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**power systems using energy
**

functions

K Khorasani, M A Pal and P W Sauer

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

of Illinois, Urbana, I L 61801, USA

**approximate method of calculating Ecr by computing E~nax
**

In this paper a physically based decomposition technique is on the faulted trajectory. The method of decomposition

exploited to perform direct stability analysis o f power employs the slow coherency based grouping technique 11-13

systems using the energy function method. The slow- based on a linearized analysis of the system. This grouping

coherency analysis decomposes the system into r areas is used to develop (a) slow energies associated with the

associated with (r -- 1) slow modes o f the linearized system. centres of inertia of the areas, (b) fast energies associated

The centres o f inertia (COIs) o f these areas form the slow with intermachine oscillations within an area, and (c)

subsystem and the rest o f the fast modes are associated slow-fast energies associated with both the slow and the

with different areas. The system transient energy function fast variables. It is shown that depending on the fault

E is decomposed into Eslow associated with the slow location, only a few areas are disturbed and it is possible to

variables o f the slow subsystem, Efast associated with the approximate the system energy function by the fast energies

fast variables o f the r-areas and Efastoslowwhich is a func- of the disturbed areas, global slow energy and the slow-fast

tion o f both fast and slow variables. Depending on the fault energy. The method is illustrated using a 10-machine 39-bus

location and strength o f connection between areas, the sum system.

o f Eslow , Efast_slow and Efast o f the disturbed areas consti-

tutes a good approximation to the system energy function.

Using this partial E-function and the potential energy II. Modal energy decomposition in linear systems

boundary surface (PEBS) method, both Ecr and tcr are Consider a linearized multimachine power system based on

computed. Numerical results on a l O-machine 39-bus the classical model representation. The mathematical model

system are presented in support o f the technique. is given by

**Keywords: network analysis, transient stability, power = Ax (1)
**

system element modelling

where

I. Introduction A= M:qK ,, , x=

Since 1979 there has been renewed interest in indirect

methods of stability analysis of power systems because of M = inertia matrix and K = synchronizing coefficient

the close agreement of the critical clearing times using the matrix. The slow-coherency method exploits the eigen-

transient energy function with those obtained using step- value spread of M-tK to divide the system into areas. Let

by-step methods 1~. The transient energy function in the

kl, ~,2, . . . , kr be the slow eigenvalues and ~,r+l . . . . . ~'n the

absence of transfer conductances is a Lyapunov function, fast ones. The condition to be satisfied is that

but is not proven to be so otherwise 1'6. Hence we use the

symbol E instead of V. The success is mainly due to the use

of fault-dependent computation of the critical energy Ecr

using either the relevant UEP method or the potential I XX-~-r-~

~ =e

energy boundary surface (PEBS) method. Stability analysis

of large-scale power systems by decomposition 7-1° met with be a small number < 1. The eigenvalues of A are the square

limited success both because of the purely mathematical roots of the eigenvalues of M" 1K, the latter being real and

decomposition technique employed and the conservative ~< 0. Hence the eigenvalues of A lie on the imaginary axis in

nature of the critical energy computation. In this paper a the s-plane and represent modes of oscillation of the

new method of decomposition is used and is combined with systemll, 12

the PEBS method to compute the critical clearing time

quickly and with good accuracy. The PEBS method is an The technique discussed in References 12 and 13 decomposes

the system into r areas whose centre of inertia (COl) angles

and speeds, representing the slow variables, constitute the

Received: 26 June 1984, Revised: 2 January 1985 slow subsystem variables. The differences variables of rotor

Vol 8 No 1 January 1986 0142-0615/86/010011-06 © 1986 Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd 11

