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* Revue I nternationale de Psychosociologie, 1997, 't. III, 't€Ux. 8

1. Kd[lEVO 1tOU Excpwv'fj6"lXE o-ro ouvEilpLO 'tou CIRFIP [lS 6EWX 'tYjv «'EpyaAELaxYj op60AoYLxo't"l'ta xat xOLVwv(a» -rov 'OX'tW(3pLO 'tOU 1996, U1tO 'tov 'thAo: «L"l[lELWOELC; Yla [lLa xpmxYj TIjc; "op60- AOYLxo't"l'tOC;" 'tOU xa1tt'taALa[lou». 'H 1tapouoa Exiloo"l. u"l[laV'tlxa E1t"lUS"l[lEV"l xat E1tESEpyaO[lEv"l, ocpdAEl 1tOna o'ttc; XPL'tLXSC; 1tapa't"lP'fjuElC; 'tOU cptAOU [lOU BautA"l I'ovnx«. Elval mJ'tov'O"l'to (hI d[laL [lOVOC; u1tEu6uvoC; 'tWV 'tuxov ucpaA[llhwv 1) ailuva[llWV alJ'tou 'tOU XEl[lEVOU. [at L.'t .[l. O"l[lELWVOV't(X\ [ls ypcX[l[la'ta xat OUYXEV'tpwvoV'taL u'to 'tEAOC; 'tOU XEL[lEVOU. - na 'tYjv OU[l(3oAYj 'tOU uuyypacpEwc; o'tYjv ObWVO[llXYj 6EWpta 1tPE1tEl XcX1tO'tE va Ex1tov"l6rj EtilLXYj EpyaOta. ~sv dv(X\ ~ wpa Ol11:E 6 't01tOC; xat Ol11:E ~ ap[lOillo't"l'tcX [lac;. Kat 6a E1tPE1tE xavdc; va AcX(3El U1t' O\j>LV rou (JXE30v 01.0 'to EPYO 'tOU, xat 0Xl [lOVOV 'ta auo't"lpwC; otxoVO[lLxa

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o'YJ "tOU E:AAdflflCX"tOC; "tOU npounoAoYLoflOU. To npaYflcx YLVe:"tCXL ALy(he:po ncxpaoo~o ~ flaAAoV "to ncxpaoo~o ue"tcx"tL8e:"tCXL. l:l"tcxv Aaf3oufle: un' OtIJLV -rljv aOLcxvo'YJ"t'YJ LOe:oAOyLXYj omo8oopofl'YJO'YJ rrou nA1j"t"te:L "tlC; l1u"tLxe:C; XOLVWVLe:C;, E:OW xcxl OXe:oov e:'{XOaL XPOVLCX. TIpaYflcx"tcx nou OLXCXLWC; "tCx 8e:wpOUOCXfle: Xe:X"t'YJflEVCX, onwc; ~ Loone:ow"tLxYj xpmxYj rroo aox1j8'YJxe: o-rljv axcxo'YJfldCxYj nOAmxYj OLXOVOflLCX ano "tYjv 0XOAYj "tou KcxiflnPL"tS avafle:ocx oro 1930 xcxl o"to 1965 (Sraffra, Robinson, Kahn, Kegnes, Kalecki, Shackle, Kaldor, Pasinetti x.An.), 0XL flOVO oe:v oUs'YJ"tOUV"tCXL ~ OE:v avcxoxwa~oV"tCXL, aAACx cmAouo"tcx"tcx anoaLWnouV"tCXL ~ A'YJOflOVOUV"tCXL, E:VW acpe:Ae:ic; xcxl anLo"tw"te:C; E:mvo1joe:LC;, onwc; ~ «OLXOVOflLCX TIjc; npoocpopac;» ~ 0 «flOVe:"tCXPLOflOC;», YLVOV"tCXL "tijc; flOOCXC;. at uflV'YJ"te:C; "tou Ve:oCPLAe:AW-

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xdlleva. IIapaet-roulle H3w lmAw~ eva xapaxTflptO-rLXO a,nOO1'(aolla a,no -rov IIp6Aoyo -r7jc; vta~ hi56oewc; (Christian Bourgois. IIap(m 1990) ,au EPYOU -rou La societe bureaucratique: «"000 YLa -ri]v Dynamique du capitalisme (()l)O xdlleva au-rou -rOU EPYOU ()'Yl[.lOmeu-r'Ylxav o-ro nepW()LXO Socialisme ou Barbaric xa-ra -ra E-r'Yl 1953- 1954, -reuX'Yl 12 xal 13), eyvwpLoe au-ro nob tow~ a,no-r<:A<:L -rTjv [.lOLpa -rwv xpmxwv avaMoewv -r7j~ oLxovoll(ac;, o-rav etAouV va senepaoouv -rlc; a.xa()'YlllaCxe:~ xOLvo-ron(ec; ~ rov epll'Ylvw-rtOIlO, 'H ()OUAeLa nob Exava orov -rollea au-r6v. an6 ro 1953 ew~ -ro 1981. ,xaMmeL -rb)pa [l<:PLXe:C; XLAta()<:~ xeLp6ypacpec; OeAt()ec;. eSOpLO[leve~ oe: [laXptva Xt~b.ma xnl rrou eAnt~W va ~pw -rTj O-rLY(.lTj xal -ro eappoc; va xa-rao-rpetjJw rtplv eSacpavL06w. Meptxa a,no ora oumw()'Yl "ano-reMo(.la-ra" nepLexov-rat o-ro [leM-r'Yl(.la "1\van-ruS'Yl xal "Op60AOYLx6-r'Yl-ra'" (XwPO( TOU all{}pwnou) xal a-ro ~L~A(O Mttpoa-rCt a-rollnokt-'o».]

<pcxve:iC; xcxl cxu"tOV0'YJ"tOUC;, "tYjv O"tLYflYj rroo ~ anOAu"t'YJ E:Aw8e:PLCX "twv XLV1jOe:WV "tou Xe:CPCXACXLOU xCX"tCXO"tPEcpe:L 6MxA'YJpOUC; "tOfle:iC; TIjc; ncxpcxywyijc; oe: OAe:C; OXe:oov "tlC; xwpe:C; xcxlnou ~ ncxyxOOflLCX OLXOVOflLCX fle:"tCXflOPCPWVe:"tCXL oe: nAcxv'YJ"tLXO XCXSLVO,

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Au"toe; 0 XUXAOe; -rYje; 6Ea(.LLaYje; atv dvaL, aaq>aAWe;,

1tapa Evae; {3a6(.Loe; o-rov XUXAO "tYje; a1](.LWupyLae;. 'H 6Ea(.LLaYj ae:v (.L1topei va lmcXp1;e:L (Xv atv t1;aa<paALaeL 1tpo1]yOU(.LEVWe; TIjv u1tap1;~ "tYje;, xal ~ w(.LYj {3La dvaL auv~6we; aVLxavYj vo: tX1tA1]pwaeL au'tov 'to POAO 7tEpa a7to ouvro(.Le:e; 7tepLOaoue;.3 ')\e; avoL1;ou(.Le (.LLa 1tapEv6eaYj, XL (Xe; aLe:pw't1]60u(.Le ... C:£ 6a YLvo"tav a1to au'tYjv TIjv ex1totjJYj ae: (.LLa xotvcovto; au"tovo(.L"Yl, a"YlAaaYj ae: (.LLa XOLvwvLa 1tOU 6a ~'tav txayYJ vo. 6E'teL U7tO a(.L<pLa{3~'t1]a1] (.Le: 'tP01tO PYj"tO xal aLauyYj 'toue; 'caLOUe; 't1]e; 'toue; 6eo(.Loue;. Me: (.LLa EWOLa atv 6a (.L7tOpEaeL 1tpo<pavwe; vb: (3yd a1to au'tov "tOY XUXAO. 0a aLa{3e:{3mwve:L O"tL ~ XOWWVLXYj xal aUAAoYLXYj au"tovo(.LLa «a1;LseL/iaxueL».

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fIPE1te:L va a1](.LeLw6Yj O"tL TIjv "teAw"taLa 7tep£OaO ol Ev-re"taA(.LEVOL iae:oMyOL tyxa"tEAeLtjJav 'teALxa TIjv q>LAO-

2. I1p(3A. "to XEL[lEV6 [lou "tou 1974, «Lxe\jJw; 7t(XVW O'"tTjv "tXwx- 1t"tUS"Yl" XotL "tTjv "opeoAoy~x(h"Yl"tot "», "twpot O'"tov rouo Xwpm ",OU CtIl()p6J1tOV - To: O'",otvpo8po{.ltot mu Aot{3vpMJov II, tAA. [lE"tcXcpP., ex3. 'T\jJ~AOV. 1\e~Vot. 1995. t3~ot£-cEPC "to KEep. 4. «To 1tAeXO'[lot [l~iX~ "OpeOAOy~x'ii~~ otXOVO[lLot~», 0'.24 x, tS.

3. I1p(3A."tO ~€([lEVO [lOU «'ESouO'Lot.1tOAmx~. otU"tOVO[lLot» (1988), orov "to[l0 OlO{.ltAleq OTYJII 'EMci8ot. e:x3. 'T\jJ~AOV, 1990,0'0'. 43- 76.

16

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EI~ArQrH

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aOS~CX va aLXCXWA0y;100UV ~ va. VO(.LL[101tm-ljoouv -co XCX6Eo-cwe;' 1tCXpCX7tE(.L1tOUV lx7tAWe; oTYjv XPWX01t~CX -COU «l>1tCXPX-cOU OOmCXALO(.LOU» ---We; ea» 01. apCXO-C"fjpLO-C"fj-CEe; -COU Auv-cpu vo: aLxmOAOYOUOCXV -cle; apCXOTYlPLO-C"fj-CEC; -cOU ~-CCX~Loxua_ xcxl oxix apL6(.L"fj-CLXa. (.LEyE6"fj TIie; «ava1t'CUS"fje;», exei 01tOU eScxxoAou6Ei: va U7tapxEL. '}\AAO'CE ~OCXV mo 6cxppcxMm, O-CCXV EYPCXCPCXV ouyypa(.L(.Lcx-ccx rtspl Welfare Economics, YLa. Ta OlXOVOf.1.lXa rij~ eonueoto«, ELVCXL aA-Ij6ELcx e7tLO"fje; o'n Yj a1;wM1t"fj-C"fj xcx-caa-ccxo"fj -cwv e7tcxYYEA(.LCX-CLWV -CEWe; XPL-CLXWV -cou xcxm-ccxALO(.LOU ((.LCXPSw-cwv ~ cxu-cocx- 1tOXCXAOU(.LEVWV hm) E.1tL'tpE7tEL 0' cxu'wue; -coue; tawAOyoue;: ev 1tA-IjPEL OU(.LCPWVL~ (.LE: -co 1tVEU(.LCX -cYie; e1toxYie;, va. 6E-COUV xcx-ca. (.LEpOe; xa6E a1;£wo"fj oo~cxpo-C"fj-coe;.

