is capable of doing is directly relevant to its mysterious and complex nature. d. The other choices are off topic. and d are examples of strange laws. and choice c addresses this. b. 21. Choices b and c state why we do not have such punishment today and compares historical punishment with today’s sensibility. a. b. c. d. The topic sentence states that violence has claimed many lives in Northern Ireland. Choice d explains how its popularity spread. This sentence gives a reason for longevity that was introduced in the topic sentence. 12. This indicates that the new containers will make the recycling program more efﬁcient.
Choices b. . 40. 37. Choice c indicates that the atmosphere of Mars has been stripped away. even if true. and d contain words and phrases from the paragraph. c. 43. and d do not support the main idea of the paragraph. c. This sentence indicates the importance of organization and design. Choice c projects a way to accomplish tasks—by problem-solving. Choice b is incorrect because the paragraph does not say why more gas taxes are being proposed. a. There is no indication that choice a is true. a. O. Choice a pronounces an end to 16 years of violence. and d discuss how sanitation workers should deal with sharp objects. Wednesday is the fourth day of the week. 38. c. c. Choice c expresses the overall theme of the paragraph—a shortage of skilled workers in many ﬁelds. c. This sentence is an opinion. 32. but now many of them are promoting bills in favor of these taxes. Choices b. c. Choice d is implied by the statement that redistribution is needed so that people in emerging nations can have proper medical care. 46. c.122 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 5 Reading Comprehension 28. Choice d is the best comprehensive statement about the paragraph. 49. and c are not mentioned in the paragraph. This sentence is a fact. Choice a details the greater productivity of telecommuters. Choices a. Choices a. 45. F. 42. O. d. 34. This sentence is an opinion because it can be debated. 29. Many companies offer this option. There are many opportunities for investment. O. Savings accounts and CDs do not always earn the highest interest rates. The last sentence of the passage supports choice c. 47. Choice b is the only choice that tells how people should dispose of sharp objects in order to avoid placing sanitation workers in danger. This sentence is a fact. F. 39. O. b. There is no support for choice d. and d. c. Choices a. Choice c is supported as the best answer because the paragraph indicates that legislators once feared suggesting gas taxes. Someone could just as easily take the opposite position. secure interest can be earned using these methods of investing. but are incorrect. a. While it could be a good idea. Choices b. Choice a reﬂects the idea that the Dvorak keyboard is more efﬁcient than the QWERTY. This sentence is an opinion. and d are not in the passage. there are no statistics to prove this. and d are not in the passage. 50. F. 36. c. b. F. c. Choices b. This sentence is a fact. it is the same length as any other day of the week. 30. Choices a. This sentence is an opinion. F. This sentence is a fact. b. 31. This sentence is a fact. F. People do invest in stocks and bonds. 41. a. Steady. d. are not in the passage. This sentence is a fact. While Wednesday may seem longer to some people. and d are facts about James’ life. 35. c. Choice a is the best overall statement to summarize the message given by the content in the paragraph. 48. which is the topic of the paragraph. The stock market can be uncertain. 33. 44. b.
Forms. Studying the proper ways to use the vocabulary of the English language can give you a good score on the grammar section of the exam and will show that you are indeed capable and proﬁcient as a writer. T here is plenty of writing involved in most Civil Service jobs. capitalization. When English is used according to the conventions that have been established. Correct usage of standard English shows that you have made the effort to understand the conventions of the English language. verb tenses. This chapter reviews such grammar essentials as sentence boundaries.= 6 CHAPTER Grammar The ability to write correctly is fundamental for any Civil Service position. The tips and exercises in this chapter will help you ensure that you are ready to excel on this portion of the exam. As you apply the vocabulary you have learned in this book. Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 123 . and the grammar section of the written exam helps the government determine whether an applicant has the competence it takes to complete such tasks. Poor usage can get in the way of what you want to say. and commonly confused words. pronouns. punctuation. letters. it is important to use these words correctly in sentences. subject-verb agreement. memos. and reports have to be written during the course of every workday. e-mails. your words allow the reader—and your employer or supervisor—to understand exactly what you intend to say.
The assistant was ﬁling folders. These sentence fragments can easily be corrected: . FRAGMENT COMPLETE SENTENCE The assistant ﬁling folders. b. The new house was built in 1972. something more is needed to complete the thought. We saw the tornado approaching. Look at the following examples. They do not leave you guessing about what the subject is. When a group of words that would normally be a complete sentence is preceded by a subordinating conjunction.124 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar COMPLETE SENTENCES AND SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Sentences are the basic units of written language. 2. A sentence expresses a complete thought. a. a. a. Before the new house was built in 1972. The ﬁrst fragment in this pair of sentences is an example of a sentence that is missing part of its verb. It needs the helping verb was before ﬁling to make a complete thought. Practice Choose the complete sentence from each pair in the list below. The second fragment has neither a subject nor a verb. b. b. b. Janet was always leaving messages for me. 3. Since we are leaving in the morning. Leaving messages for me. complete sentences are the correct and accepted format for most pieces of information. a. For that reason. but the sentence does not express a complete thought. 3. b. Only when a subject and verb are added is this sentence complete. When we saw the tornado approaching. Complete sentences express a whole thought. We are leaving in the morning. When you are writing in the workplace. while a fragment is missing something—it could be a verb or it could be a subject. Answers 1. 1. These words are called subordinating conjunctions. You may have noticed that the choices in each of the questions above are almost the same. but the fragments have an extra word at the beginning. it is important to distinguish between complete sentences and sentence fragments. 2. or what action the subject is taking.
or because are conjunctions that join sentences. A complete report had to be submitted every week. 2.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 125 When we saw the tornado approaching. we went to bed early. The sentence would be correct if you separated the two independent clauses to make two complete sentences. Knowing that a subordinating conjunction can signal a sentence fragment. it was due on Friday. the old house was demolished. Use this list as a handy reminder. It was due on Friday. and it was due on Friday. 3. but. as. Then you can double-check your work for errors. Using the same sentence as a model. 1. it would be considered correct if you wrote: A complete report had to be submitted every week. exclamation points. Look at the example below. after although as because before if once since than that though unless until when whenever where wherever while Run-On Sentences Run-on sentences are two or more independent clauses (complete sentences) written as though they were one sentence. but it is so closely related to the ﬁrst that there is no reason to make it into a sentence of its own. A semicolon indicates that the next part of the sentence is a complete sentence. . This run-on sentence could be corrected in ﬁve ways. or. we headed for cover. Before the new house was built in 1972. and question marks can solve the run-on sentence problem. End marks like periods. It would also be correct to delete the comma and separate the two sentences with a semicolon. such as a comma instead of a period between two independent clauses (complete thoughts). Since we were leaving in the morning. it is a good idea to be familiar with some of the most frequently used subordinating conjunctions. The main cause of run-on sentences is often faulty punctuation. So. You could rewrite it as follows: A complete report had to be submitted every week. One way is to add a conjunction after the comma and in-between the two independent clauses. it was due on Friday. it would be correct to say: A complete report had to be submitted every week. Words such as and.
we formed some committees. the sentence would be correct if written with a dash: A complete report had to be submitted every week—it was due on Friday. Without exception. Adding the subordinating conjunction because can ﬁx this sentence as well. Correct them on the lines provided using one of the methods listed above. all of the employees went to lunch at 12:00 they returned at 1:00. all of the employees went to lunch at 12:00. Without exception.126 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 4. and run-on sentences are often grouped together in the grammar section of a test. The defense needed time to examine the new evidence. and the lawyer asked for an extension. Since complete sentences. all of the employees went to lunch at 12:00. We attended the meeting. . It would be correct to say: A complete report had to be submitted every week because it was due on Friday. We attended the meeting. Practice Each of the sentences below is a run-on. you may be asked questions like the following on your exam. 1. we formed some committees. they returned at 1:00. OR The defense needed time to examine the new evidence. sentence fragments. OR We attended the meeting. 5. the lawyer asked for an extension. and we formed some committees. Last. OR Without exception. Correction: ___________________________________________________________________ Answers 1. and they returned at 1:00. The defense needed time to examine the new evidence. the lawyer asked for an extension. 3. Correction: ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Correction: ___________________________________________________________________ 3. 2.
c. 2. a. CAPITALIZATION You may encounter questions on your exam that test your ability to use capital letters correctly. a. Johnson. d. For instance. Friday was the best day. Capitalize the pronoun I. d. Austin. Before the door opened. 3. a. d. or river. Unless we hear from the directors of the board before the next meeting. If the ﬁrst word is a number. city. you will be better prepared to correct these errors.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 127 Practice 1. places. The books stacked on the ﬂoor beside the desk. a. If we ever see you again. if the proper noun is Japan. 3. Answers 1. Proper adjectives are adjectives formed from proper nouns. or Mississippi River. They are different from common nouns like president. d. Capitalize the ﬁrst word of a sentence. we will not act on the new proposal. or things. We can ﬁx the printer. the proper adjective would be . Capitalize the ﬁrst word of a quotation: “What is the address?” she asked. write it as a word. In addition to the methods the doctor used to diagnose the problem. We looking. Do not capitalize the ﬁrst word of a partial quotation: He called me “the best employee” and nominated me for an award. like Lyndon B. or we can buy a new one. c. Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives. If you know the most common capitalization rules. c. After we spent considerable time examining all of the possibilities before making a decision. The clues discovered by the archeologists gave us the indication that the historical account of the incident was correct. Choose the run-on sentence. state. Choose the complete sentence. Choose the complete sentence. The special services unit completed its work and made its report to the chief. Texas. 2. d. b. b. We slept soundly we never heard the alarm. b. Proper nouns are names of people.
Iowa Canada Middle East Streets Highways Roads Landmarks Public areas Bodies of water Ethnic groups Languages Nationalities Grand Avenue Interstate 29 Dogwood Road Continental Divide Grand Canyon. George Washington Lincoln Memorial Empire State Building Orient Express Queen Elizabeth II Cessna Honda Accord Des Moines. and geographic regions) Example of Proper Nouns Friday. states. Halloween Two Rivers Festival. Saturday January. Glacier National Park Atlantic Ocean. countries. February Christmas. If the proper noun is South America. counties. CAPITALIZATION Category Days of the week Months of the year Holidays Special events Names of individuals Names of structures Buildings Names of trains Ships Aircraft Product names Geographic locations (cities. Writers’ Conference John Henry. the proper adjective would be South American climate. See the table that follows for examples of proper nouns and adjectives. Mississippi River Asian-American English Irish .128 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Japanese language.
Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 129 Ofﬁcial titles (capitalized only when they appear before a person’s name—Marie Hanson. 1995. and I was shocked by their beauty. i could see the black hills rising slightly in the distance. spearﬁsh canyon. it was january 2. Answer Check your answers against the corrected version: I had just spent a chilly New Year’s Day in Sioux Falls. a geologic wonder. Choose those letters that should be capitalized. . in Custer State Park. mount rushmore dominated the landscape. Colorado. South Dakota and was driving west toward my home in Denver. president calvin coolidge had called them “a wondrous sight to behold. nearby. Spearﬁsh Canyon. As I traveled along Interstate 90. French cuisine Practice The following excerpt contains no capitalized words. fortunately. was full of Ponderosa pines and added some greenery to the countryside. Mount Rushmore dominated the landscape. in custer state park.” I now understood why. the largest buffalo herd in north america roamed the badlands. City Council President Marie Hanson) Institutions Organizations Businesses Proper adjectives (a proper adjective is an adjective formed from a proper noun) Mayor Bloomberg President Johnson Dartmouth College Girl Scouts Chrysler Corporation English mufﬁns. i had just spent a chilly new year’s day in sioux falls. Fortunately. vs. my jeep cherokee had no trouble with the ice and snow that cold winter day. south dakota and was driving west toward my home in denver. President Calvin Coolidge had called them “a wondrous sight to behold. a geologic wonder. was full of ponderosa pines and added some greenery to the countryside.” i now understood why. and i was shocked by their beauty. the largest buffalo herd in North America roamed the Badlands. It was January 2. my Jeep Cherokee had no trouble with the ice and snow that cold winter day. as i traveled along interstate 90. colorado. president of the City Council. Nearby. 1995. I could see the Black Hills rising slightly in the distance.
