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BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED
India, as a country, has been very lucky with regard to the introduction of telecom products. The first telegraph link was commissioned between Calcutta and Diamond Harbor in the year 1852, which was invented in 1876. First wireless communication equipment were introduced in Indian Army in the year 1909 with the discovery of Radio waves in 1887 by Hertz and demonstration of first wireless link in the year 1905 by Marconi and Vacuum Tube in 1906. Setting up of radio station for broadcast and other telecom facilities almost immediately after their commercial introduction abroad followed this. After independence of India in 1947 and adoption of its constitution in 1950, the government was seized with the plans to lay the foundations of a strong, self-sufficient modern India. On the industrial front, Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) was announced in the year 1952. It was recognized that in certain core sectors infrastructure facilities require huge investments, which cannot be met by private sector and as such the idea of Public Sector Enterprises (PSE) was mooted. With telecom and electronics recognized among the core sectors, Indian Telephone Industry, now renamed as ITI Limited, was formed in 1953 to undertake local manufacture of telephone equipment, which were of electro-mechanical nature at that stage. Hindustan Cable Limited was also started to take care of telecom cables.
GTBKIET.Six Months Training
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5 Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountainhead to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. BEL, with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has met the requirement of state-of-art professional electronic equipment for Defence, broadcasting, civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi-product, multi-unit, and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France, the company’s equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid, solid-state discrete component to the state of art integrated circuit technology. In the component arena also, the company established its own electron value manufacturing facility. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to the manufacture of Integrated circuits. To keep in pace with the component and technology, its manufacturing and products assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. The design groups have CADD facility; the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility. QC checks are preformed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines, Automatic testing machines, environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL grade systems. Today BEL’s infrastructure is spread over nine locations with 29 production divisions having ISO-9001/9002 accreditation. Product mix of the company are spread over the entire Electro-magnetic (EM) sp 3ectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the products ranges like Defence Communication, Rader’s, Optical & Opto-electronics, Telecommunication, sound and Vision Broadcasting, Electronic Components, etc. Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products, BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and Rader Systems Consultancy, Contract Manufacturing, Calibration of Test & Measuring Instruments, etc. At the moment, the company is installing GTBKIET.Six Months Training 2
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5 MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National Airport Authority (NAA). BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO Labs for a wide range of products. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. Central Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. About 70% of BEL’s products are of in-house design. BEL was among the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970s. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL. However, following Government’s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL, BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. As many of its equipment were microprocessor based, the company, Continued to develop computers based application, both hardware and software. Most of its software requirements are in real time. EMCCA, software intensive navel ships control and command system is probably one of the first projects of its nature in India and Asia. BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution, Productivity, Quality, Safety, Standardization etc. BEL was ranked No. 1 in the field of Electronics and 46th overall among the top 1000 private and public sector undertakings in India by the Business Standard in its special supplement “The BS 1000 (1997-98)”. BEL was listed 3rd among the Mini Rattan’s (Category II) by the Government of India, 49th among Asia’s top 100 worldwide Defence Companies by the Defence News, USA.
GTBKIET.Six Months Training
To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services. expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor. International Companies.51504061/ECE/2K5 CORPORATE MOTTO . to strive for self-reliance by indigenization of materials and components. mission and objectives: CORPORATE MOTTO “Quality. To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other chosen fields of electronics through in-house research and development as well as through Collaboration/Co-operation with Defence/National Research Laboratories. CORPORATE OBJECTIVES To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices at the expected time and providing excellent customer support.” CORPORATE MISSION To be the market leader in Defence Electronics and in other chosen fields and products. MISSION AND OBJECTIVES: The passionate pursuit of excellence at BEL is reflected in a reputation with its customers that can be described in its motto. To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional electronic industry in the country.L . Technology and Innovation. To create an organizational culture which encourages members of the organization to real and through continuous learning on the job GTBKIET. In order to meet the nations strategic needs. To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization.Six Months Training 4 . Universities and Academic Institutions.
The Unit’s product range included Static and Mobile Radar. Magnesium Manganese-dioxide Batteries. professional grade Antennae and Microwave components. Tropo scatter equipment. Subsequently. Since then. At the present the Laser Range Finders for the Defence services. Meteorological Dept. PUNE (MAHARASHTRA) This Unit was started in 1979 to manufacture Image Converter Tubes. at Machilipatnam.Six Months Training 5 . Police. Navy and Air-force. As an aid to Electorate. and other users.. the unit has developed Electronic Voting Machines that are produced at its Mass Manufacturing Facility (MMF). Lithium Sulphur Batteries and X-ray Tubes/Cables were added to the product range. VSNL. manufacturing Optics/Opto-electronic GTBKIET. the Bangalore Complex has grown to specialize in communication and Radar/Sonar Systems for the Army. GHAZIABAD (UTTER PRADESH) The second largest Unit at Ghaziabad was set up in 1974 to manufacture special types of radar for the Air Defence Ground Environment Systems (Plan ADGES). MACHILIPATNAM (ANDHRA PRADESH) The Andhra Scientific Co. The Unit provides Communication Systems to the Defence Forces and Microwave Communication Links to the various departments of the State and Central Govt. AIR and Doordarshan. BEL’s in-house R&D and successful tie-ups with foreign Defence companies and Indian Defence Laboratories has seen the development and production of over 300 products in Bangalore alone. The Unit has now diversified into manufacturing of electronic products for the civilian customers such as DoT. Civil Aviation and Railways.51504061/ECE/2K5 MANUFACTURING UNITS BANGALORE (KANARATAKA) BEL started its production activities in Bangalore on 1954 with 400W high frequency (HF) transmitter and communication receiver for the Army.L . ISRO.
L . Force Multiplier Systems are manufactured here for the Defence services 20’’ glass bulbs indigenously. this Unit was established in 1985. The Unit is now fully mobilized to manufacture HYDERABAD (ANDHRA PRADESH) To coordinate with the major Defence R&D Laboratories located in Hyderabad. DRDL and DMRL. The Unit is now manufacturing Stabilizer Systems for T-72 tanks. the product line includes passive Night Vision Equipment. Infantry Combat Vehicles BMP-II.51504061/ECE/2K5 equipment was integrated with BEL in 1983. TALOJA (MAHARASHTRA) For the manufacture of B/W TV Glass bulbs. BEL established another Unit at Chennai to facilitate manufacture of Gun Control Equipment required for the integration and installation and the Vijay anta tanks. PANCHKULA (HARYANA) To cater the growing needs of Defence Communications. Focus is being given on the requirement of the Switching Equipment. France in 1986. KOTDWARA (UTTER PRADESH) In 1986. Commander’s Panoramic Sights & Tank Laser Sights are among others. this plant was established in collaboration with coming. Binoculars and Goggles. DLRL. Periscopes. BEL established a Unit at Hyderabad in 1986. CHENNAI (TAMIL NADU) In 1985. Professional grade Radio-communication Equipment in VHF and UHF ranges entirely developed by BEL and required by the Defence services are being met from this Unit. The Unit has successfully diversified to making the Surgical Microscope with zoom facilities. Gun Sights. BEL STARTED A unit at Kotdwara to manufacture Telecommunication Equipment for both Defence and civilian customers.Six Months Training 6 . GTBKIET. Surgical Microscope and Optical Sights and Mussel Reference Systems for tank fire control systems.
Public attention was focused on the report of the Bhabha committee on the development and production of electronic equipment. The unit enjoys a unique status as manufacture of IFF systems needed to match a variety of primary raiders.51504061/ECE/2K5 BEL GHAZIABAD UNIT Formation In the mid 60’s. Over the years. In December 1970 the Govt.At about the same time.Six Months Training 7 . GTBKIET. This led to the formulation of a very major plan for an integrated Air Defence Ground Environment System known as the plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer of the apex review committee . BEL was then inserted with the task of meeting the development and production requirement for the plan ADGES and in view of the importance of the project it was decided to create additional capacity at a second unit of the company. while reviewing the Defence requirement of the country. The ministry of Defence immediately realized the need to establish production capacity for meeting the electronic equipment requirements for its plan ADGES. 1972 saw the commencement of construction activities and production was launched in 1974. It has also installed and commissioned a large number of systems on turnkey basis. the industrial license for manufacture of radar and microwave equipment was obtained. More than 30 versions of IFF’s have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum technology to solid-state to latest Microwave Component based system. In 1971. for the air Defence network. the unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of equipment needed for Defence and civil use. sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. in particular the ground electronics system support. the government focused its attention to strengthen the Air Defence system.L .
Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications. UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment. etc.L . COMMUNICATIONS Digital Static Tropo scatters Communication Systems for the Air Force. Turnkey communication Systems Projects for Defence & civil users. VHF. IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and export. Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers. Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force. Synthesizer. Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence. Digital Mobile Tropo scatters communication System for the Air Force and Army. and Receivers etc. ANTENNA Antennae for Radar. Tactical Control Radar System for the Army.Six Months Training 8 . Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems. Battlefield Surveillance Rader for the Army. Bulk Encryption Equipment. Telemetry /Tele-control Systems. Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems. MICROWAVE COMPONENT Active Microwave components like LNAs.51504061/ECE/2K5 PRODUCT RANGES The product ranges today of the company are: RADAR SYSTEMS 3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force. Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems. ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation. GTBKIET.
51504061/ECE/2K5 SERVICES OF BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL):- DEFENCE PRODUCTS: Naval System Military Communication Equipment Radars Tele Communication & Broadcasting Services Opto Electronics Electronic Warfare Tank Electronics NON-DEFENCE PRODUCTS: Electronic Voting Machine Solar Products Simputer DTH GTBKIET.L .Six Months Training 9 .
TEST EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMATION This department deals with the various instruments used in BEL. 4.B. it is being GTBKIET. 5. They are compared with the standard of National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Mainly the calibration of instruments is carried out here. Examples of some test equipments are: Oscilloscope(CRO) Multimeter Signal Analyzer Logical Pulsar Counter Function Generator etc. The several departments where I had gone under my rotational program are: 1. So if any of the instruments is not working properly.Communication Magnetics Microwave lab Rotation period was to give us a brief insight of the company’s functioning and knowledge of the various departments. A brief idea of the jobs done at the particular departments was given. The cooperative staff at the various departments made the learning process very interesting . 3. which allowed me to know about the company in a very short time. There are 300 equipments and they are of 16 types.Six Months Training 10 . So. 2. 6.C. Test Equipment and Automation P. Fabrication Quality Control Works-Radar Work Assembly. it is said to be one set down to NPL.L .51504061/ECE/2K5 ROTATION PROGRAM Under this students are introduced to the company by putting them under a rotation program to various departments. As every instrument has a calibration period after which the accuracy of the instrument falls from the required standards.
So it is not the calibration but programming that takes time . model and type. which are followed by BEL are: 1. PCB’s and other things the defect found are given in following codes. To calibrate instruments software techniques are used which includes the program written in any suitable programming language. A calibration is basically testing of equipment with a standard parameter. PS 811 6. The national physical laboratory (NPL). 1. Yellow – Satisfactory but some trouble is present. Green –O. WS 104 3.For any industry to get its instrument calibrated by NPL is very costly. PS 809 5.51504061/ECE/2K5 sent here for its correct calibration. 3. The standard for QC. It is done with the help of standard equipment should be of some make. so it is the basic need for every industry to have its own calibration unit if it can afford it. Red – Can’t be used. Test equipment and automation lab mainly deals with the equipment that is used for testing and calibration . should be disposed off.L . WS = Workmanship & PS = Process Standard After the inspection of cables.The section calibrates and maintains the measuring instruments mainly used for Defence purpose. WS 102 2. The test equipments are calibrated either half yearly or yearly.Six Months Training 11 . New Delhi provides the standard values yearly. After testing different tags are labeled on the equipment according to the observations. Perfect 2. GTBKIET. PS 369 Where. BEL follows International Standard Organization (ISO) standard.K . PS 520 4.
Bad Workmanship/ Finish --. the equipment is sent to responsible department which is rectified there.Six Months Training 12 . It consists of the fiberglass sheet having a layer of copper on both sides.L . stands for Printed Circuits Board.B.51504061/ECE/2K5 A --.2mm and the standard size of the board is 610mm to 675mm.C. FABRICATION P. B C D E F G H I J --.Wrong Writing --. The thickness of the sheet may vary as 1. Raw material for PCB’s Most common raw material used for manufacturing of PCBs is copper cladded glass epoxy resin sheet.Stenciling --.Alignment Problem --.Wrong Component / Polarity --.Wrong Component / Mounting --.B. TYPES OF PCBs Single Sided Board Double Sided Board Muti-layer Board : Circuits on one side.Others (Specify) --. : Several layers are interconnected through hole metallization. : Circuit on Both side.C.Design & Development After finding the defect.Physical and Mechanical defects. 2. GTBKIET. P.2.4 and 3. It’s an integral part of the Electronics equipment as well as all the components are mounted on it.Bad Soldering --.