Define the rotor angles e ( 5 .25os (3) 6i--6]=Xi--E j where when i a n d j belong to the same area and that 1 n n 80 = M'-TT i=IEMi6i.1) __ 0}k--1))] 1 r +L r ~-2 x + o(/%. Also we define n-I n . which is an advantage both in simula- tion and energy computation. .EMi (4) 6i --61 = ~i --Ya .E ~ G i i .a KE + f KE ~ E~low. . If e is small enough. The transient energy function (3) in terms of the variables the path dependent term is numerically evaluated 1 and is x i . i E a. . i E a.COS(0~k.k-l). ~. oa) " = 21i =E1 M. . It is noted that 6i+6I .Y ~ Og0=~ 0 when i a n d j belong to different areas. a = 1. etc. a. Consider Figure 1. We will use the symbol Z7 to imply summation over all machines in area Defining for convenience COl referenced angles Oi = 6i--8o. For energy function analysis this is preferable though not essential. we define the fast variables o f each area to be the rotor angles and speed referenced to the local COI. It is important to note that the linearized model is used only for the decomposition into areas. Moreover. . Di] = E i E i G q . . Area representation and interconnections Letting Pmi . indicating the r areas.. a ~. Figure 1. Modal-based decomposition of nonlinear energies Consider the post-fault multimachine swing equations in the synchronous frame o f reference: Migi = P m i .. .E ~ G u = Pi.j -- easy to verify that 0 i = x i + Yc~.angles and speeds in each area are the fast variables.1) where Jr" ~Dij[Cos(O~ k) -. Each area has one or more machines in it and with the internal node model = E. . E~ast. ...4 2 with respect to the local COIs as E i = 6 i --Yc.E KE -F E PE (6) I ( k =) i ( k . III.6o. we will assume that an area decomposition has been performed based on the pre-fault linearized A matrix. .1) slow modes. MT = i=. .O}k)) "4. In what follows. to facilitate the use of the transient energy function. . . KE KE = E/ast + Eslow (7) 12 Electrical Power and Energy Systems . The thick lines between areas show symboli.. It is also E M T i=1 ] = / + 1 -.. r and those of local COIs with respect to 1 n-1 n the global COl 6o a s i a = ya -.Ei=1 Y Cq(cosaq-cos ) MTe = ~ Mi i@u j=i+l With the above definitions we now express the transient n-1 n 6i+ 26o81-- q energy function (3) in terms o f the slow variables y and + E E i=1 j = i + l s jS fast variables ~. there is a good decoupling o f the slow and the fast subsystems. (6. a = 1.. i @ a . + (5) = i 2 ~--1MT~Y~ Let there be r areas so that we have ( r . r is given by approximated by E . (Ci] sin6q + D o cos6q) (2) ]=1 where M i = inertia constant Ci! = EiEIBq.1. ~=1 e~=l representation there are lines from each node to every other node. y c ~ .(o(. the transient energy function 1'3 is given by cally the connections between machines.. 2. r.E l +Y0 = Ei] . For subsequent n discussion we denote two typical areas a and ~ whose COI angles are y~ and y0 respectively.

. However. (c) Because of (a) and (b) the computation of Efast_slow PE becomes simplified because it is a function of the The decomposition of KE in terms of fast and slow com... Epart to be We can therefore denote E vE as KE ~KE .0.x~') ) ~¢a I i 3=a+l j a a & 7 The first term in the square brackets in equation (13) is + the internal PE and the second term is the PE along the cut- E E E E i ]=i+1 i ]=i+1 set around the area. This in turn enables us to approximate i(k) i . fast and mixed fast-slow variables.a PE for that area as part + Epart Vol 8 No 1 January 1986 13 .1 ) + ~ ( k . global slow variables and fast variables of the disturbed ponents is clearly exhibited in equation (7).1 ) + ~ ( k . In the case of area only. in a very large-scale system weak coupling between some of -.7 + ~. the fast modes of that area are excited while the fast modes of other areas are not.cos(if/} +yaS~)) + Z E the areas could be exploited to reduce the computation as i /=i+I will be explained in the next section.nl r. We now define the approximate transient energy function tively in terms of slow. the slow variables in the fast subsystems are at their initial values.os. the fast variables × + + + y(]) in the slow subsystem are at their post-fault steady-state --(Xi(k-1) + y(k-i) + x/(k-1) + y(k-i))] (11) equilibrium values.i ] _-. The computation o f ~ from ya is trivial. PE [ 1 '~ EPE = I .~ a because the differential equations of the equations but faster to compute for the faulted decoupled fast and slow subsystems are expressed in terms trajectory. ](k). k) ] × E l 1=i+1 d 1=i+1 r + E E (eiMi--PIMt)(xq--Y'~ (13) +E E E (PiM] -. + COS [ ~ i ( k .1)) (9) assumptions result in an overall computational saving both in terms of integrating the faulted equations and computing /(& . PE in equation (8). It + rE__ 1 i 3=a+l ] is not helpful to associate Efast_slow with each area since in general the slow variables of all areas get disturbed and all the terms in equation (11) should be computed. Hence we obtain the decoupled equations (24) and (25) of the Although ~f + Ya = Oi. slow (12) The potential energy terms due to the interconnections + ~ PE r~ -[- Efast. slow IV. × O~(k)__fi(k-1)) (10) (a) If the fault is inside an area. Approximate transient energy function Epart As in the case of the relevant UEP concept t' 2.1 ) _ _ ( . --'FS.i] q- 12DijE This justifies approximating the fast energies in equa- + I tions (7) and (12) to those corresponding to the 2nqE cos [~i(k) + . the expressions (9)-(1 l) are written Appendix. E (eiM~-e~Mi) Efast'a= [---MTT E E -1 i fl=a+l J i j=i+l Ot OL 1 +Z Z i /=i+1 (P~M! --PjMi) ('xO __~S xii) -E a Ea S . The slow and fast subsystem models are given in the + E E E IFS.PjMi) (xii -. 1) _ ~i(k .v. ~ j ( k . Note the summation Z~ e a in equation (13) instead of E#=a +1 as in the terms in equation (8). (k) + cos~i~k-O) the system energy function E by Epart. we postulate where the concept of relevant disturbed areas (RDAs) depending on the fault location.¢~ 7-JZslow -.Eslow + Efast + Efast.) . i 3=~+1 ] _1 (8) PE PE PE = Eslow + Efast + gfast. PE Efast_slow (14) between areas cannot be associated with any particular aER areas.1 ) ) ] (b) From singular perturbation theory 12. The following × (:~i(k) + :~j(/O _ ~i(k . However.~(k) _ (~](k) + fi(k))] disturbed area only. o f ~ i and Ya respectively (see equations (22) and (23) in the Appendix). if we consider only one area then it is = E KE VE possible to define Efast. the expressions in the three outer brackets on the right-hand side of equation (8) are respec.. -.6. which are approximations to the exact in terms of ~i. Similarly.0 Appendix. . -oo q + Dq(cosx q + the transient energy function. ~PE E PE __ PE PE PE Epart = gslow + E ~fast.i(k-1) "FS. _ .