Abigail Dornburg. c. a. Ms. Abbreviations: Mr. Inc. paper. This year we will celebrate Christmas on Tuesday.D.. 3. Abigail Dornburg. a. 2. Example: John F... Ohio. SCUBA. Periods If you know the most common rules for using periods. This year we will celebrate Christmas on Tuesday.D. Use a period after an initial in a name. m. etc.d. c. and apostrophes correctly will effectively boost your score on the exam. Ohio. General Motors Corp. Answers 1. This year we will celebrate christmas on Tuesday. Ms. Example: We brought pens. Note: The words “review board” are common nouns and not the speciﬁc title of a particular committee or panel..130 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar More Capitalization Practice Choose the sentence that is capitalized correctly. M. Use a period at the end of a sentence that is not a question or an exclamation. you will have a much easier time spotting and correcting sentence errors. d. December 25 in Manchester. 2. This year we will celebrate christmas on Tuesday. a. Allied. RADAR If a sentence ends with an abbreviation. was named Head of the Review Board for Physicians Mutual. Abraham Adams made an appointment with Mayor Burns to discuss the Building Plans. M. Acronyms: NASA. d.M. . Ms. A. 1. a.. December 25 in Manchester. Dr. b. pencils. c. Abigail dornburg. Abraham Adams made an appointment with Mayor Burns to discuss the building plans.. was named head of the review board for Physicians Mutual. December 25 in manchester. b. Abraham Adams made an appointment with mayor Burns to discuss the Building Plans. 3. a. d. Knowing how to use periods. PUNCTUATION A section on the written exam may test your punctuation skills. There is no need to capitalize them in this sentence. use only one period. c. was named head of the review board for Physicians Mutual. Ohio. Kennedy Use a period after an abbreviation..D. M.. b. December 25 in manchester. Abraham Adams made an appointment with mayor Burns to discuss the Building plans. unless the abbreviation is an acronym. commas. Ms. Abigail Dornburg. Was named head of the review board for Physicians mutual. Ohio. Ms.
Orlando. and I went to dinner. you will have a much easier time identifying sentence errors and correcting them.D. looked. This chart demonstrates just how much impact commas can have on meaning. Example: The ceremony commemorated Martin Luther King. Jr.. and I went to dinner. (Notice that there is no comma between rich—an adjective—and coffee—the noun it describes. There are four people in this sentence. Use a comma before and.) Use a comma after introductory words. or. but. Remember that commas should be on both sides of an abbreviation—The life of Martin Luther King. Sr. There is an indeterminate number of people in this sentence.D. it was easily rectiﬁed. There are six people in this sentence. phrases. M. as well as after the year when it is in a sentence. 36890. John Carey. Missing or misplaced commas.. Use a comma to separate items in an address. Example: I was born on July 21. or clauses in a sentence. on the other hand. Diane. black. Florida. Example: The package was addressed to 1433 West G Avenue.. and that made it easy for any reader to follow. and yet when they separate two groups of words that could be complete sentences. so. can confuse readers and convey a message quite different from what was intended. Use a comma to separate a day and a year.. and I went to dinner.. nor. John Carey. My sister. Example: The student driver stopped. Melissa. If you know the most common rules for using commas. Carey. Melissa. . My sister. You may wonder if the comma after the last item in a series is really necessary. 1954. Example: The manual listed the steps in sequence. The correct use of commas helps present ideas and information clearly to readers. or any other abbreviation. Example of an introductory phrase: During her lunch break. Diane. My sister Diane John Carey Melissa and I went to dinner. rich coffee was just what I needed on Monday morning. This is called a serial comma. Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives modifying the same noun. Jr. for. John. Example of an introductory word: Usually. Melissa. was the subject of the documentary. Example: The hot. and listened when she approached the railroad tracks. and is used to ensure clarity.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 131 Commas Commas are more important than many people realize. Use a comma to separate items in a series. she went shopping. during a thunderstorm. Use a comma after a name followed by Jr. There are ﬁve people in this sentence. the secretary reads the minutes of the meeting. Ph. Example of an introductory clause: After we found the source of the problem. My sister Diane.
he retired after a brief but serious illness. Dr. Smith Chemical Designs. Example of a greeting: Dear Uncle John. This tells the reader that a letter has been omitted. as the most well-designed. Use an apostrophe to show possession. His thorough. Florida. and to form the plurals of numbers and letters. Edward L. on July 6. Use an apostrophe in contractions.132 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Use a comma after the greeting of a friendly letter and after the closing of a letter. is named Penny. Add commas and periods as needed. He lives in a secluded retirement community at 2401 Beach Drive. J. and R. She chose four a’s on the multiple choice exam. to convince me. Example of a closing: Sincerely yours. Use a comma to separate contrasting elements in a sentence. a dachshund. Dr Newton Brown Jr a renowned chemist has held research positions for OPEC Phillips Petroleum Inc Edward L Smith Chemical Designs and R J Reynolds Co His thorough exhaustive research is recognized in academic circles as well as in the business community as the most well-designed reliable data available Unfortunately on July 6 1988 he retired after a brief but serious illness He lives in a secluded retirement community at 2401 Beach Drive Sarasota Springs Florida Answer Check your version against the following corrected paragraph. Example: Your speech needs strong arguments. has held research positions for OPEC. Practice The following paragraph contains no commas or periods. Apostrophes Apostrophes are used to show ownership or relationships. Reynolds Co. a renowned chemist. Examples: do not = don’t I will = I’ll it is = it’s Use an apostrophe to form the plural of numbers and letters. as well as in the business community. reliable data available. to show where letters have been omitted in a contraction.. you will have a much easier time spotting and correcting punctuation errors. Unfortunately. Jr. Examples: There are two o’s and two m’s in the word roommate. Phillips Petroleum Inc. exhaustive research is recognized in academic circles. Newton Brown. Sarasota Springs. . 1988. Example: My dog. Use commas to set off appositives—words or phrases that explain or identify the noun in a sentence.. If you know the most common rules for using apostrophes. not strong opinions.
to include in the newspaper article. . S. During the town board meeting Mr. Mr. b. a. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter. a. E. c. d. was to gather more information to include in the newspaper article. Sanders Jr. Sanders. and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31 2003. you may be asked questions like the following on your exam. S. Mr. E. During the town board meeting. Mr. and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31.. The reviewers purpose for interviewing Dr. was to gather more information to include in the newspaper article. set up picnic tables. was to gather more information to include in the newspaper article. and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31. Practice Choose the sentence that is punctuated correctly.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 133 USING APOSTROPHES TO SHOW POSSESSION Singular Nouns Rule: add ’s boy’s child’s lady’s Plural Nouns ending in s Rule: add ’ boys’ kids’ ladies’ Plural nouns not ending in s Rule: add ’s men’s children’s women’s Since apostrophes. Jr. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter set up picnic tables and distribute ﬂyers for the opening of the town beach on May 31 2003. The reviewer’s purpose for interviewing Dr. During the town board meeting. Jr. c. 2. E. was to gather more information. The reviewer’s purpose for interviewing Dr. commas. set up picnic tables. S. 1. sanders. During the town board meeting. S. d. E. 2003. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter. The reviewer’s purpose for interviewing Dr. 2003. Peterson volunteered to make a detailed list of community members who would help pick up litter set up picnic tables. Jr. and periods are often grouped together in the grammar section of a test. b. Sanders.
The sentence. (The correct form of the verb in this sentence would be singular because the subject—he—is singular. c. If a sentence includes a verb phrase (a main verb and one or more helping verbs). When all of the candidate’s were interviewed.) They ________. When all of the candidates were interviewed. When all of the candidate’s were interviewed it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this year’s retirements. the verb must be plural. written correctly. d. Similarly. it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this years retirements. He ________. use this simple test.134 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 3. Be sure that it agrees with the subject. and the verb in the sentence would be plural. . When all of the candidates were interviewed.) Try this simple test with other verbs such as sing. d. Answers 1. b. 3. would be: He speaks. this means that if a subject is singular. VERBS The subject of a sentence—who or what the sentence is about. it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this year’s retirements. or plan if you are confused about subject/verb agreement. Examples: The gymnast is performing. if the subject is plural. The new schedules have interfered with our plans. b. it was determined that four people would be chosen to ﬁll the openings left by this years retirements. Simply put. the verb must be singular. If you are unsure whether a verb is singular or plural. a subject ending with s is the sign of a plural subject. Fill in the blanks below using the verb speak. The new schedule has interfered with our plans. the helping verb (a verb that helps the main verb express action or make a statement) has to agree with the subject. write. a. The sentence. the person or thing performing the action— should agree with its verb in number. would be: They speak. think. (The correct form of the verb in this sentence would be plural because the subject—they—is plural. Notice that a verb ending with s is usually a sign of the singular form of the verb. d. and there would be a singular subject in the sentence. written correctly. The gymnasts are performing. 2.
Remember that the verbs have to be in agreement with their subjects. 5. The meeting (starts/start) promptly at 10:00.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 135 Practice The subjects and verbs in this list are in agreement. ________ 2. strikes birds ﬂy wind howls members meet Jack knows motor runs . 3. Identify the singular subject-verb pairs with an S and the plural with a P. The ﬂowers (were/was) arranged carefully. Lightning (strikes/strike) indiscriminately. 4. ________ 1. ________ 5. save 5. Answers 1. 2. ________ 4. That decision (changes/change) everything. Answers 1. Computers (saves/save) time. ________ 3. were 2. starts 3. S 3. 1. P 2. S Practice Choose the correct verb for each of the following sentences. S 5. changes 4. P 4.
depending on the usage. These pronouns are always singular: each either neither anybody anyone everybody everyone no one one nobody someone somebody For example. the substitution trick—inserting one for the words following the pronoun—will help you avoid making an error. These kinds of sentences may sound awkward because many speakers misuse these pronouns. Still others can be either singular or plural. Each one of the men wants his own car. Each of the men wants his own car. so the verb must be singular. . Any noun or pronoun found in a prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition. You can avoid a mismatch by mentally adding the word one after the pronoun and removing the other words between the pronoun and the verb. Some pronouns are always singular. Either one of the sales clerks knows where the sale merchandise is located. Try to ﬁlter out prepositional phrases when looking for the subject of a sentence.” Neither is the subject. Using the two sentences above as models. others are always plural. you would say “Neither of them has been to Chicago”—not “Neither of them have been to Chicago.136 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Agreement When Using Pronoun Subjects Few people have trouble matching noun subjects and verbs. and you may be used to hearing them used incorrectly. The indeﬁnite pronouns each. To be sure that you are using them correctly. note the prepositional phrases in bold. and neither are most often misused. but pronouns are sometimes difﬁcult for even the most sophisticated writers. and this word can never be the subject of the sentence. you will have a much easier time ﬁnding the subject of the sentence. Either of the sales clerks knows where the sale merchandise is located. It is important to note that a subject is never found in a prepositional phrase. When you have identiﬁed these phrases. Each of the men wants his own car. Either of the sales clerks knows where the sale merchandise is located. either. Look at the following examples.