B. which is used for PCB plate are Glass Epoxy. Procedure for through hole metallization Loading-Cleaner-Water Rinse-Spray Water-Rinse-Mild Etch-Spray Water-RinseHydrochloric Acid-Actuator-Water Rinse-Spray Water-Rinse-Accelerator Dip-Spray Water- GTBKIET. is a non-conducting board on which a conductive board is made. Bakelite and Teflon etc.51504061/ECE/2K5 Operation in process Following steps are there for PCB manufacturing: CNC Drilling Drill Location Through Hole Plating Clean Scrub and Laminate Photo Print Develop Cu electroplate Tin electroplate Strip Etching and cleaning Tin Stripping Gold plating Liquid Photo Imageable Solder Masking (LPISM) Photo print Develop Thermal Baking Hot Air leaving Non Plated Hole Drilling Reverse Marking Sharing & Routing Debarring & Packing P.L . The base material.C.Six Months Training 13 .
The unwanted copper i. which was due to wrong method applied or wrong machine.51504061/ECE/2K5 Rinse. it is positive otherwise negative. GTBKIET.Mild etch. A negative and a positive of a ckt. To prevent the copper from getting etched & making the whole circuit functionally done. The angle to tilt of the board is 15 degree to 22.Six Months Training 14 . Next. The demerit was non.5 degree. After this.Antitarnic dip. After through hole metallization.alignment.Spray water-Rinse-Anti Tarnish Dip-Hot Air Drying.Electrolyses Copper-Plating-Plating. Dry pin solder mask: Due to wastage of films about 30% this method is also not used now.Spray. There are three types of solder marking done in BEL: Wet solder mask: Due to some demerits this method is totally ruled out.Cleaner. tin is stripped out from the tracks.Water Rinse-Electrolytic. is printed on it. photo tool generation is done which is followed by photo printing. The board is covered by a silk cloth whose mesh is T-48. If the ckt. In this the PCB is kept b/w two blue sheets and the ckt. Solder marking is done to mark the tracks to get oxidized & finally etch.Sulfuric acid-Tin plating. Varnishing is done as anti fungus prevention for against environmental hazard. After this solder marking is done. The procedure for pattern plating follows: Loading. is black and the rest of the sheet is white.Water rinse.Unloading.Copper plating. pattern plating is done. screen preparation is done. This is done before molding. After completion of manufacturing proceeds it is sent for testing. are developed.Water rings. To give strength to the wires so that they can not break.e.Water rinse. Liquid photo imaginable solder mask (LPISM): In this first presoaking is at 80 degree Celsius for 10 to 20 minutes. off the tracks is etched by any of the following chemicals.L . This is followed by resist striping and copper etching. following observation is done.Hot air dryUnloading. To identify b/w the negative and positive. Next.
) + Butyrate solo solve 50gms/kg. Of 20degree C is done. following procedure takes place. Water-Lactic acid-Water-Bleaching power-Water-caustic Soda-Water-Air dry-TCE.Six Months Training 15 .L . while reducer is used as thinner. GTBKIET. For wash out. After wash out.) Ink preparationIt uses:Ink-----100gm Catalyst----10% of total weight Reducer-----10% of total weight The catalyst is used as binder and prevents the following. final baking for one hour at the temp. The three things are then fully mixed.51504061/ECE/2K5 The next is ink preparation: Ink + Hardener 71 %: 29 % (150 gms. : (300gms. After this shearing or routing is done which is followed by debarring and packing.
Change code is prepared.cable form . 2.L . The mistakes in the PCB can be categorized as: D & E mistakes Shop mistakes Inspection mistakes The process card is attached to each PCB under inspection. 3. Recommendation action is taken GTBKIET. modules . purchased and inspected according to the specifications by IG department. After a mistake is detected following actions are taken: 1. 5. 4. The fabrication department checks all the fabricated parts and ensures that these are made according to the part drawing. cable assembly . Any error in the PC is entered in the process card by certain code specified for each error or defect. plating and stenciling etc are done as per BEL standards. Similarly QC work department inspects all the items manufactured in the factory. Observation is made. The assembly inspection departments inspects all the assembled parts such as PCB . racks and shelters as per latest documents and BEL standards . The raw materials and components etc. painting .Six Months Training 16 . Division code is given. Object code is given. the quality control department ensures the quality of the product.51504061/ECE/2K5 QUALITY CONTROL According to some laid down standards.
part list drawing and bringing all the components before doing the work. Tinning. MFC. WORK ASSEMBLY COMMUNICATION e. o Writing lists of all components.g. MSSR: MONOPULSE SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR. The stepwise procedure followed by work assembly department is: o Preparation of part list that is to be assembled. Bending.The resistors .Preparation is done by getting the entire documents .L . equipments and instruments in a particular procedure. EMCCA: EQUIPMENT MODULAR FOR COMMAND CONTROL APPLICATION.51504061/ECE/2K5 WORK ASSEMBLY This department plays an important role in the production. EMCCA. INDRA –II. GTBKIET. MSSR.This is done before mounting and under takes two procedures.Six Months Training 17 . Its main function is to assemble various components. o Preparation of general assembly.capacitors and other components are tinned with the help of tinned lead solution .g.The wire coming out from the components is of copper and it is tinned nicely by applying flux on it so that it does not tarnished and soldering becomes easy. In work assembly following things are done : Material Receive: Preparation. It has been broadly classified as: WORK ASSEMBLY RADAR e. o Schematic diagram to depict all connections to be made and brief idea about all components. MFC: MULTI FUNCTIONAL CONSOLE. REPORTER.
This is done by hand after the finishing is done.After this variable components are sleeved with Teflon.L . Storing.This is only done on components which are not variable.This is done in a machine and solder stick on the entire path.This is done in environmental lab at temperature of 40 degree C for 4 hrs and three cycles. GTBKIET. The soldering irons are generally of 25 W and are of variable temperature.This comes under quality work. one of the wires of the component is soldered so that they don’t move from their respective places on the PCB plate. Heat Ageing.51504061/ECE/2K5 Mounting. which are tinned. On the other hand of the component is also adjusted so that the PCB does not burn. Testing: Lacquering. Touch Up. Wave Soldering.It means soldering the components of the PCB plate with the help of soldering tools. Before Lacquering mounted plate is cleaned with isopropyl alcohol.Six Months Training 18 . The product is then sent to store. Cleaning: Inspection.
2.51504061/ECE/2K5 MAGNETICS In this department different types of transformers and coils are manufactured . communication equipments. dielectric strength . This department divided into two groups : (a) Planning and (b) Planning store .Production of transformers and coils are being carried out by the works departments. full load current . Air cored transformers 2. No load current .Six Months Training 19 .e.B Mounting transformers :(a) Impedance matching transformers (b) RF transformers (c) IF transformers GTBKIET.After manufacturing the transformer/coils the item is offered to the inspection department to check the electrical parameters(DCR .) PRODUCTION CONTROL :. radar .) WORKS (PRODUCTION) :. Oil filled transformers 3.Basic function of production control is to plan the production of transformer and coils as per the requirement of respective division (Radar and Communication). The various types of transformers are as follows : 1. which are used in the various Defence equipments i. 3. inductance .L . P.) QUALITY CONTROL :. This department basically consists of three sections : 1. Moulding type transformers 4. insulation resistance and mechanical dimension as mentioned in the GA drawing of the product.C. The D&E department provides all the information about manufacturing a coil and the transformer.
they are impregnated. The various types of windings are as follows : Layer Winding Wave Winding Bank Winding Insulation : For inter-winding and inter layer . oil paper . dust and to provide high insulation resistance . Lamination 4. paper . The male and female plates assembled and glued alternately to form a hollow rectangular winding has specified number of layers with each layer’s having a specified number of turns. moisture . The plasatic layer is inserted between two consecutive layers. Toroidal core Steps involved in the process of manufacturing of transformer/coils: Preparation of former : Former is made of plastic bakelite comprising a box on which winding is done.Six Months Training 20 . Craft paper . polyester film are being used. E type 2. Protection : To protect the transformer from the external hazards .L .51504061/ECE/2K5 The various types of cores are as follows : 1. Winding : It is done with different material and thickness of wire. various types of insulation sheets viz. GTBKIET. The distance between the two turns should be maintained constantly that is there should be no overlapping. Ferrite core 5. leather . C type 3.
VSWR . reflection etc. Circular waveguides are used where the antenna is rotating. The instruments used for this purpose are as follow: i) ii) iii) iv) v) Filters Isolators Reflectors Network Analyzers Spectrum Analyzers GTBKIET. In rectangular waveguide there is min. are checked. Different type of waveguides is tested in this department like rectangular waveguides.return loss. Mainly the testing is done on coupler and isolators and parameters are tested here. In the antenna section as well as SOHNA site various parameters such as gain . This depends on the users requirements. A good waveguide should have fewer loses and its walls should be perfect conductors.bandwidth . distortion. Power measurements are done for microwave components because current and voltage are very high at such frequencies. There are two methods of testing: a.Six Months Training 21 . circular waveguides.parameters.) Production Test Procedure(PTP) Drawing of various equipments that are to be tested is obtained and testing is performed on manufactured part.L . The testing of microwave components is done with the help of various radio and communication devices. The power measurements being done in microwave lab are in terms of S.51504061/ECE/2K5 MICROWAVE LABORATORY Microwave lab deals with very high frequency measurements or very short wavelength measurements. These waveguides can be used to transmit TE mode or TM mode.) Acceptance Test Procedure(ATP) b. Phase and magnitude measurements are done in this section. phase .
Six Months Training 22 .51504061/ECE/2K5 vi) Amplifiers and Accessories GTBKIET.L .
Speed detection is measured by the amount of Doppler Effect frequency shift of the reflected signal. As it was. Some people credit them with being pioneers in the field. determine the distance or speed. Radar is used in many contexts. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect. While radar development was pushed because of wartime concerns. would be too weak to detect. a British scientist. Although the radio signal returned is usually very small. typically in the same location as the transmitter.L . ships.Six Months Training 23 . It wasn't until the early 20th century that a radar system was first built. people were interested in ways to make such happenings avoidable Introduction The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. objects such as aircraft. the early warning radar system (called "Chain Home") that they built around the British Isles warned them of all aerial invasions. such as sound or visible light. radio signals can easily be amplified. and detected by a receiver.51504061/ECE/2K5 RADAR History of RADAR Nobody can be credited with "inventing" radar. This gave the outnumbered Royal Air Force the edge they needed to defeat the German Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain. so radar can detect objects at ranges where other emission. Great Britain made a big effort to develop radar in the years leading up to World War Two. But the problem was that it was too advanced for the technology of the time. A transmitter emits radio waves. This acronym of American origin replaced the previously used British abbreviation RDF (Radio Direction Finding). The idea had been around for a long time--a spotlight that could cut through fog. After the Titanic ran into an iceberg and sank in 1912. the idea first came about as an anti-collision system. which are reflected by the target. One of the biggest advocators of radar technology was Robert Watson-Watt. including GTBKIET. rain and map them.
GTBKIET. and by the military. who demonstrated the feasibility of detecting the presence of ships in dense fog and received a patent for radar as Reichspatent Nr. Several inventors. Here's how to understand Doppler shift (you may also want to try this experiment in an empty parking lot). Let's say there is a car coming toward you at 60 miles per hour (mph) and its horn is blaring. The use of radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects via radio waves" was first implemented in 1904 by Christian Hülsmeyer. and engineers contributed to the development of radar. The length of time between the moments you shout and the distance between you and the surface that creates the echo determines the moment that you hear the echo.L .Six Months Training 24 . You will hear the horn playing one "note" as the car approaches. or reflected off of. air traffic control. scientists. Another of the first working models was produced by Hungarian Zoltán Bay in 1936 at the Tungsram laboratory BASIC PRINCIPLE Echo and Doppler Shift Echo is something you experience all the time. The echo occurs because some of the sound waves in your shout reflect off of a surface (either the water at the bottom of the well or the canyon wall on the far side) and travel back to your ears. The change you hear is caused by Doppler shift. Doppler shift occurs when sound is generated by. the echo comes back a moment later. Doppler shift in the extreme creates sonic booms (see below). If you shout into a well or a canyon. 165546.51504061/ECE/2K5 meteorological detection of precipitation. but when the car passes you the sound of the horn will suddenly shift to a lower note. It's the same horn making the same sound the whole time. police detection of speeding traffic. Doppler shift is also common. You probably experience it daily (often without realizing it). a moving object.
as found on many merchants’ ships. The frequency of the radio waves is basically about 10. it bounces off an object and some type of receiver later receives it. Sound is used as a signal to detect objects in devices called GTBKIET. the visual display unit The antenna is two or three meter wide and focuses pulses off very high frequency radio energy into a narrow vertical beam. The transmitted power is generated in a device called the “magnetron” which can handle all these short pulses and very high oscillations. In all radar it is vital that the transmitting and the receiving in a transceiver are in close harmony. Short pulses are best for shortrange work. Phosphorescent screen glows when hit by an electron and the resulting spot can be seen through the glass face. has three main parts: 1. These pulses are short range pulses hence can’t serve out the purpose of long range work . The antenna unit or the scanner 2. The antenna is rotated at the rate of 10 to 25 rpm so that radar beam swaps through 300degree Celsius all around the shiout to a range of about 90 kms. The basic idea behind radar is very simple: a signal is transmitted. The transmitter receiver or ‘transceiver’ and 3.51504061/ECE/2K5 HOW RADAR WORKS A radar system. The display system usually carried out the control necessary for the operation of whole radar . pulses per second are transmitted. They use certain kinds of electromagnetic waves called radio waves and microwaves.In order to modify these pulses to long range pulses or the RF pulses. The gun shouts electron to the phosphorescent screen at the far end. which consists of a electron gun in its neck. longer pulses are best for longer-range work. This ‘keys’ the transmitter so that it oscillates.000 Mhz.Six Months Training 25 . An important part of transceiver circuit is ‘modular circuit’. This is where the name RADAR comes from (Radio Detection And Ranging). Though it is varied to suit the requirements. we need to generate the power. The pulses so designed are ‘video pulses.L . About 1000. or pulses for the right length of time.It has a cathode ray gun. Every thing depends on accurate measurement of the time that passes between the transmission of pulse and the return of the echo.