819 0.stag r£part.Fault bus 29 .918. +j 8. ( r--r--g.x We thus have a 5-area grouping with the largest machine Fault line 1 5 . The areas are therefore semi- 15-16"(2) 2 6.57 0. 4 ) U .916.2 5. These faults are: 1 Fault on bus 29 (no line switching) disturb only area 2.037. find when Epart = Ecr to yield tcr.disturbed areas 1 and 2.two on the boundary between areas and the other two well inside an area.1 4 followed by line switching (* indicates the point of application of the three-phase fault) V. G r o u p i n g and eutsets f o r various faults on the taken as slow and the rest as fast.03 0.74 0. IB 17 27 sidered in Reference 14. I a9 The notion of approximating the system for a specific 24 c~)38 disturbance by means of a two-machine system is con. the connected areas are the RDAs for the purpose of com- 3g I puting Epart • In view of the assumptions made above. Using the algorithm. +j 6. Bus29 (4) 2.228 10.1 6 ' . For a fault on the boundary between areas. S. Integrate the approximate differential equations (24) Area I __ AreaE and (25) of the RDAs and the slow subsystem in the faulted state. Although there is no clear-cut separation of slow and fast modes.344. in rad/s.23 0. 7.845. Faults 15-16" and 4 " . +j 7. +j 5. 3 Table 1 Area 2 Machines l. It is best to store this infor- mation in the database from offline studies. .. 4. at most 2 or 3 14 Electrical PowerandEnergySystems .disturbed areas 2 and 4.14 6.4t. however.where R = set of relevant disturbed areas. In particular. Eer and tcr are 2 Fault on bus 31 (no line switching) computed. assuming that in the non-disturbed areas the fast variables are at their steady-state value. V. -.1 Discussion For faults inside an area on the transmission system.75 0. 4 Fault 4 " . x .124 Some of the connections between machines are weak Bus31 (1) 1. system. 8 Results using Results using Area 3 Machine 5 Area 4 Machine 9 Fault Vpart Vsyst Area 5 Machine 10 location Disturbed and area areas Vcr ter (s) Ver tcr (s) This grouping is shown in a simple manner in Figure 3. s s ~ 4 Using this Ecr. +-j 9.722. +--j 8. Numericalresults ~ A r e a The 10-machine 39-bus New England system shown in Figure 2 is considered.disturbed area 2 associated with the zero eigenvalue. it is Fault at bus 29 disturbs both areas 2 and 4 while fault at sufficient to compute only EFast. The New England system line diagram 1 Assume that the areas and the set R of disturbed areas for a given fault are known.05. The eigenvatues. Area 3 +j 3.. 6. r£part PE(max) along the faulted trajectory is computed.231 Four faults were considered . The notion of RDAs is.. Algorithm Figure 2.95.71 0. For faults on the boundary. u of that area in addition bus 31 disturbs areas 1 and 2. -+j 7.4 2. the theory applic- able to the system energy function is applicable to Epa~ also. The slow coherency based grouping TM13 resulted in the following areas: Area 1 Machines 2.. The zero eigenvalue is a repeated one. are 0.21 7. + + + Fault bus 31 .142 4"-14(2) 2 10. the first five pairs of eigenvalues were Figure 3.12 2. the potential energy boundary surface method 1'4 can be readily implemented.23 0. more general. They agree well with the values obtained by using 3 Fault 15-16" followed by line switching the system energy function. This is a good approximation for Ecr.1 4 t o E s and EF.618. + j 9.22 while others are not.