Bill and Verna want to buy a new house. Is any of the pizza left? Are any of the pieces of pizza left? None of the time was wasted. They are: both few many several Other pronouns can be either singular or plural: all any most none some The words or prepositional phrases following these pronouns determine whether they are singular or plural. All of the jobs are ﬁnished. If what follows is singular. If what follows the pronoun is plural. He or she wants to buy a new house.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 137 Some pronouns are always plural and require a plural verb. He wants to buy a new house. they require a plural verb. All of the work is ﬁnished. Dutch is not widely spoken today. . He and she want to buy a new house. If two nouns or pronouns are joined by or or nor. If two nouns or pronouns are joined by and. the verb must be singular. the verb must be plural. Portuguese is not widely spoken today. Neither Portuguese nor Dutch is widely spoken today. and you will never make a mistake in agreement. She wants to buy a new house. Think of them as two separate sentences. they require a singular verb. None of the minutes were wasted.
works. Do all of the chapters (describes/describe) a different character? Answers 1. This plan alleviates trafﬁc in the downtown area. Present tense verbs let the reader imagine the action as it is being read. helps. 4. Each of the squares on the map will represent one city block.138 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Practice Choose the correct verb in each of the following sentences. The subject is each and takes the singular verb has. Arrows on streets indicated that the street was one way only in the direction of the arrow. and the third in the future tense. Each of the squares on the map represented one city block. Each of these prescriptions (has/have) side effects. The city planner will present a map of the city where some public buildings will be located. Street names are labeled. 3. Read the three paragraphs that follow. 5. The ﬁrst is written in the present tense. To plan for growth in the small city. they are highlighted so that you can easily see them. occurred. or will occur. This plan alleviated trafﬁc in the downtown area. has. Street names were labeled. Remember that the subject and verb have to agree in number. Arrows on streets will indicate . the second in the past tense. The subject is knowledge and takes the singular verb helps. Street names will be labeled. 2. The subject is either [Gayle or Diane] and uses the singular verb takes. Arrows on streets indicate that the street is one way only in the direction of the arrow. 5. The city planner presents a map of the city where some public buildings are located. a city planner was hired. A good knowledge of the rules (helps/help) you understand the game. 2. Past tense verbs tell the reader what has already happened. either Gayle or Diane (takes/take) out the trash. 1. a city planner is hired to speak to the town council. VERB TENSE The tense of a verb tells the reader when the action occurs. The subject is woman and takes the singular verb works. The subject is all and takes the plural verb describe. A woman from my neighborhood (works/work) at the Community Theater box ofﬁce. Two-way trafﬁc is allowed on streets with no arrows. Every other day. describe. 2. Two-way trafﬁc was allowed on streets with no arrows. 3. takes. The city planner presented a map of the city where some public buildings were located. 1. To plan for growth in the small city. Future tense verbs tell the reader what will happen. To plan for growth in the small city. 3. Notice the difference in the verbs. Each of the squares on the map represents one city block. 4. a city planner will be hired.
it should remain in the future tense. for instance. Correct Present Tense: The doorman opens the door and sees the crowd of people. Similarly. yesterday (past tense). Past Tense: The doorman opened the door and saw the crowd of people. and future tense by trying the word in a sentence beginning with today (present tense). The verb caught is in the past tense and indicates that the ﬁsh were caught at some earlier time. it should remain in the past tense. 1.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 139 that the street will be one way only in the direction of the arrow. I ________ will drive will think will rise will catch The important thing to remember about verb tense is to be consistent. Sometimes it is necessary to use a different verb tense in order to clarify when an action took place. (The verb sees is in the present tense and indicates that the action is occurring in the present. keep it in the present tense unless there is a speciﬁc reason to change—to indicate that some action occurred in the past. Incorrect The doorman opens the door and saw the crowd of people. I ________ drive think rise catch Past Tense Yesterday. or tomorrow (future tense). The game warden sees the ﬁsh that you caught. past. VERB TENSE Present Tense Today. This plan will alleviate trafﬁc in the downtown area. Verb tense should never be mixed as it is in the following sample. I ________ drove thought rose caught Future Tense Tomorrow.) . It is easy to distinguish present. Future Tense: The doorman will open the door and will see the crowd of people. (The verb was built is in the past tense and indicates that the house was built in the past. Read the following sentences and their explanations. if a passage begins in the future tense. Two-way trafﬁc will be allowed on streets with no arrows. The house that was built over a century ago sits on top of the hill. The verb sits is in the present tense and indicates that the action is still occurring. If a passage begins in the present tense.) 2. If a passage begins in the past tense.
3. Such errors are easy to spot when the pronouns are used alone in a sentence. c. 3. a. My instructor gave she a ride to the class. and she has trouble reading the manual. It begin to snow. When I ran. Then the error becomes more clear. b. See if you can spot the errors in the following sentences. Answers 1. When I ran. Her glasses is broken. you can turn the sentence with two pronouns into two separate sentences. The problem occurs when a pronoun is used with a noun or another pronoun. and the bank closed early. and she have trouble reading the manual. The director rode with Jerry and I. b. Her glasses were broke. It began to snow. The errors in these sentences are not as easy to spot as those in the sentences using a single pronoun. c. c. 2. In the second sentence. I always ran fast. d. and she had trouble reading the manual. Me went to the movie with he. most people would readily be able to identify the mistakes in the following sentences. In fact. I always run fast. Pronouns Using a single pronoun in a sentence is usually easy to do. I always have ran fast. d. . It beginning to snow. a. and the bank closed early. Her glasses were broken. and she had trouble reading the manual. and the bank is closed early. It was begin to snow. a. d. Belle and him are going to the company picnic. In order to remedy this problem. b. b. Her glasses was broke. 1.140 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar Practice Choose the sentence that uses the verb tense correctly. I always run fast. Most people know that Me in the ﬁrst sentence should be I and that he should be him. she should be her. d. When I run. When I run. and the bank closed early. 2. a.
It answers the question who or whom. him. (A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that is the same as the subject. If the noun that a pronoun represents is singular. Knowing when to use objective pronouns can become problematic when they are used in compounds such as: She directed her comments to Margaret and me. You and it do not change their forms.) Subjective pronouns are I. either both pronouns must be singular or both pronouns must be plural. her. For example: She went with me. we. he.) Objective pronouns are: me. An indirect object is the word that comes before the direct object. (singular) Doctors must take breaks when they are tired. Like subjects and verbs. and they. the pronoun must be singular. On the other hand. Pronoun Agreement Using singular and plural pronouns can be a problem at times. us. If so. To help you move through this grammar problem with ease. Consult the list of singular and plural pronouns you saw earlier in this chapter. Belle is going to the company picnic. The doctor must take a break when she is tired. Sometimes a pronoun represents another pronoun. if the noun a pronoun represents is plural. she. the subject it is the same as the pronoun I. and them. It tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 141 The director rode with Jerry. (A direct object is the word that receives the action of the verb or shows the result of the action. For example: It was I. (plural) One of the girls misplaced her purse. In this sentence. Objective pronouns—those that are the object of a preposition or the direct/indirect object of the sentence—are in the objective case. She directed her comments to Margaret. pronouns must match the number of the nouns they represent. the pronoun must be plural. She directed her comments to me. you should know that subject pronouns—those that are the subject in a sentence or the predicate nominative—are in the nominative case. so there is no need to memorize case for those words. The director rode with me (not I). He (not him) is going to the company picnic. A simple way to ﬁnd the correct pronoun is to test each one separately. (singular) All of the girls misplaced their purses. (plural) . For example: She gave me some ﬂowers on my birthday.
they 4. Neither my cousins nor my uncle knows what (he/they) will do tomorrow. The auto parts store sent Bob and Neil the parts (he/they) ordered. he. By reading the explanations below and looking at the examples. . me 5. 1. 2. If a singular and a plural noun or pronoun are joined by nor. Andrew or Alex will bring (his/their) camera so (he/they) can take pictures of the party. 3. his. Carolyn and (he/him) went to the movies with Lisa and (I/me). Its/It’s Its is a possessive pronoun and shows that something belongs to it. you can learn to use these words correctly every time.142 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by and. If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by or. The bank or the credit union can lend money to its patrons. The only time you should ever use it’s is when you can also substitute the words it is or it has. he 2. Answers 1. It’s is a contraction for it is or it has. its 3. Neither the soldiers nor the sergeant was sure of his location. Practice Choose the correct pronoun in the following sentences. If he and she want to join us. use a singular pronoun. the pronoun should agree with the closest noun or pronoun it represents. Neither the sergeant nor the soldiers was sure of their location. The treasurer or the assistant will loan you his calculator. One of the ﬁle folders is not in (its/their) drawer. 4. 5. use a plural pronoun to represent them. he WORDS COMMONLY CONFUSED The following word pairs are often misused in written language. they are welcome to do so. Mark and Jennifer planned a meeting to discuss their ideas.
Your name will be the next one called. Who refers to people. That/Who That refers to things. Imagine that the apostrophe in they’re is actually a very small letter a. Their means belonging to them. you can see that it contains the word here. To/Too/Two To can be used as a preposition or an inﬁnitive. It’s only fair that I should do the dishes for you tonight. Of the three words. There is an adverb that tells where an action or item is located. you should be able to substitute here. their can be most easily transformed into the word them. The ofﬁce worker who invented Wite-Out® was very creative. Their coats should be hanging on racks by the door. This is the house that my sister bought. There/Their/They’re Their is a possessive pronoun that shows ownership. Use they’re in a sentence only when you can substitute they are. They’re is a contraction for the words they are. Example: My car is in the employee parking lot. The meaning of the sentence would be different if another preposition such as on. in the red. and the sentence should still make sense. It is easy to remember the differences if you remember these tips. Extend the r on the right side and connect the i and the r to turn their into them. There is the man who helped me ﬁnd my wallet. The only time you should use you’re is when you can substitute the words you are. by the door . The book that I need is no longer in print. Other examples: to the ofﬁce. If you examine the word there. A preposition shows relationships between other words in a sentence. to our disadvantage. The word in shows the relation of my car to the parking lot. Whenever you use there. over the top. in an open room. You’re is a contraction for the words you are. at his restaurant. This clue will help you remember that their means that it belongs to them.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 143 The dog knows its way home. beside the table. or beside were used. Yes. they’re coming to dinner with us next Saturday night. over. You’re the next person to be called. Your/You’re Your is a possessive pronoun that means something belongs to you. to my church. She told me to wait over there for the next available salesperson.
you will never misuse this form. to build. I did some very careful thinking. two 6. I did not know that you wanted to go too. to advance. Answers 1. 2. their 5. (Its/it’s) (to/too/two) late (to/too/two) remedy the situation now. to ﬁnd. to peruse To ﬁnd the correct answer. I think (your/you’re) going (to/too/two) win at least (to/too/two) more times. to read. to want. substitute the word also. We left (there/their/they’re) house after the storm subsided. to deny. It’s. There are only two people in our party. (There/Their/They’re) going (to/too/two) begin construction as soon as the plans are ﬁnished. 4. The sentence should still make sense. as in one. two. For example: to talk. 6. to 4. too. The corporation moved (its/it’s) home ofﬁce. to. Practice Choose the correct form of these words commonly confused. who 3. 1. Two is a number. to see. If you memorize this. Where is the librarian (who/that) helped me with the research material? 3. Too can also mean excessively: It was too hot inside the car. They’re. its .144 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar An inﬁnitive is to followed by a verb. To see if you are using the correct spelling of the word too. 5. Too means also. to misinterpret. to 2. you’re.
Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 145 GRAMMAR CHECKLIST To answer grammar questions on the Civil Service exam. ✓ recognize words commonly confused. and apostrophes. read them carefully. do not waste time going back to review answer choices you have already eliminated as being wrong. at the end of the test. ✓ leave spaces for those questions you skipped. ✓ return to any questions you skipped. ✓ check all of your answers. you should be able to ✓ identify complete sentences and sentence fragments. ✓ look for subject-verb agreement and consistency of verb tense. ✓ skip over questions you do not know and come back to them later. ✓ check pronouns to make sure the correct form is used and that the number (singular or plural) is correct. . ✓ check for correct punctuation. if you have time. As you answer grammar questions in multiple-choice format. such as periods. ✓ when selecting an answer. and make a choice. commas. ✓ read all of the answer choices before selecting the correct answer.
50. 9. 47. 41. 32. 37. 35. 44. 39. 27. 13. 19. 15. 28. 4. 33. 17. punctuation. 48. 36. 8. 3. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 49. 12. subject-verb agreement. 43. 1. 38. 22. 30. 21. pronouns. 25. 7. 46. 31. 42. 6. 11.146 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar PRACTICE QUESTIONS The 50 questions in this exercise test your knowledge of complete sentences/sentence fragments. 5. 45. 10. and words commonly confused. 29. 34. 20. 14. 2. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 18. 40. 24. 16. 23. verb tense.
