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05FaciltyDesignLayout

05FaciltyDesignLayout

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Facility Design and Layout

Henry C. Co Technology and Operations Management, California Polytechnic and State University

Facility Design  

Facility layout: Arrangement of machines, storage areas, and/or work areas usually within the confines of a physical structure, such as a retail store, an office, a warehouse, or a manufacturing facility. Factors that influence layout 
   

Volume, weight of items to be produced. Nature of the service to be provided. Cost of the building to house the operation. The product mix that must have a facility. The fragility of the product or component.

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A Good Layout ... 
       

Reduces bottlenecks in moving people or material. Minimizes materials-handling costs. Reduces hazards to personnel. Utilizes labor efficiently. Increases morale. Utilizes available space effectively and efficiently. Provides flexibility. Provides ease of supervision. Facilitates coordination and face-to-face communication where appropriate.
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Flow-Line Layout 
 

Applicable to both manufacturing and non manufacturing operations. Arrange machines and/or workers in accordance with the sequence of operations for a given product or service. Advantages of flow-line layout 
   

Reduces materials handling. Accommodates small amounts of work in process. Reduces transit times. Simplifies production planning and control systems. Simplifies tasks, enabling unskilled workers to learn task quickly.

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Disadvantages of flow-line layout 
   

Lack of process flexibility. Lack of flexibility in timing: the product can not flow through the line faster than the slowest task can be accomplished unless that task is performed at several stations. Large investments: special-purpose equipment and duplication is required to offset lack of flexibility in timing. Dependence of the whole on each part: a breakdown of one machine or absence of enough operators to staff all work stations may stop the entire line. Worker fatigue: workers may become bored by the endless repetition of simple tasks.

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Process Layout 
 

Grouping together of machines and/or workers doing similar tasks. Applicable to both manufacturing and non manufacturing operations. Advantages 
  

Flexibility: equipment and personnel can be used where they are needed. Smaller investment in equipment: duplication is not necessary unless volume is large. Expertise: supervisors for each department become highly. knowledgeable about their functions Diversity of tasks: changing work assignments make work more satisfying for people who prefer variety.

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Disadvantages   

 

Lack of process efficiency: backtracking and long movements may occur in the handling of materials. Lack of efficiency in timing: workers must wait between tasks. Complication of production planning and control. Cost: workers must have broad skills and must be paid higher wages than assembly line workers. Lowered productivity: because each job is different it requires different setups and operator training.

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Fixed Position Layout   

Manufacturing and non-manufacturing operations of bulky or fragile products, e.g., ships and planes. Move machines and/or workers to the site; products normally remains in one location for its entire manufacturing period. Advantages of fixed position layout 


Reduces movement of work items; minimizes damage or cost of moving. More continuity of the assigned work force (since the item does not go from one department to another). This reduces the problems of replanning and instructing people each time a new type of activity is to begin.

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Disadvantages of fixed position layout   

Since the same workers are involved in more operations, skilled and versatile workers are required. The necessary combination of skills may be difficult to find and high pay levels may be necessary. Movement of people and equipment to and from the work site may be expensive. Equipment utilization may be low because the equipment may be left at a location where it will be needed again in a few days rather than moved to another location where it would be productive.

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Group Technology Layout 

Definition of Group Technology ³Group technology is the technique of identifying and bringing together related or similar parts in a production process in order to utilize the inherent economy of flow production methods.´
V. B. Solaja,Institute of Machine Tools, Belgrade, Yugoslavia

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Group Technology layout is also called manufacturing cell layout. Example:  

A plant producing 10,000 part numbers may be able to group the parts into 50 or 60 families. Each family would possess similar design and manufacturing characteristics. Hence, the processing of each member of a given family would be similar, and this results in manufacturing efficiencies in the form of:  Reduced set-up,  Lower in-process inventories,  Better scheduling,  Improved tool control,  Standard process plan.
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Concept   

Many problems are similar, by grouping similar problems, a single solution can be found to a set of problems, thus saving time and effort. A manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in design and manufacturing. A technique for identifying and bringing together related or similar components in order to take advantage of their similarities in the production process.
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Conc ep t De sig n Ma n y p ro b le m s a re Similar Shapes sim ila r Gro u p Sim ila r Pro b le m s Sin g le So lu tio n o f Pro b le m s Design Families

Ma n ufa c turin g Similar Manufacturing Processes Production Family

One standard design One standard plus minor process plan to a modification family and modification and extension

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Manufacturing Cell 

Cellular manufacturing is the physical division of the manufacturing facilities into production cells.  

Each cell is designed to produce a part family. A part family is a set of parts that require similar machinery, tooling, machine operations, and/or jigs and fixtures. The parts within the family normally go from raw material to finished parts within a single cell. Batch production 
  

Justification 

Only 5% of the lead time in producing a part is direct working time; 95% of the time, the part is waiting. The 5% direct working time includes 30% actual processing and 70% for positioning, chucking, gauging, etc. Hence, only 1.5% is accounted for actual machining. 

