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AGRICULTURAL LABOUR: A person who works on another persons land only as a labourer without exercising any supervision or direction

in cultivation, for wages in cash, kind or share such as share of produce”. The report of the congress agrarian reforms committee classified agricultural labourers into three groups: Field labourers : They have only seasonal work ordinary labourers:Ordinary labourers are those unskilled labourers employed in digging, silt cleaning, building embankments,etc. Skilled labourers :They include corpenters,masons,blacksmiths,etc. BPO: • • • • BPO stands for Business Process Outsourcing. Major corporations in the US and Europe are outsourcing their back office operations to India to save costs. E.g. employee payroll is maintained in India for their employees worldwide. Although these jobs usually are not directly IT-related, their data-based orientation often means that they require IT departmental support to be successfully outsourced

BENEFITS: 1.A positive experience from operators 2.Accurate and appropriate responses 3.High level of customer satisfaction 4. Improved efficiency ACTIVITIES & FUNCTIONS: 1) Organization design and staff planning 2) Building Customer service representatives (CSRs) 3) Quality Assurance Programs 4) Improvement initiatives 5) Outsourcing ADVANTAGES: 1. SALARY 2. Qualification 3. Clean work

4. Growth-flexibility to change jobs easily 5. On job training 6. Medical insurance 7. Opportunity to work overseas 8. Call center employees may be able work from home now . DISADVANTAGES: Odd working hours. Family life. Health issues. Abusive clients. Age factor. Social issues/alcohol consumption. Future trend.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


KPO: • • Knowledge Processing Outsourcing (popularly known as a KPO), calls for the application of specialized domain pertinent knowledge of a high level. The KPO typically involves a component of Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO), Research Process Outsourcing (RPO) and Analysis Proves Outsourcing (APO). KPO business entities provide typical domain-based processes, advanced analytical skills and business expertise, rather than just process expertise. KPO Industry is handling more amount of high skilled work other than the BPO Industry. While KPO derives its strength from the depth of knowledge, experience and judgment factor; BPO in contrast is more about size, volume and efficiency.

• •

FUTURE: • • • National Association of Software and Services Companies Study Report (NASSCOM) Evalueserve Study Rocsearch, a UK-based research services company Study .

Why Knowledge Process Outsourcing Services: • • • • • Cost Effectiveness – The labor cost in developed countries is too much higher than labor cost in developing countries. Skilled Manpower – Countries like India, China, Taiwan, and Philippines has abundance of well educated and professionally trained human resources. Time Management – Knowledge processes can be handed effectively in less time by outsourcing. Work Perfection – Due to saturation of KPO jobs in a few countries, it is easier to find domain experts. Extended Organizational Capability – Outsourcing KPO jobs to other expert organizations in India or China provides extended organizational capability to parent organizations. Comparison of Opportunity in BPO and KPO markets:

HAZARDS OF CHILD LABOUR: • • • • Physical hazard Cognitive hazard Emotional hazard Social hazard Moral hazard CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR: . Child labour was utilized to varying extents through most of history.CHILD LABOUR: Child labour refers to the employment of children (who are 5-14 years age) at regular and sustained labour. with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution. but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling. and with the emergence of the concepts of workers' and children's rights. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries.

• • • • • • • Poverty Parental illiteracy Adult unemployment & urbanization Social apathy Lack of education and exposure Ignorance Inadequate school facility Working area of children: • • • • • Mills Factories & brick works Chimney sweep Coal mines Cracker manufacturing etc. Laws pertaining to Child Labour: • • • • • • • • • • • • Children [Pledging of Labour] Act (1933) Employment of Children Act (1938) The Bombay Shop and Establishments Act (1948) Child Labour -Prohibition and Regulation Act The Indian Factories Act (1948) Plantations Labour Act (1951) The Mines Act (1952) Merchant Shipping Act (1958) The Apprentice Act (1961) The Motor Transport Workers Act (1961) The Atomic Energy Act (1962) Bidi and Cigar Workers (Condition of Employment) Act (1966) .