S. 3. a. I saw Dr. The children in the park. do not make any sudden movements. select choice d.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 147 For questions 1–8. d. Manuel wanted to complete all of his courses so he could get his degree. We visited the presidential library of Lyndon B. John is an avid stamp collector. Tennessee. The train leaving the station. d. c. Supreme Court. a. b. 8. a. no mistakes Sandra Day O’Connor was the ﬁrst woman to serve on the U. d. Ernest Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for Literature. When will you teach me how to cook like you do? I can’t wait Janet can’t either. Sultana because Dr. 7. c. a. 6. no mistakes The medieval literature class was very interesting. a. no mistakes The sky was a brilliant blue this morning. b. c. b. b. a. c. no mistakes At the end of the day. b. 1. She couldn’t believe the premise of the story. The national park system in the United States preserves land for all to enjoy. b. 5. no mistakes . d. b. d. b. Johnson. Christina is an excellent elementary school teacher. a. c. Turn off the television it’s time for dinner! no mistakes Baseball is the national pastime of the United States. no mistakes What is the best route to Philadelphia? The artichokes cost more than the asparagus does. The rest of the story coming to you later. 2. c. d. Das was on vacation. c. c. look for run-on sentences or sentence fragments. d. a. If there are no mistakes. Elvis Presley’s home is in Memphis. including all of the girls on the swings. The county executive a person who works very hard. Choose the answer choice that does NOT express a correct. they hoped to be ﬁnished with all tasks. no mistakes If you see a grizzly bear. complete sentence. 4. d.
c. Jessica made an appointment to see a doctor. a. and white. c. c. c. My favorite season is Spring. Max was the most physically ﬁt and he won the 5K race. Exhausted I climbed into bed. After checking our equipment we began our hiking trip. Bonnie was outgoing friendly and sociable. no mistakes Occasionally someone will stop and ask for directions. 12. d. 9. a. If you ﬁnd no mistakes. My best friend. Aunt Ruth took me shopping. I like jazz. c. France Spain. d. and blues music. Concerned about her health. 10. d. 14. b. blue. select choice d. O’Connor. As far as I know that room is empty. NASA was launching its ﬁrst space shuttle of the year. 15. b. my cousin is going to Hawaii in August. choose the sentence or phrase that has a mistake in capitalization or punctuation. a. b. b. c. The abundant. 13. is always on time. c. Hoping for the best. b. I called Dan. Shortly she will answer all messages. Melanie sent me a picture of her new puppy. a. Maureen. b. d. The boys’ wore identical sweaters. a. a. Ecstatic the winner hugged her coach. James. My good friend. choose the sentence that uses commas correctly. but we couldn’t hear him. a. Dr. a. c. Lauren’s father is an auto mechanic. After his vacation to the Caribbean Art decided to learn scuba diving. Last Monday. Timothy however will attend a community college in the fall. d. For questions 14–19. b. 16. and Italy. b. d. My physician. 11. violets were scattered everywhere in the woodland garden.148 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar For questions 9–13. When you come to the end of Newton Road. You can have chocolate ice cream or you can have a dish of vanilla pudding. classical. d. no mistakes He shouted from the window. We visited England. no mistakes . We elected Ben as treasurer of the freshman class. turn left onto Wilson Street. told me I was very healthy. Those sneakers are available in black tan red. d.
has fallen . b. c. rescue d. no mistakes Dear Anne. b. and mayonnaise on his sandwich. 18. Don B. That book must be yours. toast. a. While trying to ________ his cat from a tree. have responded 23. c. no mistakes The US ﬂag should be ﬂown proudly. a. arrived. Sincerely. falls b. the owner of the supermarket was recognized for helping a customer who ________ on the icy sidewalk. arrives. have rescued c. d. c.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 149 17. He wanted turkey. choose the correct verb form. would fall c. Norman was one of the founders of the community. In Tuesday’s paper. he fell and hurt himself. will have arrived. b. no mistakes For questions 20–25. rescuing 22. a. yours Yours truly. The volunteers from the ﬁre department ________ quickly and extinguished a ﬁre on North Country Road. be rescuing b. 21. a. and orange juice for breakfast. 19. d. had fallen d. This is someone elses coat. b. She served eggs. c. d. will respond b. 20. a. a. lettuce. responded c. will arrive. will have responded d. I am trying to become more skilled at weaving before winter ________ a. d.
________ met more than ten years ago at a mutual friend’s birthday party. The person ________ made this delicious cheesecake has my vote. She and me d. is d. We arranged the ﬂowers and placed ________ in the center of the table. Her and me c. a. mine d. The people who bought this old lamp at the antique auction ________ very smart. I ________ her speak on Friday night about the advantages of organic gardening. will hear For questions 26–30. a. there d. which c. whose 28. choose the correct pronoun form. me c. myself 27. its 29. would have heard d. them b. their c. his b. She and I .150 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 6 Grammar 24. a. was b. a. were c. who d. that b. this b. 26. Her and I b. a. it b. George and Michael left ________ backpacks in the car. a. I b. That snappy looking sports car belongs to my sister and ________. will have heard b. a. that 30. would hear c. has been 25.
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For questions 31–40, ﬁnd the sentence that has a mistake in grammar or usage. If there are no mistakes, select choice d. 31. a. b. c. d. 32. a. b. c. d. 33. a. b. c. d. 34. a. b. c. d. 35. a. b. c. d. 36. a. b. c. d. 37. a. b. c. d. 38. a. b. c. d. Have you ever read the book called The Firm? She urged me not to go. Stop, look, and listen. no mistakes Three’s a crowd. If you’re not sure, look in the dictionary. They weren’t the only ones that didn’t like the movie. no mistakes. Anne will leave ﬁrst and Nick will follow her. Maya Angelou, a famous poet, recently spoke at our school. The clerk asked for my address and phone number. no mistakes That parrot doesnt talk. Don’t spend too much money. We waited until he stopped to make a phone call. no mistakes Alberto laughed loudly when he saw us. They’re looking for another apartment. The ﬁrst house on the street is there’s. no mistakes I love the ﬁreworks on the Fourth of July. The dog’s barking woke us from a sound sleep. My grandparents live in Dallas, Texas. no mistakes Ursula has broke one of your plates. The sun rose from behind the mountains. Don’t spend too much time on that project. no mistakes She believed in keeping a positive attitude. After we sat down to eat dinner, the phone rung. Sign all three copies of the form. no mistakes
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39. a. b. c. d. 40. a. b. c. d.
The Adirondack Mountains are in New York State. President Carter returned control of the Panama Canal to Panama. She missed the bus and arrives late. no mistakes The childrens books are over there. There is not enough paper in the printer for the entire document. What’s the weather forecast for today? no mistakes
For questions 41–45, choose the sentence that does NOT use the correct form of the commonly confused word. If there are no mistakes, select choice d. 41. a. b. c. d. 42. a. b. c. d. 43. a. b. c. d. 44. a. b. c. d. 45. a. b. c. d. If it’s nice weather tomorrow, I plan to go for a hike. Some analysts think the stock market has seen it’s best days. It’s usually a good idea to purchase life insurance. no mistakes She spoke too quickly to the group in the lobby. Can you attend this morning’s meeting too? Save all of your ﬁles in to or three folders. no mistakes When will you bring you’re pictures to work? It is your responsibility to arrange the details. If you’re planning to attend, please let me know in advance. no mistakes Only their supervisor can answer those questions. There is a phone call for you. They’re only two ways to handle that situation. no mistakes They are the ones who deserve all the credit. This is the house that I told you about. Marie sent a gift to her grandmother, who is in the hospital. no mistakes
For questions 46–50, choose the sentence that is correct in both grammar and punctuation. 46. a. b. c. d. The trip was scheduled for Friday the family was excited. The trip was scheduled for Friday, and the family was excited. The trip was scheduled for. Friday the family was excited. The trip, was scheduled for Friday, and the family was excited.
Grammar CHAPTER 6
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
47. a. b. c. d. 48. a. b. c. d. 49. a. b. c. d. 50. a. b. c. d.
They ﬁnished their lunch. Left the building. And returned at 1:30. They ﬁnished their lunch, left the building, and returns at 1:30. They ﬁnished their lunch, left the building, and returned at 1:30. They ﬁnished their lunch, left the building, and returning at 1:30. Searching for her keys, Kira, knew she would be late. Searching for her keys Kira knew she would be late. Searching, for her keys and Kira knew she would be late. Searching for her keys, Kira knew she would be late. The long-time residents in the community were proud of there school district. The long-time residents in the community were proud of their school district. The long-time residents in the community was proud of their school district. The long-time residents in the community, were proud of their school district. Lisa, Dara, and Amy wanted to work together on the committee. Lisa Dara and Amy wants to work together on the committee. Lisa, Dara, and Amy wanting to work together on the committee. Lisa, Dara, and Amy have wants to work together on the committee.
VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS
CHAPTER 6 Grammar
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. c. This is a sentence fragment. c. This is a run-on sentence. b. This is a sentence fragment. d. There are no mistakes. c. This is a run-on sentence. c. This is a sentence fragment. d. There are no mistakes. b. This is a sentence fragment. b. The commas set off the appositive in the sentence. a. The comma sets off an introductory clause. a. The comma sets off an introductory phrase. c. The comma sets off the appositive in the sentence. b. The commas separate items in a series. a. Spring is not a proper noun, so it should not be capitalized. c. The word boys’ should not show possession; no apostrophe is needed. a. A comma is needed to set off the introductory word, occasionally. b. An apostrophe is needed before the last s in the word elses to show possession. a. There should be periods after the abbreviation U.S. b. The comma should be placed after the word yours. d. This sentence is in the present tense. c. The inﬁnitive form of the verb is used in this sentence. b. This sentence is in the past tense. c. This sentence needs a verb that is in the past tense. b. Were is in agreement with the plural subject people. d. This sentence is in the future tense. b. The correct form of the pronoun is me (objective case). c. The correct pronoun is who because it refers to a person. b. The pronoun their agrees with the plural subject, George and Michael. a. The pronoun them agrees with the plural noun ﬂowers. d. She and I is the subject of the sentence, so the subjective case is needed. d. There are no errors. c. The word that should be who because it refers to people. a. There should be a comma before the conjunction and in this sentence to separate two complete thoughts. a. The contraction doesn’t has an apostrophe. c. The correct possessive pronoun is theirs, not there’s. d. There are no errors. a. The correct verb form is has broken.
Both verbs. 42. . 39. a. The form of this word is the number two. c. Choice a is a run-on sentence. d. The word returned is in the past tense. c. 45. b. Choices a and c misuse commas. b. The correct verb form is rang. and the correct punctuation. Choice c uses verb tense incorrectly. The comma in this sentence correctly separates the introductory phrase. 44. This sentence should use the adverb there. b. c. There are no errors. missed and arrives should be in the past tense. c. as are ﬁnished and left. Choice c contains sentence fragments.Grammar CHAPTER 6 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 155 38. Choice d misuses commas. 46. the correct verb. 50. Choice b lacks punctuation. c. 43. b. This choice uses the comma and the conjunction correctly. The word there is used incorrectly in choice a. 40. This sentence uses the possessive form (with no apostrophe). Choice d is an example of comma misuse. a. Choice a contains sentence fragments. Choices b and d misuse verb tense. and d misuse commas and verb tense. Choices b. 48. An apostrophe should be added before the s in children’s to make it possessive. a. 47. This sentence uses the correct form of their. d. 41. This sentence uses the correct punctuation in a series and the correct verb form. This sentence should use the possessive form of the word your. its. 49.
The fundamental rules and their exceptions are outlined here. The secret to correct spelling is memorization. If you take the time to commit the words you encounter every day to memory. test tips. This can be a difﬁcult task. have a good grasp of spelling rules. T here is no “quick ﬁx” for spelling. it is always tested on Civil Service exams. you will find spelling rules. The best way to prepare for a spelling test is to put your memorization skills into high gear. even for the best speller. and know the exceptions to those rules. but your correspondence and written work will be more clear and effective and look more professional. you will be given several possible spellings for a word and asked to identify the one that is correctly spelled. because you must be able to see very subtle differences between word spellings.= 7 CHAPTER Spelling Since accurate spelling is such an essential and important communication skill. Typically. and practice exercises that will make the spelling section of the exam easier for you. In this chapter. Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 157 . Spelling tests are usually given in multiple-choice format. you will not only excel on this section of the test.