Another type of signal used that is relatively new is laser light that is used in devices called LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). Once the signals are received the switch then transfers control back to the transmitter to transmit another signal.L . which would go on a Pulse Width and Bandwidth: Some radar transmitters do not transmit constant. it calculates useful information from it such as the time taken for it to be received. Later the data must be processed to be interpreted into something useful. the strength of the returned signal. Basic Radar System: A basic radar system is spilt up into a transmitter. processor and some sort of output display. or the change in frequency of the signal. receiver. switch. Everything starts with the transmitter as it transmits a high power pulse to a switch. The time between each pulse is called the pulse repetition time (PRT) and the number of pulses transmitted in one GTBKIET.51504061/ECE/2K5 SONAR (Sound Navigation Ranging).Six Months Training 26 . they transmit rhythmic pulses of EM waves with a set amount of time in between each pulse. uninterrupted electromagnetic waves. which then directs the pulse to be transmitted out an antenna. Any received signals from the receiver are then sent to a data recorder for storage on a disk or tape. Once the radar receives the returned signal. The switch may toggle control between the transmitter and the receiver as much as 1000 times per second. Instead. The pulse itself would consist of an EM wave of several wavelengths with some dead time after it in which there are no transmissions. data recorder. antenna.
the above can be said. this is what it looks like... It looks something like this.Six Months Training 27 . The time taken for each pulse to be transmitted is called the pulse width (PW) or pulse duration..1 microseconds long for penetrating radars or 10-50 microseconds long for imaging radars (a display. RT means repetition time. Typically they can be around 0.. PRT = 1 / PRF or PRF = 1 / PRT And for all you visual learners out there. One reason why it is not realistic is that the frequency in waves of the pulses is the same.L ..51504061/ECE/2K5 second is called the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). which means the frequency changes or modulates.. the above diagram is not quite realistic for several reasons. GTBKIET. However. In real life the frequency of the waves are not the same and they change as time goes on. In math language. microsecond is a millionth of a second). This is called frequency modulation.
This works differently and need the help of the target aircraft it séance out a sequence of pulses to an electronic BLACK BOX called the TRANSPONDER. The transponder is connected to the aircrafts altimeter (the device which measures the planes altitude) to transmit back the coded message to the radar about its status and altitude. Radars use bandwidth for several reasons regarding the resolution of a data image. which the wave was originally traveling through. it gets partly reflected away from the surface and refracted into the surface. This is what happens to radar signals when they hit objects. When an EM wave hits a surface. Only a very small fraction of the original signal is transmitted back in the direction of the receiver. The typical power of a transmitted signal is around 1 kilowatt and the typical power of the backscatter can be around 10 watts. If the signal hits a surface that is not perfectly flat (like all surfaces on Earth) then it gets reflected in all directions. TYPES OF RADAR Based on function radar can be divided into two types: 1. The amount of reflection and refraction depends on the properties of the surface and the properties of the matter. as you look right. If a radar signal hits a surface that is perfectly flat then the signal gets reflected in a single direction (the same is true for refraction). the frequency of the wave is low on the left and it slowly increases. Military aircrafts uses a similar kind of radar system with secrete code to make GTBKIET.L . the controller must be able to identify the aircraft and find whether it is a friend or foe.Six Months Training 28 . fitted on the aircraft. PRIMARY RADAR 2. a high bandwidth can yield a finer resolution but take up more memory. All the pulses will look something like this. For instance. It is also desired to know the height of aircraft. On the above diagram. But in cases as controlling of air traffic. To give controller this information second radar called the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) is used. This small fraction is what is known as backscatter. SECONDRY RADAR Primary radar or the simple radar locates a target by procedure described in section. memory of the radar and overuse of the transmitter. The different frequencies of the wave will lie in a range called bandwidth.51504061/ECE/2K5 Think of this as one pulse.
IFF UNIT IFF is basically a radar bacon system employed for the purpose of general identification of military targets . of the target F = pattern propagation factor GTBKIET.e. i. RADAR EQUATION The amount of power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation: where • • • • • Pt = transmitter power Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna σ = radar cross section. providing two way data communication on different transmitter and receiver frequency . is received back to the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation.Six Months Training 29 . or scattering coefficient.51504061/ECE/2K5 sure that it is friend or foe. The interrogator transmitter in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft. A secondary radar system is basically very similar to primary radar system except that the returned signal is radiated from the transmitter on board the target rather then by reflection.The transponder on board the aircraft on receipt of a chain of pulses from ground interrogator. Primary radar locates an object by transmitting signal and detecting the reflected echo. it operates with a cooperative ‘active’ target while the primary radar operates with “passive target’. a hostile aircraft does not know what code to transmit back to the ground station for the corresponding receiver code.The bacon system when used for the control of civil air traffic is called as SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR (SSR).L . automatically transmit the reply. Secondary radar system consists of an interrogative and a transponder. coded for the purpose of identification.
where R is the range. Rt = Rr and the term Rt2 Rr2 can be replaced by R4. pathloss effects should also be considered.L . and measure the time it takes for the reflection to return. The propagation factor accounts for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING Distance measurement Transit time Principle of radar distance measurement using pulse round trip time.51504061/ECE/2K5 • • Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target Rr = distance from the target to the receiver. The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for vacuum without interference.Six Months Training 30 . In a real-world situation. which means that the reflected power from distant targets is very. The distance is one-half the product of round trip time (because the signal has to travel to the target and then back to the GTBKIET. very small. In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location. One way to measure the distance to an object is to transmit a short pulse of radio signal. This yields: This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range.
making the round trip times very short for terrestrial ranging. This means that a radar has a distinct minimum range. If the return from the target comes in when the next pulse is being sent out. and it is not easy to combine both good short range and good long range in a single radar. Range = cτ where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. Accurate distance measurement requires high-performance electronics. 2 and τ is the round trip time. one wants to use longer times between pulses. Long range radars tend to use long pulses with long delays between them. This could be offset by using more pulses. which is the length of the pulse multiplied by the speed of light. the speed of signal is the speed of light. This is because the short pulses needed for a good minimum range broadcast have less total energy. once again the receiver cannot tell the difference. As electronics have improved many radars now can change their PRF. but this would shorten the maximum range again. In order to maximize range. and short range radars use smaller pulses with less time between them.L . and is one of the main ways to characterize a radar. The receiver cannot detect the return while the signal is being sent out – there is no way to tell if the signal it hears is the original or the return.Six Months Training 31 . For radar.51504061/ECE/2K5 receiver) and the speed of the signal. divided by two. A similar effect imposes a specific maximum range as well. This pattern of pulses and pauses is known as the Pulse Repetition Frequency (or PRF). the inter-pulse time. So each radar uses a particular type of signal. In order to detect closer targets one must use a shorter pulse length. making the returns much smaller and the target harder to detect. These two effects tend to be at odds with each other. GTBKIET.
. The system consists mainly of an Antenna. It can be connected in air defence radar network. FEATURES Frequency agility Monopulse processing for height estimation Adaptive sensitivity time control Jamming analysis indication. plot filtering / tracking data remoting Comprehensive BITE facility 2. GTBKIET. Antenna. Receiver and Processor Cabin. The Radar is configured in three transport vehicles. Transmitter cabin and Display cabin mounted on three separate vehicles. The radar has an autonomous display for stand-alone operation.Six Months Training 32 . Transmitter cabin. pulse compression. Low Flying Detection Radar (INDRA II) The low-level radar caters to the vital gap filling role in an air defence environment. viz. 3D Mobile Radar (PSM 33 Mk II) 3-D mobile radar employs monopulse technique for height estimation and using electronic scanning for getting the desired radar coverage by managing the RF transmission energy in elevation plane as per the operational requirements.51504061/ECE/2K5 DIFFERENT TYPES OF RADARS 1.L . It is a transportable and self-contained system with easy mobility and deployment features.
by air as well GTBKIET. alerting and cueing system. including weapon control functions.Six Months Training 33 . presenting both MTI and Synthetic Video Integral IFF 3.L . Tactical Control Radar This is an early warning. It is specially designed to be highly mobile and easily transportable.51504061/ECE/2K5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS Range up to 90 km (for fighter aircraft) Height coverage 35m to 3000m subject to Radar horizon Probability of detection: 90% (Single scan) Probability of false alarm: 10E-6 Track While Scan (TWS) for 2D tracking Capability to handle 200 tracks Association of primary and secondary targets Automatic target data transmission to a digital modem/networking of radars Deployment time of about 60 minutes FEATURES Fully coherent system Frequency agility Pulse compression Advanced signal processing using MTD and CFAR Techniques Track while scan for 2-D tracking Full tracking capabilities for maneuverings targets Multicolor PPI Raster Scan Display.
to be used in all kinds of terrain. efficient and flexible use of the airspace. and give effective local fire distribution Highly mobile system. This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat operations.51504061/ECE/2K5 as on the ground. This radar minimizes mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. FEATURES All weather day and night capability 40 km ranges.Six Months Training 34 .L . giving a large coverage Multiple target handling and engagement capability Local threat evaluation and engagement calculations assist the commander's decision making process. The command and control capabilities of the RADAR in combination with an effective ground based air Defence provide maximum operational effectiveness with a safe. with short into and out of action times (deployment/redeployment) Clutter suppression GTBKIET.
and also to guide planes in for smooth landings. The military uses it to detect the enemy and to guide weapons. GTBKIET.Six Months Training 35 .51504061/ECE/2K5 RADAR APPLICATION Air traffic control uses radar to track planes both on the ground and in the air. to track satellites and space debris and to help with things like docking and maneuvering. NASA uses radar to map the Earth and other planets. Police use radar to detect the speed of passing motorists.L .
The radar transmitter is designed around the selected output device and most of the • • • • transmitter chapter is devoted to describing output devices therefore: Picture: transmitter of P-37 GTBKIET. The transmitter must have a high RF stability to meet signal processing requirements The transmitter must be easily modulated to meet waveform design requirements.Six Months Training 36 . The transmitter must be efficient.L . The radar transmitter is required to have the following technical and operating characteristics: • The transmitter must have the ability to generate the required mean RF power and the required peak power The transmitter must have a suitable RF bandwidth. reliable and easy to maintain and the life expectancy and cost of the output device must be acceptable.51504061/ECE/2K5 RADAR TRANSMITTER The radar transmitter produces the short duration high-power of pulses of energy that are radiated into space by the antenna.
produces the rf pulse. usually a magnetron. Pictured is a keyed oscillator transmitter of the historically russian radar set P-37 (NATO-Designator: „Bar Lock”).Six Months Training 37 . o A special case of the PAT is the active antenna. • Power-Amplifier-Transmitters (PAT) are used in many recently developed radar sets. Radar units fitted with an PAT are fully coherent in the majority of cases. The impulse-transformer and the pulse-forming network with the charging diode and the high-voltage transformer are in the lower bay of this rack. In this system the transmitting pulse is caused with a small performance in a waveform generator. The magnetron at the middle of the figure is connected to the waveguide by a coaxial connector. GTBKIET. Radar units fitted with an POT are either non-coherent or pseudo-coherent. klystron or Solid-State-Amplifier). This transmitting system is called POT (Power Oscillator Transmitter). The picture shows the typical transmitter system that uses a magnetron oscillator and a waveguide transmission line. Even every antenna element or every antenna-group is equipped with an own amplifier here.L . In this transmitter one stage or tube. The oscillator tube is keyed by a high-power dc pulse of energy generated by a separate unit called the modulator. It is taken to the necessary power with an amplifier flowingly (Amplitron. High-power magnetrons. Beside the magnetron with its magnetes you can see the modulator with its thyratron.51504061/ECE/2K5 • One main type of transmitters is the keyed-oscillator type. are usually coupled directly to the waveguide. however.
high or extra)to Prevent the dissipation of the magnetron from becoming too high PRF the lower the supplied high voltage Transmitter Unit – The transmitter unit Comprises • • • • Submodulator Modulator Magnetron Afc control Unit The magnetron is a self – oscillating RF Power generator.51504061/ECE/2K5 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE RADAR SUBSYSTEM Main Circuit of Radar Subsystem High Tension Unit Transmitter Unit Lo+Afc Unit Receiver Unit Antenna Video Processor High Tension UnitThe high tension unit converts the 115v 400Hz 3 Phase mains voltage into a d. The Pulse repetition frequency of the magnetron pulses is determined by the synchronizations circuit in the video Processor.Six Months Training 38 . The exact value of the high voltage depends on the selected PRF(low. The generated RF Pulses are applied to the receiver unit.L .35us.2kv for the transmitter unit. whereupon it Produces X-band Pulses with a duration of about 0. It supplied by the modulator with high voltage Pulses of about 20kvdc. Which applies start pulses to the sub GTBKIET.c supply voltage of about 4.