C 'Transient energy stability analysis' Prec. A A and Vittal. Vol CAS-29 No 11 (November 1982) Ep~= E pKE ~+ E pPE ~ 16 Michel. this 14 Fouad. M M and Siljak. N. Circuits and Systems. J R. Parts I and II' Trans. Wheeler. References y = C6 (16) 1 Athay. . J H. Circuits & Syst. J. power systems: stability. J H Time Scale Modelling of Dynamic Networks with grouping is used. & Syst. It would be interesting to establish connection between this technique Appendix The exact and approximate differential equations for the and the more specialized case of individual machine energy slow and fast subsystems for the nonlinear model of equa- function 16. V 'Power system response to a large information can be stored in the database. New York (1982) For each fault. New York following sense.Y~. The modal based slow-coherency Stability Iowa State Univ. . Power Appar. the latter are not listed separately. . M and Siljak. Automatic Control Vol AC-23 (1978) pp 325-332 9 Araki. . G M. & Syst.. area of future investigation 17' as. Vol PAS-102 (November 1983) For a given fault. Power Appar. Vol PAS- 100 (1981) pp 754-763 For a previously specified list of contingencies. New areas of research are quite evident from this work. Hence The authors wish to thank Prof. lEE Japan Vol 98 No 5/6 (May/ system. r. Acknowledgements 1 if machine i belongs to area a. Press. Vol PAS-98 No 2 (March/April 1979) pp 573-584 where I = identity matrix. Dares. Power & Energy Syst. S Y 'A clustered dynamic model for a class of linear autonomous is approximated as systems using simple enumerative sorting' IEEE Trans. V 'Multi-machine stability analysis using direct method has been demonstrated. T. P Kokotovic of University each row contains only one non-zero entry which is equal of Illinois and Bill Price of General Electric Co. The i--a entry in U is VII. It involves the vector Lyapunov functions with inertial center decomposition' following steps: Int. ~ r ] ' where ~ systems' Prec. The slow and fast variables are defined as VIII. Vol 5 No 3 (July 1983) 11 Anderson. Chow. . Y and Hayashi. J. Ribbens-Pavella. Sabatel. Whang. Parts I and I1' IEEE Trans. L J and Lin. . 6th IFAC World Congress. and 0 otherwise. The concept Appar. V 'Power systems transi- ent stability using individual machine energy functions' IEEE Trans. Let U be an n x r partition matrix whose rows represent the n machines and the columns represent the areas 1 . P V 'An analysis of inter-area dynamics of multi- only or more than one area depending on fault location. System Engin- eering for Power. P M and Fouad. we associate relevant disturbed areas 13 Winkelman. D D 'Multi-machine the fast KE are computed only for the disturbed areas. Podmore. R and Virmani. Fouad. India (16-18 August 1979) terms of less DEs to be integrated and a smaller E-function Pergamon Press. With the above definitions 3 Ribbens-Pavella. S and Puech. A 'Direct methods for stability analysis of large-scale power Y = [Yl. the technique is very efficient and time saving. This research was supported in part by the General Electric Co. Power Appar. decomposition and aggregation' IEEE Trans. Boston (1975) 8 Jocic. Podmore. D I 'An improved energy function for transi- depending on the fault location makes the method quite ent stability analysis' Prec. A A and Stanton. Chiang. Power Appar. Power simulation. Metwally. IFAC Symp. Syrup. & Syst. Once the area grouping is assumed and the analysis of electric power system via Lur~ type Lyapunov disturbed areas are known in the case of a large-scale power function.. MA and Narayana. J and Bouffioux. Ohsawa. Lj B.. Schenectady to 1. T and Sun. The slow KE terms must be evaluated globally while systems' Prec. JACC. UK 4 Kakimoto. D D 'Generalized de- compositions for transient stability stability analysis of multi- VI. There is a considerable saving in Scale Power Systems. A R and Hill. ~ . machine systems' IEEE Trans. Computer Applications in Large is the state vector corresponding to fast variables of area ct Vol 8 No 1 January 1 9 8 6 15 . Chicago (April 1981 ) attractive for large-scale power system applications. S 'A practical method for 6 =Uy+K direct analysis of transient stability' IEEE Trans.areas will get disturbed. Iowa (1977) 12 Chow. & Syst. M. Lj T. Applications to Power Systems Springer-Verlag. B and denoted by the set R which may consist of a single area Kokotovic. power system stability analysis' IEEE Trans. Virmani. the system transient energy function 15 Zaborsky. M 'Transient stability to be evaluated. M A Power System Stability North Holland. A A and Vittal. Elec. New Delhi. Vol CAS-30 No 5 (May 1983) 4 Using the PEBS method. C L 'Stability of large scale power areas. Sherket. Conf. Gruijc. Ecr and ter are computed with 17 Bergen. S E 'Transient stability of multi- machine power system. San Francisco (August 1980) The application of modal-based stability analysis by the 10 Pal.Yr]' and ~ = [ ~ ' . . Switzerland Also US Department of = (I--UC) 6 (17) Energy Publ. . and by the Power Affiliates = [ U ' M U]-aU' M (15) Program of the University of Illinois. Vol PAS-IO0 (January 1981) pp 25-35 The decentralized nature of computation of Ecr and tcr 18 Athay. Avramovic. Let the machines be ordered by area. B C. D J 'A structure preserving model for Epart function. Vol PAS-1 O0 (July 1981) pp 3408-3424 of cutsets for different faults in Figure 3 is useful in the 6 Pal. A N. The PE terms in equation (14) need only (1981) be computed along the cutset and internal to the disturbed 7 Pal. A A Power System Control and 1 Definition of areas. No Conf-790904-PL 1980 2 Athay. Conclusion machine power systems' Prec. /nt. M. Circuits & Syst. Extensions to larger systems are in progress. June 1978) Since the values of tcr using Esystem agree well with the 5 Fouad.. Extension to sparse formulation is another tion (2) are presented in this Appendix. Huang. M A and Vittal. R. Let (2 be an r × n aggregation matrix 12 for useful discussions. disturbance: energy associated with system separation' IEEE Trans. R. & Syst. T. K W. Ames.

