Yarn faults

Types Causes remedies

Staple yarn defects
arise from raw materials, machinery settings, improper maintenance ‡ RAW MATERIAL: For cotton : immature fibres neps trash, etc For wool : grease suint veg matters, etc

Filament yarns ‡ Defects arise from differences in the morphology of the polymer rather than from differences in linear density ‡ For man made fibers concentrations of finish oligomers undrawn or improperly drawn segments of fiber .

slub(long thick place) Abnormally thick place of length 1-4 cm and about 5-8 times larger than average yarn dia showing less twist at that place of the yarn Effects ‡ More end breaks in the ensuring process ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ Shade variation in dyed fabrics Causes ‡ Poor individualization of fibers at the card ‡ Lack of adequate fibre control in the drafting region ‡ Accumulation of fly and fluff on machine parts ‡ Improperly clothed top roller clearers ‡ Defective RF drafting and bad piecing ‡ Too close roller setting Remedies ‡ Better opening and cleaning in BR and carding ‡ Replace defective aprons ‡ Optimum top roller pressure and back zone setting at RF to be maintained ‡ Excessive roving twist ‡ Broken teeth in gear wheel to be avoided and proper meshing to be .

oily slub Slub in the yarn stained with oil Effects ‡ More end breaks in the subsequent processes ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ Shade variation in dyed fabrics Causes ‡ Accumulation of oily fluff on machine parts ‡ Improper lubrication ‡ Negligence in segregating the oily waste from process waste Remedies Yarn contact surfaces to be kept clean Proper lubrication and segregation .

Kitty yarn( bakar ) ‡ Presence of black specs of broken seeds. Effect ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ Production of specks during dyeing ‡ Needle breaks during knitting ‡ Poor performance during winding cause ‡ Improper ginning i. ‡ Optimum humidity in the departments should be ensured . leaf bits and trash in yarn.e. Seeds broken during ginning ‡ Ineffective cleaning in blow room and cards ‡ Use of cotton with high trash and too many seed coat fragments remedy ‡ Good ginning practices ‡ Cleaning efficiency of BR and cards should be improved.

jute flannel and other similar foreign matter spun along with yarn Effects ‡ Breaks during winding ‡ Formation of holes and stains in the cloth ‡ Damaged fabric appearance Causes ‡ Improper handling of travellers ‡ Improper preparation of mixing Remedies ‡ Removal of foreign matters should be ensured during preparation of mixing ‡ Installation of permanent magnets at proper places in BR lines .Foreign matters ‡ Metallic parts.

Cork screw yarn Double yarn in which one yarn is straight and the other is coiled over it. Effects ‡ Breaks during winding ‡ causes streaks in the fabric Causes ‡ Feeding of two ends in the RF ‡ Lashing in of ends in RF Remedies ‡ Tenters are to be trained in piecing practice ‡ Pneumafill ducts to be kept clean and properly set .

Snarl/over twisted yarn Yarn with kinks(twisted onto itself) due to insufficient tension after twisting Effects ‡ Entanglement with adjacent ends causing a break ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ Shade variation in dyed fabrics Causes Remedies ‡ Wrong selection of twist wheel ‡ Wrong selection of spindle driving pulley ‡ Presence of too many long thin places in the yarn ‡ Optimum twist to be used for the type of cotton processed ‡ Drafting parameters to minimize thin places in yarn to be adopted ‡ Yarn should be conditioned ‡ Correct tension weights and slub catcher settings should be employed at winding .

Soft yarn Yarn which is weak indicating lesser twist Effects Causes Remedies ‡ More end breaks in subsequent processes ‡ Shade variation in dyed fabrics ‡ Cord slippage on spindle wharves ‡ Improper bobbin feed on the spindles ‡ Less twist in the yarn ‡ Bad clearing at the traveller ‡ Vibration of bobbin on the spindle should be avoided ‡ Proper yarn clearing should be ensured ‡ Periodic replacement of worn rings and travellers .