children are not supposed to work.State Shops and Establishments Act.6 million or 13% percent of its children doing commercial work followed by Africa at 23. many children left their homes in a way to avoid the abuse that they are victims of from their parents. Children are our future and we have to take care of them if we want a better future. CONSTRUCTION LABOUR: NATURE OF INDUSTRY: . the government could help give conferences to the parents about child labor and the consequences that it brings. and they will get a better job and a future. Politicians should make laws to prevent child labor and find solutions. Another option could be to build homes for those children that are living in the streets. They have many steps to prevent it and I have some ideas that can help. In these homes. To prevent this bad treatment. normal and happy growth. In this way we can help prevent children from any abuse that they can suffer in the streets.1 million that is 9. So it becomes imperative for the health of a nation to protect its children from premature labor which is hazardous to their mental. Child labor is a very serious problem. There are many institutes.8% STEPS TO AVOID CHILD LABOUR: Child labor and hunger is one of the principal social illnesses in my country. and ensure that they are given opportunities for healthy.6 million or 26. we can help prevent other children running away from home and living as homeless children. CONCLUSION: The future of a community is in the well being of its children. they can study and learn a career. First.3% which is the highest rate and Latin America at 5. The above fact is beautifully expressed by Wordsworth in his famous lines “child is father of the man”. It is urgently required to save children from the murderous clutches of social injustice and educational deprivation. educational and spiritual development needs. They will be sent to these homes and they would not have to live outside.  Child labour today: Child labor is most rampant in Asia with 44. physical. In this way. organizations. public departments and international organizations like UNICEF whose main objective is to prevent child labor.

• • • • Jackhammers. Training and Experience • • • • Work They Do Construction laborers clean and prepare construction sites. Electric and hydraulic boring machines. plaster. and build forms for pouring concrete. and plaster mixers. • Laborers also tend machines. compressors and generators. • • .• • Construction laborers can be found on almost all construction sites. Heavy construction sites. torches. Highway. They often help other craft workers. Demolition sites. Concrete. cement. • Employees require: Physical strength. including carpenters. or stucco through a spray gun for application to ceilings and walls. plasterers. Tunnel and Shaft Excavations and. operating engineers. They remove trees and debris. They erect and disassemble scaffolding and other temporary structures. for example. They load. Such as: Building. Earth tampers. unload. identify. Operate a variety of equipment like pavement breakers. Residential and Commercial sites. they may mix concrete using a portable mixer or tend a machine that pumps concrete. tend pumps. and distribute building materials to the appropriate location according to project plans and specifications. sand. mortar. grout. and masons.

Laser beam equipment. They may also experience weather-related work stoppages at any time of the year. or crawl in awkward positions. crouch. asbestos. construction laborers may work only during certain seasons. Use harmful materials or chemicals. They are exposed to lead-based paint. fumes. and stoop. Overnight work may be required when working on highways. WORK ENVIRONMENT: • • • • Laborers do physically demanding work. In some parts of the country. SHIFTS: • • • • Generally work 8-hour shifts.62 . kneel.• • • Small mechanical hoists. and Surveying and measuring equipment. About 17 percent were self-employed in 2006.93 • Residential building construction = $13.2 million jobs in 2006 Concentrated in metropolitan areas. They may lift and carry heavy objects. EARNINGS: • • Nonresidential building construction Other specialty trade contractors = $12. About 67 percent of construction laborers work in the construction industry. loud noise. or other hazardous substances. EMPLOYMENT: • • • Construction laborers held about 1. including 30 percent who work for specialty trade contractors. or dangerous machinery. odors.

Factories. and Improvements on these structures INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION: • Three major segments construction of building ➢ Heavy and civil engineering construction ➢ contractors ➢ Specialty trade contractors WORKING CONDITIONS: • Employees work full time or 40 hours in a week. . and building exterior contractors = $12.82 • • Foundation.= $12. Offices. Schools.41 Employment services = $9. Additions and Modifications to existing ones Maintenance. structure. Roads. Site preparation. ACTIVITIES: • • • • • New structures. Repair. and Bridges are products of construction industry. Apartments.90 GOODS AND SERVICES: • • • • • • Houses.

(d) The work is being done in most concerns through regular workmen. Main provisions of the act: ➢ . in turn. (c) The work is sufficient to employ considerable number of whole time workmen. supervised and remunerated by a contractor who. and holidays to finish a job or take care of an emergency. The contract labour should not be employed where: — (a)The work is perennial and must go on from day to day. ➢ A workman is deemed to be employed as Contract Labour when he is hired in connection with the work of an establishment by or through a contractor. The Act applies to ➢ Every establishment in which 20 or more workmen are employed or were employed on any day on the preceding 12 months as contract labour and To every contractor who employs or who employed on any day of the preceding 12 months 20 or more workmen. ➢ Persons who are hired. Rain. (b) The work is incidental to and necessary for the work of the factory. ➢ Contract workmen are indirect employees. It does not apply to establishments where the work performed is of intermittent or seasonal nature. is compensated by the establishment. snow.• • Construction workers may sometimes work evenings. weekends. ➢ Contract labour has to be employed for work which is specific and for definite duration. CONTRACT LABOUR: ➢ The act came into force from 10 February 1971. or wind may halt construction work. it extends to the whole of India.