■ ■ none Keep the ﬁnal e to retain the soft sound of c or g preceding the e—as in noticeable or courageous. One-syllable words ending in y generally remain the same—as in dryness or shyly. ■ Some nouns that end in o preceded by a consonant are formed by adding es—as in potatoes or tomatoes. When spelling the plural form of a noun. do not change the spelling of the word—as in unnecessary or misspell When adding sufﬁxes. just add s—as in attorneys or monkeys. When words end in y and a consonant precedes the y. ■ ■ ■ If a noun ends in o and is preceded by a vowel. When adding preﬁxes. . change the y to i before adding a sufﬁx with i—as in hurried or funnier. add an s—as in pianos or radios. Drop the ﬁnal e before adding a sufﬁx that begins with a vowel—as in caring or usable. add an s—as in chiefs or roofs. none If the accent is not on the last syllable. do not change the spelling of the word—as in ﬁnally or usually. ch. bushes. judgment. change the y to i before adding ness or ly—as in readily or heaviness. double the ﬁnal consonant before the sufﬁx if the word has only one syllable—as in planning or if the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel— as in forgetting. An es is added when there is an extra sound heard in words that end in s. If a noun ends in f or fe. birches. or x—as in dresses. The Exception Use i before e except after c—as in receive or conceive—or when ei sounds like a—as in neighbor or weigh. or acknowledgment are exceptions. argument. sh. When a sufﬁx begins with a vowel. add an s—as in books or letters. change the y to an i and add es—as in salaries or ladies. When a word ends in y.158 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling SPELLING RULES AND EXCEPTIONS The Rule Use i before e—as in piece. or boxes. Words like truly. do not add a double consonant—as in canceled or preferable. Keep the ﬁnal e before a sufﬁx beginning with a consonant—as in careful or careless. ■ If the noun ends in y and is preceded by a vowel. Some nouns that end in f or fe are formed by changing the f to v and adding s or es—as in knives or leaves. ■ If the noun ends in a y. Nouns are normally made plural by adding an s. add an es—as in boxes or lunches.
There are two o’s and two m’s in roommate. or women. A few compound nouns are irregular—as six year olds or drive-ins. proceed. species. signs. When a noun and a modiﬁer make a compound noun. Some foreign words are formed as they were in their original languages—as alumni or data. plural ending in -i —as in stimulus/stimuli When using -cede. Some foreign words may be spelled as they were in their original languages or by adding s or es—as appendices/appendixes or indexes/indices. the noun is made plural—as in sisters-in-law or passers-by. for example. and concede. -ceed. and words that take the shape of words are spelled with an apostrophe and an s—She received all A’s on her report card. ■ ■ . plural ending in -a —as in criterion/criteria * singular ending in -eau. ■ ■ ■ Some foreign words are formed according to the ending of the word: * singular ending in -is. Other words that have the same sound end in -cede: secede. There are only three words ending in -ceed: exceed. ■ Some plural nouns are irregular nouns and have to be memorized—as children. or sheep. plural ending in -a —as in curriculum/curricula * singular ending in -on. and succeed. letters. memorize the following: ■ There is only one English word ending in -sede: supersede. precede. plural ending in -eaux —as in beau/beaux * singular ending in -a. plural ending in -es —as in analysis/analyses crisis/crises * singular ending in -um. or -sede. plural ending in -ae —as in formula/formulae * singular ending in -us. ■ ■ ■ ■ Numbers.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 159 ■ Plural or compound nouns can be spelled with an s or an es—as in bookmarks or mailboxes. Some nouns take the same form in the singular and the plural—as deer. men.
alott 4. alot c. a. probbaly c. or crime. Accurit . excibition d. We went to an ________ of early Egyptian art. a. and know the exceptions to each rule. scissors. Remember that long vowels inside words usually are followed by single consonants—as in sofa. probely d. ________ answers on your test mean a better score for you. or sufﬁx that will always be spelled the same way. a lot d. a. exibition b. Practice Choose the word that is spelled correctly in the following sentences. 1. Short vowels inside words usually are followed by double consonants—as in dribble. exhibition c. Accurate b. probably 3. ■ Memorize as many spelling rules as you can. We will ________ go to the movies tonight.160 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling HOW TO ANSWER SPELLING QUESTIONS ■ Sound out the word in your mind. Say Wed-nes-day or lis-ten or bus-i-ness to yourself so that you remember to add the silent letters when you write the word. in. See if there is a root. We took ________ of pictures on our vacation. Acurate c. Accuret d. Habit is a self-contained root word that is easy to spell. ■ Look at each part of the word. in the word uninhabitable. For example. a. un. exebition 2. preﬁx. allot b. and able are always spelled the same. probly b. total. or toddler. ■ Give yourself auditory (listening) clues when you learn words.
Do not let them get in the way of the words you need to study. If you do not receive a list of spelling words to study.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 161 5. you may be given a list of spelling words to study. excessive d. The groups can be bunched as three. These words are typical of the words that appear on spelling exams. achievement allege anxiety appreciate asthma arraignment autonomous auxiliary doubtful eligible enough enthusiasm equipped exception fascinate fatigue ninety noticeable occasionally occurred offense ofﬁcial pamphlet parallel . meaning a great deal. which means to assign. The meteorologist predicted an ________ amount of wind today. 4. excesive Answers 1. a. Divide the list into groups to study. or seven words. b. If so. c. portion. excesive c. Say the words as you read them. d. Consider making ﬂash cards for the words that you ﬁnd the most difﬁcult. c. Highlight or circle the tricky elements in each word. It should not be confused with allot. exessive b. 3. is always two words. the following list is a good one to use. here are some suggestions to make your studying a little easier and quicker. A lot. USING SPELLING LISTS When you apply to take your Civil Service test. ﬁve. 5. Spell them out in your mind so you can “hear” the spelling. Quiz yourself and then check your spelling. Cross out or discard any words that you already know for certain. 2. a. or ration out.
162 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling brief ballistics barricade beauty beige business bureau calm cashier capacity cancel circuit colonel comparatively courteous criticism custody cyclical debt deﬁnitely descent forfeit gauge grieve guilt guarantee harass hazard height incident indict initial innocent irreverent jeopardy knowledge leisure license lieutenant maintenance mathematics mortgage personnel physician politics possess privilege psychology recommend referral rehearsal salary schedule seize separate speciﬁc statistics surveillance suspicious tentative thorough transferred withhold .
to tolerate board: a group of people in charge. moderately good fare: transportation charge. having a pleasing appearance. a scene site: place or setting of something council: a group that advises counsel: advice. It is best to study the spellings and the deﬁnitions until you have each word memorized. food and drink. a piece of wood bored: to be tired of something brake: to slow or stop something break: to split or crack build: to construct billed: presented a statement of costs cite: to quote as an authority or example sight: ability to see. to get along for: because of or directed to fore: located at or toward the front four: the number between three and ﬁve . ad: a shortened form of advertisement add: to combine to form a sum affect: to inﬂuence effect: outcome or result allowed: permitted aloud: using a speaking voice bare: without covering bear: a large furry animal.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 163 HOMOPHONES Words that sound alike but have different meanings are called homophones. to advise dew: moisture do: to make or carry out due: owed fair: consistent with the rules. The following lists some of the most common homophones for you to study.
undecorated. grinding sound. a tool used to smooth wood. irritate or annoy great: very large in size hear: to listen to here: a speciﬁc place heard: the past tense of hear herd: a large group of animals hole: an opening whole: entire or complete hour: sixty minutes our: a pronoun showing possession knew: past tense of know new: recent know: to understand no: not permitted lead: ﬁrst or foremost position. beforehand peace: free from war piece: a part of something plain: level area. clearly seen plane: ﬂat and even. a margin.164 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling grate: reduce to fragments. to bring or guide led: past tense of lead leased: rented for a speciﬁc time period least: lowest in importance or rank lessen: made fewer in amount or quantity lesson: exercise in which something is learned made: past tense of make maid: a female servant meat: the edible part of an animal meet: come together passed: approved past: previous. make a harsh. information pointing toward a clue. a shortened form of airplane rain: water falling in drops reign: period during which a monarch rules .
g. software wear: to have or carry on the body where: location or place weather: condition of the atmosphere whether: a possibility wood: material that trees are made of would: part of the verb will . character or part played by a performer roll: to move forward by turning over scene: the place something happens seen: part of the verb see soar: to ﬂy or rise high into the air sore: painful stair: part of a ﬂight of steps stare: to look directly and ﬁxedly sweet: having a sugary taste suite: series of connected rooms their: ownership of something there: a place they’re: a contraction of they are threw: the past tense of throw. e. hardware.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 165 right: correct or proper rite: a ritual or ceremony write: to record in print role: function or position.. extremely ware: articles of the same general kind. an act of motion through: by means of. among or between tide: variation of the level of bodies of water caused by gravitational forces tied: fastened or secured to: indicates direction too: also two: the number after one vary: to change very: complete.
New is the opposite of old. 4. He stepped on the (break/brake) just before the stop sign. Knew means having known something. Fax—short for facsimile—is a document sent or received from a fax machine. facts. The speaker wanted to have all his (facts/fax) correct before he spoke to the audience. brake. Counsel is advice. 1. 6. She considered it a (lessen/lesson) learned. Financial (council/counsel) is available for anyone who wants to invest money. knew. 3. Answers 1. 5. A lesson is an experience or example from which knowledge or wisdom is gained. A council is a group of people who meet for a purpose. 5. To hire means to engage and pay someone for services rendered.166 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling Practice Choose the word that is spelled correctly. rank. 4. 2. or status. hire. A brake is a device used for stopping. . To lessen means to make less. lesson. counsel. 6. 3. 2. Higher means to be in an elevated position. The manager decided to (higher/hire) a few more employees. No one (new/knew) exactly what had happened. Facts are knowledge or information based on truth. Break means to damage or destroy something.
40. 45. 21. 37. 39. 23. 11. choose the correctly spelled word. 24. 36. 32. 49. 18. 31. 50. 14. 7. 28. 12. 1. 22. 9. 13. 34. 46. 35. 42. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 4. 47. 27.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 167 PRACTICE QUESTIONS In each of the following questions. 48. 5. 2. 43. 29. 33. 41. 16. 8. 44. 30. 17. 25. 10. 6. 20. 38. 19. 15. 3.
a. beleaf 2. illicit . prossecuted c. he needed to have ________ ability. mechenical d. sherif d. superb b. bilief c. To be elected ________. supperb c. mechinical b. To be hired for the job. The accounting ﬁrm was ________ for fraudulent practices. elicitt b. Every ________ has to be handled differently. supurb d. belief d. The agents were searching for ________ cargo on the airplane. a. machanical 7. beleif b. a. prosecuited 3. situation c. prosecuted b. sheriff 6. It was a ________day for the department’s annual picnic. ellicit c. sherriff c. a. sittuation b. situachun d.168 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling 1. sitiation 4. a. sepurb 5. sherrif b. It is my ________ that municipal employees handle their jobs with great professionalism. a. prosecutted d. candidates must have a solid background in law enforcement. a. illicet d. mechanical c.
inquirry c. enquery 9. paralel b. stableize d. a. inquiry b. stabilize b.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 169 8. a. irelevant c. the judge overruled it. The attorney asked a question that was ________ to the case. lisense b. There will be an immediate ________ into the cause of the accident. stableise 13. incouraging . irrelevent 14. irrelevant d. A ________ can be obtained at the town hall. passing a road test requires drivers to ________ park. encouredging b. The paramedics attempted to ________ the victim. a. terminated b. a. stablize c. The mayor highlighted the ________ statistics during her campaign speech. paralell c. a. parallel 12. In many states. termenated c. a. termanated 10. encouraging c. irelevent b. lisence c. license 11. The union workers’ contract could not be ________before the calendar year ended. incurraging d. lycence d. a. enquirry d. terrminated d. parallal d.
a. 17. d. b. a. c. d. a. 18. b. 20. c. c. c. c. b. choose the misspelled word. a. c. 22. 21. d. a. 16. a. b. select choice d. a. c. d. 15. 19. d. d. a. c. radios leaves alumni no mistakes anouncement advisement description no mistakes omission aisle litrature no mistakes informal servent comfortable no mistakes vegetable width variation no mistakes twentieth fortieth ninetieth no mistakes association unecessary illegal no mistakes villin volunteer voracious no mistakes . d. If there are no mistakes. b.170 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling For each of the following questions. d. b. b. b.
Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 171 23. d. b. 28. b. d. a. d. a. d. 26. c. d. 25. b. a. b. a. b. d. d. hindrence equipped possessive no mistakes procedure judgment testamony no mistakes explicit abduct rotate no mistakes through threw thorough no mistakes quantaty quality quaint no mistakes requirement reverence resistent no mistakes incorporate contridict exhale no mistakes pertain reversel memorization no mistakes marshal martial tyrenny no mistakes . a. b. c. b. 30. c. a. c. 27. d. 24. a. d. c. b. b. 31. c. a. a. c. c. c. 29.
storing nuclear ________ is always a problem. 34. waist 39. cite c. a. 37. The price for the carpet was ________. b. a. d. dessert 38. a. c. 33. a. This is the ________ of the new art museum. 36. b. choose the correct homophone. d. fare 40. d. While nuclear energy is efﬁcient. waste b. fair b. b. optimum palpable plunder no mistakes ravinous miraculous wondrous no mistakes phenomonal emulate misconception no mistakes mischief temperture lovable no mistakes stadium competitor atheletic no mistakes For the questions 37–50. d. b. a. desert b.172 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling 32. c. b. My favorite ________ is peach pie with vanilla ice cream. c. a. d. c. 35. a. site . a. sight b. a. c.
there 46. peace 47. piece b. by 42. a. a. stationery b. forth 43. a. a. passed . we’ll meet you ________. a. stationary 49. their c. here b. Come ________ the park later this evening to see the sunset. past b. The acoustics in the auditorium made it easy for the audience to ________ the melodic sounds of the soloist. right 48. cozy ________ house was a good decision. they’re b. All children have the ________ to an education. guessed b. a. mussels b. We ________ the exit and had to turn around.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 173 41. a. It is a good idea to exercise on a ________ bicycle during inclement weather. a. bye c. Have dinner with us at the restaurant. Our choice to stay in the comfortable. buy b. we went digging for clams and ________. May I have a ________ of cheese? a. write b. At the beach. fourth b. rite c. hear 44. muscles 50. a. guest 45. This is the ________ book George has read.
b. b. 3. d. 29. d. 37. 14. c. 31. 33. 24. c. c. a. 28. . b. 5. c. inquiry terminated license parallel stabilize irrelevant encouraging no mistakes announcement literature servant no mistakes no mistakes unnecessary villain hindrance testimony no mistakes no mistakes quantity resistant contradict reversal tyranny no mistakes ravenous phenomenal temperature athletic Dessert is an after-dinner treat. b. a. which means to draw out or extract. 13. 26.174 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 7 Spelling ANSWERS 1. 32. c. c. d. 8. the waist is the middle of the body. a. 16. 10. 18. 23. b. 12. 9. a. b. a. a. a. d. 15. d. 22. 27. 35. 17. c. 6. 11. a. This word should not be confused with elicit. 30. 19. 4. b. d. belief prosecuted situation superb sheriff mechanical illicit. 21. 20. b. a. 2. Waste means material that is rejected during a process. a. d. a. d. d. 25. 34. d. b. 38. a. a desert is an arid land. 7. 36.
forth means forward. 48. past means a time gone by. There refers to a place. c.Spelling CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 175 39. a. a. A guest is one who is a recipient of hospitality. c. By means near. c. bye is used to express farewell. their is a possessive pronoun. b. 45. 40. peace means calm or quiet. a rite is a ceremonial ritual. muscles are body tissues. Mussels are marine animals. Guessed is to predict without signiﬁcant information. 47. b. A piece is a portion. to write is to put words on paper. a fare is a transportation fee. place. cite means to refer to. A right is a privilege. Site refers to a place. a. Hear means to perceive sound with the ear. 44. buy means to purchase. 50. Fair means equitable. . here is a location. Fourth refers to the number four. 46. stationery is writing paper. sight is the ability to see. a. c. Passed is the past tense of pass. 43. Stationary means standing still. 49. 42. b. or position. 41. they’re is a contraction for they are. b.
take Practice Test 2 in the last chapter of this book. Take Practice Test 1. Each test should take about 30–45 minutes to complete. Then try it again. Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 177 . you should be able to use what you have learned to answer the questions on these sample examinations.= 8 CHAPTER Practice Test 1 Now that you have studied all of the chapters in this book. Good luck! U se the answer grid on the following page to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. Next. This chapter contains your first practice test. Be sure to review the questions you answered incorrectly by going back and studying the corresponding material from earlier chapters.
39. 50. 19. 7. 45. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 28. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 36. 34. 35. 33. 42. 30. 31. 44. 27. 43. 21. 17. 40. 16. 6. 41. 29. 2. 12. 48. 25. 13. 14. 15. 18. 37. 4. 3. 10. 9. 38. 24. 8. 5. 32.178 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 1. 47. 23. 11. 22. 46. 49. 20.
a. business b. mentor b. undermine c. annulled 2. division b. a. For information about making a sound investment. The newspaper ________ the statement made in the article because it was incorrectly stated. technological c. and the committee was asked to vote on the issue. retracted d. invalidated c. maverick c. obsolescence d. where all family members needed to be available to help in the ﬁelds. The new congressman was considered a ________ because he refused to follow his party’s platform on nearly every issue. protagonist d. tackle b. Connor decided to ________ from the vote. you should get advice from a/an ________. destabilize 3. teller d. School calendars were originally based on a/an ________ lifestyle. secrecy 4. scientiﬁc d. cashier 5.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 179 Choose the correct vocabulary word to complete each of the following sentences. discord c. a. agrarian . The proposition was read. abstain d. a. a. abolished b. entrepreneur c. visionary 6. prospectus b. Typically. a. computer designs reach ________ within six months. 1.
Carelessly b. incisive b. a. a. the pediatric nurse fed the premature baby. The project seemed both ________ and beneﬁcial. she was able to help those who could not read. a. The furniture in the attic turned out to be a veritable ________ of valuable antiques. receding c. sagacious 9. forlorn d. a. erudite b. Choosing to ________her estate to the literacy foundation. Wantonly 12. insightful c.180 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 7. reproof b. His ________ behavior made him seem childish and immature. censure d. implacable b. a. feasible c. benevolent c. diligently replaced all of the research ﬁles at the end of every day. rubble 13. Gingerly d. a. Precariously c. eliminate c. irreparable 8. The ________ young woman gave generously to many worthy causes. bonanza c. bequeath d. meticulous d. puerile 10. a. beguiling b. ________. savory d. personable 11. conﬁscate b. Ethan. a ________ young worker. and the ofﬁce staff supported it enthusiastically. extract . gregarious d.
Because it was made of wood. James Starley.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 181 14. Despite the unﬂattering nickname. bicycles are elegantly simple machines that are common all over the globe. They called their bicycle. Ten years later. a. the safety bicycle had been further improved with air-ﬁlled rubber tires. Today. and easy . a velocipede. Although Macmillan’s bicycle could be ridden easily. Although this bicycle was much lighter and less tiring to ride. Diplomatic Read the following passage and respond to the questions that follow. a diamond-shaped frame. It did not look much like the modern bicycle because its back wheel was substantially larger than its front wheel. the velocipede was a hit and the Michaux family made hundreds of the machines annually. The safety bicycle had equalized wheels. Many people ride bicycles for recreation while others use them as a means of transportation. they were never produced in large numbers. Prudent d. Most of them were for fun-seeking young people. ________donations from a generous but anonymous benefactor were received every year at the children’s hospital. Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims to keep them from getting worn down. was invented in Germany in 1818 by Baron Karl de Draid de Sauerbrun. it was still clumsy. called a draisienne. which made it much less prone to toppling over. Invented by another Englishman. and ridden mostly for entertainment. but most people called it a bone shaker because of the jarring effect of the wood and iron frame. supercilious 15. Riders moved it by pushing their feet against the ground. He made the front wheel many times larger than the back wheel. amicable d. Lawson. H. and lightened the wheels by using wire spokes. invented a much better bicycle. Frenchman Pierre Michaux and his brother Ernest invented a bicycle with an improved crank mechanism. poignant b. Magnanimous b. By 1893. In 1839. The ﬁrst bicycle. this safety bicycle would look familiar to today’s cyclists. In 1861. extremely top-heavy. He also used foot-operated cranks similar to pedals so his bicycle could be ridden at a quick pace. made several innovations that revolutionized bicycle design. Her haughty and ________manner was not appealing to her constituents. J. a. a Scottish blacksmith. nocturnal c. Lawson also attached a chain to the pedals to drive the rear wheel. the draisienne was not very durable nor did it have pedals. It was not until 1874 that the ﬁrst truly modern bicycle appeared on the scene. put a gear on the pedals to make the bicycle more efﬁcient. Parsimonious c. Kirkpatrick Macmillan. an English inventor.
c. b. James Starley. c. several people contributed to the development of the modern bicycle. d. b. Which of the following statements from the passage represents the writer’s opinion? a. Macmillan added iron rims to the tires of his bicycle to a. 18. b. . Pierre Michaux. Read the following sentence from the fourth paragraph: Ten years later. The safety bicycle would look familiar to today’s cyclists. an English inventor. only a few velocipedes built by the Michaus family are still in existence. This passage was most likely written in order to a. d. H. c. 17. b. add weight to the bicycle. b. J. make the tires last longer. describe the problems that bicycle manufacturers encounter. d. compare bicycles used for fun with bicycles used for transportation. few people rode bicycles just for fun. b. made the ride less tiring. c. the word revolutionized most nearly means a. d. bicycles did not even exist. and enjoyed all over the world. preserved. canceled. 21. Lawson. used. With the improvements provided by Lawson. bicycles with wheels of different sizes cannot be ridden easily. make the ride less bumpy. 19. Today they are built. made several innovations that revolutionized bicycle design. Macmillan’s machine had tires with iron rims. for most of the nineteenth century. Kirkpatrick Macmillan. Two hundred years ago. 20. The ﬁrst person to use a gear system on bicycles was a. d. The Michaux brothers called their bicycle a velocipede. tell readers a little about the history of the bicycle. c. c. maintained. transformed. d.182 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 braking. bicycles became extremely popular and useful for transportation. James Starley. persuade readers to use bicycles for transportation. As it is used in the sentence. There is enough information in this passage to show that a. 16.
polite. repeal. b. criticize. d. c. artistic. b. increase. 26. emotional. b. expressive. pitiable. d. 24. 25. reasonable. absurd. relentless. somber. rude. c. An antonym for deterrent is a. 22. obstacle. indifferent. d. c. A synonym for augment is a. encouragement. An antonym for ludicrous is a. secretive. d. b. A synonym for surreptitious is a. evasive. 28. A synonym for animated is a. d. 23. c. charitable. An antonym for impertinent is a. proponent. reverential. civil. secret. b. d. 27. . b. A synonym for apathetic is a. d. discomfort. evaluate. suspicious.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 183 Read the directions for each of the following questions carefully and select the word that is the synonym or antonym for the word provided. abbreviated. c. c. b. lively. c.
b. Charlotte. The governor gave a speech at the fourth of july picnic. The governor gave a speech at the Fourth of July picnic. d. c. The Governor gave a speech at the fourth of July picnic. Which of the following sentences uses the correct pronoun form? a. 30. Which of the following sentences is correctly punctuated? a. will compete in this year’s New York Marathon. c. will compete in this year’s New York Marathon. which was held at Morgan’s beach. Charlotte. b. outrageous. which was held at morgan’s beach. insulting. . offensive. The Governor gave a speech at the Fourth of July picnic. who ran in the Boston Marathon last year will compete in this years New York Marathon. modern. c. b. d.184 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 29. d. haunted. will compete in this years New York Marathon. d. Do you think you will work with Jason or me on this project? c. Which of the following sentences is capitalized correctly? a. tangible. Charlotte who ran in the Boston Marathon. ancient. which was held at Morgan’s Beach. 33. which was held at Morgan’s Beach. Do you think you will work with Jason or I on this project? b. last year. spiteful. 31. Do you think you will work with Jason or he on this project? 32. b. An antonym for archaic is a. c. Do you think you will work with Jason or she on this project? d. A synonym for vindictive is a. Charlotte who ran in the Boston Marathon last year. who ran in the Boston Marathon last year. Answer each of the following grammar and usage questions.