'H XPL-CLX-lj (.Lcxe; 7tav-cwe; 6a. dVCXL oumcxo-CLxa. ex -Cwv EOW' 6a. 1tPOO1tCX6-1jOEL va aELSEL O-CL a-cO 6EWp"fj-CLXO E.7t~- 7tEaO 01. XCX-CCXOXWE:e; TIie; axcxa"fj(.LdCxYie; 1tOAmxYie; otXOVO(.LLCXe; a-cEPOUV-CCXL c:1.p(.LOU ~ O-CEPOUV-CCXL Vo-lj(.Lcx-coe; ~ EXOUV toxu (.LOVO Yla. EVCXV XOO(.LO 1tACXO(.LCX-ClXO, xcxl O-CL a-cO e(.L1tELplXO 1tEaLO Yj 1tpCXY(.LCX-CLXYj AEl-COUpYLCX TIie; xcxm-CCXALO-CLX'1je; otXOVO(.LLCXe; eAaXla-c"fj oxtO"fj EXEl (.LE: O,-Cl MEL Yj «6EWpLCX». ME: aAAcx MYlCX, 6a. XavoU(.LE xpmxYj -cou xcem-ccxAlO(.LOU OU(.Lcpwvcx (.LE: -ca. alxa -cou XPl-c-ljPlCX. 'H alEPEUV"fjO"fj 6a. ta-clcxo6Yi OE: -CEOOEPCX (.LEP"fj:

2. 'H 6EWp"fj-ClXYj tawAOYLCX -cYie; xcxm-ccxALO-CLxYie; olxovoptc«; .

3. 'H eVEpybe; 1tpcxY(.Lcx'ttxo-cYj-Ccx TIie; xam'taAtO'tLxYie; otxoVO(.L~cxe;.

4. 01. OUV'tEAEO'tE:e; TIie; 1tCXPCXYWYlxYie; a1to'tEAEO(.LCX-ClXO-C"fj-COe; -cYie; xcxm-ccxAlO-CLxYie; xOLVwvLae; xcxl TIie; xmvwvlxoCa-cOptxYie; -C"fje; av-coxJle;·

1. 'H xOLVwvtx6Co-C0PlXYj taLaL-CEp0-C"fj-CCX xcxl.

O"XE-ClXO-C"fj'tCX TIie; xcxm'tcxAlO'tLxYie; 6EO(.LLOYje;.

Kotvcovixotatootxi; lOlarrcporr;ra xai aXcrlxorr;ra rij<; Xa1rlraAlarlxij<; 8taf.1,lar;<;

Hxa60A~Xy) Erw7t"'Cda TYi~ tG"'COPLW; [lIX~ Emf3cXAAC:~ "'CYj (:iLa7tLo"'CWOlj O"'C~, cm' OAC:C; "'Clc; [lOp<pe:~ "'Cou xorvcovrxoto-ropixoii f3LOU, "'Co XUp~O"'CC:pO xapax"'Cljp~O"'C~XO "'Cou xam"'CaA~O[lOu dVCH 7tpo<pavw~ "'Co yc:yovo~ o"'C~ ~ olxovoutc --=IJ 7tapaywyYj xal ~ xa"'CaVcXAWOlj, a.AAa. E7tLOlj~, xal 7tOAU 7tc:p~OOO"'CC:pO, "'Ca. oixovourx« «xp~nlP~a»"'C07t08c:"'COUV"'CCH oe: 6tolj xc:v"'Cp~xY) xal avcXYOV"'CCH oe: utj>~G"'Clj a!;La TYi~ xmvwv~xYj~ SwYj~. J\7toppma "'COtJ"'COU dva~ ~ t(5~aL"t"c:plj ouyxpo"'CljOlj "'Cou xotvcovrxou «7tPo'CoV"'Co~» crov

. xam"'CaA~O[lO. ~UV07t"'C~xcX, OAC:~ ol av8pwmvc:~ ~pao"'Cljp~o"'Clj"'CC:~ xal OAC:~ "'COU~ ol ouvt7tc:~c:~ xa"'CaA~YOUv va. 8c:wpOUV"'CCH xa"'Ca. "'Co [lIXAAOV ~ ~TIOV w~ oumw~w~ xapax"'CljplsO[lC:VC:~ xal a!;WAoyoU[lC:VC:~ a7tO "'CYjv otXOVO[l~X~ "'COU~ ~~cXo"'Caolj. Mv xpC:~cXSC:"'CCH vo: 7tpoo8toou[lC: o"'C~ au"'CY) ~ a!;wA6yljolj YLvc:"'Ca~ a7tOxAc:~O"'C~Xa. [le: OpOU~ xplj[la"'C~XOU~.

Au"'CYj ~ cx7tmjJYj ~"'Cav lj~lj avc:m<pUAax"'Ca avayvwp~O[ltvlj a7tO "'Ca. "'CtAYj "'COU 180u atwvo~, ;Xv ox~ xal a7to mo 7tpLV. Ta. ~~cX<popa Emxc:~p~[la"'Ca 7tOU 7tpoc:f3A~8ljoav "'Co"'CC: y~a. "'CYjv a~~a<popLa a.7ttvaV"'C~ o"'Ca. ~Yj[loma 7tpcXy[la"'Ca xal.

20

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KOINfJNIKOIETOPIKH IJIAITEPOTHTA

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TIjv 7tOAL'tLx1j,4 EmxaAouv'taL TIjv XEV'tPLX1) 6EOrJ 7tOV EXOUV 'ta OlXOVO[.l.LXa OUI.HpEpOV'ta YLa 'tOV o:v6pW7t0 TIj~ VEW'tEPrJ~ E7tOX~~· '0 Saint-Simon 07tW~ xal 0 Auguste Comte, 6a YLVOUV ol u(.J.vrJ'te:~ 't~~ «f3LO(.J.rJxavLx~9> ~ «6E'tLX~~» E7tOX~~· at oEALoE~ 'tOU Marx crti: Xeiporpcapo: TOU 1844, °XE'tLxa (.J.e: -rov (.J.E'taoXrJ(.J.a'tLo(.J.o oAwv 'twv a~Lwv oe: XPrJ(.J.a'tLxe:~ a~Le:~, dv<XL wpaiE~ xal ouva'tE~, at)'to o(.J.w~ 7tOV 'tl~ OL()(<POP07tOLEi a7to 't1jv aV'tLArJtPrJ 't~~ E7tO~~ (f3Mm:

Balzac) OEv dV()(L 'to 7tEPLEXO(.J.EVO, aAAa ~ o~u'trJ't()( 't~~ xpmx~~. Elv()(L wo'tooo X()(P()(X'tYjPLO'tLXO O'tL ~ EV'tOVYj xal ~wV't()(V1) o't'Yjv E7tOX'Yj OUVELorJorJ 't~~ to'tOPLXO'trJ'tO~ 'tou <paLVo(.J.EvoU, 6a ouyxaAu<p6~ oUV'to(.J.a a7to 'tov~ a7toAOYrJ'te:~ 'tou VEOU X()(6EO'tW't0~, o'tP()('toAoYrJ[.LEvou~ XUpLW~ avcX[.LEaa o'tov~ Olxovo[.LoA6you~. 'H ouyxcXAutPrJ ()(uTIj 6a 7tcXPEL't1) (.J.op<p1) oo~oAoYLa~ 'tou x()(m'taALo(.J.ou, 7t()(POUaLa~o(.J.EvoU w~ olXOVO[.LLXOU X()(6EO'tW't0~ «op60AoYLxou», 'tOU 07tOLOU ~ E[.L<pcXVLOYj orJ(.J.a'tooo'tEi 'tov 6pL()((.J.f30 'tOU A6you oTIjv to'tOPL()( x()(l xa't()('tcXooEL 'ta 7tpOYjyou(.J.Eva X()(6Eo'tw'ta o'to oxoroc 't0v «YO't6LXWV» (YLa va [.LE't()(XELPL060U(.J.E (.J.La 7taA<XLo'tEPrJ AE~Yj 'tOU Sieyes) ~ 7tpCU'tOYOVWV XPOVWV. 'H to'tOPLX'Yj aVcXouorJ 'tOU xam't()(ALo(.J.OU Y(VE'ta(,'(.J.Eoa o'ta YP()(7t'tcX 'tOU~, 'Emcpayela~ 'tOU A6you, XL ()(u'tO xal uovov apxEi va E~()(o<P()(ALOEL otbv xam't()(ALO[.LO Eva a'tEAEu'trJ'to [.LEAAov. "07tW~ Eypa<pE 0 Marx, «YL'

au'tov~ U~P~E to'tOPL()(, aAAa oe:v U7tcXPXEL mcX».