2) Registration of Establishment: The establishments covered under the Act are required to be registered as principal employers with the appropriate authorities. latrines and urinals. 5) Responsibility for Payment of Wages: . fixation of wages and other essential amenities in respect of contract labour as laid down in the rules. Every contractor is required to obtain a licence and not to undertake or execute any work through contract labour except under and in accordance with the licence issued in that behalf by the licensing officer. washing facilities and first aid facilities and have been made obligatory.1) Setting up of Advisory Boards: The Central Government and State Governments are required to set up Central and State Advisory Contract Labour Boards to advise the respective Governments on matters arising out of the administration of the Act as are referred to them. 3) Prohibition of Employment of Contract Labour: The Central Government on the recommendations of the Central Advisory Contract Labour Board. have prohibited employment of contract labour in various operations/ category of jobs in various establishments. c) If the work is being done ordinarily through regular workman in that establishment. The licence granted is subject to such conditions as to hours of work. 4) Welfare and Health of Contract Labour: The Act has laid down certain amenities to be provided by the contractor to the contract labour for establishment of Canteens and rest rooms and arrangements for sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. The employment of contract labour may not be permitted for any process and other work if it is: a) Incidental b) Perennial nature.

6) Penalties: According to this act the punishment is imprisonment for a maximum term upto 3 months and a fine upto a maximum of Rs.1000/7) Inspectors and Rules: a) Obligation of Principal Employers and Contractors b) Rights of Principal Employers and Contractors. humidity. Spoilage of work also increases due to glare.The contractor is required to pay wages to his workers. glare is most common defect. 8) Rights of Contract Labour The contract labour has the right to claim against the contractor. But its importance is now being realised. DISEASES: Bad environment or working condition will affect worker in the following ways 1. In case of failure on the part of the contractor to pay wages either in part or in full. the Principal Employer is liable to pay the same. 1. air ventilation. Mental fatigue Decreased efficiency resulting in reduced output however previously no attention was paid in working condition like illumination . Physiological fatigue 2. temperature etc. Mental Environment: A bad working atmosphere with hot conditions will feel discomfort and fatigue. His efficiency will decrease and he will not be able to take interest in the work 2.Illumination: When we use artificial light. it is harmful to the eyes. 3. It also produces strain and headache.Hours of work: .

safety and welfare. 4. A worker should get atleast one weekly holiday so that he can enjoy on that day. (vi) administration. Important Provisions: The important provisions of the Act include (i) health.noise and vibrations: When there is too much noise and vibrations it will produce mental fatigue and reduce the efficiency of the worker. (iv) annual leave with wages. (vii) enforcement and (viii) penalties for offences. Protection of eyes 10. Fencing of Machinery 2. 1948 that deals with the following provisions relating to the workers. Revolving machinery 8. factory should be kept clean. use of baffles and sound proof materials etc. 5. noise cannot be stopped totally for a running machinery but can be reduced by enclosing the source of noise. Lifting machines. the working hours should be distributed uniformly over the week.Precautions against dangerous fumes . 4. chains. Hoists and lifts 6. Devices for cutting off power from running machines in emergency shall be provided. (v) occupational diseases. Casing of machinery 5. Statutory Safety and Health Measures: The Factories Act was enacted in 1948 to provide adequate safety measures and to promote the health and welfare of the workers employed in factories. and feelings of fatigue and boredom from his mind are removed. Excessive weights 9. (ii) hours of work. doors and windows should be properly coloured and walls should be white-washed so that atmosphere in the factory looks cheerful. (iii) employment of young persons and women.plant and shop layout: A properly designed factory layout looks pleasant where worker feels proud in working and take more interest in his work.Generally. However. and thus he may return on duty as fresh in next week. 1. Therefore. ropes and lifting tackles 7. Work on or near machinery in motion 3. There are about eleven chapters and 120 sections in the Factories Act.

” Industrial health refers to a system of public health and preventive medicine which is applicable to industrial concerns. mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations 2.L. According to the joint I. Sitting Facilities 3. and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Canteens 5. Industrial health: The term “health” is a positive and dynamic concept and implies more than an absence of illness.Welfare Facilities.H. Prevention among workers of ill-health caused by the working conditions 3. Protection of workers in their employment from the risks resulting from factors adverse to health.O / W.O has defined health as “a state of complete physical.Precautions against Fire Welfare Provisions 1. 1. Shelter.11. mental. The W. Placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environmental adapted to his physical and psychological equipment. Lunch-rooms 6. 4. The modern concept of industrial hygiene differs from the traditional concept. . The latter is concerned with the “the mere absence of an ascertainable disease or infirmity. He is healthy who is well adjusted”. The prevention and maintenance of physical.O Committee on Organizational Health.” while the modern concept refers to “the health which is the outcome of the interaction between the individual and his environment. Rest-rooms.H. Creches 7. industrial health is defined as. Washing Facilities 2. First-Aid Appliances 4.