LO+AFC Unit The Lo+Afc unit determines the frequency of the transmitted radar pulses. called MTI channel and linear channel. It comprises• • • • Lock Pulses mixer Afc discriminator Solid state local oscillator(SSLO) Coherent oscillator(COHO) The Afc lock Pulses are Pulses are also applied to the COHO.via directional coupler. to obtain a 30MHz IF signal is split into two branches.51504061/ECE/2K5 modulator of the transmitter unit. The image rejection mixer mixes the amplified signals with the SSLO signals. Produces high voltage Pulses of about 20kvDC. an MTI channel and a linear channel. a frequency control loop is created thus maintaining a frequency of the SSLO and the magnetron output frequency. of 30Hz. The BJD is a wideband device.As a magnetron is self.oscillating some kind of frequency control is required. a fraction of the low noise amplifier output is branch offer and applied to the broadband jamming detector. Receiver unit The Rx unit converts the received RF echo signal to IF level and detects the IF signals in two different ways. Which is supplied by the high tension unit. if jamming GTBKIET. This sub modulator issues start Pulses of suitable amplitude to trigger the thyraton in the modulator. The resulting signal is passed on the SJI-STC circuit (Search jamming indication sensitivity time control) in the video Processor .L . two receiver channel are obtained. Together with circuits in the Lo+Afc units. which amplifies and detects the signal applied.Six Months Training 39 . The magnetron is provided with a tunning mechanism to adjust the oscillating frequency b/w certain limits. and it is synchronized with the pulse of each transmitter Pulse.viz. This tunning mechanism is operated by an electric motor being part of the Afc control circuit. The RF signal received by the radar antenna pass the circulator and are applied to a low noise amplifier. The COHO outputs signals with a freq. required by the Phase sensitive detector in the receiver unit. In this way a phase reference signal is obtained.
rotating with a speed of about 48 r.L . which causes the polarization of the RF energy to the either horizontally or circularly. The polarity of the video pulse indicate whether the phase difference is positive or negative. The output signal of the PSD consists of video pulse. The PSD output signal is applied to the canceller in the video processor. which emits the RF pulses from the circulartor and which receives RF echo Pulses. The linear detector outputs positive video signals which are passed on to the colour PPI drive unit. the IP signal is amplified again by the MTI main amplifier and applied to the phase sensitive detector. The phase differences between the corlo signal and if echo signals from a fixed target are constant whereas those between the COHO signal and if echo signals from a moving target are subject to change. it is used to prevent a polar diagram of a jamming on the PPI Screen. In the waveguide is Polarisation shifter. Canceller Floating level circuit Correlator Synchronization circuit GTBKIET. Antenna The antenna is a cosecant square parabolic reflector. The main circuit comprised by the video processor are : Synchronization circuit. The second signal applied to the phase sensitive detector PSD is the phase reference signal from the COHO.p. the amplitudes of which are a function of the phase difference between the two input signal of the PSD. In the MTI channel. to make the video suitable for presentation on the colour PPI screen and for use by the video extractor.m.51504061/ECE/2K5 occurs. in the focus of the reflector is a radiator. The polarization shifter is controlled by the system operator. Video Processor The video processor processes the MTI receiver channel. Which shows the direction of the jamming source.Six Months Training 40 .
here a compromise is to found. the better the suppression factor. This circuit the following video’s are obtained : Undelayed Video (V0) GTBKIET. Extra PRF : The PRF jumps from pulse to pulse between low PRF and high PRF. but with fixed targets the phase is constant (i. and accordingly it generates the timing pulses required by the canceller. The higher the PRF of the radar pulses. The suppression by the canceller is limited.e. The canceller switched to double is a digital three pulse comparison canceller.51504061/ECE/2K5 The synchronization circuit develops the start pulse for the sub modulator in the transmitter unit. multiplication and subtraction these video are combined to obtained a canceller output according to the following formula.Six Months Training 41 . V out (double) = 2 V1 – (V 0 + V 2) The canceller switched to triple is digital four pulse comparison canceller. The repetition time of the start pulses depends on the PRF is staggered Pseudorandomly : 32 point stagger is used for low and high PRF and 64 point stagger is used for extra PRF. The canceller is swithched as double canceller. The canceller makes use of the difference in phase behavior moving and fixed targets with moving target and phase differs from pulse to pulse. The 64 point stagger for extra PRF is actually is compound of a 32 point staggered short PRT and 32 point staggered long PRT and a 32 point staggered long PRT.L . a further cancellation improvement can be obtained by using a triple canceller instead of a double canceller. Video’s are : Undelayed video (V0) Video delayed by one PRT (V1) Video delayed by two PRT’s (V2) By addition. Canceller The canceller is a circuit used to suppress the echo’s of fixed targets or very slow moving targets. the PSD output is constant). The operation of the canceller depends on the selected PRF : Low and high PRF .
) and then processed by signal processor.51504061/ECE/2K5 Video delayed by one PRT (V1) Video delayed by two PRT (V2) Video delayed by three PRT’s (V3) Canceller output according to the following formula : V out (triple) = V0 – 3 V1 + 3 V2 – V3 SIGNAL PROCESSING UNIT INTRODUCTION The signal processing unit constitutes a very important functional block with vital roles to perform in overall system configuration of receiver radar returns under normal operating conditions are initially processed by the analogue processing stages (such as LNA. in order to enable detection of tangentially moving (or low Doppler ) targets under noise limited. This will avoid the need for the transmission of a narrow pulse with high peak power. In detection block Cell Averaging (CACFAR) with programmable threshold setting features in range/Doppler domain is used. and weak to moderate ground clutter conditions.Six Months Training 42 .L . the Zero GTBKIET. To improve the radar resolution in range. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION The signal processor consists of Digital Pulse Compression system followed by the prewhitening clutter cancellation filter in the form of three pulses in MTI. The MTI. a technique called PULSE COMPRESSION is employed. This type of signal processor is known as MOVING TARGET DETECTOR. VIDEO DETECTOR etc. The MTI output is then processed by a sixteen point FFT processor with frequency domain windowing feature. thus simplifying the transmitter chain. without the need for transmitting narrow pulse. IF. Final stage of data processing is detection. FFT and CFAR are collectively known as MTD. Similarly.
the necessary circuits in the form of D/A converters are also provided. multilayer PCBs. The PCBs are grouped into functions are packed into a single card cage. the environment under which the INDRA-II is expected to perform its role for the given specifications. strength. To facilitate the validation and testing of the signal processor. and extraction of signal parameters such as Doppler content. to enable the detection of weak signals under noise and clutter backgrounds. facilitate optimal detection under conditions of heavy clutter especially in Radars used for low looking surveillance role.L . Timing and control signals required by various functional blocks of the Signal Processor and also the transmitter system are catered for as part of the Signal Processor design feature. Moving Target Detector (MTD) technique. GTBKIET. However. along with a power supply module. and detection techniques. range and azimuthal positions etc. Each card cage is capable of housing up to 15 PCBs. The Digital Pulse Compression block carries out the matched filtering and correlation of the returns with the transmitted phase codes. filtering and integrations. to monitor on Oscilloscope outputs of MTI. FFT and ZVF blocks.51504061/ECE/2K5 Velocity Filter (ZVF) and its associated clutter map are used. the MTD technique naturally turns out to be the ideal choice of its implementation. Similarly. Interface circuits for MTD processed video on PPI as well for MTD data transfer to centroid/RDP processor also form part of the design features. PRF staggering scheme on scan-to-scan and CPI-to-CPI basis is employed to ensure better performance against blind speed conditions. Signal Processor receives digital data from if processor. Keeping in view. further processing needs to be carried out using clutter cancellation.Six Months Training 43 . +15V and -15V supply needs of that card cage. The power supply takes ac input and caters for the +5V. HARDWARE ORGANISATION The Signal Processor is realized on multiple. a swept Doppler BITE is also provided. The data is received and offset corrected (if AUTO OFFSET is ON SP control panel) and passed on to Digital Pulse Compression (DPC) block.
Following are realized as dedicated interface on separate PCBs.51504061/ECE/2K5 Two such card cages are put together in a card enclosure called Card Panel. • • DISPLAY INTERFACE CENTROIDER INTERFACE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS: GTBKIET. FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION All the functions performed by Signal Processor can be organized under following groups: SIGNAL PROCESSING FUNCTIONS: These are the main functions that process the radar echo. to be able to pull out for maintenance purpose.Six Months Training 44 . Other interfaces are part of their respective hardware.L . and hence form the main functional chain. Each of the card panel is mounted on rails. Two such card panels are being used to realize total signal processing hardware. • • • • • • • DIGITAL PULSE COMPRESSION AUTO OFFSET CORRECTION MATCHED FILTER MOVING TARGET INDICATOR FFT PROCESSING ZERO VELCITY FILTER (ZVF) ADAPTIVE THRESHOLDING (CFAR) INTERFACE FUNCTIONS: These are the functions enabling the signal processor to communicate with other units in the radar.
The Digital Card Module houses 13 nos. GTBKIET. SP output monitoring. DIGITAL PULSE COMPRESSION (DPC) BLOCK DPC card module performs the following functions: I/Q channel Digital Matched Filtering. Online JAM sensing with real – time ECCM controls. Automatic DC offset correction for I/Q ADC data. ECCM – Analyze and generate control for optimum frequency selection and jammer indication on PPI. PD /Pfa / Antenna RPM monitoring & Indication.L . of extended double Euro Multi-layer PCBs as part of the Signal Processing Rack of INDRA-PC RADAR.Six Months Training 45 . and generate control for some functions performed by other units of radar. • • • • SYSTEM TIMING (also contain circuits for internal timing requirements of SP). MONITORING FUNCTIONS: For parameter control and quick check on health of Signal Processor following functions are performed: RPM monitoring. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The following are detailed description of each functional block.51504061/ECE/2K5 These functions receive controls (if any). Control Panel Function. SYSTEM BITE – Generates control for simulated target generation by Receiver. Adaptive Microwave Sensitivity Control. Systems BITE control for generation of simulated targets for on-line injection at RF & IF levels. ADAPTIVE MSC (AMSC) – Adaptive map generation and transfer to receiver for Adaptive Microwave Sensitive Control.
Six Months Training 46 .L . GTBKIET. The I & Q channel pulse compressed signal is then fed to the corner turning memory of the MTD processor in the next card module. The received ADC data also goes after buffering to the Adaptive Microwave Sensitivity Control (AMSC) card and ECCM control card.51504061/ECE/2K5 This card module receives the INPHASE and QUADRATURE channel ADC data (12+12 bits) from the 30 MHz IF processor. Automatic DC offset correction is applied to this data and inputted to the digital matched filter.
I-DPC data is selected for signature analysis for 8 sweeps and then Q-DPC data for the next 8 sweeps. offset corrected in Auto Offset Correction Card enters DPC CNTL CARD # 1. Signature analysis is carried out on-line during the dead range. I-CH matched filter and Q-CH matched filter together constitutes the matched filter block. I and Q matched filters look for the correlation in the code between the transmitted pulse and that of received echo pulse. GTBKIET. If there is any error in BANK # 1 or BANK # 2 of I-MF or BANK # 1 or BANK # 2 of Q-MF. The peaking of the signal occurs whenever the correlation exists. I/Q ADC data from IF unit. There is an overriding switch control DPC BITE ON/OFF by which only DPC SIM data can be selected as input to I/Q matched filters for diagnostics purposes. The clutter BITE is initiated with the help of CLUT PULSE trigger when needed only. There are two banks in the matched filter performing the similar filtering operation and the selection of a particular bank for operation is decided by the signature analysis circuit in DPC CNTL CARD # 2. I/Q ADC + CLUT data is multiplexed with I/Q SIM data and the selected data goes to I/Q matched filters. SIM data is used for on-line diagnostics and fault indication.L .Six Months Training 47 . The same sequence is followed when BANK # 2 is selected. Under normal operating conditions. A signature analysis gate is opened during which the on-line matched filter outputs are compared with the signatures stored and the error condition if any is detected With BANK # 1 selected. The matched filter output patterns for I & Q DPC SIM data are stored in EPROMs. DPC CONTROL CARD # 2.Here I/Q ADC data is added to I/Q clutter BITE (CLUT). an appropriate LED is switched on.51504061/ECE/2K5 MATCHED FILTER FUNCTION BLOCK DPC CONTROL CARD # 1. The signature analysis logic automatically switches to alternate bank when one bank is found faulty. ADC data is present during radar operational range and DPC SIM data is injected during the dead range of the radar.
It also buffers and distributes the I-ADC and Q-ADC data to AMSC and ECCM CARD #1. This GTBKIET. when there is no transmission. Auto Offset Correction Card receives I-ADC and Q-ADC data from IF processor unit corrects the offset in the two channels and passes on to DPC CONTROL CARD # 1.L . During the dead CPI period. Code generation and distribution to the other subunits/subsystems. The estimation of offset value in I/Q ADC data is done on-line every scan using ADSP processor in AMSC-Master Card. DPC CONTROL CARD # 1 generates the various control signals for signature analysis. BULK MEMORY FUNCTION BLOCK As the processing requirement is in the batch mode for MTD. and AMSC. These I/Q offset values are passed on to the Auto Offset Correction Card. is done. I/Q samples are taken at 3microsec. where the hardware corrects the offset in the two channels on-line in the following scan. the radar real time data has to be reordered and to processing block. in DPC CONTROL CARD # 2. This reordering is done in the bulk memory. interval over several range cells.51504061/ECE/2K5 The codes used in operation are stored in a PROM band can be selected manually using DIP-switch on the card or automatically when code agility mode is selected. AUTO OFFSET CORRECTION FUNCTION Auto offset correction block comprises – • • Auto offset correction hardware card.Master Card.Six Months Training 48 . This way samples are collected over several dead CPIs in a scan. DPC output analog video is generated for monitoring purposes in DPC CONTROL CARD # 1 & # 2. This offset data is subtracted (with proper sign) from the real time I/Q data for every range cell in following scan. This card also receives various signals and distributes them. The mean of these samples is computed to get the offset value in each of the channels.