IIEpLEpyw~, ~ 0XL x()(l 'tooo, &v Acif30U(.J.E U7t' otPLV [.L(x~ 'ta lOEOAoYLxa 7tAEOvEx't1j[.La'ta ()(u't~~ 't~~ o'tcXoYj~, Yj E~cXPVrJOrJ TIj~ to'tOPLXO'trJ'tO~ 'tou x()(m'taALo[.Lou U7tEPL- 0XUOE O'tov~ oixovouoxovouc a7to 'tov Ricardo [.LEXPL 'tov~ OrJ[.LEPLVOU~. 'E~u[.LvrJo()(V 't1jv 7tOAL'tLx'Yj OlXOVO[.LLa xal 'to aV'tLXEL(.J.EVO 'tYj~ w~ OLEpEUVrJOrJ 't~~ «x()(6()(p~~ 1..0- YLX~~ 't~~ EmAon~» ~ w~ 07tOU01) 't~~ «XPrJaL[.L07tOLrJOYj~ 7tEPLOPLO[.LEVWV [.LEOWV YLa TIjv 7tP()(Y(.J.()('t07tO£rJorJ am:pLopro-rcov o'tOXwv» (Robbins). 'Q~ eo» 'ta xpn1jpL()( xal 'ta aV'tLxd[.LEva ()(u't~~ TIj~ EmAoy~~ va ~O()(V aVE~cXp'trJ'ta a7to TIjv XOLVWVLXO'CO't0PLX'Yj [.LOp<p1j (.J.EO()( o't'Yjv 07tOL()( Yj EmAoy-Yj Em'tEAEi't()(L' x()(l we; Eav 0 (.J.ovoe; O'tOXo~ va ~'t()(V Yj OlXOVO[.LL()( (7tpiiy(.J.()( 7tOV 6a a1j(.J.()(LVE av'tLo'tOLXWe; O'tL Yj OlXOVO[.LL()( 6a (.J.7tOpOUOE vo: xa6U7tO'tcX~EL OAE~ 'tle; aV6pwmVEe; OP()(O'tYjPLO'trJ'tE~ 7tOV EmOEXOV't()(L EmAoy1j, a7tO TIjv o'tP()('trJYLX'Yj EWe; 't1)V XELPOUPYLX1j). Au'to~ 0 7t()(P()(AoYLO[.Lo~ E~()(7tAw6YjxE xa'ta 't1)V 7tpoa<P()('tYj 7tEPLOOO, 07tOU doa(.J.E OLcX<pOpE~ «oxoAe:e; OlXOVO(.J.L()(~» oe: E7t1. (.J.EpOU~ xwpou~ x()(l 'tl.~ E<P()(P(.J.Oye:~ 'tOU OlXOVO(.J.LXOU AOYLO[.LOU va EUOOXL(.J.OUV x()(l vo: E:7tEX'tELVOV't()(L 0XEOOV 7t()(V'tOU (a7to 'ty]v E:x7ta(oe:u0rJ EWe; TIjv 7tOLVLXy] X()('t()(O'toAYj). EIV()(L <P()(VEPO O'tL [.LEO()( 0' ()(uTIjv TIjv 7tPOO7t'tLX1j ol «OuAAOYLO[.Lol» TIj~ OlXOVO[.LLX~~ EmO't1j[.LrJ~ (6a ypcX<pW 0't0 t~~e; ()(uTIjv TIj AE~rJ xwpl~ dO()(YWYLxa YLa vo: EA()((PPUVW 'to Xd(.J.EVO) 6a [.L7topouoav vo: dvaL E<pap[.LOm[.LOL 0XL [.Lovo de iure , aAAa x()(l de facto, oe: oAE~ 'tl.e; XOLVWVLE~ 'tOU 7tapEA60v'to~ ~ 'tou [.LEAAov'toe;.

4. "H15"Yj oxov Ferguson (An Essay on the History of Civil Society. 1759) xal oxov Benjamin Constant (De la liberte des Anciens. comparee ii celIe des Modernes, 1819).

22

H «OPElOAOfIKOTHTA» Tor KAIIITAAI~MOY

KOINQNIKO~TOPIKH IMAITEPOTHTA

23

'r7tO iXJ..AYj !lopqn], ol l?>EEe; IXlJ"rE:e; E:7tIXVE!lCPIXVt08YjXIXV tree: YPIX7t'ta.. 'tOU F. von Hayek, OU!lCPWVIX !lE: 'ta.. a7toIIX ~ xIXm'tIXALa-cLX~ XOLVWVtIX a7tE?>ELSE ~v l>7tEPOXij 'tYje; -'t~v avw'tEpo'tYj'trX 'tYje;- !lEOW ?>IXp[3LvLX'Yje; E:mAOy'Yje; - O'tL ?>Yj_ AIX?>~ a7toodX8YjXE we; ~ !lovYj lxIXv~ vix E:m[3LwoEL, o't~v 7trXAYj 'tYje; !lE: 'tLe; aAAEe; !lOpcpE:e; XOLVWVtIXe;. 'Ex'toe; a7to 'to 7tIXPrXAOyo -cYje; E:CPIXP!lOy'Yje; 'tOU OIXp[3LVLxou axil!lIX'tOe; a-c!.e; XOLVWVLXE:e; !l0pcpE:e; 7tOU E:!lcpIXvt08YjxIXv !lZOIX o't~v lo'toPtIX, EXOU!lE 't~v E:7tIXVrXAYj4>Yj 'tou XAIXOaLXOU AOYLXOU OCPrXA!lIX'tOe; (~ E:m[3twoYj 'tWV mo lxIXvwv dVIXL ~ E:m[3twoYj 'twv mo lxIXvwv 7tpOe; E:m[3twoYj. 'H E:mxprX'tYjoYj 'tOU XIXm'tIXALo!lOU OdXVEL rX7tAWe; O'tL dvIXL a mo loxupoe;,!lE: ~v rno W!l~ XIXL mo [3rXVIXUOYj EVVOLIX 'tOU opou XIXL DXL O'tL e:LVIXL a XIXAU'tEpOe; 't) 0 «Op80AOYLXO'tEpOe;» - a «evn-us'tIXcpUaLXOe;» Hayek E:!lCPIXVtSE'tIXL E:OW tYEAELIXVOe; 'tou mo XUOIXtOU dooue;), SZpOU!lE OIXcpWe; O'tL 'ta.. 7tPrXY!lIX'tIX OE:V e:YLVIXV haL. Au'to 7tOU 7tIXPIX'tYjPOU!lE 'tov 160, 170 xIXl 180 IXLWVIX OE:V e:LVIXL EVIXe; OUVIXYWVL0!lOe; aVrX!lEOIX OE:

EVIXv a7tpOOOLOPLO'tO apL8!l0 xIX8EO'tW'tWV, a7to 'tov a7toIo a xIXm'tIXALO!lOe; [3y'YjXE VLXYj'tije;, aAAa.. ~ IXLVLY!lIX'tLX~ ouvepYELIX tvoe; 7tAij80ue; 7tIXPIXYOV'CWV 7tOU OAOL ouvw!lo'touv OOYjYWV'CIXe; 7tpOe; 'to 'COLO a7t0'tzAEO!lIX.5 To O'tL E:V OUVEXEtIX !lLa.. XOLVWVtIX [3IXOLO!lZV'Yl OE: !lLa OE: U4>YjAO [3IX8!l0

ESEALY!lEVYj 'tExvoAoytIX !l7tOPEOE va OEtSEL ~V U7tEpoxfl 'tYje; e:SOV'tWVOV'CIXe; E8vYj XIXL cpUAE:e; '1 VOLrXVWV, 'tIXO!lIXVOUe; 't) IXUa-rPIXALIXVOUe; l8IXYEVde;, XIX!. U7tOOOUAWVOV't"IXe; 7tOAAE:e; aAAe:e;, IXU'tO OE:V dvIXL oa.. XIXL 't000 !lUa-cYjpLWOEe;.

~E:V dvIXL aVIXyxIXIo va (X7tIXpL8!lijOOU!lE e:OW 'ta.. 7tIXPIX?>dY!lIX'rIX XIXL 'tLe; !lEAE'tEe; 7tOU odxvouv O'tL, XIX'ta.. 'to !lEYIXAU'tEPO !lZpOe; 'tYje;, ~ av8pwmvYj la-coptIX XUAYjOE !lEOIX OE:

XIX8EO'tW'tIX,0'ta.. a7toIIX OU'tE ~ OLXOV0!lLXYj «a7tO'tEAEO!lIX'tLXO'tYj'tIX», OU'tE ~ !lEYLO't07tOtYj0'Yl 'tOU 7tpo'~OV't"oe; X .A7t. , . a7tO'tEAOuOIXV 'ta.. XEV'tPLXa oYj!ldIX aVIXcpopCie; 'tWV XOLVWVLXWV ?>PIXO'tYjPW-cij'tWV. Toirro OE:V OYj!lIXLVEL O'tL IXU'tE:e; ol XOLVWVLEe; ~OIXV 8E'tLXa.. «avop80AOYLXE:e;» O'to 7tEOtO -cYje; opyrXVWOYje; -cYie; e:pyIXOLIXe; 'tOUe; 't) 'tWV 0XZOEWV 7tIXpIXYWyYje;. :2:U!l[3IXLVEL O!lWe; rX7tAWe;, 0XEOOV 7trXV'tIX, 0' EVIX OEOO!lZVO 'tEXVOAOYLxa e:7tt7tEOO, ~ XOLVWVLXYj SwYj vo: e:X'tuALOOE'tIXL EXOV't"IXe; aAAEe; XIXL 7tOAU OLIXCPOpE'tLXE:e; cPpOV't"tOEe; a7ta ~ [3EA'ttWOYj -cYje; «7tIXPIXYWYLXO'tYj'tOe;» -cYje; e:PYIXOtIXe; !lE: 'tEXVLXE:e; e:cpeupZOELe; 't) !lE: VZEe; PU8!lLOELe; 'twv !lE80owv e:pyIXOLIXe; XIX!. 'twv 0XZOEWV 7tIXpIXYWyYje;. at 'to!lEIe; IXu'tol 'twv XOLVWVLXWV OPIXO't'YlPW-cij'twv ~OIXV U7tO't"IXY!lEvOL XIXL e:vow!lIX'tW!lZVOL OE: &'AAOUe;, 7tOU e:8EWPOUV't"O XrX8E cpopa.. O'tL e:vOrXpxwvIXV 'toue; Xupwue; OX07tOUe; -cYie; aV8pwmvYje; swYje; XIXt, XUpLWe; o!lwe;, OE:V ~OIXV XWPLa-cOL we; «7tIXPIXYWyYj» 't) «oixovojncc». Ol OLIXXWPL0!lOL IXU'tOL EYLVIXV 7tOAU apyo'tEpIX XIX!. XUpLWe; e:YXIX8LOpu8YjxIXv 'tIXU't0XPOVIX !lE: -rov xeon'tIXALO!lO, a7to xIXl YLa.. rov xIXm'tIXAw!lo. E>a.. 7tEPWPL080u!lE vo. u7tEv8u!ltoOU!lE 't!.e; e:pYIXotEe; -cYie; Ruth Benedikt YLa.. 'toue; 'IvoLrXvoue; -cYje; Bopstou l\!lEpLXYje;, -cYje; Margaret Mead

24

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KOINflNIKOIITOPIKH ItJIAITEPOTHTA