environmental. fumeric acid and tannic acid. nitrogen oxide. on the other hand the industry exposes him to certain hazards which he would not meet elsewhere and which may effect his health. biological. IMPORTANCE O INDUSTRIAL HEALTH: “On the one hand. The symptoms of bad health are a high rate absenteeism and turnover. industrial discontent and indispline. carbon dioxide. Chemical substances like. and psychological hazards. It involves a programme of health conservation and prevention of occupational diseases. hydro-carbons.H is the prevention of disease and injury rather that the cure disease. ✔ The Labour Investigation Committee (1946). poor performance and low productivity. ✔ The Royal Commission on Labour (1931). In India all these committees emphasized upon the “creation and maintenance of as healthy an environment as possible. the normal occupational health hazards may be classified into chemical. Employees in an industrial establishment are often subject to certain health hazards and occupational disease. in the homes of the people as well as in all places where they congregate for work. limes and alkalis cause injury when they are absorbed by the skin. Such as Carbon monoxide. ✔ The Health Survey and development Committee (1943). ✔ The national Commission on Labour (1969). sulphur dioxide. According to Roland Blake. efficiency in work is possible only when an employee is healthy.The objective of I. or when they are ingested or inhaled. ✔ The Labour welfare Committee (1969). ozone. . amusement or recreation are essential”. sulfuric acid. It is with the intention of reducing these hazards and improving the worker’s health that the discipline of industrial health came into being as a branch of public health in its own right.

The results are often disastrous. Environment hazards: Included such as radiation. Raw materials. allergies. lead pipers makers. Poisoning from nitrous fumes. Benzene poisoning. Chrome ulceration. • Antrax. For E. imbalances. and anxiety. Carbon bi-Sulphide poisoning. tetanus.. Occupational diseases are the results of physical conditions and the presence of industrial poisonous and non-poisonous dust in the atmosphere. • • • • • • • • • Lead poisoning. Occupational diseases notified to the authorities under the factories 1948. dietary deficiencies . brain fever. vibration. products by-products and waste products may in the process of being extracted or manufactured enter in the body in such qualities as to endanger the health of the workers. viruses.g. Biological hazards: which includes bacteria. emotional stress and strains with their psychological concomitants of fever. rage. shocks and improper atmospheric conditions. Arsenic poisoning. painters. allergy. Workers may suffer from respiratory diseases. Occupational Diseases. noise. plumbers etc. excessive drinking. Mercury poisoning. Lead tetra-ethyl poisoning. fungi. Phosphorous poisoning. cancer and neurological disorders. worry. insects. heart disease. Cable makers. all of which often shorten life expectency. . skin diseases. Manganese poisoning.

It was amended in 1988. Primary cancer of the skin. farm. eating houses. Poisoning from halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydro-carbon of the alphabetic series. Scope:  The act is applicable to all establishments such as workshop. residential hotels. In additional to the above . Loss of induced by noise. Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances.  Its main objectives are to prohibit the employment of children in certain categories of industries and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain industries. theatre or other places of public amusement where child labour is largely employed. The act extends to whole of India IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS UNDER THE ACT . Asbestosis. Pathological manifestation due to radium or other-active substances and Xrays. Toxic Anemia. 1986 The Act came into force from 23rd December 1986. the following diseases have been included under the Workmen’s Compensation Act :1923 ✔ Occupational contract caused by infra-red radiation ✔ Telegraphist’s cramp ✔ Begassoise. and restaurants.• • • • • • • • Silicos. THE CHILD LABOUR  (PROHIBITION AND REGULATION) ACT.

No child shall be permitted to work in any establishment on any day on which he has already worked in some worked in some other establishment. e.No child shall be allowed to work between 7 p.Hours and period of work: a.  “Appropriate Government” means in relation to an establishment under the control of the central Government or a railway administration or a major port or a mine or oilfield. MAIN PROVISIONS OF THE ACT 1) Prohibition of employment of children in certain occupations and processes: No children can be employed. the central Government. No children shall be allowed to work in any establishment in excess of such number of hours as may be prescribed for such establishment or class of establishments. or permitted to work in any of the occupations set forth in Part A schedule or in any workshop wherein any of the processes set forth in Part B of the schedule is carried on.m. d. and f. “Occupier” in relation to an establishment. b.No child shall be allowed to work overtime. an occupier means the person who has ultimate control over the affairs of the establishment of workshop. 2. but does not include any premises to which the provision of Factories Act 1948 applies.  “Child” means a person who has not completed fourteen years of age. c. and in all other cases the state Governments. The hours of work shall be so arranged that inclusive of rest interval. time spread and the time spread and the time spend in waiting for the work shall not exceed six hours a day. HEALTH AND SAFETY: . The daily hours of work shall be so fixed that no child shall be allowed to work for more than three hours without prior interval of half an hour. “Workshop” means any premises wherein any industrial process is carried on. WEEKLY HOLIDAY: Every child employed in any established shall be given one weekly holiday of 24 hours.m and 8 a.

