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General Manager (sub-station Engineering) Jyoti Structures Ltd.,
27th April 2005 Mumbai
Overview of 400kV sub-station Design Process Design considerations Question / Answer
Imp. considerations in substation design
Safety of personnel and equipment Reliability and Security Adherence to Statutory obligations – I.E. rules, Environmental aspects Electrical design considerations Structural design considerations Ease of maintenance Possibility to Expand
400kV 400kV 420kV 50Hz 3 320kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (320kV) 220kV 220kV 245kV 50Hz 3 156kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (156kV) Effectively earthed 10. 3. creepage distance Rated short ckt. Current for 1 sec. 8. 2.System parameters Sr. Radio interference voltage at 1MHZ (for phase to earth voltage) . 4. Description Nominal system voltage Max. 5. 7. operating voltage Rated frequency Number of phases System neutral earthing Corona Extinction voltage Min. 1. 6.
power freq..for CB / Isolator -.for lines -.for reactor/ X’mer -. 11.for other equipments 400kV 220kV Remarks 1550kVp 1300kVp 1425kVp 1050kVp 1050kVp 950kVp 1050kVp 680kV 520kV 610kV 630kV 460kV 460kV 530kV 460kV (Line-ground) (open terminals) . withstand voltage (dry/wet) -.for other equipments ii) Switching impulse withstand voltage (dry/wet) iii) One min.System parameters Contd. Sr. Description Rated insulation levels i) Full wave impulse withstand voltage -.for lines -.
Substation Bird’s view .
400kV Circuit Breaker .
400kV Isolator .
400kV Current Transformer .
400kV CVT .
400kV Surge Arrester .
Shunt Reactor & NGR .
400/220 kV Auto Transformer .
400kV Bus Post Insulator .
Wave Trap .
control & protection To discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to earth . Voltage Transformer 7. isolation and maintenance. Earthing switch 5. control & protection To step-down voltages for measurement. Bus-Bar 2. Lightning Arrester Function Incoming & outgoing ckts. Isolators 4. Connected to bus-bar Automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions Disconnection under no-load condition for safety. Current Transformer 6. To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth To step-down currents for measurement.Functions of substation equipments Equipment 1. Circuit Breaker 3.
Compensation of long lines. Neutral-Grounding resistor 10. Coupling capacitor 11. To provide compensations to reactive loads of lagging power factors To step-up or step-down the voltage and transfer power from one a. Power Transformer To control over voltages by providing reactive power compensation To limit earth fault current To provide connection between high voltage line & PLCC equipment To prevent high frequency signals from entering other zones.c. 14. Shunt reactor 9. Shunt capacitors 13. Series Capacitor .Functions of substation equipments Contd… 8. voltage another a. voltage at the same frequency. Line –Trap 12.c.
. equipment body. Substation Earthing system -.Earthing spikes -. For safety of personnel and for enabling earth fault protection. 3. with safe step-potential and touch potential. Illumination system (lighting) -.Functions of Associated system in substation System 1. support structures to earth. faults.Earthing risers Function To provide an earthmat for connecting neural points. Overhead earth wire shielding or Lightning masts. To protect the outdoor substation equipment from lightning strokes. overheads shielding wires etc.roads etc.buildings -.Earthmat -.for switchyard -. 2. To provide the path for discharging the earth currents from neutrals. Surge Arresters.
communication circuits To provide supply path to various auxiliary equipment and machines. For communication. Power cable 7.PLCC panels To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part from healthy part and also to minimize damage to faulty equipment and associated system. 5.. power line carrier protection etc.coupling capacitor -. control circuits. . metering circuits.control cables -. VTs etc. telecontrol.circuit breakers -. For Protective circuits. 4.line trap -. telemetry. Control cable 6.CTs.Contd. PLCC system power line carries communication system -.protection relay panels -. Protection system -.
switchgear -. OPF To sense the occurrence of fire by sensors and to initiate water spray. detection system -.watertank and spray system 9.fire prot. panels. standby power for auxiliaries For internal and external communication . alarm system -.Contd… 8. Telephone.Sensors. to disconnect power supply to affected region to pin-point location of fire by indication in control room. For supplying starting power. microwave.diesel generator sets -. Fire Fighting system -. Auxiliary standby power system -.water spray system -.distribution system 10. telex.