25

YLCx T1C; XOLVWV£EC; 'WU EtPYJVLXOU, -cOU Gregory Bate..,on YLCx -co M 7t(XAl x .An, xwplC; vix ~ExaaOU[lE xal -clC; [lEAE-CEC; -cou Pierre Clastres YLCx -covC; Toorn rxouapavL xal -cou Jacques Lizier YLCx TOVC; naVO[la[lL. TYjv mo npoacpa-cYJ xal mo LxavonOLYJ-CLxYj auv8EaYJ -cwv !;YJ-CYJ[laTWV au-cwv [laC; -cYjv e:owaE 0 Marshal Sahlins (A{OtliYj inoxrj, inox:Yl rii~ rXcpOoli{a~). Kal E:V npoXEL[lEVCP, -co !;~-CYJ[la au-co OEV acpopa [lovo -COVC; «npw-coyovOUC;» - ~ o~XOVO[lLXYj av8pwnoAoy£a tijc; arxaLac; 'EAAaOOC; OOYJYEL oi: avaAoya aU[lnEpaa[la-ca, xa8wC; xal ~ avaAuaYJ -cwv [lEamwvLxWV XOLVWVLWV.6

"OAEC; ol E:pyaa£EC; navw a-cYjv avaouaYJ -coG xam-caALa[lOu a-cYjv LlU't'LXYj EupwnYJ, aVE~ap-CYJ-ca ano -cYjv oumaa-CLXYj E:YXUp0-CYJTa -couC;, odxvouv e:V't'ova -cov «auyxupLaxo» ta-copLxCx xapaxTYjpa aUTYjC; -cYjC; oLa~hxaa£ac;. TOUTO -co (3AEnoU[lE aTo e:pyo TWV Max Weber, Werner Sornbar+, Richard Tawney x.An. 1\XO[lYJ xal YLCx xanowv rooo nEnELa[lEvO YLCx -cYjv «ta-copLxYj avayxmo-CYJ-ca» E:V YEVEL, xal «-cYjv ta-copLxYj avayx(uo-CYJ-ca» -cOU xam-caALa[lou dOLxoTEpa, 00'0 0 Karl Marx, ~ YEvvYJaYJ -cou xam-caALa[lOU ~-cav aOLavoYJ-CYJ xwplC; -cYjv npwTaPXLxYj auaawpwaYJ. nCx -cYjv auaawpEuaYJ au-cYj 0 Marx OdXVEL E:V E:XTaaEL (XEcpaAaLa XXVI EWC; XXXII TOU IIpw-cou TO[lou TOU KscpaAa(ou) O-CL E:sap-ra-caL ano 7t(XpaYOV't'EC; nov OEV e:XOUV -CLnO-CE -co «O~XOVO[lLXO» xalnov OEV 0CPELAOUV -CLnO-CE a-cYjv «ayopa», onwc; ol xa8E doouC; napaVO[lLEC;,

xa-caoOALEuaELC;, (3£a lOLWTLXYj xal xpa-CLx~.7 - 1\ vaAOyYJ, onwc; xal E:SaLpETLXYj E:pyaa£a yLCx [lLCx mo npoacpaTYJ rcePLOOO, e:YLVE ano -cov Karl Polanyi a-co e:pyo -cou The Great Transformation.

Ilptv npoxwp~aOU[lE, Tt8E-cm -co !;~-CYJ[la EVOC; lxovonOLYJTLxoU xapax-CYJpLa[lou -cOU xam-caALaTLXOU xofisa-cw-coc;. rVWpL!;OU[lE, TouAaXLa-cov ~oYJ ano rov Marx, O-CL -co ElOLXO xapax-CYJpLa-CLxo TOU xam-caALa[loU OEv dvaL ~ anAYj auaawpwaYJ -cou nAou-cou. 'H npax-CLxYj -cYjC; ano- 8YJoaupLaYJC; lmaPXEL aE nOAAEC; ta-c0PLXEC; xOLVwviEC;. 'E~ 'Laou YVWa-cEC; ~aav xal anonELpEC; a~wnotYJaYJC; -cYjC; yYjC; aE [lEyaAYJ XAL[laxa, ano [lsyaAouc; yawxT~[lOVEC; [lEacp -cYjC; E:pyaatac; -cwv oOUAWV (EioLxa, xal xoV't'Cx o-rov xwpo [lac;, a-cCx latifundia -cYjC; aUToxpa-C0pLxYjC; PW[lYJC;). 1\AACx ~ anAYj [lSYLa-conOtYJaYJ (-cou nAouTou, tijc; napaywyYjc;) OEV dvaL txavYj xa8' Eau-cYjv va xapaX-CYJpiaEL -cOV xam-caALO[lO. '0 Marx dXE aUAAa(3EL -cov oumaaTLxo nupYjva -cou npay[laToc;, o-cav E8ETE WC; opt!;ouaEC; -cou xamTaALa[lOU -cYjv auaawpwaYJ TWV napaywYLxwV ouva[lEWV, E:V auvouaa[l0 acp' EVOC; [lE -cov aua-CYJ[lcmxo [lE-caaXYJ[laTLa[lO "twv oLaoLxamwv napaywyYjc; xal E:pyaaiac; xal acp' E-CEpou [lE -co a-coLXELO E:XSLVO nov anoxaAouaE «AEAoYLa[lEvYJ tcpap[loyYj -cYjC; E:ma-c1j[lYJC; a-cYj OLaOLXaata -cYjC; napa-

"7.---MLa via &7tOi5-~LS"lj 'touwu in vivo -xal in anima vili- exou[.lE o rov xa8apa [.laqnol;;Lxo xapax'tYipa 'tYic; «7tpw'tapXLxYic; CxvaauaaWpEUa"ljC;». [.lEOCP 'tYic; i5Lai5Lxao(ac; 'tYic; di5LW'tLX07tO("ljo"ljC;». o'tlC; XOLVWV(EC; 'twv 7tPW"ljV XO[.l[.lOUVLO'tLXWV xwpwv.

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8. '0 3LaxwpLoflO-C; ~ou 1tapaywyou a1tO "tex flsoa 1tapaywy'ijc; 3e:v e:lvaL xa6oAou d3LxoC; o-rov XartL"taALoflo - umxPxe:L fj3"fj o"t~ 30uAda.

a'nxa -rYie;; tj>uxLx'fie;; [lovaooe;; - 't'Yjv zcpe:aYJ npoe;; 't'Yjv rnxvroOUWX,[lLex. 'AAA' ou'te: XL exu't1j ~ 'taaYJ, exu't1j ~ (JOr;or; npoe;; 't'Yjv xupLapXYJaYJ, (X1tO'te:Ae:L anoxAe:La'tLx1j tOLexL'te:pO'tYJ'tex 'tOU xexm'texALa[l0U. 'EXO"y)AWVe:'texL rt .X· EnLaYJe;; xexl a'tle;; [lOpcpe:e;; XOLvwvLx'fie;; opyavwaYJe;; nOll npoaexvex'toAts°V'texL npoe;; 't'Yjv xex'tax'tYJaYJ. Mnopou[le: 1t(XV'twe;; vo: nAYJaLaaOU[le: 't'Yjv tOLexL'te:pO'tYJ'tex 'tOU xexm'texALa[lOU ESe:'tasov'texe;; oUo ano 'ta OUaLwoYJ Xexpexx'tYJPLa'tLxa 'tou. To npw'to dVexL O'tL exu't1j ~ w8YJaYJ npoe;; xupLaPXYJaYJ oe:v npoaexvex'toALse:'texL a.nAWe;; npbe;; [lLa «E.:SW'te:PLx1j» xex'tax'tYJa"y), aAAa ano(3AEne:L EnLaYJe;;, xexl. xex'ta XUpLOV Myo, a-ro auvoAo 't'fie;; xOLvwvLexe;;. 'OCPe:LAe:L va npexy[lex'tWVe:'texL 0XL uovov a't1jv nexpexywyij, aAAa xexl. a-r1jv xex'texvaAwa"y), XL 0XL [l0- vov a't1jv OlXOVO[lLex, aAAa xexl a't1jv txnextowa"y), 'to OLxoao , 't'Yjv nOAL'tLx1j sw1j X .An. 0a ~'texv Aa80e;;, 'to yvwa'to [lexPSLa'tLxo Aa8oe;;, i±v 8e:wpOtJaex[le: exU'tte;; 'tle;; a..AAe:e;; Ene:x'taae:Le;; we;; «oe:u-re:pe:uouae:e;;» Yj EpyexAe:Lexxse;;, ae: axsaYJ [le: 't1jv xupLaPXYJaYJ Enl 't'fie;; nexpexywyYje;; xexl 't'fie;; OlXOVO[lLexe;;, ~ onoLex 8a ~'texv Yj npw'texPXLx1j xexl. OUaLWOYJe;;. ~e:

OAe:e;; exU'te:e;; 'tl.e;; ne:pm'twae:Le;;, npoxe:L'texL YLa 't'Yjv 'COLex cpexV'texaLexx1j a"Y)[lexaLex, ~ onoLex ESexnAwve:'texL a'tle;; XOLVWVLXe:e;; acpexIpe:e;;, xexl 'tle;; xex'texAex[l(3ave:L 't1jv [ltex xex'tom v 't'fie;; a..AAYJe;;. To O'tL «apXLse:L» ano 't1jv nexpexywy-Yj OEv e:LVexL (3s(3exLex'tuXexIo -OLO'tL [lsaex o-ro nAexLaLO 't'fie;; nexpexywyYje;; axpL(3We;; 01. aAAexye:e;; -rYie;; 'te:XVLx'fie;; Em'tpsnouv xcer' apxae;; EVexv xUPLexpXO E.:Sop80AoYLa[lo. 'Oa'toao ~ nexpexywy-Yj oe:v Xex'tSXe:L 'to [lOVonwALO. 'Ano 'to 1597 we;; 'to 1607,0 MnupLXLOe;; 'tou Nassau, npLyx"Y)tj> -rYie;; 'OpaYYYJe;; xexl Stathouder

ywyYje;;».B To anocpexaLa'tLxo [laALmex a'tOLxe:io OEv dVexL ~ auaawpwaYJ xex8' EexU-djV, aAAa 0 auve:x.-Yle;; [le:'texaXY][lex'tLa[loe;; -rYie;; nexpexYWYLx'fie;; oLexoLxexatexe;; EV Otj>e:L -rYie;; exuSYJaYJe;; 'tou npOLOV'tOe;;, ae: auvouexa[lo [le: 'tov ne:pLOpLa[lo 'tou xoo-rouc. To a'tOLxe:Io exiho ne:pLsxe:L 't1jv ouaLex -rYie;; zvvOLexe;; nOll 0 Max Weber 8a anoxexAEae:L EV auve:xe:L«( «Op80AOYLXO'tYJ'tex» xexl YLa 't'Yjv onoLex 8a ne:I, op8we;;, O'tL oxcv xnm'texALa[lO 'te:Lve:L vix xex'texAa(3e:L OAe:e;; 't1.e;; acpexIpe:e;; -rYie;; XOLvWVLX'fie;; sW'fie;;, XUpLWe;; we;; Ensx'texaYJ 't'fie;; Emxpa'te:Lexe;; 'tOU [lex8YJ[lex'tLXOU AOYLa[lOU. '0 Georg Lukacs 8a npoa8sae:L a't1.e;; anotj>e:Le;; 'tou 'Marx xexl 'tou Weber aYJ[lexV'tLXe:e;; ovaMae:Le;; avexcpopLxa [le: 't1jv npexY[lOnoLYJaYJ ,orou ouvoxou -rYie;; nexpexY0[le:vYJe;; ano 'tov xexm'texALa[lO XOLVWVLXYje;; swYje;;.