In this PCB. The Doppler effect is observed only for radial motion. DOPPLER EFFECT The apparent frequency of electromagnetic sound waves depends on the relative radial motion of the source and the observer. In the second card mainly the memory and the corresponding switching buffer is available. The first PCB is the Bulk Memory Control Card. that is. not for tangential motion. MOVING TARGET INDICATOR FUNCTION BLOCK It is possible to remove from the radar display the majority of clutter. The memory in the second board is organized in such a way that while DPC output data is written in one of the memories called bank ‘A’. the address generations for both read and write operations. The clock used for the read operation is gated Rck. “If source and observer are moving away from each other. which employs the DOPPLER EFFECT in its operation. One of the methods of eliminating clutter is the use of MTI.Six Months Training 49 . the apparent frequency will increase.L . GTBKIET. Infact. MOVING TARGET DETECTOR PROCESSOR BLOCK MTD is an example of an MTI processing system that takes the advantage of the various capabilities offered by digital techniques to produce improved detection of moving targets. control generation and BITE generation are implemented. The MTI. This is often required. outputs the previous CPI data for processing block. The bank switching is done after every CPI. generated in system timing card. the other memory called bank ‘B’. Thus no Doppler effect will be noticed if a target moves across the field of view of radar. while if they are moving towards each other. although of course not in such applications as radar used in mapping or navigational applications.51504061/ECE/2K5 circuit consists of two PCBs. the apparent frequency will decrease. FFT and CFAR are collectively known as MTD. echoes corresponding to stationary targets. showing only the moving targets.
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5 A Doppler shift will be apparent if the target is rotating, and the resolution of the radar is sufficient to distinguish leading edge from its trailing edge.
FUNDAMENTALS OF MTI
Basically, the moving-target indicator system compares a set of received echoes with those received during the previous sweep. Those echoes whose phase has remained constant are then cancelled out. This applies to echoes due to stationary objects, but those due to moving targets do show a phase change; they are thus not cancelled-nor is noise, for obvious reasons. The fact that the clutter due to stationary targets is removed makes it easier to determine which targets are moving and reduces the time taken by an operator to ‘take in’ the display. It also allows the detection of moving targets whose echoes are hundreds of times smaller than those of nearby stationary targets and which would otherwise have been completely masked. The phase difference between the transmitted and received signals will be constant for fixed targets, whereas it will vary for moving target. The advantage offered by digital MTI processing: Compensation for “blind phases”, which cause a loss due to the difference in phase between the echo signal and the MTI reference signal. This is achieved by use of I & Q processing, something that was always known to be of value for MTI processing, but which was not convenient to implement with analog methods. Greater dynamic range can be obtained than was possible with acoustic delay lines. Digital processor can be made reprogrammable. Digital MTI is more stable and reliable than analog MTI, and requires less adjustments during operation in the field.
GTBKIET.Six Months Training
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5
FFT PROCESSOR FUNCTION BLOCK FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM (FFT)
Digital filtering involves the use of Fourier transform. The FFT requires less computational effort, and it has been popular for many applications. It has some limitations, however compared to. The number of samples has to be expressed as 2 n if a filter bank is being generated, all filters have identical responses, they will be uniformly spaced frequencies, and the weighting coefficients are not optimum since they cannot be chosen independently for each filter. The filters possible with a non-FFT filter bank also can achieve greater attenuation of moving clutter (such as rain or chaff) because of the greater flexibility available in their design. There are times, therefore, when the classical Fourier transform may be more advantageous than the FFT even though the FFT might be quicker and require less complexity.
FFT processor has been realized on 12 multilayer PCBs. The PCBs are as follows: FFT Timing and Control Cascade Buffer for FFT Processor 1 ALE Processor 1 Feedback Processor 1 Feed forward Complex multiplier Processor 2 ALE (Architecture same as Processor 1 ALE) Processor 2 Feedback (Architecture same as Processor 1 Feedback) Processor 2 Feed forward (Architecture same as Processor 1 Feed forward) Frequency Domain Window (Real) Frequency Domain Window (Imag.) Magnituder
GTBKIET.Six Months Training
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5
ZERO VELOCITY FILTER FUNCTION
The MTD also uses a new concept of Zero Velocity filter (ZVF) to overcome the probability of missing the targets which have a velocity falling in the zero Doppler zone. This will be the case of targets which are flying tangential radar and low velocity radial targets, who’s Doppler is such hat they fall in zeroeth filter. Also since the response of the DMTI is rather poor for low Doppler targets, there is every chance that these targets may go under. ZVF performs its function by forming a clutter map. Clutter map: A conventional MTI processor eliminates stationary clutter, but it also eliminates aircraft moving on a crossing trajectory (one perpendicular to the radar line of sight) which causes the aircraft’s radial velocity to be zero. This is unfortunate since the radar cross-section of an aircraft is relatively large when viewed at the broadside aspect presented by a crossing trajectory. The MTD took advantage of this large cross-section to detect the targets that normally would be lost to a simple MTI radar. It did this with the aid of a clutter map that stored the magnitude of the clutter echoes in a digital memory. The clutter map established the thresholds used for detecting those aircraft targets which produce zero radial velocity. There may be many range cells which may not contain clutter, or contain low clutter, but due to the poor response of MTI. These may be the implementation of the ZVF will allow the detection of targets whose return exceeds that of the clutter in that particular range – azimuth cell. The ZVF is implemented by integrating all the 18 returns of a CPI, and whose response extends to the frequency band covered by the zeroeth filter. In the zeroeth Doppler cell, the clutter is generally due to the ground echoes. To estimate the average backscatter signal level, the entire range – azimuth space is divided into fine grain resolution cells and the returns are stored in the form of a map. To build up the map accurately, each antenna resolution is broken into 256 CPIs and there are 2560 range cells. The ZVF is made up of magnitude of 18 samples, which are formed by first adding 9 samples and then adding the next 9 samples coherently and non-coherently adding up the sums.
GTBKIET.Six Months Training
Six Months Training 53 . so as to enable the detection of the signals with the constant false alarm rate under conditions of mainly thermal noise and also under jamming and interference backgrounds. GTBKIET. with adaptive thresholding in all the Doppler channels using moving window concepts is implemented. Mode Selection Multiplier and threshold detection constitute the hardware blocks of the CFAR processor. In case of Non-Gaussian clutter dominated Doppler channels designed features have been provided to selectively apply higher threshold levels. In order to achieve this Newman Person detection criterion. Detection of signals and extraction of primitive (primary) data information pertaining to the detected signals. The output of the FFT filtering block is further processed to facilitate the following Generation of adaptive threshold levels using Moving Window concept.L . CFAR BITE facility has also been provided to test and validate the CFAR processor block in stand-alone mode. Functional sub-blocks such as the running sum computation.51504061/ECE/2K5 CFAR PROCESSOR BLOCK CFAR is used in radars to maintain effectiveness when there are too many extraneous crossings of a fixed threshold caused by clutter or noise. Pipeline memory storage. so as to restrict the false alarm to the acceptable level. Automatic tracking of targets can be seriously degraded if excessive false alarms occur. The CFAR Processor block functions with its own timing and control signals. the threshold levels are so found. The output of the FFT magnituder forms the main data input to the CFAR Processor block. The master source for these timings however is from the system timing circuit. CONSTANT FALSE ALARM RATE (CFAR) processor block is one of the major functional blocks of digital signal processor. In the CFAR processor block.
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5
DISPLAY VIDEO INTERFACE FUNCTION
This function is to generate trigger and videos for two Display consoles. The raw video from IF processor is mixed with Jammer video and is then buffered to generate RAW video for Display Consoles. Mixing CFAR output with Jammer video and AMSC video generates the MTD video for Display Consoles. The triggers are suitably delayed Radar Trigger (RT), they are also buffered before sending to Display Consoles.
CENTROID INTERFACE FUNCTION
The data packet to be sent to the centroider from CFAR Processor, basically, contains the information such as signal strength, Doppler bin number (velocity bin), Range cell number, CPI number, PRF code and data pertaining Jam to strobe, Tx blanking flag, carrier frequency code, etc. This data packet needs to be tagged to the threshold crossing pulse to facilitate centroiding and subsequent data processing. The Threshold Crossing decision on sample-tosample basis is carried out at real time processing rate of 250ns per report. However the centroider accepts the information asynchronously. This necessitates the use of hardware buffering devices such as FIFOs. The information needs to be passed to a 16-bit data bus. Hence various sets of information indicated above need to be generated, edited, formatted and sequenced before data-transfer. The required hardware design was carried out in two PCBs. The first PCB consists of timing and control circuits and a part of data editing. The next PCB consists of sequencing, FIFO store and data interface.
SYSTEM TIMING FUNCTION
GTBKIET.Six Months Training 54
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5 This is the function that generates all the basic timing signals required for use within the Signal Processor as well as other units of the radar. It generates necessary synchronization signals for Transmitter and Sampling clock for IF Processor. The signals thus generated are described below. • • • • • 20 MHz GENERATOR 20 KHz GENERATOR PRF GENERATOR CPI PAIR GATE NM AND ACP GENERATION
BITE FUNCTION BLOCK
The interactive BITE sub-system provides comprehensive test facilities. Two target pulses can be generated using commands from a keyboard. The commands have been chosen in a way that it is easy to remember and consists of two alphabets followed by suitable functional parameters. The following are the BITE controls that can be used for signal processing and RDP checks. BITE pulses can be positioned in any range (distance – wise or range cell – wise) and in any azimuth. BITE pulses can be moved along range and / or along azimuth at any speed (0 to 9999 Kms per Hr). Any Doppler shift (0 to 100 %) in terms of percentage of PRF can be given. Target straddling can be introduced. Asynchronous interference can be introduced along with BITE pulse. BITE pulse can be fed at RF of IF stages. Primary and secondary BITE pulses can be switched on/off individually.
GTBKIET.Six Months Training
L - 51504061/ECE/2K5 BITE pulses can be introduced continuously (in a ring mode) or once a scan. Multiple BITE pulses can be generated for each of the primary target pulses along range as well as along azimuth. A maximum of 16 pulses can be generated along range and 32 along azimuth. Also, the separation between these multiple pulses can be varied in multiples of 1.8 Km along range and in multiples of 7.5 degree along azimuth. Apart from these, BITE subsystems can be used to generate programmable ECCM sector controls. They are • • • To selectively blank radar transmission in a sector (up to 8 such sectors). To selectively effect data blanking for centroids in any sector (up to 8 such sectors). To selectively choose random frequency or Least Jammed Frequency operating in any sector (up to 8 such sectors). The BITE subsystem is distributed in three PCBs. BITE control card #1 contains BITE Processor. Keyboard interface. Boot memory and data memory PROMs. Clock generation circuitry. Decoders for various registers. Sector control registers. Circuit for generating scan interrupts. Apart from these serial interface circuits and spare input registers and output registers have been provided. BITE Control Card # 2 is identical for target _ 1 and target – 2. This card consists of: • • Range registers. Azimuth registers. GTBKIET.Six Months Training 56
**Hence an adaptive microwave sensitivity control is employed which has the capability to intelligently self-program the receiver sensitivity in each range–azimuth cell in an accurately and optimum fashion.51504061/ECE/2K5 • • • • • Circuit for Doppler control. Circuit for antenna modulation. This is done by deriving a coarse clutter map from a zero-velocity (low-pass) filter. The function of AMSC-MASTER is to derive the clutter map built up over 8 scans from I & Q ADC data and to transfer this map data to AMSC-SLAVE processor through a GTBKIET. This may be done whenever the radar site is changed or whenever required. built up over a few scans for each range-azimuth cell. Then the relative clutter level w. Under such conditions STC circuit which is widely used to reduce large echoes from close-in clutter will not be effective. The adaptive attenuation programming is a one time operation initiated under full power transmission by the radar operator with the push of a button.t.Six Months Training 57 . Circuit for pulse width control along range and azimuth.L . the saturation point is computed for each range-azimuth bin and the corresponding attenuation accurately worked out to bring the clutter everywhere into the linear dynamic range. The clutter map is built after applying a constant attenuation of 30dB uniformly in the total range-azimuth plane. operating on the I & Q channel ADC data.r. Decoders for various registers. AMSCMASTER is housed in SPU-Rack & AMSC-SLAVE housed in Receiver-Rack. AMSC FUNCTION BLOCK Transportable and mobile tactical radar systems which need to operate with coverage extending over hilly and mountainous terrain have to cope with heavy volumetric clutter even at distant ranges. Circuit for multiple target pulse generation along range and azimuth. The two are connected through the serial line. AMSC block is configured as AMSC-MASTER & AMSC-SLAVE.
stores in its memory as a replica of map memory of MASTER. The MASTERto-SLAVE communication is synchronous (same serial clock is used for both the processors). This is normal mode of GTBKIET. where in the word sent by MASTER is echoed back by SLAVE. External RAM used in the circuit is of 128K words capacity and 8 pages are used to store the map information. The AMSC block operates in three modes.51504061/ECE/2K5 serial channel. The magnitude of I & Q data is computed for each range cell using 7/8 L + 1/2 S algorithm and stored in external memory. 51K of external memory is required for storing the map information. The derivation of coarse clutter map from zero-velocity filter is done as follows. the number of range azimuth cells per scan will be 256 * 200 =51. Mode of communication is duplex mode.Six Months Training 58 . transfers the map data from RAM to the EEPROM and starts outputting map values every PRT to RF CONTROL card for generating attenuation values. The I & Q samples for each range cell are integrated over 16 PRTs in a CPI. the word is repeated. Since we have256 CPIs in a scan and 200 range cells per CPI. If there is any error.. The computation and accumulation of magnitude is done for over 8 scans and the action is stopped.200 i. This way magnitude for all the range azimuth cells in a scan is computed and stored in a memory. In every CPI 210 range samples of I & Q data are taken starting with every PRT. The locations in each page are addressed by the processor using LSB 5 bits of CPI number and 8 bits of range cell address. The processor selects the memory page using the MSB 3 bits of CPI number. MODE # 1: No clutter map generation and no transfer of data in this mode the slave has to only output the map values stored in RAM every PRT. The range samples are taken at 3 µ sec interval.e. AMSC-SLAVE receives the map data.L . The MASTER processor checks for the correctness of the received word before sending the next word. The data is send to AMSC-SLAVE on a serial port of the processor.