Basic drawings for design/construction
Single Line Diagram General Arrangement Drawing Electrical Plan and Section Control Room Architectural layout
Structural layout Earthmat layout Civil layout Erection Key Diagram Lighting Layout
Single Line Diagram – 220kV
General arrangement layout .
Electrical layout .
Electrical Section .
Control room layout .
Control room layout .
Structural layout .
Earthmat Layout @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ .
Civil layout .
Erection Key Diagram 4P3 4LA 4SSTM-D4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I 4I 4I 4I 4P3 4DTTM-1 4LA 4LA 4LA 4LA 4IC2 N1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4W1 4I R1 R1 R1 4W1 4P1 4W 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4I 4I 4IC1 4DTTM-1 4P3 4LA 4W1 4W1 4DTTM2 4I 4I R2 4DTTM1 4P1 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4P3 4LA 4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4SSTM-D 4W1 4W 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4I 4I 4I 4P3 4LA 4IC2 4W1 4W1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4W 4P1 4I1 4DTTM-1 4LA 4LA 4LA N1 4I R1 R1 R1 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4P3 4LA 4IC1 4W1 4W1 4DTTM1 4P1 4I1 4I2 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4I 4I 4I R2 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4I 4DTTM1 4DTQB-2 4DTQB2 4DTQB2 EW1 EW2 4SSTM-D 4DTTM1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4S1 4P 4S1 4V 4W 4W 4I 4I R1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4P 3 4S1 4I 4S1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4TM 4S2 EW2 EW2 EW1 EW2 EW2 4I1 4I2 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4I 4I 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4I2 4B 4B 4I 4I 4I 4I 4I2 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4DTQB-1 4DTQB1 4DTQB1 4W1 4W EW1 EW2 4DTTM1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4S1 4SSTMD 4SSTM-T 4S1 4S1 4S1 4TBSM 4S1 4I 4S1 4S1 4P 1 4P 1 4IC1 4IC2 4TBSM 4S1 4I2 4I 4I1 4B 4B 4TBSM 4S1 4S1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4S1 4C1 4C2 4I1 4I2 4IC2 .
Lighting Design Adequate lighting is necessary for safety of working personnel and O&M activities Recommended value of Illumination level Control & Relay panel area .100 Lux Other indoor area .20 Lux (balance Area / road @ ground level) .300 Lux Battery room .150 Lux Switchyard .350 Lux (at floor level) Test laboratory .50 Lux (main equipment) .
Single Bus arrangement .
Simple Protection . Can be used only where loads can be interrupted or have other supply arrangements. Simple to Operate 3. Low cost Demerits 1. Fault of bus or any circuit breaker results in shut-down of entire substation 2. Sectionalizing increases flexibility 2. 3.Single Bus System Merits 1. Not used for large substations. Difficult to do any maintenance 3. Remarks 1. Bus cannot be extended without completely deenergizing substations 4. Used for distribution substations upto 33kV 2.
Main & Transfer Bus .
2. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. Low initial & ultimate cost Demerits 1. Used for 110kV substations where cost of duplicate bus bar system is not justified . 2. Fault of bus or any be used on the main bus circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substation. Switching is somewhat complex when maintaining a breaker 3. Potential devices may 3. .Main & transfer busbar system Merits 1. Requires one extra breaker coupler Remarks 1.
Double Busbar arrangement .
Most widely used for 66kV. . Bus couplers failure takes entire substation out of service. Line breaker failure takes all circuits connected to the bus out of service. 2. 4. 5. Bus protection scheme connected to each bus may cause loss of substation when it operates.6kV.3kV substations. High flexibility Demerits 1.Double Bus Bar Single Breaker system Merits 1. Remarks 1. 6. High exposure to bus fault. Half of the feeders 2. 3. 220kV and important 11kv. 132kv. 3. Extra bus-coupler circuit breaker necessary.