POWER TO MAKE RULES: The appropriate Government by notification in the official gazette can make rules for the proper enforcement of the Act.  Cleanliness in the place of work and its freedom from nuisance  Disposal of wastes and effluents  Ventilation and temperature  Dust and fumes  Lighting  Drinking water  Artificial humidification  Urinal  Spittoons  Fencing of machines  Work at or near machinery in motion CHILD LABOUR TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE: The central Government by notification in the official gazette may constitute a child labour technical advisory committee to advice Government for the purpose of occupation and processes to be included in the schedule. Such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters. b) Number of hours for which a child worker may be required to work.  Without any prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions. a) The term of office and the manner of filling casual vacancies of and the allowances payable to the chairman and members of the child labour technical advisory committee. . the rules for health safety may provide for all or any of the following matters namely. The committee shall consist of a chairman and such other members not exceeding ten. The appropriate government by notification in the official gazette can make rules for health and safety of children employed or permitted to work in any establishment or class of establishment. The committee is empowered to constitute one or more sub-committees for general or any specific function. It can meet as often as it likes to carry on its business.

categories 1. Compensation 2.It covers . it can extended to twenty thousand rupees or with both. the charges which are required to be made in this respect and the manner of issuance of such certificates. Restoration 3. Social security: • • Social security refers to protection provided by the society to its members against providential mishaps over which a person has no control. however. APPOINTMENT OF INSPECTORS: The appropriate government may appoint inspectors for the purpose of securing compliance of this Act. the form of such certificate. sickness or accident to provide for the retirement through old age. death. or marriage • OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL SECURITY: The objectives of social security can be subsummed under three. to provide against loss of support by death of another person or to meet exceptional expenditure connected with birth. The underlying philosophy of social security is that the state shall make itself responsible for ensuring a minimum standard of material welfare to all its citizens on a basis wide enough to cover all the main contingencies william beveridge has defined social security as ”a means of securing an income to take the place of earnings when they are interrupted by unemployment. Penalties: whosoever employs any child or permits any child to work in contravention of the provision of act shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term of not less than three months but can be extended to one year or with a fine which shall not be less than ten thousand rupees.c) Grant of certificate of age in respect of young persons in employment or seeking employment. the medical authorities which may issue such certificate. Prevention SCOPE: The scope of social security is very wide.

but also for the overall development of the state.the aspects relating to social and economic Justice. ➢ The need for social security is realised not only toafford the needy workers protection against the adversities of life.social insurance Social assistance: social assistance refers to the assistance rendered by the government to the needy persons . During that time social security helps to over the period of adversity. accidents.social assistance 2. unemployment and old age. ➢ The worker does not have resources required to face the risks caused by sickness. The nine components of social security are: • • • • • • • • • Medical care Sickness benefit Unemployment benefit Old age benefit Employment injury benefit Family benefit Maternity benefit Invalidity benefit Survivor’s benefit NEED FOR SOCIAL SECURITY: ➢ The underlying philosophy of social security is to ensure a minimum level of material living to needy or helpless ones of the society by the state. TYPES OF SOCIAL SECURITY: There are two types of social security 1.

maternity benefits.without asking them to make contributions to be entitled to get such assistance Example: workmen’s compensation. ➢ Among the schemes. make effective provisions for securing public assistance in event of unemployment. old age. within the limits of its resources and development. ➢ In this realization . Social insurance: social insurance refers to a schene of maintaining fund from the contributions made by the employees and employer.pensions. ➢ The assembly resolved that the introduction of any comprehensive scheme for social security on the lines proposed by the ILO was impracticable under the conditions then prevailing in the country. ➢ The employees State Insurance Act. the constitution of India lays down that the state shall.1948 was enacted in India to inaugurate the social security measures in the country ➢ India.old age. ➢ Various Social security schemes have been introduced in the country. ➢ In Tamilnadu in 1962 this scheme was designed to pay a monthly benefits to needy individuals over the age of 70 years who had no one to support them.with or without a subsidy from the government Example: Group insurance provident fund SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES IN INDIA: ➢ The making of climate for industrial security in India started from the 10th session of the international labour conference held in 1927 in which two conventions and recommendations were adopted for social security in the country. old age assistance scheme are the most important. as a ‘welfare state’ is expected to take care of the citizens from the ‘cradle to the grave’. .etc. sickness and disablement.