Six Months Training 59 .51504061/ECE/2K5 operation. If the flag is active. Once the data transfer is completed. GTBKIET. AMSCINIT switch resets both MASTER and SLAVE processors. AMSC action is initiated by AMSC-INIT switch on the display front panel. The process of derivation of clutter map has to be done with full transmitter power ON and a 30dB uniform attenuation applied to the front end. The slave has to decode the three bits and take appropriate action like selecting memory page number or forming address pointer to load the data or load the data into specific location of the memory. the MASTER processor waits for one scan time and polls the flag. First word gives the page number of the memory. address and data. three 16-bit words are sent to slave. any accidental pressing of the switch during Radar operation causes 30dB front end attenuation being applied by the SLAVE processor and the detection will suffer for 8 scans. Slave processor has to receive the data and store in its external memory. only data stored in AMSC-MASTER EEPROM is transferred to AMSC-SLAVE. second word gives the address of the memory where data has to be stored and the third word is the data which has to be stored in the address location given by the second word. it starts with MODE # 3. which is done by the slave processor. the data is outputted with every PRT. After initialization with reset. For each word of data to be transferred. If AMSC-INIT switch is held pressed for one scan.L . The hardware in AMSC card senses whether the AMSC-INIT switch is pressed for one scan and set a flag. MODE # 3: Clutter map generation and transfer of data to SLAVE by MASTER. If this facility is not given. If not it will go to MODE # 2. MODE # 2: No clutter map generation. The MSB three bits of each word are used to code the word as page number. MASTER processor should go in for derivation of clutter map.
The Σ magnitudes obtained for each of the frequencies in a CPI is obtained as well as sum of all the Σ magnitudes.51504061/ECE/2K5 Sampling of data for map generation starts with the first CPI encountered after initialization with reset. Read current I/Q values of each range cells . The magnituded data is used for analyzing and to compute the different functions to be performed by this processor and outputted. These different functions are described below: LEAST JAMMED FREQUENCY The Σ magnitudes obtained for each frequency are compared and the frequency corresponding to minimum Σ magnitude gives the LJF. I-Q samples corresponding to these frequencies is collected. in two batches and A/D. Hence in all 660 samples of ADC data (or 330 complex I/Q samples) are colleted and stored in the internal data memory of the processor. are sent out to the CFAR GTBKIET. the receiver is switched through all the 11 frequencies.Six Months Training 60 . Also the Σ magnitude corresponding to the present CPI-LJF. ECCM CONTROL FUNCTION BLOCK In every pulse repetition time [PRT] interval during the dead range (beyond 94 Kms). AUTO THRESHOLD BITS 3 Bits are generated by comparing the Σ magnitude for the LJF in a CPI with some constant value of expected jamming noise and after weighting.L . only then the current LJF is putout. This first CPI number read from counter is stored. accumulate will previous I/Q values stored in internal memory. occurring in the dead range corresponding to the Transmitted frequency thus avoiding erroneous estimation of least jam frequency. else the previous LJF itself is output as the LJF for the next CPI. Compute the magnitude of accumulated I and Q values of previous CPI. An MTI operation is done on this data and then magnituding and hence the magnitude for each frequency is found out. This is done in every CPI. The functions of processor in each CPI are: Read the CPI number. This is repeated for a total of 15 PRTs in every coherent pulse interval (CPI). The MTI operation is done to cancel noise due to clutter if any. is compared with that of the previous CPI-LJF and if it is less than 5 times that of previous one.
In each case 2 bits of data are generated and the classification is indicated on the frequency indication panel (in system control unit). A fixed IF attenuation of 30dB is introduced during the dead range. the following parameters being indicated for two sets of numeric displays. Medium or High duty as well as Narrow bandwidth. The parameters monitored are: Probability of detection. auto STC off and also 24 dB dead range RF attenuation ON are generated and sent to appropriate units. the digital logarithm and hence what is called a LOAD NUMBER is arrived at each CPI. system) mode. 2 bits of data are generated to indicate the jam level corresponding to the LJF and sent to frequency indication panel unit on display console. percentage-indicated as a number in the form-(ZZZ)-with BITE (targets) only. This is done in every CPI.e. in order to obtain distinct main lobe and side lobes for the jammer strobe indication.L . RPM MONITORING CIRCUITS This circuit can monitor in either test mode (local diagnostics) or in operate (i. using LEDs.Six Months Training 61 .51504061/ECE/2K5 processor. JAMMER CLASSIFICATION Jammer duty ratio count and jammer bandwidth count are generated using certain algorithms comparing the Σ magnitude (after MTI operation) over a 8 CPI bracket. Depending on the values of these counts the jammer is classified as Low. JAM STROBE PRESENTATION Using the sum of all the Σ magnitudes of all frequencies as a basis and an algorithm. Set 1 indicates while the values for a single scan while Set 2 dispays the values averaged over the past 8 scans. This is sent to PPI for presentation. The interpolation gives the presentation of a smooth strobe. like auto LJF. the terminal count of the third stage after strobing is used as the video pulses for jam strobe. The load numbers in two adjacent CPIs are interpolated and a load pulse is generated every PRT to load a 3-stage counter. AUTO ATTENUATION CONTROL Once again depending upon the value of the sum of Σ magnitudes. GTBKIET. Medium bandwidth or Wide bandwidth.
YY). With the help of DIP switches the above operation is selected.51504061/ECE/2K5 Probability of false alarms. (x 106)-indicated as a number 4 single filter in the form-(XXX.L . a No. Probability of false alarms.Y). GTBKIET.Six Months Training 62 . (x 106)-indicated as a number-for all 16 filters in the form-(XX. a No.
ZVF. as the signal processor (MTD) hardware has got 3 main channels namely MTI. GTBKIET. The control panel.51504061/ECE/2K5 OUTPUT MONITORING FUNCTIONS This card is mainly to see the D/A converted output of 3 types of the signal channels of the signal processor on an oscilloscope.L . The card is designed to take 16 bits of data of any 3 channels. FFT.Six Months Training 63 . CONTROL PANEL FUNCTIONS Each of the cards has its card panel mounted on the front side.
Fully coherent radars exhibit none of the drawbacks of the pseudo-coherent radars. This switching is necessary because the high-power pulses of the transmitter would destroy the receiver if energy were allowed to enter the receiver.L . which we studied in the previous section. The fundamental feature is that all signals are derived at low level and the output device serves only as an amplifier. which provides the optimum phase coherence for the whole system. The output device would typically be a klystron.51504061/ECE/2K5 Fully Coherent Radar Figure 1: an easy block diagram of a fully coherent radar The block diagram on the figure illustrates the principle of a fully coherent radar. GTBKIET.Six Months Training 64 . All the signals are generated by one master timing source. TWT or solid state. Duplexer The duplexer alternately switches the antenna between the transmitter and receiver so that only one antenna need be used. usually a synthesizer.
as fixed clutter would inherit a Doppler component from the transmission. The mixer stage converts the received signal to the lower IF signal without distorting the data on the received signal. the signal is amplified in several IFamplifier stages. Most of the gain of the receiver is developed in the IF-amplifier stages. Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) The StaLO is also very stable CW RF oscillator. The overall bandwidth of the receiver is often determined by the bandwidth of the IF-stages. which generates the local RF frequency simultaneously for up-conversion in the transmitter and down-conversion in the receiver.L . It is taken to the necessary power with a Power Amplifier flowingly. The COHO provides the coherent reference signal to the Phase Sensitive Detector and also through a frequency divider generates the system PRF in the Synchronizer. Power Amplifier In this system the transmitting pulse is caused with a small performance in a waveform generator. This is because such noise would limit the overall MTI improvement factor. intermediate frequency (IF) that is easier to amplify and manipulate electronically.Six Months Training 65 . GTBKIET. The Power Amplifier would typically be a klystron. Similar arguments apply to FM noise added by the output device. Minimum FM noise (or phase noise) of the StaLO is an important characteristic. Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) or solid state. Coherent Oscillator The COHO is a very stable CW (Continuous Wave) oscillator locked to the IF frequency (The COHO frequency is generally derived from a master crystal oscillator) and constitutes the internal phase reference.51504061/ECE/2K5 Mixer Stage The function of the mixer stage is to convert the received rf energy to a lower. It is obtained by heterodyning the received signal with a local-oscillator signal in the mixer stage. The intermediate frequency is usually 30 or 60 megahertz. IF-Amplifier After conversion to the intermediate frequency.
Frequency and the COHOFrequency upwards into the phase-stabile continuous wave transmitter-frequency.Six Months Training 66 .processing) of the Doppler signal.51504061/ECE/2K5 Mixer / Exciter The function of this mixer stage is to convert the StaLO. Signal Processor The signal processor is that part of the system which separates targets from clutter on the basis of Doppler content and amplitude characteristics. while faithfully retaining the full phase and quadrature information (I & Q.power. Phase Sensitive Detector The IF-signal is passed to a phase sensitive detector which converts the signal to base band. It permits generating predefined waveforms by driving the amplitudes and phase shifts of carried microwave signals. Waveform-Generator The Waveform-Generator generates the transmitting pulse in low. Radarscope / Monitor The indicator presents to the observer a continuous. These signals may have a complex structure for a pulse compression. easily understandable.frequency. graphic picture of the position of radar targets. GTBKIET.L . In recently radars the indicator would be a computer display. It generates the transmitting signal on an IF.
Physical construction of a magnetron The magnetron is classed as a diode because it has no grid. The GTBKIET.51504061/ECE/2K5 filament leads pickup loop MAGNETRON Figure 1: Magnetron МИ 29Г of the Radar „Bar Lock” In 1921 Albert Wallace Hull invented the magnetron as a powerful microwawe tube.Six Months Training 67 . The filament leads are large and rigid enough to keep the cathode and filament structure fixed in position. Figure 2: Cutaway view of a magnetron The open space between the plate and the cathode is called the interaction space. Crossed electron and magnetic fields are used in the magnetron to produce the high-power output required in radar equipment. A narrow slot runs from each cavity into the central portion of the tube dividing the inner structure into as many segments as there are cavities. Magnetrons function as self-excited microwave oscillators. that the Magnetron usually can work only on a constructively fixed frequency. These multicavity devices may be used in radar transmitters as either pulsed or cw oscillators at frequencies ranging from approximately 600 to 30.000 megahertz. The cathode is indirectly heated and is constructed of a high-emission material. The anode of a magnetron is fabricated into a cylindrical solid copper block. The relatively simple construction has the disadvantage. The cavities control the output frequency. In this space the electric and magnetic fields interact to exert force upon the electrons. The cathode and filament are at the center of the tube and are supported by the filament leads.cathode L . The 8 up to 20 cylindrical holes around its circumference are resonant cavities.
51504061/ECE/2K5 magnetic field is usually provided by a strong.Six Months Training 68 .type Basic Magnetron Operation As when all velocity-modulated tubes the electronic events at the production microwave frequencies at a Magnetron can be subdivided into four phases too: 1. phase: Forming of a „Space-Charge Wheel” 4. phase: Velocity-modulation of the electron beam 3. a) slot.L . shown in the Figure 3. permanent magnet mounted around the magnetron so that the magnetic field is parallel with the axis of the cathode. phase: Dispense energy to the ac field GTBKIET. phase: Production and acceleration of an electron beam 2.type b) vane. The output lead is usually a probe or loop extending into one of the tuned cavities and coupled into a waveguide or coaxial line.type c) rising sun.type d) hole-and-slot. Figure 3: forms of the plate of magnetrons The form of the cavities varies.
are shown at an instant of maximum magnitude of one alternation of the rf oscillations occurring in the cavities. When the magnetron is adjusted to the cutoff. Phase: Velocity-modulation of the electron beam The electric field in the magnetron oscillator is a product of ac and dc fields. the path of the electron will have a sharper bend. GTBKIET. If the electron flow reaches the plate. When the field strength is made still greater. it can produce oscillations at microwave frequencies. If the strength of the magnetic field is increased.51504061/ECE/2K5 Figure 4: the electron path under the influence of the varying magnetic field. so a large amount of plate current is flowing. the field around it increases and the path will bend more sharply. The dc field extends radially from adjacent anode segments to the cathode. the electrons are deflected away from the plate and the plate current then drops quickly to a very small value. extending between adjacent segments. when the critical field value is reached. The ac fields. if the velocity of the electron increases. and the electrons just fail to reach the plate in their circular motion. Likewise. as shown in the figure as a red path. or critical value of the plate current.L . 1. the plate current drops to zero. heating the cathode results in a uniform and direct movement of the field from the cathode to the plate (the blue path in figure 4).Six Months Training 69 . Phase Production and acceleration of an electron beam When no magnetic field exists. The permanent magnetic field bends the electron path. 2. However.