Here is the forms you need to complete. Brown. Our neighbors gave us some tomatoes from their garden. b. Only one of the many problems were solved. of the company. c. will speak to the scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed.E. my sister will take me to the public library. C. d. 38. b. are planning to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. 35. b.E. of the company.M. 39. In which of the following sentences is the verb NOT in agreement with the subject? a. Before learning to read. Before learning to read. d. Richard K. c. Erin and Bob are painting the house by themselves. Only one of the many problems are solved. my sister has took me to the pubic library. Which of the following sentences shows subject/verb agreement? a. along with several of her students. will speak to the scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed at 9:00 AM. Dr. Before learning to read. at 9:00 A. along with several of her students. The art professor. of the company. Brown. c. Dr. d. 36. Francine can run much faster than me.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 185 34. The art professor. Richard K. CEO of the company. Dr Richard K Brown. . c. C. d.O. at 9:00 A. b.O. Only one of the many problems was solved. C. Where are the forms you want me to ﬁll out? b.O. 37. c. There are two people who still need to complete the form. along with several of her students. b.M. will speak to the scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed. Before learning to read. is planning to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. Dr. Only one of the many problems been solved. will speak to the scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Wed at 9:00 AM. Which of the following sentences uses the correct verb form? a. d. my sister takes me to the public library. along with several of her students. my sister took me to the public library. In which of the following sentences is the pronoun incorrect? a. Richard K Brown. plan to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. The art professor. Which of the following sentences uses punctuation correctly? a. d.E. Which is the correct form? c. Which of the following sentences uses the correct verb form? a. have planned to attend the gallery opening tomorrow evening. Five members of the team and I will represent our school. The art professor.
compatible b. The president and the vice president were a ________ pair. loquacious c. compatable c. Which of the following sentences is NOT a run-on sentence? a. asparations c. d. commpatible d. loquecious 44. He was from a small town but he moved to a very large city. c. supervisor b. b. a. he moved to a very large city. pnemonia d. neumonia b. I was skeptical of the claims made by the ________ salesman. a. 41. superviser d.186 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 40. Each of the new employees has similar ________. loquatious b. pnumonia c. Who is your immediate ________? a. aspirations 42. There are two types of ________: viral and bacterial. but he moved to a very large city. compatibel 43. a. asspirations b. Choose the correctly spelled word to complete each of the following sentences. He was from a small town. loquacius d. supervizer 45. He was from a small town. He was from a small town he moved to a very large city. a. supervizor c. aspirrations d. pneumonia .
select choice d. d. b. 50. b. 48. illuminate enlighten clarify no mistakes abolish forﬁt negate no mistakes zoology meterology anthropology no mistakes ajournment tournament conﬁnement no mistakes vague trepidation vengence no mistakes . c. a. a. a. b. c. d. c. d. a. 46. c. c. a.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 187 Choose the misspelled word in the questions below. 49. d. 47. b. If there are no mistakes. d. b.
5. thereby transforming the form and shape of the bicycle. nonconformist. 15. manageable. triﬂing. to be indifferent is to have no particular interest or concern. b. A deterrent prevents or discourages. This is the only choice that states an opinion. 16. it is his or her opinion that this is so. A maverick is a political independent. convenient. There is no evidence to support choice b. Based on the paragraph. Starley revolutionized the bicycle. Meticulous means extremely and excessively concerned with details. 21. a. or serviceable. A bonanza is a source of great wealth or prosperity. d. c. b. To bequeath something is to pass it to another when you die. 17. The fourth paragraph states that James Starley added a gear to the pedals. 22. b. 13. 23. 3. a. d. 10. c. or silly. a. 9. c. b. or free spirit. b. c. d. giving. are untrue. according to the passage. Choice c is incorrect because no information is given about whether iron-rimmed or wooden tires moved more smoothly. 11. To abstain means to refrain from something by one’s own choice. encouragement inspires or heartens. b. 6.188 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 8 Practice Test 1 ANSWERS 1. 4. 8. The passage gives the history of the bicycle. this is the only possible choice. Puerile means to be of or like a child. Choice a is incorrect because although the iron rims probably did make the machine heavier. To be feasible is to be practical. 14. Choices c and d are incorrect because they both make statements that. Choice a is incorrect because few opinions are included in the passage. he made many innovative changes. to be boyish. This information is clearly stated in the second paragraph. 24. Based on the context. b. that was not Macmillan’s goal. There is no support for choice d. d. d. and the tires lasted longer. the other choices are incorrect. 20. 18. 12. c. The other choices are presented as facts. Magnanimous donations are noble in mind or heart. . The writer cannot be certain that the safety bicycle would look familiar to today’s cyclists. There is no support for choices b and c. To be supercilious means to show arrogant superiority and disdain for those one views as unworthy. A prospectus is a published report of a business and its plans for a program or offering. Surreptitious is acting in a stealthy or secretive manner. Agrarian means having to do with agriculture or farming. a. 19. 2. This is the term usually applied to disavowing something erroneous or libelous printed in a newspaper. Obsolescence is the state of being outdated. The iron rims kept the tires from wearing down. A benevolent person is one who is charitable. a. b. c. To be apathetic is to show little emotion or interest. To retract something is to take it back or disavow it. To handle a baby gingerly would be to handle it delicately and with great caution. Each paragraph of the passage describes an inventor whose inventions became more and more advanced. 7.
30. Francine can run much faster than I can run. c. a. b. 36. The correct spelling is meteorology. 39. In this sentence. lively is to be ﬁlled with energy. Archaic means ancient or outdated. If completed. The correct spelling is adjournment. 49. This sentence is in the past tense and uses the verb took. Someone who is impertinent is rude. to be reasonable is to be rational. Periods are correctly placed after all abbreviations in this sentence. the sentence would read. 50. 45. d. 32. b. c. 44. 41. 48. 38. 28. the objective pronoun me is used. a. b. The correct spelling is aspirations. no mistakes b. a. To augment means to increase or expand in size or extent. 33. The subject of the sentence art professor is singular and takes the singular verb is planning. The word year’s is possessive and has an apostrophe. c. The correct spelling is forfeit. To be ludicrous is to be absurd. someone who is polite is courteous. modern is current or contemporary. d. 42. 43. To be vindictive is to be vengeful. The correct spelling is vengeance.Practice Test 1 CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 189 25. a. The correct spelling is loquacious. The subject forms should take the plural verb are. 29. 35. 47. c. This sentence has a comma before the conjunction but which correctly connects the two complete thoughts in the sentence. c. therefore the subjective pronoun I is used. not the singular is. All proper nouns—Fourth of July and Morgan’s Beach—are capitalized correctly in this sentence. The correct spelling is pneumonia. 40. d. 27. d. d. a. 37. b. c. 46. 34. the appositive—who ran in the Boston Marathon last year—describes Charlotte and is separated from the rest of the sentence with commas. 26. Jason or me is the object of the sentence. To be animated is to be ﬁlled with activity or vigor. c. to be spiteful means to be malicious. b. d. . The correct spelling is supervisor. The correct spelling is compatible. 31. c. c. The subject of the sentence one takes the singular verb was solved.
Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 191 . and spelling skills. U se the answer grid on the following page to ﬁll in your answers to the questions. By the time you have finished all of the chapters in this book and completed the two practice tests. you should see real progress in your vocabulary. reading comprehension.= 9 CHAPTER Practice Test 2 This second practice test will give you another chance to measure your skills. This test should take about 30–45 minutes to complete.
25. 23. 28. 3. 45. 48. 21. 17. 11.192 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 1. 2. 10. 40. 22. 32. 31. 43. 5. 20. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d . 15. 4. 46. 39. 14. 33. 38. 44. 42. 7. 49. 41. a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 26. 27. 24. 13. 19. 35. 47. 34. 50. 37. 36. 9. 18. 29. 8. 30. 6. 12. 16.
Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9
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Choose the correct vocabulary word for each of the following sentences. 1. Portland’s oldest citizen was ________; he refused to leave his home, even when he was warned of rising ﬂoodwaters. a. recitative b. redundant c. repatriated d. recalcitrant 2. Michael and Brendan had such terriﬁc ________ ; they always seemed to know, without being told, what the other felt. a. altercation b. equilibrium c. rapport d. symmetry 3. The politician’s ________ voice detailed the many projects he planned to tackle once he was in ofﬁce. a. clamorous b. ﬂocculent c. affable d. fervent 4. The audience puzzled over the ________ remark made by the mayoral candidate. a. obvious b. cryptic c. shrewd d. conniving 5. She shed ________ tears when she heard the tragic news. a. copious b. scant c. nonchalant d. genteel 6. After graduation, Charles requested a/an ________ so that he did not have to pay his school loans immediately. a. surrogate b. deferment c. tincture d. improvement
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CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2
7. The non-proﬁt agency bought ofﬁce supplies using a tax ________ number. a. liability b. exempt c. information d. accountability 8. With this group of ________ personalities, she was sure her party would be a success. a. scintillating b. mundane c. irradiated d. burnished 9. Her ________ remarks were not taken seriously by anyone on the nominating committee. a. porous b. obsessive c. frivolous d. durable 10. A key reference book detailing eyewitness accounts had to have ________ updates when new information surfaced. a. subsequent b. personable c. rote d. steadfast 11. The National Parks Service, in ________ with its mission, preserves the great outdoors for all to enjoy. a. contention b. amnesty c. conﬂict d. accordance 12. The exhibit at the botanical gardens is an unusual collection of cacti and other ________ from around the world. a. perennials b. succulents c. annuals d. tubers
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13. Although the freeway system continues to grow, it often cannot keep pace with a ________ population. a. burgeoning b. beckoning c. capitulating d. exasperating 14. With admirable ________, the renowned orator spoke to the crowd gathered in the lecture hall. a. toil b. ado c. ﬁnesse d. tedium 15. The ________ advice offered by his friend saved him from making a grave mistake. a. insensitive b. judicious c. metaphorical d. unorthodox Read the following passage and respond to the questions that follow. Although many companies offer tuition reimbursement, most companies reimburse employees only for classes that are relevant to their position. This is a very limiting policy. A company that reimburses employees for all college credit courses—whether job-related or not—offers a service not only to the employees but to the entire company and greater community. One good reason for giving employees unconditional tuition reimbursement is that it shows the company’s dedication to its employees. In today’s economy, where job security is a thing of the past and employees feel more and more expendable, it is important for a company to demonstrate to its employees that it cares. The best way to do this is with concrete investments in the employees and their futures. In turn, this dedication to the betterment of company employees will create greater employee loyalty. A company that releases funds to pay for the education of its employees will get its money back by having employees stay with the company longer. Employee turnover will be reduced because even the employees who do not take advantage of the tuition reimbursement program will be more loyal to their company—just knowing that their company cares enough to pay for their education invokes loyalty. Most importantly, the company that has an unrestricted tuition reimbursement program will have higher quality employees. Although these companies do indeed run the risk of losing money on employees who go on to another job in a different company as soon as they get their degree, more often than not, the employee will stay with the company. And even if employees do leave after graduation, it generally takes several years to complete any degree
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CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2
program. If the employee leaves upon graduation, the employer will have had a more sophisticated, more intelligent, and therefore more valuable and productive employee during that employee’s tenure with the company. If the employee stays, that education will doubly beneﬁt the company. Not only is the employee more educated, but now that employee can be promoted, and the company does not have to ﬁll a high-level vacancy from the outside. Vacancies can be ﬁlled by people who already know the company well. Though unconditional tuition reimbursement requires a signiﬁcant investment on the employer’s part, it is perhaps one of the wisest investments a company can make. 16. According to the passage, unconditional tuition reimbursement is good for which of the following reasons? a. Employees get a cheaper education. b. Employees become more valuable. c. Employees can ﬁnd better jobs. d. Employers lose a great deal of money. 17. Which of the following statements, from the passage, is NOT an opinion? a. The best way to do this is with concrete investments in them. b. Most importantly, the company that has an unrestricted tuition reimbursement program will have higher quality employees. c. Although many companies offer tuition reimbursement, most companies reimburse employees only for classes that are relevant to their position. d. A company that puts out funds to pay for the education of its employees will get its money back by having employees stay with the company longer. 18. The author’s reason for writing this passage was to a. entertain the reader. b. narrate a story. c. explain tuition reimbursement. d. persuade the reader. 19. The writer most likely uses the word wisest in the last sentence, rather than words such as proﬁtable, practical, or beneﬁcial, because a. wisdom is associated with education, the subject of the passage. b. the writer is trying to appeal to people who are already highly educated. c. education could not be considered practical. d. the word beneﬁcial is too abstract for readers to comprehend. 20. Which of the following words best describes the tone of this passage? a. insincere b. deceitful c. optimistic d. cynical
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21. The passage suggests that, compared to employees of companies that offer unconditional tuition reimbursement, employees of companies that do not offer this beneﬁt are a. less loyal. b. more likely to be promoted. c. not as smart. d. more likely to stay with the company. 22. In paragraph two, the word expendable most nearly means a. expensive. b. ﬂexible. c. replaceable. d. extraneous. 23. The main idea of the passage is that a. companies should reimburse employees for work-related courses. b. both companies and employees would beneﬁt from unconditional tuition reimbursement. c. companies should require their employees to take college courses. d. by insisting on a college degree, companies will be better able to ﬁll vacancies from within. Read each question carefully and select the word that is the synonym or antonym for the word provided. 24. An antonym for disperse is a. gather. b. agree. c. praise. d. satisfy. 25. A synonym for eccentric is a. normal. b. frugal. c. peculiar. d. selective. 26. A synonym for commendable is a. admirable. b. accountable. c. irresponsible. d. noticeable.