Oil stained yarn(daghi) Oil or stain marks present on the yarn Effects ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ Occurrence of black spots in the fabric Causes ‡ Over flowing of oil from spindle bolster ‡ Excessive oil on ring with intention of running the traveller smoothly ‡ Improper material storage and handling ‡ Piecing made with oily or dirty fingers Remedies ‡ Proper oiling and greasing ‡ Proper material storage and handling .

Spun in fly Fly or fluff either spun along with the yarn or loosely embedded on the yarn Effects More breaks in winding Causes ‡ Accumulation of fluff over m/c parts(captured b/w front drafting rolls and pigtail guide) ‡ Fanning by workers ‡ Failure of over head cleaners ‡ Malfunctioning if humidification plant Remedies ‡ Machinery surfaces to be kept clean by use of roller pickers ‡ Fanning by workers avoided ‡ Performance of overhead cleaners and humidification plants should be closely monitored .

Bad piecing(moree) Unduly thick piecing in the yarn caused by over end piecing Effects Causes Remedies ‡ Proper piecing ‡ Separators should be provided ‡ Excessive end breakages in spg should be avoided ‡ More end breakages ‡ Wrong method of in subsequent piecing and over end processes piecing ‡ Increase in hard waste ‡ Twisting the ends instead of knotting ‡ Too close roller setting .

crackers Very small snarl like places in yarn which disappear when pulled with enough tension or yarn with spring like shape Effects ‡ More breaks in winding ‡ More noticeable in P/C blended yarns Causes ‡ Mixing of cotton of widely differing staple lengths ‡ Closer roller settings ‡ Eccentric top and bottom rollers ‡ Over spinning of cottons ‡ Non optimum temp and RH in the spg shed ‡ Long fibers(bridge the nip line in drafting system and disrupt the process) Remedies ‡ Optimum top roller pressure ‡ Optimum roller setting ‡ Use of properly buffed rollers free from eccentricity to be ensured ‡ Mixing of cottons varying widely in fine length to be avoided .

THICK AND THIN PLACES Effects ‡ More end breaks in winding ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ Poor knitting performance Causes Remedies ‡ Eccentric top and bottom rollers ‡ Insufficient pressure on top rollers ‡ Worn and old aprons and a improper spacing ‡ Improper meshing of gear wheels ‡ Mixing of varying length cotton and use of immature cotton ‡ Eccentric top and bottom rollers to be avoided ‡ Top arm pressure checking schedules to maintained strictly ‡ Correct spacers to be utilized .

NEPS Very short fault of more than 200% of the yarn dia Effects ‡ Damaged fabric appearance ‡ End breaks in subsequent process Causes ‡ ginning ‡ Improper opening in BR ‡ Poor carding due to improper settings ‡ Use of low micronaire cottons Remedies ‡ Correct settings and speeds in BR and cards to be maintained ‡ Grinding schedules to be maintained strictly ‡ Avoid immature cotton ‡ Use of long cotton .

Neps level ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Raw material (bale) : 100 -900 neps/g BR : slightly less than bale Card : 25 -300 neps /g Combing : 7-80 neps /g Measurement : vary with count ring spg ± 200% yarn dia rotor spg ± 300% yarn dia .

BALL Effects Causes Remedies ‡ end breakage in subsequent process ‡ Accumulation of lint (short fibres debris from drafting)on the traveler ‡ Use of over head cleaners .

FISHES Effects Causes Remedies ‡ affect fabric appearance ‡ Drafting under too dry conditions can cause static electricity to be generated by the sliding fibres ‡ optimum RH should be maintained .

HAIRINESS Protrusion of fibre ends from the main yarn structure Effects ‡ More end breaks in winding ‡ Uneven fabric surface ‡ Beads formation in the fabric in the case of P/C blends Causes ‡ Use of cottons differing widely in the properties in the same mixing ‡ Worn rings and lighter traveler ‡ Low RH ‡ Close roller settings ‡ Very high spindle speeds Remedies ‡ Traveler of correct size and shape ‡ Use of rings in good conditions ‡ Periodic replacement of traveler ‡ Correct roller settings ‡ Maintaining Optimum RH ‡ Wide cotton mixing should be avoided .

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