The ac field of each individual cavity increases or decreases the dc field like shown in the figurepositively are accelerated in addition. the electrons which fly toward the anode segments loaded at the moment more In the figure 5 is shown only the assumed high-frequency electrical ac field. 3. Phase: Forming of a „Space-Charge Wheel” On reason the different speeds of the electron groups a velocity modulation appears therefore.Six Months Training 70 . On the other hand the electrons which fly toward the segments loaded at the moment more negatively are slow down.51504061/ECE/2K5 Figure 5: The high-frequency electrical field Well. These get a higher tangential speed. This ac field work in addition to the to the permanently available dc field. These get consequently a smaller tangential speed. Figure 6: Rotating space-charge wheel in an eight-cavity magnetron The cumulative action of many electrons returning to the cathode while others are moving toward the anode forms a pattern resembling the moving spokes of a wheel known as GTBKIET.L .
Six Months Training 71 . Phase: Dispense energy to the ac field Figure 7: Path of an electron Recall that an electron moving against an E field is accelerated by the field and takes energy from the field. The tangential speed of the electron spokes and the cycle speed of the wave must be brought in agreement so.L .field and the wire wheel permanently circulate. the electron has helped sustain oscillations because it has taken energy from the dc field and given it to the ac field. This state isn't static. The space-charge wheel rotates about the cathode at an angular velocity of 2 poles (anode segments) per cycle of the ac field. GTBKIET.51504061/ECE/2K5 a „Space-Charge Wheel”. By the multiple breaking of the electron the energy of the electron is used optimally. an electron dispense energy to a field and slows down if it is moving in the same direction as the field (positive to negative). Also. The electron spends energy to each cavity as it passes and eventually reaches the anode when its energy is expended. One of the spokes just is near an anode segment which is loaded a little more negatively. The electrons are slowed down and pass her energy on to the ac field. Thus. This electron describes the path shown in figure 7 over a longer time period looked. This phase relationship enables the concentration of electrons to continuously deliver energy to sustain the rf oscillations. because both the ac. 4. as indicated in figure 6. The effectiveness reaches values up to 80%.
1/4π). Two of the four possible waveforms of a magnetron with 8 cavities are in the figure 8 represented. Strapping Figure 9: cutaway view of a Figure 8: Waveforms of the magnetron (Anode segments are represented „unwound”) magnetron.Six Months Training 72 . all parts of each strapping ring are at the same potential. For other modes. Therefore several resonant frequencies exist for the complete system. but a magnetron operating in the π mode has greater power and output and is the most commonly used. but the two rings have alternately opposing potentials. such a variant is the anode form „Rising Sun”. GTBKIET.L .51504061/ECE/2K5 Modes of Oscillation The operation frequency depends on the sizes of the cavities and the interaction space between anode and cathode.g. Several other modes of oscillation are possible (3/4π. a phase difference exists between the successive segments connected to a given strapping ring which causes current to flow in the straps. 1/2π. however. showing the strapping rings and the slots. But the single cavities are coupled over the interaction space with each other. • Use of cavities of different resonance frequency E. For the pi mode. two constructive measures are possible: • Strapping rings: The frequency of the π mode is separated from the frequency of the other modes by strapping to ensure that the alternate segments have identical polarities. So that a stable operational condition adapts in the optimal pi mode.
Energy is coupled directly to a waveguide through an iris. Aperture. Locating the loop at the end of the cavity. On the output side. The loop is then soldered to the end of the outer conductor so that it projects into the cavity.L . intercepts the energy between the strap and the segment. view (A) and (B) The segment-fed loop method is shown in view (C) of figure 11. the coaxial line feeds another coaxial line directly or feeds a waveguide through a choke joint. as shown in figure 10.51504061/ECE/2K5 Magnetron coupling methods Energy (rf) can be removed from a magnetron by means of a coupling loop. as shown in view (B). At frequencies lower than 10. the coupling loop is made by bending the inner conductor of a coaxial line into a loop. view (C). or slot.Six Months Training 73 . view (A). The loop intercepts the magnetic lines passing between cavities.000 megahertz. The vacuum seal at the inner conductor helps to support the line. Figure 11: Magnetron coupling. causes the magnetron to obtain sufficient pickup at higher frequencies. (D) and (E) GTBKIET. The strap-fed loop method (view (D). Figure 10: Magnetron coupling. coupling is illustrated in view (E).
The resonant frequency of a magnetron may be changed by varying the inductance or capacitance of the resonant cavities. To reduce mutual interferences.Radar ASR910.51504061/ECE/2K5 Magnetron tuning A tunable magnetron permits the system to be operated at a precise frequency anywhere within a band of frequencies. the ASR-910 can work on different assigned frequencies. Tuner frame anode block addition al inductiv e tuning element s Figure 12: Inductive magnetron tuning An example of a tunable magnetron is the M5114B used by the ATC.frequency of the ASR-910 exactly.Six Months Training 74 . This magnetron is provided with a mechanism to adjust the Tx. The frequency of the transmitter must be tunable therefore. Figure 13: Magnetron M5114B of the ATC-radar ASR-910 GTBKIET.L . as determined by magnetron characteristics.
GTBKIET.L .51504061/ECE/2K5 Figure 13: Magnetron VMX1090 of the ATC-radar PAR-80 This magnetron is even equipped with the permanent magnets necessary for the work.Six Months Training 75 .
which provides a method to further resolve targets which may have overlapping returns. GTBKIET. The pulse structure is shown in the figure 1. The radar therefore obtains a better maximum range than it is expected because of the conventional radar equation. The received echo is processed in the receiver by the compression filter. Now the receiver is able to separate targets with overlapping of noise.Six Months Training 76 .L . This modulation or coding can be either • o o • FM (frequency modulation) linear (chirp radar) or non-linear or PM (phase modulation). the returns can be completely separated. The pulse is frequency modulated.51504061/ECE/2K5 Pulse Compression This is a method which combines the high energy of a long pulse width with the high resolution of a short pulse width. Figure 1: separation of frequency modulated pulses Since each part of the pulse has unique frequency. The compression filter readjusts the relative phases of the frequency components so that a narrow or compressed pulse is again produced.
L ..Six Months Training 77 . The full pulse width still applies to the transmission. the number of elements in the code.51504061/ECE/2K5 Figure 2: short pulse (blue) and a long pulse with intrapulsemodulation (green) The ability of the receiver to improve the range resolution over that of the conventional system is called.0 the pulse compression ratio (PCR). Alternatively. the factor of improvement is given the symbol PCR. i. which requires the duplexer to remained aligned to the transmitter throughout the pulse. which can be used as a number in the range resolution formula. The maximum range is increased by the PCR. For example a pulse compression ratio of 50:1 means that the system range resolution is reduced by 1/50 of the conventional system.e. GTBKIET. Therefore Rmin is unaffected. which now becomes: Rres = c0 · Pw · ( 2 · PCR) The compression ratio is equal to the number of sub pulses in the waveform. The minimum range is not improved by the process. The range resolution is therefore proportional to the time duration of one element of the code.
This has the advantage that the wiring still can relatively be kept simple. GTBKIET. The block diagram on the picture illustrates. the principles of a pulse compression filter. the linear frequency modulation has the disadvantage that jamming signals can be produced relatively easily by so-called „Sweeper”. However. in more detail.L .Six Months Training 78 .51504061/ECE/2K5 Table 1: Advantages and disadvantages of the pulse compression Disadvantages Advantages lower pulse-power high wiring effort therefore suitable for Solid-State-amplifier higher maximum range bad minimum range good range resolution time-sidelobes better jamming immunity difficulter reconnaissance Pulse compression with linear FM waveform At this pulse compression method the transmitting pulse has a linear FM waveform.
Six Months Training 79 .L . GTBKIET. As an example of an application of the pulse compression with linear FM waveform the RRP-117 can be mentioned. and produces a narrower output pulse with a higher amplitude. which is a linear function of the frequency.51504061/ECE/2K5 Figure 3: Block diagram (an animation as explanation of the mode of operation The compression filter are simply dispersive delay lines with a delay. The compression filter allows the end of the pulse to „catch up” to the beginning. Filters for linear FM pulse compression radars are now based on two main types.
. called time or range sidelobes.conversion). The sidelobe levels are an important parameter when specifying a pulse compression radar. Amplitude weighting of the output signals may be used to reduce the time sidelobes to an acceptable level. Surface acoustic wave devices.51504061/ECE/2K5 • • Digital processing (following of the A/D. Figure 4: View of the Time-Side-Lobes Time-Side-Lobes The output of the compression filter consists of the compressed pulse accompanied by responses at other times (i.e. GTBKIET.L . The figure shows a view of the compressed pulse of a chirp radar at an oscilloscope and at a ppi-scope sector. Weighting on reception only results a filter „mismatch” and some loss of signal to noise ratio. at other ranges).Six Months Training 80 . The application of weighting functions can reduce time sidelobes to the order of 30 db's.
in the phase code. It will be noted that there are none greater than 13 which implies a maximum compression ratio of 13.Six Months Training 81 . i. each is transmitted with a particular phase. each sub pulse corresponds with a range bin. The sidelobe level is -22. A computer based study searched for Barker codes up to 6000.e. which is rather low. π phases is in fact critical. Generally. The phase of each sub-pulse is selected in accordance with a phase code. and obtained only 13 as the maximum value. Only a small number of these optimum codes exist. Phase-Coded Pulse Compression Figure 8: diagram of a phase-coded pulse compression Phase-coded waveforms differ from FM waveforms in that the long pulse is subdivided into a number of shorter sub pulses. as shown on the figure. which are all of equal magnitude. They are optimum in the sense that they provide low sidelobes. The binary code consists of a sequence of either +1 and -1. The selection of the so called random 0. GTBKIET. low sidelobe levels of the compressed pulse can be achieved without using amplitude weighting.3 db.L .51504061/ECE/2K5 Pulse compression with non-linear FM waveform The non-linear FM waveform has several distinct advantages. The most widely used type of phase coding is binary coding. the coded signal is generally discontinuous at the phase-reversal points. A special class of binary codes is the optimum. or Barker. Since the transmitted frequency is usually not a multiple of the reciprocal of the sub pulse width. The non-linear FM waveform requires no amplitude weighting for time-sidelobe suppression since the FM modulation of the waveform is designed to provide the desired amplitude spectrum. codes. The sub pulses are of equal time duration. They are shown on the beside table. The phase of the transmitted signal alternates between 0 and 180° in accordance with the sequence of elements..
have difficulty determining the target's range. At it simplest theoretical level.51504061/ECE/2K5 Radar complexity Radar — an old acronym for radio detection and ranging — has always been a demanding technology. sonar. GTBKIET. The Mercury RACE++ Series PowerStream 510 system is used in applications such as advanced radar. pulsed-Doppler. pulsed.Six Months Training 82 . however. and synthetic aperture. and then listening for the signal's return — or "bounce" — off of targets of interest. and inspection. Several different kinds of radar systems are in use today. but at no time more so than today. phased array.L . this does not sound like a big deal. including continuous wave (CW). or how far way it is." These kinds of radar are useful for determining a target's velocity by using the Doppler effect to compare differences in the transmitted and received signals. These radar systems. it works by emitting radio frequency (RF) signals at particular frequencies. imaging. CW radar continually transmits energy toward the desired target and receives a reflection of this "continuous wave. but putting the theory into useful practice is where advanced technology — and designers headaches — come in. Essentially.
sends out a series of short RF pulses. which requires a physically large antenna to focus the transmitted and received RF signal into a sharp beam. uses Doppler shifts with radar pulses to determine the velocities of moving targets. or distance from the radar to the target using Doppler processing. for example. These added capabilities. better known as SAR — collects data over a long distance. These systems can determine the velocities. After all this. and radar pulse bandwidth. the way in which a radar system processes information also can change the nature of the radar system itself. SAR requires extremely fast processing and very fast signal sampling rates. and ranges of targets. where one dimension is the range. make pulse Doppler radar much more compute-intensive than simple pulsed radar. however. Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System known as Joint STARS — produce two-dimensional images. meanwhile. The system controls the phase — or a slight variation in the transmit and receive time of groups of transceiver modules — with computer commands. in addition. "stare" at targets of interest. and in essence "steers" the radar beams quickly. Phased array radar systems. radar pulse power. arrange large numbers of transceiver modules arranged on flat or curved surface. angles. and the other dimension is the azimuth. system operators can estimate the range to the target. Precise radar images most often come from synthetic aperture radar systems. This is a technique that makes the most of the radar's sensitivity and resolution by balancing the effects of radar pulse duration.L . The ability of phased array radar systems to manipulate their groups of transceivers also gives this system an "adaptive array" capability. enabling the phased array radar to scan specific areas quickly.S.Six Months Training 83 . Take radar pulse compression. and processes the data as if it came from a physically long antenna.51504061/ECE/2K5 Pulsed radar. which not only can steer beams quickly. Pulse Doppler radar. Synthetic aperture radar. GTBKIET. but also enables the system to shift the focus of radar beams to "null out" electronic interference or jamming. all without the need to move the transceiver array mechanically. These so-called "side-looking" aircraft-mounted systems — such as the U. on the other hand. or do a variety of other tasks. By measuring how long it takes to receive the returns from these pulses.