IIpoe;; 'tL ~ «Op80AOYLXO't"Y)'tex»; "Onwe;; OAe:e;; 01. 1.a'topLXe:e;; OYJ[lLOupy£e:e;;, ~ xUPLexPXLex -rYje;; 'taaYJe;; npoe;; 't1jv auyxe:xpL[lsvYJ «Op80AOYLXO'tYJ'tex» dVexL xex'ta (3aaLv «exU8exLpe:'tYJ» - OEV [lnopou[le: va 't'Yj auvexyayou[le: 1) va 't'Yjv nexpexyayou[le: ano xa'tL a..AAO. Mrropobue O[lWe;; vo: 't1j xexpexx'tYJP£aou[le: axpL(3sa'te:pex, auvosoV'tae;; 'tYJv [lE xa'tL mo yvwa'to, mo OlXe:!:O, xexlnoll EXcppaSe:'texL uno a..AAe:e;; [l0PCPEe;; aE a..AAOUe;; 'tunoue;; XOLVWVLXYje;; opyavwaYJe;;: 't'Yjv 'taaYJ npoe;; 't1jv xupLaPXYJaYJY• Toiiro !lae;; Em'tpsne:L !laALa'tex va Emxe:Lp~oooue !lLa a6voe:aYJ [le: EVex ano 'ta (3ex86'te:pex XexpexX'tYJPL-

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orrie; 'OAA()(vi5i()(e; X()(t 'tYje; Z'YjA()(vi5i()(e;, 1tpoOi5WpiSEt [.le TIj [30~8Et()( 'twv ai5EAcpwv 'tou rOUAtEA[.lOU- Aoui5o[3ixou X()(t 'Iwavv'Yj, 'toue; [3()(atxoue; X()(VOVEe; yta TIjv xp~o'Yj 'tou [.louOXE'tOU' 1tEplA()([.l[3avouv o()(paV't()( OXEi50V axpt[3Eie; XlV~OEle; 1tOU 6 xa'toxoe; 'tou 01tAOU 1tPE1tEl vix 1tP()(Y[.l()('t01tOlijOEt [.le [.lta 'ta1;'Yj X()(t EV()( O't()(8EPO X()(t EVl()(io yta OAOV 'tOV AOXO pue[.lo. Au'tol ol X()(VOVEe; ea i5t()('tU1tWeOUV a1to 'tOV Yacob de Ghyn oe EV()( 'EYXctp{OlO yta rYjv xp~or; TWV 07rAWV i5'Yj[.lOOlEU[.lEVO o ro 'A[.lO'tEPV't()([.l 'to 1607 x()(l1tou ea yvwpiOEt a[.lEOWe; [.lEyaA'Yj i5lai5oo'Yj o't'YJv Eupw1t'Yj X()(t ea [.lE't()(cpp()(OeYj x()('ta i5t()('t()(y'1jv 'tou Totrpou oe [.lta Pwoi()( 0XEi5oV av()(Acpa[3'Yj't'Yj.9 To i5EU'tEPO X()(P()(x't'Yjpto'ttxo dvat 1tpocp()(VWe; O'tl ()(uTIj ~ we'Yjo'Yj 1tpOe; TIjv xuptapx'Yjo'Yj, rtpoXEt[.lEVOU vo: 1tP()(Y[.l()('t01tOl'YjeYj, a1tox'tii VE()( [.lEO()(, x()(l [.laAtO't()( (.lEO()( EVOe; di5txou -«OpeoAoytxOU», i5'YjA()(i5'YJ «oixoVO(.ltxou»-X()(P()(x'tYjP()(· Ta (.lEO()( i5ev dvat 1tla OU'tE ~ (.l()(yd()( OU'tE ~ vix'Yj o'tte; (.laXEe;, aAAa axpt[3we; ~ opeoAoytXo't'Yj't()(, ~ 61toi()( 7r()(ipVEl Ei5W EV()( ti5t()(i'tEPO 1tEPtEXO(.lEVO, EV'tEAWe; di5txo, 'to 1tEptEXO(.lEVO 'tYje; (.lEYlO't01t()i'Yjo'Yj9EA()(XlO'to1toi'Yjo'Yje;, i5'YjA()(i5'YJ 'tYje; aXpOTaT07rO{r;Or;~, (Xv ~l1tOpOU(.lE va OCPUp'YjA()('tijOOU(.lE ()(u'tov 'tov opo a1to 'ta (.l()(e'Yj(.l()('tlxa «(.lEytO'tO x()(l EAaXta'to dv()(t i5uo 1tEPt7r'tWOEle; axpo'ta'twv O'Yj(.lsLWV (.ltiie; ouvap't'Yjo'Yje;). "ExoV't()(e; U1t' oljJtv ()(u'to 'to OUVOAO 'tWV ysyovo'twv, (.l1tOpOU(.lE vo:

X()(P()(X't'YjpiOOU(.lE 't'YJv 1tUp'YjVtx'YJ XOlVWVlXy} CP()(V't()(at()(xy} o'Yj(.l()(oi()( 'tou X()(1tl't()(Ata(.lOU we; we'Yjo'Yj 1tpOe; 'tYjv a1tEplOplO't'Yj E1tEX't()(O'Yj 'tYje; «OpeoAoytXYje; xuptapX'Yjo'Yje;». 0a E1;'Yjyijow apyo'tEp()( ()(u'ta 'ta dO()(ywYlxa.

AuTIj ~ a1tEptOplO't'Yj E1tEX't()(O'Yj 'tYje; OpeOAOYlXYje; xuplapx'YjO'Yje; oU[.l[3()(i5isEl (.le 1tOAAee; aAAEe; XOlVWVtXo"LO'tOplxee; (.lE't()([3oAee; X()(t EVO()(PXWVE't()(l o'()(U'tEe;. Mv eEAW va (.ltA~OW yta 'tle; OUVE1tElEe; 'tou X()(1tl't()(AtO(.lOU (rr .X. 'tYjv 1tOAsoM[.l'Yjo'Yj x()(t'tle; [.lE't()([3oAee; 'tOU X()(P()(x'tYjP()( 'tWV 1tOAEWV), ea (.llA~OW O[.lwe; yta 1t()(payoV'tEe;, 'twv 61tOLWV ~ rccePOUOL()( U7tYjp1;E OUOL()(O'tlX'YJ auveijx'Yj 'tYje; avai5uo'Yje; x()(l 'tYje; ESEAl1;~e; 'tou :

9. IlPr3;\:-William H. M~Nciil, Keeping Together in Time, Harvard UP, 1996, xed 1'~V xpmx~ 'au John Keegan 01'0 Times Literary Supplement, 12.7.1996, a . 3, xa~ 6.9.1996, o, 17.

• 'H 'tEpao'tl()( E1tl'taxuvo'Yj 'twv 'tEXVOAOYlXWV aAA()(YWV,1tOV a1to'tEAiL Xatvoupyw to'tOptXO cpatVO(.lEVO (i5l()(- 1tLO'tWO'Yj XOlVO't01t'Yj, 1tOV 1tPE1tEt O(.lwe; vo: l.l1tOYP()«(.l(.lloeYj). AUTIj ~ E1tt'taxuvo'Yj CPEPE'tat a1to TIjv EXXOA()(ljJ'Yj 'tWV E1tlO't'Yj[.lWV 1tOU apxLsEl tji5'Yj rtptv a1tO TIjv «)\V()(YEVV'YjO'Yj», X()(t 1tOV EV'tsLVE't()(l oe 'tEpao'tw [3()(e(.lO 1t()(paAA'YjA()( (.le ()(u't~V. ME't()(OX'Yj[.l()('tLSE't()(t X()('ta 'ty}V 1tpOOCP()('t'Yj 1tEpioi5o 0't0 ()(u'tOVO(.lO xiv'Yj(.l()( 'tYje; 'tEXVOE1tlO'tij(.l'Yje;. TIPE1tEt va l.l1tOyp()«(.l(.ltOeYj O'tt EV()( ti5t()(L'tEPO X()(P()(X't'YjPlO'tlXO 'tYje; ESEAt1;'Yje; ()(u'tYje; 'tYje; 'tEXVtXYje; dV()(t 6 xupwe; 1tPOO()(V()('tOAlO[.lOe; 't'Yje; 1tpOe; 'tOV m:pwplo(.lO , x()(l E:V OUVEXsL~ 1tpOe; 'tYjv ES()(cpavlo'Yj 'tOU avepwmvou POAOU O't'YJv 1t()(P()(Ywyij. Au'to dV()(l X()('t()(vo'Yj'to, i5Ei50(.lEVOU o'tt 6 aVepW1tOe; dvat 'to O'tOlXEiO 1tOU 1tl0 i5uoXOA()( 'tte()(OOEUE't()(t - 'to 'ii5w O[.lwe; 'to ysyovoe; ()(u'to 6i5'YjYEL ouYXpovwe; oe avOpeOAO-

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YLXC)"'C"f),Ee; (XAAOU ,UTWU (n.x. OL [3Aa[3Ee; ,WV ,EXVLXWV ouo'"f)!la,wv !lnopouv vex emcpepouv xa,ampOcpLXEe; OUVenELEe;) .