sickness benefit. dependence benefit. The employees state insurance act. construction works. 1948 The main objective of this act is to provide social insurance for workers. ships. The important among them are ➢ The workmen’s compensation act. The employees provident funds and miscellaneous provision act. disablement benefit. Benefits: Medical benefits. Administration: Thos act is administered by the state govt. 1952 ➢ The Maternity benefit act.➢ Subsequently. Benefits: Personal injuries. circus and other hazardous occupations. mines. maternity benefit. deposit linked insurance coverage. 1948 ➢ The employees provident funds and miscellaneous provision act. the government made various legislative provisions to afford the needy people protection against uncertainties in their lives. Administration: the act is administered by the employees state insurance corporation. 1923 ➢ The employees state insurance act. death of work man. plantations. family pension. by appointing commissioners. 1972 The workmen’s compensation act. railways. 1923 This act is the first planned step in the field of social security in India Coverage: This act covers worker’s employed in factories. mechanically propelled vehicles. with increasing needs for social security along with the increasing levels of national development. occupational disease. Coverage: The act covers all workers whos e income do not exceed Rs 6500 / month. . social security legislation in India: The government of India has made the various enactments from time to time. 1952 The main objective of this act is to afford the retired workers financial security by the way of provident funds. 1961 ➢ The payment of gratuity act.

deposit. mines. 1996 a women worker is entitled to grant of leave with wages for a maximum period of one month cases of illness arising out of tubectomy. plantations.  Disability and poverty are intricately linked. Benefits: From 1st February. The payment of gratuity act. The Maternity benefit act. employees and the government. 1948. Administration: This act is administerd by a controlling authority appointed by the appropriate government. Administration: This act is administered by tripartile central board of trustees represented by employers. oilfields. 1972 The objective of this act is to provide economic assistance on the termination of an employee. railways. Administration: The act is administered by the ESI corporation. Benefits: Provident funds. Disability causes poverty and poverty exacerbates disability – people with disabilities are among the poorest and most vulnerable.Coverage: The act covers workers employed in a factory in any industry.  Global estimates indicate that at least ten percent of the world’s population lives with some form of disability. on completion of five years of service the employees are entitled to gratuity payable at the rate of 15 days wages for each completed year of service. shops. pension. . Coverage: The act si applicable to the employees employed in factories. ports. companies. 1961 The main objective of this act is to regulate women employment. Coverage: The act is applicable to all establishments not covered under the employees state insurance act. to be tackled by focusing interventions on the individual. WELFARE MEASURES OF DISABLED: DISABILITY:  Traditionally disabled people have been seen as the problem. linked insurance. Benefits: under act.

IN INDIA:  Estimated share of population living with disability: 8-10% DISABILITY POLICY:  Persons with Disabilities Act. Asia Region. 1987  Guidelines for Barrier Free Built Environment National Trust Act. and gainful employment. colleges and other educational institutions HEALTH:  Promote methods to prevent disability • Provide aids and appliances to persons with disabilities EMPLOYMENT:  Establish quota (3% of vacancies) in all government establishments for people with disabilities . 1995  Mental Health Act. a vast number of people are disabled and lack basic support such as access to social safety nets. education. 1999 EDUCATION:  Provide free education for every child with disability below age 18  Provide non-formal and functional literacy for those above age 16  Promote integrated education and special schools for children with special needs  Provide transportation to disabled children or financial incentives to parents or guardians to enable children with disabilities to attend school  Remove all architectural barriers from schools. health services.

and requisition and response management. While we began with the agrarian age and land labour. and training and welfare measures  Reserve seats (3%) for disabled students in all educational institutions Provide incentives to public and private employers to ensure 5% of workforce comprising of people with disabilities. The following diagram traces the changing profile of the worker. provision of non-handicapping environment. hiring. automatic qualifications matching. nationalised banks give loans to start business  Assistance also available for financial rehabilitation and self–employment • Source: Times of India WELFARE OF KNOWLEDGE WORKER Knowledge Workers  Knowledge Workers knows where to find the workers you need. we have moved to the information era and the knowledge worker. and metrics collection. passes for travelling in trains and state transport buses  They have three per cent reservation in technical field jobs  State government. the profile of employees has also evolved. .  Knowledge Workers will also implement staffing processes. road and air HELP AVAILABLE:  Physically disabled can get income–tax benefits. management thought. ACCESSIBILITY AND TRANSPORTATION:  Ensure disabled-friendly and accessible public buildings and transport  Ensure easy access and safety on roads and sidewalks  Ensure disabled-friendly transportation – rail. into existing human resources departments. science and technology. The HR recruiter's services include résumé processing. such as recruiting. Emergence Of Knowledge Workers: Along with the evolution of industry. Ensure employment of disabled persons through: Regulation.