. .~ = -. .~i = 6i --Ya. This results in the following r subsystems and one slow subsystem all En = n-vector with all entries equal to 1 decoupled from each other: Furthermore we decompose [sin 6 ] and [cos 6 ] respectively .1 [ [ s i n 3 ] E + [cos3] E] En + C. Following the thinking in the linear case 11. . .. Note that only the disturbed [cos~ l = [cos~] I + [cos~] E (21) area equations in equation (24) (fast subsystem) need to be integrated. the decoupled state-space model assumes that (a) the M = diag(M/) i = 1.C M . one representing internal con.[I -. n fast variables in equation (23) are at their post-fault steady- state equilibrium value ~s and in equation (22) we neglect P = diag(Pi) i = 1. with. . . = --C-M-1 [[sinS] E + [C°s6]E] F'n + CM-1PF-n (25) [sin6] = sin6] I + [sin6] E (20) Equations (24) and (25) are used for integrating the faulted equations in a fast manner.n (22) =0 i=j 3 . a = 1. 2 . .UC] M -1 [[sin 6 ]I + [cos ~]I En as the sum of two matrices. The fast variables of the non-disturbed areas are The [ ]I is block diagonal and [ ]E has 0 entries along the held constant as explained in Section IV.M-1PF.. . + [ I .U C ] M-zPF. n the terms [ ]E involving external connections. 2 .UC] M-IPEn (24) nections of an area and the other pertaining to external connections as ~. . The 6ij terms are diagonal and non-zero entries otherwise.[I --U(2] M -1 [[sin6] I + [sin ~5]E + [cos~5] 1 [sin 6 ] = Cii sin 6q i ~j (18) + [cos6]El En+ [ I . =0 i=j Functionally [ ]l are functions of. .~ only and [ ]E are func- Also we define tions of both x and y. We define the With these notations the swing equations (2) become following n x n matrices: = -. 16 Electrical Power and Energy Systems . r. expressed in terms of ~ and y as explained in Section III.n (23) [cos6]=Dijcos6 U i4=j (19) since CM -1 [sin 3] I = CM -1 [cos6] I = 0. = . 2 . i E a. .

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