Double Busbar with Double breaker .
Each has two associated breakers 2. 4. . High reliability Demerits 1. Most expensive Remarks 1. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. 2. Has flexibility in permitting feeder circuits to be connected to any bus 3. EHV substations. Not used for usual EHV substations due to high cost. Used only for very important. 2. high power.Double Bus Bar Double Breaker system Merits 1. Would lose half of the circuits for breaker fault if circuits are not connected to both the buses.
Double main & transfer .
Double main bus & transfer bus system Merits 1. Highly reliable 3. Most flexible in operation 2. Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance. Breaker failure on bus side breaker removes only one ckt. . From service 4. no isolator switching required 6. Preferred by some utilities for 400kV and 220kV important substations. All switching done with breakers 5. High cost due to three buses Remarks 1. Bus fault does not remove any feeder from the service Demerits 1. 7. Simple operation.
One & half breaker scheme .
. Selective tripping 2. 1. Preferred. 4. 5. One and half maintenance breakers per circuit. 6. All switching by breaker. Any breaker can be removed from maintenance without interruption of load. Requires 1 1/2 breaker per feeder. hence higher cost 2. Each circuit fed by two breakers. Used for 400kV & 220kV substations. 3. Flexible operation for breaker 1.One & half breaker scheme Merits Demerits Remarks 1. auto-reclosing more complex since middle breaker must be responsive to both associated circuits. Protection and 2.
Ring Bus .
These VT’s may be required in all cases for synchronizing live line or voltage indication 4. Most widely used for very large power stations having large no. Breaker failure during fault on one circuit causes loss of additional circuit because of breaker failure. Busbars gave some operational flexibility Demerits 1. ring gets separated into two sections. .Auto-reclosing and protection complex. If fault occurs during bus maintenance. of incoming and outgoing lines and high power transfer. 2. Remarks 1. Requires VT’s on all circuits because there is no definite voltage reference point.Mesh (Ring) busbar system Merits 1. 3.
Sectional clearance 4300 mm .Minimum Clearances 400kV 1. Phase to phase 4200 mm (Rod-conductor configuration) 4000 mm (Conductor-conductor configuration) 6400 mm 2100 mm 3. Phase to Earth 3500 mm 220kV 2100 mm 2.
Clearance Diagram .
Bus Bar Design Continuous current rating.) IEC-865 Stresses in Tubular Busbar Natural frequency of Tubular Busbar Deflection of Tube Cantilever strength of Post Insulator Aeolian Vibrations . Ampacity caculation as per IEEE:738 Short time current rating (40kA for 1 Sec.
3. Min. 4. (ACSR 750C/ AAAC 850C) Wind Pressure No wind 36% No wind 100% No wind T <= 22% of UTS T <= 70% of UTS Clearances Limits . Temp Min. 5.Gantry Structure Design Sag / Tension calculation : as per IS: 802 1995 Sr. Every Day Every Day Max. 2. 1.
. Short Circuit Forces calculation As per IEC : 865 Short circuit forces during short circuit Short circuit forces after short circuit Short circuit forces due to “Pinch” effect for Bundled conductor Spacer span calculation Factor of safety of 2.Contd.5 under short circuit condition .0 under normal condition and 1.
forces GRAPH OF SPACER SPAN Vs CONDUCTOR TENSION FOR 400 KV TWIN MOOSE ACSR CONDUCTOR 12000.00 8000. 10000.00 CONDUCTOR TENSION PER PHASE IN KG.Spacer span Vs Short Ckt.00 4000. .00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 SPACER SPAN IN MTRS.00 6000.00 2000.00 0.
IS:3043. 400kV & 220kV system are designed for 40kA. Basic Objectives: Step potential within tolerable Touch Potential limit Ground Resistance Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current (considering corrosion) .Earthing Design Guiding standards – IEEE 80. CBIP-223.
Touch and step potential .
Lightning Protection – Ground Wire FIG-4a FIG-4b .
Lightning Protection – Lightning Mast .
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