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CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2
27. An antonym for prevarication is a. accolade. b. veracity. c. deprecation. d. mendacity. 28. An antonym for mirth is a. pallor. b. solemnity. c. penury. d. lethargy. 29. A synonym for domain is a. entrance. b. rebellion. c. formation. d. territory. 30. An antonym for orient is a. confuse. b. arouse. c. deter. d. simplify. Answer each of the following grammar and usage questions. 31. Which of the following sentences uses capitalization correctly? a. Last Thursday, my Mother, my Aunt Barbara, and I went to the museum to see an exhibit of African art. b. Last Thursday, my mother, my aunt Barbara, and I went to the museum to see an exhibit of African art. c. Last Thursday, my mother, my aunt Barbara, and I went to the Museum to see an exhibit of African art. d. Last Thursday, my mother, my aunt Barbara, and I went to the museum to see an exhibit of African Art. 32. Which of the following sentences uses periods correctly? a. Dr Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago, Ill, on thurs at 3:00 P.M. b. Dr. Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago, Ill, on Thurs at 3:00 PM. c. Dr Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago, Ill, on Thurs. at 3:00 P.M. d. Dr. Harrison will speak at the hotel in Chicago, Ill., on Thurs. at 3:00 P.M.
Which of the following sentences is NOT a complete sentence? a. She and I will work together on the project. Some of the customers have complained about poor service. c. b. Turn off the lights. Neither of the dogs were to obedience training. Which of the following sentences uses the italicized pronoun incorrectly? a. but I am usually ﬁnished before 6:45. the lifeguard ordered us out of the water. d. Neither of the customers have complained about poor service. d. c. Each of the customers have complained about poor service. d. I was the ﬁrst to sign the petition Harry was the second. I called the delivery service this morning. Either Sam or William will bring his CD player to the party. Neither of the dogs is been to obedience training. Which of the following sentences shows subject/verb agreement? a. Why won’t you let her come with us? . b. Margaret brought a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. c. Alicia and me want to spend Saturday at Six Flags Amusement Park. Hearing the thunder. they told me the shipment would arrive on time. d. The newspapers are supposed to be delivered by 7:00. 34. Sunday afternoon spent reading and playing computer games. d. Margaret brang a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. One of the customers have complained about poor service. b. c. 37. b.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 199 33. I was surprised to see that my neighbor had written a letter to the editor. c. Margaret had brung a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. Which of the following sentences is a complete sentence? a. Neither of the dogs have been to obedience training. 35. Neither of the dogs has been to obedience training. c. 36. 38. Which of the following sentences uses the correct verb form? a. Which of the following sentences shows subject/verb agreement? a. b. Margaret bring a cake so that everyone in the ofﬁce could help celebrate her birthday. b. Look in the closet you should ﬁnd it there. d.
d. d. b. c. d. one of we will do the driving. b. b. one of us will do the driving. Which of the following sentences uses pronouns correctly? a. b. 43. c. d. d. c. b. If there are no mistakes. 40. 45. phenomonal emulate misconception no mistakes mischief temperture loveable no mistakes stadium competitor atheletic no mistakes dictionary auditorium biology no mistakes geometry perimeter circumferance no mistakes general corporal lieutenant no mistakes . Four band members and me were chosen to attend the state competition.200 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 39. one of us will do the driving. 42. a. 44. Four band members and me were chosen to attend the state competition. select choice d. Choose the misspelled word in the questions below. c. d. a. d. Four band members and I were chosen to attend the state competition. c. c. c. 41. a. a. a. one of we will do the driving. b. a. Four band members and I were chosen to attend the state competition. b.
It’s b. a.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 201 Choose the correctly spelled word for the following sentences. immanent c. Its . This problem is ________ complex. too 49. ________ only four o’clock in the afternoon. to c. fair b. Do you think I should run for a seat on the city ________? a. a. 46. a. The amount for the carpet was a ________ price. My grandmother is an ________ historian. imminent b. fare 48. two b. council 47. a. eminent 50. counsel b.
This main idea is explicitly stated in the last sentence of the ﬁrst paragraph and again at the end of the passage. Frivolous means not worthy of serious attention. 15. b. c. 23. b. 24. 9. This statement could be veriﬁed. b. d. a. To be recalcitrant is to be stubbornly resistant. 2. d. 20. 19. d. a. to be wise or sensible. The passage is optimistic and describes only positive effects of unconditional reimbursement. The writer uses the word immediately after saying that job security is a thing of the past. and therefore more valuable and productive employee. 17.202 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS CHAPTER 9 Practice Test 2 ANSWERS 1. the writer is able to reinforce the importance of education and tuition reimbursement. it follows that other employees will be less loyal because their company is not showing enough dedication to their betterment. a. a. b. Cryptic means mysterious. The writer of this passage states an opinion: “A company that reimburses employees for all college credit courses—whether job related or not—offers a service not only to the employees but to the entire company. as fact. . c. c. This clue tells you that workers do not feel they are important or valuable to a company that can ﬁre them on a moment’s notice. c. Disperse means to scatter. a. 22. 8. 18. 12. of little importance. b. a. Judicious means to use or show good judgment. 16. Exempt means to be excused from a rule or obligation. a. there are virtually no negative words. Finesse is skill. c. By using a word associated with education. Expendable means replaceable. This statement describes the many positions that companies can take when considering reimbursement for educational classes. 6. Subsequent means following a speciﬁed thing in order or succession. A fervent voice is one that has great emotion or zest. tact. 13. Copious means plentiful or abundant. and cleverness. Succulents are plants that have leaves speciﬁcally for storing water. 4. A deferment is a delay. b. 10. If employees of companies that offer unconditional tuition reimbursement are more loyal to their companies (see the second and third paragraphs). 14. or enigmatic. 5. 3. d. more intelligent. 11. 21. 7. hidden.” The writer then proceeds to give reasons to persuade the reader of the validity of this statement. by surveying companies to ﬁnd out their tuition reimbursement policies. That which is scintillating is brilliant or sparkling. Burgeoning means emerging or new growth. The idea that employees will become more valuable if they take courses is stated in the fourth paragraph: “the employer will have had a more sophisticated. to gather means to collect in one place. Accordance means in agreement or harmony.” c. b. To have rapport is to have mutual trust and emotional afﬁnity.
40. The correct spelling is circumference. a. This sentence is in the past tense and uses the verb brought. 32. This is a sentence fragment and is missing the helping verb was that would make it a complete sentence. Thurs. 27. 35. Ill. b. 26. A domain is an area governed by a ruler. d. 39.Practice Test 2 CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 203 25.. a. veracity means truthfulness. d. eccentric. 45. no mistakes b. Prevarication is an evasion of the truth. Neither is singular as is has been. 34. the subjective pronoun I is correct. b. b. c. solemnity means seriousness. 30. An eccentric person is considered to be odd. 31. Four band members and I is the subject of the sentence. Every proper noun and adjective in this sentence is correctly capitalized. 38. therefore the subjective pronoun I has to be used to make the sentence correct. Some is plural as is have complained. c. c. The correct spelling is athletic.. The correct spelling is council. b. to confuse means to bewilder. 37. the objective pronoun us is correct. 49. The correct spelling is temperature. Periods are placed after Dr. d. become familiar. Alicia and I is the subject of the sentence. c. d. 46. a.M. The correct spelling is fair. 33. 44. qualiﬁed. Mirth means merriment. a. unusual. 43. a. b. The correct spelling is too. 41. The correct spelling is eminent. The correct spelling is phenomenal. . Both commendable and admirable mean worthy. and P. 29. The correct spelling is It’s. c. 36. or desirable. 50. d. 47. and d are run-on sentences. Choice a is the only complete sentence.. or peculiar. a territory is an area for which someone is responsible. d. a. no mistakes c. Choices b. 42. To orient means to adjust. 28. Us is the object of the preposition. a. c. 48. d.
g. therefore.g. singular subjects and singular verbs.. likewise) contraction: a word that uses an apostrophe to show that a letter or letters have been omitted (e..= APPENDIX Glossary of Vocabulary Terms active voice: when the subject is performing the action (as opposed to passive voice) agreement: the state of being balanced in number (e.g.g.. plural antecedents and plural pronouns) antecedent: the noun that is replaced by a pronoun cause: a person or thing that makes something happen clause: a group of words containing a subject and predicate comparative: the adjective form showing the greater degree in quality or quantity. can’t) Glossary of Vocabulary Terms APPENDIX VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 205 . happier) comparison: showing how two ideas or items are similar complex sentence: a sentence with at least one dependent and one independent clause compound sentence: a sentence with at least two independent clauses conjunctive adverb: a word or phrase that often works with a semi-colon to connect two independent clauses and show the relationship to one another (e. however.. formed by adding –er (e.
place. created by adding –ing to the verb base passive voice: when the subject of the sentence is being acted upon (passively “receives” the action) past participle: the verb form expressing what happened in the past. created by adding –ing to the verb base helping verb: (auxiliary verb) verbs that help indicate exactly when an action will take place.. or. phrases. and level of detail subject: the person. or thing. or clauses that all follow the same grammatical pattern participial phrase: the adjective form of a verb. might take place. so. place. but. thing. formed by a past tense helping verb + the simple past tense form of the verb phrase: a group of words that do not contain both a subject and a predicate predicate: the part of the sentence that tells us what the subject is or does present participle: the verb form expressing what is happening now. bear) independent clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand on its own indirect object: the person or thing that receives the direct object inﬁnitive: the base form of a verb plus the word to (e. the combination of a writer’s word choice. tone. is taking place.g. to go) intransitive verb: a verb that does not take an object (the subject performs the action on him/her/itself) mechanics: the rules governing punctuation.. place. or action parallel structure: a series of words. did take place. in writing.g. sentence structure. capitalization. should take place. level of formality.206 VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS APPENDIX Glossary of Vocabulary Terms contrast: showing how two ideas or items are different coordinating: conjunction one of seven words—and. or thing that performs the action of the sentence subjunctive: the verb form that indicates something that is wished for or contrary to fact . bare.g. and spelling modiﬁer: a word or phrase that describes or qualiﬁes a person. formed by a present tense helping verb and –ing proper noun: a noun that identiﬁes a speciﬁc person. such as Elm Street redundancy: the unnecessary repetition of words or ideas run-on: a sentence that has two or more independent clauses without the proper punctuation or connecting words (e. etc. yet—that serve to connect two independent clauses dependent clause: a clause that has a subordinating conjunction and expresses an incomplete thought direct object: the person or thing that receives the action of the sentence fragment: an incomplete sentence (may or may not have a subject and predicate) gerund: the noun form of a verb. for. homophone: a word that sounds exactly like another word but has a different spelling and meaning (e. nor. subordinating conjunction) between them style: the manner in which something is done..
g.. in contrast) transitive verb: a verb that takes an object (someone or something “receives” the action of the verb) usage: the rules that govern the form of the words we use and how we string words together in sentences . happiest) transition: a word or phrase used to move from one idea to the next and show the relationship between those ideas (e.g.g. making the clause dependent and showing its relationship to another (usually independent) clause (e. next. however. since. because. while) superlative: the adjective form showing the greatest degree in quality or quantity..Glossary of Vocabulary Terms APPENDIX VOCABULARY FOR CIVIL SERVICE TESTS 207 subordinating conjunction: a word or phrase that introduces an adverb clause. formed by adding –est (e.
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