thinking ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢  Self-acting individuals who do not work merely for the sake of money  Work as an energizer as far as they are concerned and they strive for excellence in both professional and personal life. searching. programming.  They can often work on many projects at the same time. create and share knowledge. Manuel Castells). distributing. wealth was based on ownership of Capital. organizing. the Industrial Age. the knowledge worker includes.  The second wave. they seek out and thrive on excitement and challenges. i. Who is a knowledge worker: Knowledge workers are  Highly motivated  Self. Management Of Knowledge Workers:  Knowledge workers are believed to produce more when empowered to make the most of their deepest skills.  They can multiply the results of their efforts through soft factors such as emotional intelligence and trust (Francis Fukuyama.Profile Of A Knowledge Worker:  A knowledge worker is anyone who works for a living on the tasks of developing. or using. marketing. but to their professions. in his book ‘Landmarks of Tomorrow’. factories. . The Knowledge Age It is described by Charles Savage in "Fifth Generation Management."  The first wave was the Agricultural Age with wealth defined as ownership of land. Programmers Systems analysts Technical writers Academic professionals Researchers Lawyers Teachers Scientists Students. acquiring.e.  They tend to be loyal not to their organizations. a knowledge worker might be someone who works at any of the tasks of planning. knowledge.  A term first used by Peter Drucker in 1959. analyzing.  Knowledge workers form the core of a learning culture as they have the ability to acquire. apply. storing. They know how to allocate their time. or contributing in some way to the transformation and commercialization of information.  For example.

Specialized education. The Expectations From Knowledge Workers Constantly challenge. It needs to be more sensitive & converge the energy of the human capital in the organization . Hierarchy Of Knowledge Work:  Knowledge work (e.. Key characteristics of the feeling of belongingness of knowledge workers Manifested as a feeling element... and providing access to knowledge)  Knowledge processes (preserving. advising)  Knowledge functions (e. capturing. in the process of making a living" WORK & PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING: Little interest –little interest towards their work. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS AT IT/BPO SECTOR:      WORK PSYCHOLOGY : “The scientific study of the relationship between      man and the world of work. sharing and integration)  Knowledge management programs link the generation of knowledge Knowledge services Types Of Knowledge Worker: 1.Knowledge Age wealth is based upon the ownership of knowledge and the ability to use that knowledge to create or improve goods and services. Attempts to enrich work to increase job satisfaction and performance . writing.TECHNOLOGY LITERATE. There should be paradigm (standard) shift in understanding and building organization climate. More interest in physical well-being – consequences of not protecting employees from being injured/killed recognized Legislation with practical health and safety frameworks put in place in order to protect employees from physical injury and death A recognition that mental health can also suffer at work in terms of ‘nervous breakdowns’ and fatigue Effects of poor job design recognized. CONCLUSION: HR needs to take in stimulating feeling of belongingness amongst the knowledge workers. analyzing.. Dynamic. The third wave . organizing.g. Subjective and specific to individuals.INFORMATION LITERATE 2.g.

anger. WHAT IS THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT?? THE EXCHANGE: IMPACT ON WELL-BEING AND BEHAVIOUR? Reactions to violation (situations where employee believes that organization has broken promise)  Strong negative emotions (e.. Psychological ‘stress’ seen as a major health and safety issue .manual jobs decline. regarding terms of an exchange between individuals and the organization. is shaped by the organization.Intention to quit  Work and psychological well-being are both about relationships between:  Employee and organization  Line manager and employee  Employees . envy. fewer physical hazards  Focus on more specific feelings such as mood and emotion (or affect) in relation to new kinds of work performance and emotional intelligence CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS: SO HOW DOES WORK AFFECT PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING? PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT: A psychological contract is one where the individual’s beliefs.g. rage)  Withdrawal of effort  Withdrawal of pro-social behaviour.

Conformity to higher levels of a hierarchy of values self-discovered and consciously followed. work toward our passage to a world of higher values. the human being develops positive maladjustment to “what is” and an adjustment to “what ought to be”. psychopathy.  If you want to develop yourself truly. to different kinds and levels of reality. WORK ADJUSTMENT & MALADJUSTMENT:  Inner anxiety. In this process of development through multilevel positive disintegration. you should be able to adjust and also maladjust. or criminal activity. and disruptions -everything that demeans our position in the scale of common values. Such hierarchy of values is controlled by (or developed from) the personality ideal. maladjustments. or developmental adjustment. positive maladjustment is the most important indicator of a potential for accelerated development.  NEGATIVE ADJUSTMENT. inner conflicts. Focusing on the quality and fairness of work relationships likely to play a key role in enhancing positive psychological well-being WORK ADJUSTMENT:  POSITIVE ADJUSTMENT. In the extreme case it takes the form of psychosis. sorrows. Nondevelopmental adjustment. The values are accepted without an independent critical evaluation.  POSITIVE MALADJUSTMENT: A conflict with and rejection of those standards and attitudes of one's social environment which are incompatible with one's growing awareness of a higher scale of values which is developing as an internal imperative. This positive maladjustment is basic for the development of mental health . It is an acceptance of values after critical examination and an autonomous choice. An adjustment to “what is”. It is an adjustment to “what ought to be”. It is an acceptance of an external system of values without autonomous choice. WORK MALADJUSTMENT:  NEGATIVE MALADJUSTMENT.  Of all the dynamisms of the first phase of positive disintegration. Unqualified conformity to a hierarchy of values prevailing in a person's social environment. Rejection of social norms and accepted patterns of behavior because of the controlling power of primitive drives and nondevelopmental or pathologically deformed structures and functions.