!l1], ,EiVEL vex unoxa,ao-r'ijoEL OAa ,ex (XAAa. To dv6pwmvo OV xa,aniX homo oeconomicus , 3"f)AaO~ homo computans. 'R XpOVLX~ oLapxELa cmoppocpiX,aL !leoa aiov !lE'P1]m!lO xat em[3aAAO!lEVO OE OAOUe; Xpovo. '0 ,unoe; ,au oou- . !lnE,EpLavou emXELp"f)!la,ia, xal ev OVVEXdq.. ,au XEPOOoxorcou, naipvEL XEV'PLX~ 6eo"f). Tex oLacpopa enayyeA!la,a xa,a ,0 !liXAAOV Yj ~"ov oLano'tisonw (mo -ri'jv vooroorn« 'tou lmoAoYLO!lOU xat ,au xepooue;. ~uYXpovwe;, YEwiX,w xal avan,uooE,m !lLex epya'tLx~ tj>UXOXOLVWVWAoyia xapax't"fjpLSO!lEV"f) ano ,~v aAA"f)AEYYU"f), aAAex xal dno ,~v av,i6EO"f) npoc; -ri'jv Xa6Eo'"f)xuia ,as"f) xal ,~v a!lcpLo[31]'"f)a1j '"f)C;, i] onoLa xal 6ex anL,ax61j enL ovo rrspLnou alwvEC; o,~v xpa,ouoa vootpom« xat 6ex rrpooOWPLOEL -ri'jv XOLVWVLX~ oUyxPOUO"f).

• 'R yew"f)o"f) xal i] 0,a6EponOL"f)0"f) ,au VEW,EPOU Kpa,oue;. 'R eSeALS"f) ,au xam,aAL0!lOU o-ri'j AU'LX~ Eopwn"f) OUVooEuE,aL ano -ri'jv o"f)!lWupYLa ,ou anoAu,aPXLxou Kpa,ouC;, i] onoia ,ov ,pocpooo,d xat rov OLWXOMVEL ana nOAAEe; anotj>ELe;. ~uyxpovwe;, ao'to 'to ouyxEnpw'Lxo Kpa,oe; ypacpEwxpa,LxonOLEI,m, 3"f)Aao~ !lLex «dhax'"f)>> ypacpEwxpa'Lx~ LEpapXLa unoxa6Lo'tiX -ri'jv OUyxExu!lev"f) xa,ao,ao"f) !lLiXe; cpwuoapXLae; Aiyo we; nOAu xawoouc;. 'R ypacpEwxpa,LxonOL"f)O"f) ao-ri'j ,au Kpa,oue; xat ,au o,pa,ou 6ix npoocpepEL Eva !loneAo opyavwo"f)C; -r1je; ev 'tjj YEveoEL 'Yje; EUpLoxo!leV"f)e; xam,aALo,LX1je; emxdp"f)o"f)e;.

• '0 xam,aALO!lOe;, axpL[3wc; xal XUpLWe;, YEwiX,w xal avan,uooE,m OE !lLex xorvcovio., onou i] ouyxPOUO"f) dvaL ~3"f) an' ,~v apxYI ~apouoa -napouoa enio"f)C; dvm, xal El3Lxo,Epa, i] a!lCPLo[31]'"f)O"f) ,1jc; Xa6EO'"f)xuiac; ,aSEwc;. 'Evw eXo"f)AwVE,aL o,~v apx:Yl we; xiv"f)!la ,1jc; npw,oao,Lx1je; ,aSEwc; !lE o,OXo ,~v aVEsap'"f)oia ,WV aa-rLXWV XOLVO-r'ij,WV, i] a!lcpLo[31]'"f)O"f) ao-ri'j 'tEAL xix 6ex [3pEI -ri'jv excppaa1j '"f)e; !leoa o,tc; xpa,OUOEC; ouv61jXEe; -r1je; AU'tLx1je; Eupwn"f)C;, o-ri'jv 1tpOOA"f)tj>"f)3 ,au XLV1]!la,oc; -r1jc; apxmo'"f),DC; 1tPOC; -ri'jv aO,oVO!lLa, xal 6ex avamux61j !leoa a1to,le; !l0pcpEC; ,au o"f)!lOxpa,Lxou xal epya,Lxou XLv1]!la,oc;. 'R eseALl;"f) ,au xam,aALO!lOU, E1tEL,a a1to Eva apXLxo a-raow, dVal axa,avo"f)'"f) xwptc; ao-ri'jv -ri'jv a1tocpaoLa-rLx1jC;

• ~,te; G"fJ!lanLxo,EpEe; nEpLmwoELC; (J\YYALa, raAAia, 'OAAavoLa X.M), i] yevEO"f) ,au VEW,EPOU Kpa,ouC; [3aLvEL napaAA"f)Aa !lE 'ov oX"f)!la,LO!lo 'wv vewv 'E6vwv. ALa!l°PCPwvE,m E,m !lLex e6vLx~ ocpaipa, i] o1toia, ,000 a1tD (X1totj>"f) OlXOVO!lLX~ (1tpoo,a,WO!lEVEe; e6vLXEe; xal a1tOLxLaxEe; ayopee;, xpa'LXEe; napaYYEALEC;), 000 XL a1tD (X1tOtj>"f) VO!lLX1j (tV01tOL"f)G"fJ ,WV xavovwv xat ,WV ClLxawoomwv), dvaL oumaO'Lx~ YLex '~V 1tpw'"f) cpao"f) ,1jc; eSeALS"f)e; ,au xam,aALO!lOU.

• MLex 1tOAl> O"f)!laV'tLx~ aV6pW1tOAOYLX~ !lE,aAAan 0"f)!lELWVE,W 1tAeov. To OlXOVO!lLXO XLV"f)'PO, 6eAonae; xal

32

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oYJ[ .. uxaios; eow'tq:nx~ Cx[J.qno(3'ij'tYjoYj, ~ otxoio: Cxm:'tEAe:ae: ouv8'ijx'Yj 'riic; el;eAd;Yjc; 'tOU, 7tpay[la 7tOV 8ex 8il;OU[le: xal. 7tapaxcX-rw .

<H eewprrnx~ loeoAoy{a -rijc; Xa7rl-raAla-rlxijc; OlXOV0f.1{ac;

Au'tO 7tOV 7tpO[3aAAe:'tm aYJ[lEpa WC; «ob<OVO[l~X~ ema-rYj[l'Yj» UrrYjpl;E fjaY] CxV't~Xe:L[lEVO [laxpOXpOVYjC; xal. ta07tEaW't~x'ijc; XP~'t~X'ijc;, a~a't'Yjpd aE 'toao eAax~a'tEC; axeaE~C; [lE 'tYjV 1tpay[la't~xo't'Yj'ta, Wa-re: 'to vex CxaxoAEi:'tm CxXO[l'Yj xavElc; [lasi 'tOU [lOLaSE~ Cxvaxpov~a't~xo xal CxVWcpEAO. i\AAa, 07tWC; 'to EXW fja'Yj ema'Yj[laVE~, ~ tae:oAoy~XYj oma80apo[l'Yja'Yj 'riic; e7tox'ijc; [lac; dvm 'toao [J.EyaA'Yj xai, xupiwC;, 'tex a7tO[lEtvap~a au'twv 'twv «8EWp~wv» em7tAeouv axo[l'Yj aE 'toaa auyxua[leva 7tve:U[la'ta, x~ oX~ [lOVO a'Yj[lomoypacpwv, wa'te: 'to 'law 'to yeyovoC; [laC; avayx&SE~ vex avaA&[30U[lE [l~ex 7tpoa1t&8e:~a ouvo- 1t't~x'ijc; avaxe:cpaAa~Wae:w<;.

*

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34

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H eEOPHTIKH L1EOAOrIA

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&o"XYjO"Yj &{lUVa~ xal. Zl;U{l VYjO"Yj~ 'tou VEOU xa6E:0"'tw't0~. ME:'ta a.1t0 {lLa cpaO"Yj xuoaLa~ a.1tOAoYYj'tLXYj~, ~ 1tOAmX~ OLXOVO{lLa cpopaE:L {la6Yj{la'tLxa pouxa, 1tpaY{la 1tOV 'tii~ zm'tpE1tE:L va 1tpO~aAAE:L a.l;LWo"E:L~ «zmO"'tYj{lOVLXO'tYj'tO~». 'AAAa 6 LOE:OAOYLXO~ xapax'tiipa~ 'tii~ xaLVoupyL<X~ zmO"rIj{lYj~ 1tPOOLOE:'t<XL a.1t0 ~v Z1tL{lOVYj 1tpoO"1ta6E:La 'tYj~ va 1tapOUO"LaO"E:L 'to xa6E:0"'tw~ w~ 'tau'toxpova a.va1tocpc::ux'to xal. ~EA'tLO"'tO. EUXOAa 6a 1tapa'tYjpouo"E: xavE:l.~ O'tL ~ (lLa 1) ~ &AAYj a.1t0 au'tE~ 'tl.~ a.PE:'tE~ 6a ~'tav a.PXE:'t~ - O'tL O{lW~ 'to a.va1tocpE:ux'to 1tapouO"LaSE:'t<XL O"uYXpovw~ xed w~ ~EA'tLo"'tO, OEV {l1tOPE:L 1tapa vo: XLV~o"E:L U1tO~LE:~. To {lOVO 1tOV 6a 1tpoO"1ta6~0"0u{lE: zow, dv<XL vix pLl;ou{lE: cpw~ O"E {lE:pLXa ~aO"Lxa aLrIj{la'ta aU'tii~ 'tii~ LOE:OAoYLa~ xal. va a.1toodl;oU{lE: d'tE: O'tL dv<XL XE:V~, d'tE: O'tL dvaL h'to~ 1tpaY{la'tLxo'tYj'tO~ .