advanced algorithms process the signals to eliminate noise by filtering out unwanted portions of the signal. vice president of Pentek Inc." Processing challenges One of the first and most serious problems confronting radar systems involves noise and clutter in the return signal. perform Doppler calculations to help determine range. "It's a very demanding problem to do in real time. or "filter-out. that kind of processing has been done in analog. and take the frequency domain of your outgoing pulse and correlate the two. most radar systems — particularly those for military and aerospace applications — must operate in real time. and in various degrees of intensity depending on the reflecting materials.Six Months Training 84 . "So they send out a 'chirp'. One of the most important tasks of modern radar systems is to reject. N. and do many other operations to prepare the data for further processing later that will do tasks like enter radar signatures into databases and display the information on graphical screens." return signals that are not of interest. Finally.. and in DSPs. "With pulse compression. it bounces off trees. buildings. Hosking explains. You extract only the part of the signal coming back that has to do with the outgoing pulse. radar users today want far more from their systems than simply the proverbial "blip on the screen. you need to take an FFT of the radar signal to remove as much stuff that doesn't belong to the return signals as possible. "You convert what comes back into frequency domain. GTBKIET. RF energy bounces off a lot more than simply the target of interest.L . and about anything else in its path." Many modern radar systems are able to filter their return signals so finely that these signals produce an actual image of the target." Until recently. Then you do an inverse FFT.51504061/ECE/2K5 Pulse compression uses Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing to massage the signal as it comes in from the A-D converters. All these factors combine to produce a challenge of staggering computational intensity for all but the simplest radar systems. mountains. and you get a very nice 'blip'. which supplies single-board processors to radar designers. After all.J. vehicles. of Upper Saddle River." Hosking continues. Today's radar systems digitize their signals very quickly after receiving them. Next. or a unique signal that doesn't exist in nature." explains Rodger Hosking. After analog-to-digital conversion.
which is where FPGAs GTBKIET. "FPGAs you can code exactly how you want. the prime contractors. the processor of choice increasingly is the field programmable gate array (FPGA) from companies such as Xilinx Inc. a single-board radar processor supplier in Towcester. all are looking to put FPGAs as close to the radar sensing elements as possible — the antennas. You have enough processing power now to solve the problem. product marketing manager for DSP products at Radstone Technology. and Actel Corp. Md. They get the data as they need it. England.Six Months Training 85 . systems designers rely more heavily than ever before on high-end general-purpose processors such as the Altivec on the back end. FPGAs. and enable designers to change the front-end processor for different platforms. in San Jose.. in Raleigh. Calif. or quick FIRs [finite responses] so it can be processed almost immediately by the CPUs. in Sunnyvale. he says." This fast expansion in number of gates per device has made all the difference for radar systems integrators and their signal processing systems providers. Calif. a radar processing firm in Annapolis. what is changed is the processing approaches. particularly at the front end of radar and sonar processing." he says. This is primarily a move away from DSPs on the front end. and things that go on at the front end of the processor.51504061/ECE/2K5 In the front-end "pre-processing" stage. are valuable for "massaging the data and lining it up so it is amenable to quick-corner turns. for repetitive math functions. transmitters." says Stuart Heptonstall. experts say. "Over the past year we have been seeing a swing to more FPGA processing. At the same time. or quick FFTs." says Philip Lindsay. to keep them chunking away at that front-end data. "Normally you can have 30 million gates in a single VME slot." says Jane Donaldson. The rise of FPGAs FPGAs only recently have achieved the kinds of densities necessary for fast and demanding radar front-end processing. filtering. while five years ago you would struggle to get a million gates. experts say.C. president and chief executive officer of Annapolis Micro Systems Inc. "FPGAs are now so much bigger and so much faster than they were years ago. northeast regional sales manager at Thales Computers Inc. and receivers — to do preprocessing.L . N. and you reduce latency. "Our customers." The radar signal-processing challenge is not fundamentally different today from how it was decades ago.
director of radar business development at Mercury Computer Systems in Chelmsford. Many systems designers insist that DSPs still have a role in radar processing. phase compensation. the trick is to determine the niche that FPGAs and DSP processors serve. "You take channel equalization. The Lockheed Martin Medium Extended Air Defence System (MEADS) uses a UHF surveillance radar and X-band Multifunction Fire Control Radar. while today's DSPs often are easier to program than are FPGAs.Six Months Training 86 ." Still. then do a inverse FFT. So you can add efficiency to the processing by using FPGAs. says Larry Nork. What you needed in the past you need today. director GTBKIET. as opposed to using a programmable RISC processor. The FPGA programmer must write his own VHDL FFT code to engineer that solution. where the same function is repeated time after time. with no need for programmability.51504061/ECE/2K5 come in today. and follow that up with pulse compression done with convolution processing where you have an FFT and a complex multiply. and that allows you to match filter processing on the radar return. but you might do it more efficiently today. Radstone's Heptonstall cautions that the necessary investment in FPGAs is relatively high. says Bernard Pelon. and implementers also must invest a lot of time providing the FPGA function." Nork explains. Mass.L . "In radar signal processing. Those are data-independent functions that are performed in a streaming fashion no mater what is coming into the input of the radar receiver.
Pelon says.or back-end processing. such as how you connect your gates. CSPI's Pelon says. "Before Altivec. Now we need to define a standard internal FPGA bus. although he says FPGAs are farther away from the general-purpose ideal than are today's DSPs. "we lean to FPGA and specialized DSP." He points to new generations of DSPs. meanwhile. "That may be why we begin to look at FPGAs and specialized processors." Rapid increases in the PowerPC Altivec's clock speed and other performance parameters started gaining the attention of radar systems integrators about three years ago when Motorola first introduced the Altivec version of the venerable PowerPC microprocessor.Six Months Training 87 ." he says. that might cause radar designers to take another look at DSPs — either for front. PowerPC was not judged to be very attractive. but after Altivec it was judged to be a very good solution. in Austin. a radar processing supplier in Billerica. "two to three years ago we started seeing a shift away from dedicated DSP chips over to the PowerPC processors. Texas. It was significant because you were GTBKIET. and have the time." No matter the choice of the FPGA or DSP. there is no question that they are not generalpurpose hardware. there is space for both. The FPGA inside is a profusion of non-standard things.." As far as CSPI is concerned. such as the Analog Devices TigerSHARC. "In both cases you lose generality. but we need to get to market quicker today. he says." he says. "What we are facing is a non-standard world. We need to understand where each applies and balance them out. Mass. and the FastMATH and FastMIPS architectures from Intrinsity Inc.L . The PowerPC Altivec On back-end radar processing. Either the FPGA or DSP might do better on some classes of problems. "It's too much of a pain and an investment to program in assembler all the time. so with the specialized DSP there is an advantage. The DSP chips required coding in low-level languages.51504061/ECE/2K5 of product research at CSPI Inc. Pelon points out that both represent a step away from trends toward general-purpose processors that are not application specific. and we are nowhere close to that." Pelon says. "which is great if you know how to do it. such as assembler. but might be more difficult to use." Heptonstall says. They are both in the spatial function side.
such as RapidIO. You increased by a factor of four the operations you could run." says CSPI's Pelon." Six years ago. PowerPC Altivec processors soon will be available that run at clock speeds as fast as 1 GHz. the most advanced PowerPC processors ran at clock speeds of 200 MHz. which promise to boost the Altivec's power when many processors combine on a network. So overall you had a factor of 20 improvement for FFT processing" Pelon says. and that couldn't be done in the past. "If I have a piece of software that you can run on any workstation.51504061/ECE/2K5 bringing DSP into a scalar architecture." he says. with the Altivec. for example. plus the processor's L2 cache was improved.L ." than do the industry's DSP offerings. It makes the whole thing easier and more user friendly. LynuxWorks LynxOS. "We need more than ever a high-speed interconnect. That translates into minimizing development time. In terms of fabric. none of this can work without a very fast fabric to connect general-purpose processor nodes with some of the more specialized nodes. Aside from its advantages in speed. "The processors have a lot of momentum for these operating systems and have commonality with slot-1 single-board computers.Six Months Training 88 . the PowerPC Altivec also offers designers the benefits of a standard off-the-shelf architecture that is well understood throughout the industry. which are predominantly the PowerPC processor. It was fantastic news for anyone who had chosen the PowerPC architecture. and StarFabric. Infiniband. Radstone's Heptonstall says he believes the Motorola suite of advanced PowerPC Altivec processors "have much more easy user interfaces and support for off-the-shelf real-time operating systems such as Wind River VX Works." Another factor running in the Altivec's favor is the new crop of fast switched-network architectures. Linux. experts say." GTBKIET. Software issues also make up an attractive aspect of general-purpose processors such as the Altivec. then you can have several players doing concurrent engineering. and the OSE real-time operating system." Pelon says. "The benefit of standard hardware and software is concurrent engineering. which is very important in terms of effective results and solutions and quality. "but then. you had 400 MHz — four times the operations.
for example. lightweight. from large ground-based air traffic control systems. The AN/TPS-77 Tactical Transportable Radar can be operational in less than one hour. and might not accommodate general-purpose processors at all. where we not only deal with volume and weight. manager of radar engineering project management at Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems in Syracuse. N.51504061/ECE/2K5 Architectural considerations Often the type of radar system under development will help determine the signalprocessing architecture. Large fixed-site radar systems with virtually unlimited capacity for space.Y. and low power consumption. but also in advanced technologies such as digital advanced beamforming. weight. Yet fighter aircraft radar. Other areas where we are not as restricted is where we can use the offthe-shelf processors. "In our advanced ground and airborne systems. might accommodate a processing architecture heavy on general-purpose processors.L . which places a premium on small size. and power. to space-constrained airborne systems.Six Months Training 89 ." explains Kam Insky. we use GTBKIET. "The requirements for small-volume and low weight in advanced applications rely heavily on FPGAs. might require a processor architecture heavy on FPGA and DSPs. Lockheed Martin Syracuse provides a wide variety of radar systems.
and 32-bit fixed and floating-point processing. yet gradually gave way to fast Altivec processors as the new century dawned. proponents of the DSP say word of their passing is premature. "We've seen with the introduction of the TigerSHARC. experts say. is perhaps the strongest argument against the demise of the DSP in radar applications." Insky points out. The TigerSHARC is an ultra high-performance static superscalar architecture for computationally demanding applications. It is primarily driven by application — and in our applications now. primarily on the front end.L . he says." Popularity of the Altivec helps designers re-invent the DSP Although some radar systems designers may be writing off the digital signal processor (DSP) as a thing of the past in radar processing systems..Six Months Training 90 . historically when we introduced the SHARC. "There are niches. N. in radar applications. but we still have a product that relies heavily on DSPs" — an airborne system that uses the Analog Devices SHARC. but also to DSP architectures across the board. "I see an evolution to more use of FPGAs than the dedicated DSPs. Now with the introduction of the TigerSHARC. The original Analog Devices SHARC 21060 DSP — short for Super Harvard Architecture — dominated radar and sonar signal processing applications throughout the 1990s. we see continued use of FPGAs. 16-. a single-board DSP designer in Concord. our competitive environment changed 180 degrees. we use general-purpose processors" such as the PowerPC. Mass. 8-.51504061/ECE/2K5 a hybrid — or FPGA — approach. we are competing with the Altivec. vice president of sales and marketing at BittWare Inc. and combines elements of RISC." Insky explains. "For backend data processing. Yet the TigerSHARC and other new DSPs are competing head-to-head with the PowerPC Altivec microprocessor. VLIW.. DSP proponents say the new TigerSHARC will give a big boost not only to the Analog Devices DSP product line." says Darren Taylor. we competed with Texas Instruments [DSPs}. not field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).H. and standard DSP processors for 1-. The recently released TigerSHARC DSP from Analog Devices in Norwood. GTBKIET.
the TigerSHARC is more attractive in terms of power consumption." he says. "They did this because of the ability to do the continuous data movement and processing.51504061/ECE/2K5 "The TigerSHARC serves very well in some of these radar applications. Taylor says. he says.L . we are seeing it across the board for radar systems. over-the-horizon." GTBKIET. Taylor says." particularly for air traffic control. "That is where the TigerSHARC does much better in the real world. "but you need to get the data in and the data out. The European radar manufacturer Alenia Marconi. for example. is using the TigerSHARC as their processor of choice for next-generation 3D air traffic control radar systems." Taylor admits that the Altivec G4 general-purpose processor can crunch data faster than the TigerSHARC can. Taylor says. "You are limited to the number of processors you can get on a board.Six Months Training 91 . "The G4s are huge consumers of power" from five to 20 watts per chip. and 3D-based radar applications." In addition.