team lead needs to remind others that this conflict is healthy and necessary! COMMITMENT:  Clarity around directions and priorities  Alignment of entire team around common objectives  Developing an ability to learn from mistakes  Taking advantage of opportunities before competitors do  Moving forward without hesitation  Changing direction without hesitation or guilt ACCOUNTABILITY: .  Team members need to know that conflict is necessary and coach each other to keep conflict going until resolved  During a meeting where conflict occurs. not politics  Look forward to meetings as opportunities to work with team CONFLICT:  Imperative to meet conflict “head on”. Any avoidance causes team deterioration.  Acknowledging conflict is healthy and the first step to working as a team.WORK DAYS FUNCTIONS: TRUST IS…  Willingness to admit weaknesses and mistakes  Ask for help  Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility  Give one another benefit of doubt before arriving at conclusion  Take risks  Focus time and energy on important issues.

 Peer Pressure is the most effective and efficient means of keeping high standards. NATURE OF WORK & ITS EFFECT ON WELL BEING WORK NATURE  Shorter hours 6-8 hours per day  Shorter weeks 4-5 days  More holidays 46 week year  Shorter working life-30years  Work is more skilled. It is not the individual. team rewards RESULTS:  This is the ultimate dysfunction: ego and individual growth and status  The established goals and standards must be the focus.-we may do several different jobs in a lifetime and work for many employers EFFECT ON WELL BEING:  Is more productive  Has less time off  Is happier at work  Is more likely to stay with that job  Is worth training and investment STRATEGIES TO MANAGE AND PROMOTE ORGANIZATIONAL & EMPLOYEE WELL BEING COPING STRATEGIES FOR EMPLOYEES . frequent progress reports.  Defined as willingness to call their peers on performance or behaviors that might hurt the team  Ways to assist: publish goals and standards for all to see.-often contract work or part time. group BUT the team that succeeds. department.-more training is needed.

focused  Job redesign  Job rotation  Reduction of uncertainty  Job security  Company day care  Flextime/ job sharing  Telecommuting Emotion-focused  On-site exercise facilities  Organizational support  Employee assistance programs  Personal days/ Sabbaticals .NON-FUNCTIONAL COPING STRATEGIES FOR  Drinking  Taking drugs  Eating COPING STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIZATIONS: Problem.

innovation. compensation. initiative. organize. and organizational culture  Promote teamwork and skill sharing across work units and locations  Empower individuals and teams to make decisions that affect quality and customer satisfaction  Develop effective performance management systems.JOBS & O Core job characteristics LEADING PRACTICES FOR WELL BEING:  Design. and reward and recognition approaches  Effective processes for hiring and career progression Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback from job  Make extensive investments in training and education  Motivate employees to develop and use their full potential  Maintain a work environment conducive to the well-being and growth of all employees  Monitor extent and effectiveness of HR practices and measure employee satisfaction PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS AT A BPO . and manage work and jobs to promote cooperation. empowerment.


• • • • • • • • • Moody and hypersensitive.• • • • • • • • • Memory problems. Urge to laugh or cry at inappropriate times. Apathy. Depression. Restlessness and anxiety. Sense of being overwhelmed. Seeing only the negative. Inability to concentrate. Lack of confidence. Repetitive or racing thoughts. Physical Symptoms Behavioural Symptoms: . Confusion. Desire to escape or run away. Easily irritated and “on edge”. Loss of objectivity. Anger and resentment. Difficulty making decisions. Poor judgment.

Skin problems. Muscle tension and pain. Overreacting to unexpected problems MASLOW’S THEORY AT BPOs: . Nervous habits (e. Digestive problems.• • • • • • • • • • • Headaches. • • • • • • • • • • Eating more or less. pacing). Fatigue. High blood pressure. Decreased sex drive. Asthma or shortness of breath. nail biting. Sleeping too much or too little. Isolating yourself from others. Chest pain. Teeth grinding or jaw clenching. Sleep disturbances. Overdoing activities such as exercising or sh Losing your temper.g. irregular heartbeat. Neglecting your responsibilities. Increasing alcohol and drug use. Weight gain or loss.

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