'H LOEa 1tOV U1tEPXE:L't<XL OAWV 'tWV &AAWV dvaL ~ tOEa 'tou otaxwptO"/.wv 1tOV 60YjYE:L cnov br:1 uepoi»; xaraAoytouo . ~'t~v 1tpaY{la'tLxo'tYj'ta O{lW~, 6 OtXOVO{lLXO~ U1tOxwpo~, 01tW~ xal. oAm ol XOLVwVLXOl. U1t0XWPOL, OEV dvaL ou'tE: oLaxpL'to~ oirrs O"uVE:xil~, ov'ta~ au'tovoYj'to O'tL au'tol. ol ({la6Yj{la'tLxol.) opm XPYjO"L{lo1towun<XL zow {lE:'tacpopLxa. ~XE:'tLxa {lE 'tl.~ OtXOVO{lLXE~ 'tou opaO"'tYjpL6tYj'tE:~, 'to- 0"0 Eva &'to{l0, 00"0 xal. {lLa zmxdpYjO"Yj dvaL ~E~<XLa ouvccrov vix zmO"Yj{lav60uv, vix xa'tovo{la0"60uv w~ l;E:XWPLO"'tE~ ono'tYj'tE:~, a.AAa ~ opaO"'tYjpLo'tYj'ta 'tou~, 6E:wpou{lE:VYj O"'to O"UVOAO 'tYj~, Z{l1tAEXE:'t<XL oLapxw~ {lE ~v opaO"'tYjpLo'tYj'ta tvo~ a.xa60pLO"'tou a.pL6{loU &AAWV a.'tO{lWV xal. ZmXE:Lp~o"E:WV, xa'ta 1tOAAa1tAOV~ 'tp01tOU~, ol 61tOLm OEV

dvaL aUO"'tYjpa oLaXWpLO"L{lm. MLa zmxdpYjO"Yj 1taLpVE:L a.1tocpao"E:L~ O"E O"uvap'tYjO"Yj {lE Eva «YE:VLXO XAL{la 'tii~ xmvii~ yvw{lYj~», ol OE a.1tocpao"E:L~ 't'fj~, LOLW~ (Xv 1tPOXE:L't<XL YLa O"Yj{lav'tLx~ zmxdpYjO"Yj, 6a a.AAmwO"ouv au'to 'to YE:VLXO XAL{la. at opaO"'t'YJPLo'tYj'tE~ 'tYj~, xwpl.~ va 'to 6EAE:L 1) xal. va 'to YVWPLSE:L, 6a xa'taO"'t~o"ouv 't~ SW~ xal. 't~ opaO"'tYjpLO'tYj'ta 'tWV &AAWV ZmXE:Lp~o"E:WV mo E:UXOAE:~ (Zl;W'tE:PLXE~ OLXOVO{lLE:~) 1) mo OUo"XOAE:~ (4PVYj'tLXE~ zl;w'tE:PLXE~ OLXOVO{lLE:~) xal. (lE ~ o"E:Lpa 'tYj~ ~ zmxdpYjO"Yj 6a U1toO"-rij 'ta 6E:'tLxa 1) a.pVYj'tLxa a.1tO'tE:AEO"{la'ta 'tWV 1tpal;E:eov &AAWV ZmXE:Lp~o"E:WV xal. &AAWV 1tapayonwv -rij~ xorVWVLxii~ swii~. '0 xa'taAOYLO"{lO~ tvo~ OLXOVO{lLXOU a.1t0- 'tE:AEO"{la'tO~ O"E {lLa zmxdpYjO"Yj dv<XL xa6apa O"U{l~a'tLXOC; xal. aU6aLpE:'t0~, a.xoAou6d 'ta ouvop« 1tOV xapao"o"E:L 6 VO{lO~ (a.'tO{lLX~ LOwx'tYjO"La), ~ O"u{l~aO"Yj 1) ~ O"uv1j6E:La. 'El; 'CO"ou aU6aLpE:'t0~ dv<XL 6 xa'taAoYLO"{lO~ 'tOU 1tapaywYLXOU a.1tO'tE:AEO"{la'to~ O"'tOV Eva 1) crtov &AAO 1tapayona -rij~ 1tapaywyYj~, 'to «XE:cpaAaw» 1) 't~v «zpyaO"La». KE:cpaA<XLO ({lE 't~v Evvma 'tWV 1tapayo{lEvwV (lEo"WV 1tapaywyYj~) xal. zpyao"La, O"U{l~aAAOUv 0"'t0 1tapaywYLxo a.1tO'tEAE:a{la, xwpl.~ va {l1tOpOU{lE:, ZX'tO~ 'Lo"W~ a.1t0 'tl.~ mo 'tE:'tPL{l{lEVE:~ 1tE:pm'two"E:L~, 1tpay{la 1tOV xal. au'to dvaL a.{lcpL~OAo, va l;E:XWPLO"OU{lE: ~ O"U{l~OA~ 'tou xa6E:vo~. To 'LOLO LO"XUE:L 0"'t0 ZO"W'tE:PLXO tvo~ zpyoO"'taO"Lou a.va{lE:O"a O"'tov~ oLacpopou~ 'to{lE:L~ xal. 'ta 't{l~{la'ta 1tapaywyYj~. Kal. 'to 'COLO LO"XUE:L YLa 'to «a.1tO'tEAE:O"{la 'tii~ zpyao"La~» 'tou xa6E: a.'tO{lou. KavEva~ OEV 6a {l1tOpOUo"E: va XaVE:L au'to 1tOV XaVE:lXwpl.~ 't~ O"UvEpYE:La -rij~ xmVWVLa~, O"'t~V

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10. L'Yj[ldwva ~i5'Yj (11:0 xd[levo [lou "wu 1974 (It. a., CTfj[l. 2) 7tWe;

ol ll7teUOUVm ,~e; «7tOAmX~e; ,~e; avu7t,us'Yje;» o:px~sav va xn,avoouv (h~ ,a«e[l7toi5~a a,Yjv avu7t,us'Yj» ~aav 7tOAU ~aOu,epa a7to 'tYjv ItAAe~\j>'Yj xecpaAaLou ~ -cexv~x~e; eSe~i5Lxwa'Y]e;. Toirro xa,axwpLaO'Yjxe ae: e7tLa'Y][lee; da'Yjy-ljae~e; ,~e; IIayxoa[l~ae; Tpu7tesae; 7t·X·, xwple; O[lwe; va e7t'Yjpeuae~ ,oue; «Oewp'Yj,~xoue; OlXOVO[lOAoyoUe;». 'AAAwa,e, axo[l'Yj xal «ao~apol» 7tOA~,~xoll)7teUOUVm esaxoAouOOUV vo: aVaXaAI)7t,OUV 'tYj LeA-Ijv'Yj. Le: [l~a 7tpoacpa,'Yj 6[l~ALa ,OU, 6 M. Alan Greenspan, 7tpoei5poe; ,ou Federal Reserve Board, 7tpot~aAe ,Yjv li5ta o,~ ~ daaywyYj ,ou xam,aA~a[lOu ~,av ai5uva,'Yj ae: [l~a xwpa, eav i5e:v dXav 7tpo'Y]yoU[ltvwe; esaacpaAwO~ 6p~a[ltvee; «7tOAma[l~xe:e;». 7tpo[)7toOtae~e;. '0 William Pfaf, International Herald Tribune ,~e; 14'Yje; 'IOUALOU 1997, a. 8, 7tapaOt,e~ a7toa7tua[la,a a7to ,Yjv O:VW 6[l~ALa, AtyoV"Cae; o,~ [le-ca ,0 1989 (!) avexuAu\j>e 7tWe; «7tOAAa 7tpuy[la,a 7tOU Oewpouaa[le we; alHovo'Y],a a,o i5~xo [lae; aua''Yj[la ,~e; tAeuOep'Yje; ayopiie; xal we; aU[lcplHa [le: -cYjv avOpwmv'Yj cpua'Yj, i5e:v av~xav xa6oAou a,Yjv avOpwmv'Yj cpua'Y]. aAAa o-cov 7tOAma[lo. 'H esupOpwa'Yj ,ou xevrptxoii 7tpoypa[l[la,~a[lou ae: [l~a OlXOV0[lLa i5e:v eyxaO~i5pue~ alHO[la,a, 07tWe; 6p~a[ltvm ll7ttOe,av» Evav xam,aA~a[lo -riie; ayopiie;.

ou 'ta op~a dva~ OUYXExu(.Lsva. 'R Lasa 'too Ot'tOlHXOO 7tpo'iov'toe; dva~ (.Lia xAYlpovoll~a 'tYje; VOIl~'XYje; oU(.Lf3aOYl9 6S0(.LLOYle; "t'Yje; 7tp&YtYle; Eyxa6iapuoYle; "t'Yje; «Ot'tO(.L~xYje; tawx'tYloiae;» E7tl 'too EaacpOUe;. Al.l"t'Ze; ol tosEe;. 'too a~axwp~O(.Loo EV ySVE~ xal 'tYje; ouva'to'tYl'toe; E7tl (.LspOUe; xa'taAoy~olloo Eto~xo'tEpa, dvm ol mw7tYlpZe; 7tpOO7t06S0E~e; 'twv aL'tYl(.La'twv "t'Yje; otxoVO(.L~xYje; 6Ewpiae;.

To 7tpw'to Ot7tO 'ta at1:~(.La'ta au'ta, PYl'to l) l)7tOPPYl'to, OtXO(.LYl xal U7tO (.LE1:p~CXO(.LSVEe; (.LO pcp se; , dvcx~ 'to cxhYl(.Lcx Op60AOY~X01:Yl1:0e; 1:00 homo oeconomicus , 7tOU azv Otcpopii (.Lovo ma (ho(.Lcx, OtAAa xcxl 01:0Ue; opycxv~O(.LOue; (EmXE~p1jOE~e;, Kpa'toe; -7tCXP' OAO 7tOU 'to Kpa'toe; xcx'ta 7tEpiEPyo 'tp07tO cpcxivE'tm va ~EcpEUyE~ Ot7tO 'to cxhYl(.La "t'Yje; op60- AoY~XO'tYl'toe; 7tOU OYj6EV xcxpax'tYlpi£;;E~ OAOUe; 'toue; (iAAoue; OUV"t'EAW'tZe; "t'Yje; otxoVO(.L~xYje; £;;wYje;, o~o't~ 7tpocpcxvwe; a~cx'tcxpaooE'tm Ot7tO 7tOAmXOUe; 7tCXpayoV"t'Ee;). To yqovoe; (h~ cxu'ta 'ta oUAAoy~xa OW(.Lcx'tcx OtVCX7t'tuooouv a~acpopEe; (.LOpcpze; OU(.L7tEp~cpopiie;, «Op6oAoy~O(.LOue;» xcxl xupiwe; OtVOp60Aoy~O(.LOUe;, azv Ot7tcxoxoAEI 'toue; 6EWPYl't~Xoue; U7tZP 'to asov. Au'toe; a olxovojuxoc (iv6pw7toe; dvm e:vae; (iv6pw7toe; Ot7tOXAE~O't~XWe; xcxl 7tA~pWe; U7tOAoy~O't~e;. 'R OU(.L7tEp~cpopa 'tou dvm Otxp~[3we; ~ OUIl7tEp~cpopa tvoe; ~AEX'tpOV~xoo l)7tOAOy~O'tYj, a ()7toloe; Otva 7tiioav o't~y(.LYj (.LEy~o'to7tmd/EAcxx~o'to7tmd 'tex Ot7tO'tEAEO(.LCX'tCX 'twv EVEPYE~WV 'tou. EUXOACX 6a (.L7tOpOUOCX(.LE vc: XaVOU(.LE 'tov Otvcxyvwo'tYl va yEAaoE~, &v OtVCX7t'tUOOCX(.LE 'tle; CXUO'tYlpze; ouvt7tE~Ee; 'tYje; apCXO'tYlp~O'tYl'toe; CXU1:00 'too 7tACXO(.LCX't~xoO DV'tOe;. 'Av rov 7tcxpOUma£;;a(.LE A.X. 'tov 'Cow xa6E 7tPWL,