Cellular manufacturing directs its effort towards the remaining 98.5% by organizing the plant layout according to work cell, rather than functions. A work cell is a unit that includes all of the machines required to produce a family of parts.

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Advantages/Disadvantages 

Advantages 
      

Implied reduction of necessary control Reduced material handling Reduced set-up time Reduced tooling Reduced in-process inventory Reduced expediting Increase operator expertise Improved human relations.

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Disadvantages 
  

Reduced shop flexibility Possible reduced machine utilization Possible extended job flow times Possible increased job tardiness. Reorganization - machine layout need reorganization every so often. Work cell supervision - supervisors must be expert in several field (milling, turning, grinding, etc.) represented in the cell. Shop floor control / production planning - cell concept leads to unbalanced workload on machines. 

Implementation Issues 
 

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Analysis of Layout By Process 

Steps involved:
1. 2.

3.

Determine the size of each department. Determine the arrangement of the department with respect to one another. Determine the arrangement of the equipment and people within each department.

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Analysis of Layout By Process 

Richard Muther's Systematic Layout Planning  

Utilizes a grid matrix to display the ratings of the relative importance of the distance between department Closeness ratings:
C lo se n e ss R a tin g A E I O U U De fin itio n Absolutely necessary Essentially important Important Ordinary closeness Unimportant Undesirable
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Facility Design and Layout (Henry C. Co)

Distance Measurements   

Typically measured from department center to department center. Euclidean distances are appropriate when the layout space is very open and movement within it can follow a direct path. Rectilinear (sometimes called rectangular) distance is more appropriate for layouts aisles or hallways where one generally reaches a destination after making one or more right turns.

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Load Distance Analysis 

Each department is 10 feet by 10 feet, distances are rectilinear, which of the following two layouts is better?
La y o u t A
3 7 1 9 6 8 4 10 2 5

La y o u t B
4 2 5 8 7 9 6 3 10 1

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Routing/Travel Distances
P ro d u c t A B C D E F D e p a rtm e n t P r o c e ssin g Se q u 1p 5p 4p 2p 6p 3p 2p 10p 1p 1p 7p 8p 2p 5p 6p 1p 7p 4p e n c e 10 9 9 10 9 10 Q u a n tity P r o c e sse d P e r M o n th 1 ,0 0 0 u n it s 2 ,0 0 0 3 ,0 0 0 1 ,0 0 0 2 ,0 0 0 4 ,0 0 0

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Routing/Travel Distances
Dista n c e e tw e e n De p a rt e n ts (fe e t) La y o u t La y o u t 30 30 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 10 10 40 10 Dista n c e e tw e e n De p a rt e n ts (fe e t) La y o u t La y o u t 30 20 30 30 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 50 20 30

Flo w 1 p5 1 p7 1 p9 1 p10 2 p5 2 p6 2 p10 3 p6

Flo w 3p9 4p5 4p7 4p10 5p6 6p9 7p8 8p10

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Solution (1/2) 

Compute the total travel for each product through each layout alternative.
De p a rtm e n t P ro c e ssin g Se q u e n c e 1p 5p 2p 6p 2p10p 1p 7p 2p 5p 1p 7p 4p10 3p 9 1p 9 8p10 6p 9 4p10 Dista n c e p e r P ro d u c t (fe e t) La y o u t A 30+30+10= 70 20+40+30= 90 10+10+10= 30 10+20+20= 50 10+10+10= 30 10+10+10= 30 Dista n c e p e r P ro d u c t (fe e t) La y o u t B (fe e t) 30+30+10= 70 20+10+10= 50 10+10+10= 30 10+50+30= 90 10+10+10= 30 10+10+10= 30

P ro d u c t A B C D E F

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Solution (2/2) 

Compute total distance traveled per month by each product through each layout alternative.
Un its p e r Mo n th 1000 2000 3000 1000 2000 4000 Dista n c e p e r P ro d u c t La y o u t A La y o u t B 70 70 90 50 30 30 50 90 30 30 30 30 Totals Dista n c e p e r Mo n th La y o u t A La y o u t B 70,000 70,000 180,000 100,000 90,000 90,000 50,000 90,000 60,000 60,000 120,000 120,000 570,000 530,000*

Pro d u c t A B C D E F

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Computer Packages 
  

Heuristic, improvement algorithms. CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Techniques) is the best known of the heuristics approaches; attempts to minimize materials-handling cost by calculating cost, pair-wise interchanging departments, calculating more costs until a good solution is obtained. ALDEP (Automated Layout Design Program) and CORELAP (Computerized Relationship Layout Planning) attempt to maximize a nearness rating within the facility dimension constraints. PREP (Plant Re-layout and Evaluation Package) analyzes multilevel structures and is based on actual footage traveled by materials-handling equipment.

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