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38

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H eEQPHTIKH ILlEOAOrIA

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ex(.Ltaw~ (.Le:'ta 'to SU-nvYj(.LcX 'tOU, exAAa rrptv aYjXWeYj ex1t' 'to Xpe:~cX't~ 'tOU, va EmaX01te:I, xwpi~ vo: 'to stpe:~, 'ta o~ae:xcx'to(.L(.LUp~CX 'twv ouvcx'toTIj'twv 1tOU 'tOU rcpoorpepovroa y~a vo: (.Le:y~a't01to~~ae:~ 'tl~ aptaxe:~e:~ ~ va EAcxx~a'tOTco~~ae:~ 'tl~ a1tcxptaxe:~e:~ 1tOU ea 'tOU cptpe:~ ~ ~(.Ltpcx 'tOU 1tOU exPXa;e:l, va O'tCXe(.Lit;e:l 'tou~ auvoucxa(.Lou~ 'tOU~ xcxl vo: aYjXWVe:'tCXL, ex1t' 'to Xpe:~cX'tl 'tou, E'tOL(.LO~ 1tcXncx va exvcxee:wp~ae:l 'to aU(.L1ttpcxa(.Lcx 'twv l>1tOAOyW(.LWV 'tou l>1tO 'to cpw~ xcXee: xmvoupYlCX~ 1tAYJPocpopicx~ 1tOU otxe:'tm. "01tW~ ~ auvoAlx~ CX1to4>YJ 1tOU EXOUV Yla 'to xcxm'tcxA~a't~xo auO'tYJ(.LCX 01. cmoAoYYJ'tt~ 'tou cpcxi~e:'tm vix exyvoe:I 't~v I.a'topicx, 't~v EevoAoyicx xcxl 't~v XOLvwvwAOyicx, E'tOL xcxl cxu'to 'to cx'C'tYj(.LCX etAe:L va exyvoe:i: 't~v 4>uxoAoyicx xcxl 't~v 4>UXcxvcXAuaYj, xcxew~ xcxl ~v XOLvwvWAoyicx 'twv O(.LcXOWV xcxl 'twv opycxvwae:wv. Kcxve:l~ OZV Ae:L'tOUpye:i: 'toao OpeOAOYlXcX, 1tpoa1tCXewncx~ auve:xw~ va (.Le:y~a't01tOLe:i:/EAcxXla't01tO~e:i: 'tl~ «xpYjaL(.Lo'tYj'te:~ xcxl (.L~ :x.PYjOL(.LO'tYj'tt~» 'tOU, 'ta xtpoYj xcxl 'ta xoa'tYj 'tOU, xcxl xcxvd~ ozv ea (.L1topouae: vo: 'to rce'tUXe:L. Kcxve:l~ XCX'tCXVCXAW~~ OEv yvwpit;e:L 'to auvoAo 'twv E(.L 1tOpw(.LcX'twv 1tOU ~piaxoV'tcxL a't~v ayopcX, 'ta 1tAe:OVe:x't~(.Lcx'tcx xcxl 'ta EACX't'tW(.LCX'tcX 'tou~, xcxl xcxve:l~ ozv ea (.L1topouae: va 'ta YVWpiSe:L. Kcxl xcxve:l~ OZV OOYjye:i:'tm a~v a1tocpcx~ 'tOU a1tOXAe:lO'tlxa a1tO O,'tL ee:wpe:i: XpYjOL(.LO ~ WcptAL(.LO 1tpoawmxcX - ocpdAe:L vo: EmAtSe:~ (.Ltacx a'to 1tPOOL'tO YL' cxu'tov 1te:PL~cXAAOV, E1tYJPe:cXt;e:'tm ex1tO ~v OLCXcpYj(.LLaYJ, 01. «1tpO'tL(.LYjae:~~» 'tOU exV'tCXVCXXAOUV EVcx 1tAYjeO~ XOLVWV~xwv Emppowv, Aiyo w~ 1tOAU 'tuxcxiwv a1to «oixoVO(.L~x~» CX1t04>Yj. To 'Low Laxue:~ ES'Laou xcxl y~a 'tl~ ex1tO-

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To cxhYj(.Lcx ES CXAAOU 'tYj~ (.LCXeYj(.Lcx't~xo1tohla'Yj~ e:Lvm 1tpocpcxvw~ o(.Loouaw (.Lz ~v «OpeOAOYLX01toiYjaYj», voou(.Le:vYj a1tOxAe:La'tLxa w~ 1tOao'tLxYj. Ta EYXe:LPlO~CX xcxl 'ta xe:t(.Le:vcx 1tOAmxYj~ oLxovo(.Licx~ ~pLeouv Eswwae:wv xcxl ypCXcpLXWV 1tcxpcxa'tcXae:wv 1tOU axe:oov 1tcXv'tcx a'te:pouv'tCXL vo1j(.Lcx'to~, tx'to~ 'Caw~ w~ a'tOLxe:~wOe:L~ aaxYjae:L~ o~cxcpopLXOU AOYLa(.LoU ~ ypCX(.L(.L~xYj~ cxAye:~pCX~. Au~ ~ EAAe:L4>Yj vo1j(.Lcx'to~ EXe:L 1tOAAZ~ cxhie:~ :

• 'H (.LCXeYj(.LCX'tLX01tOlYjaYj e:Lvm oUOLcxa'tLxa 1tOao'tLx1j (exAye:~PLXO-OLCXCPOp~XYj). 'H 1tpCXy(.LCX'tLX~ O(.Lw~ oixovout« 1tCXPOUOLcXSe:L 'to 1tCXPcXOOSo O'tL ~ptee:L E1ttaYj~ 1toaoTIj'twv 1tOU (.Lovo a'toLxe:LWOYj (.LCXeYj(.LCX'tLXO xe:~p~a(.Lo EmotxoV'tm. 'l1tcXPXOUV ~t~cxLCX 01. CPUOLXZ~ 1toao'tYj'te:~ 1tOU e:LVCXL, w~ yvwa'tov, E'te:pOye:ve:i:~. Azv (.L1tOPOUv va 1tpoa'te:eouv xcxl va acpmpe:eouv, EX'tO~ xcxl (Xv 1tpoxe:~'tm cxua't'YlPw~ YLa 'to 'Cow 1tpiiy(.Lcx. C~zv (.L~AW y~a 'tou~ l)1tOAoy~a(.Lou~ 'tou (.LYjxcxv~xou.) Bt~cx~cx aepotr;oncx~ a~v ayopcX, ~ a'tou~ 1tt-

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EX'tL(.L~OEL~ "tWV aya8wv 7tOV 'to a7tap"tLSouV oe: 'tL(.Le:~ ayopa~ (.L7tOPOUV va aAAa~ouv a7to -rYj (.LLa (.LEpa o'tYjv (xAAYj, avaAoya (.LE 't~v xa'tcXO'taoYj 't"Yj~ S~'tYjoYj~ xa!. 't!.~ 7tpOOOOXLE~ XEpOOU~. 'E7tL7tAEov, 01. 'tEXVLXe:e; ECPWpe:OEL~ 7tOU 7tapE(.L[3aLvouv OUVEXWe; 'tP07t07tOLOUV o'ta8Epa. 'tYjv «a~Ca» 'tWV o"tOLXdwv 7tOU 'to OUV8E'tOUV (xmvoupYLE~ (.LYjxave:~ (.L7tOPOUV va a7tOAEOOUV 'tYjv a~La "tOU~, (Xv (xAAE~ a7tO'tEAEo(.La'tLxo"tEPE~ E(.LcpavLo'touV o'tYjv ayopa)' 01. aAAaye:~ o"t!.~ «7tPo"!L(.L~OEL~» "tOU XOLVOU, oYjAao~ 01. ACyo w~ 7tOAU oLapxEi:~ 'tp07t07tOL~OEL~ 't~~ 00{J.~~ "t~~ S~'tYjoYj~, "tP07t07tOWUV E7tLOYj~ 'tYjv «a~La» au'twv 'tWV o'tOLXdwv. Au'to oe:v E(.L7tOOLSEL "ta. EYXELpCoLa 't"Yj~ 7toAmx"Yj~ oixovo(.LLa~, axo(.LYj xaL 'ta. Bpa[3ELa NO(.L7tEA, vix O(.LLAouv ouVEXW~ YLa. «ouvap"t~oEL~ 7tapaywn~» xaL vo: CPLAovELXOUV YLa. 'tYjv xa'taAAYjAO'tEPYJ (.La8Yj(.La'tLx~ 'tOU~ (.LOpCp~.

• 'H 7tOAL'tLxYj oLXOVO(.LLa (.LLAa OUVEXW~ YLa. 'to «xEcpaAaw» we; ouV'tEAEO'tYj 't~~ 7tapaywn~, EvvowV'ta~ (.Le: au'to 'to ouvoAo 'tWV 7tapaYO(.LEVWV (.Le:owv 7tapaywn~. To ouvoAo O(.Lwe; au'to OEv dvm 7tpay(.La'tL (.LE'tPl1aL(.LO, YLa. 7tOAAOU~ Myou~ : ~ OUV8Ea1] -rou dvm E'tEpOYEVl1e;, 01.

• 'E~ aAAou, anLxEL(.LEVO 'tou oLacpopLxoU AOyLO(.LOU dvaL (.LEye:8Yj oUVExYi, EV anL8EoEL (.Le: "tL~ oLXOVO(.LLXe:~ 7t0- OO'tYj'tEe; 7tOU dvm oLaxpL"te:~ (E'i-rE 't!.~ EVVOOU(.LE o'tYj «cpuCJLXl1» 'tou~ xa'tcXo"taoYj, d 'tE EX'tL(.LC;)v'ta~ 'tE~ oe 'tPEXOUOE~ "tL(.Le:~). at 7tapaywyoL xaL 01. oLacpopLxe:~ 7tOV YE(.LLSOUV "ta. OLXOVO(.LLXa. Xd(.LEva a7to'tEAouv YEAOL07tOLYjoYj 'twv (.La8Yj(.La"tLxwv. "OAE~ 01. «opLaxe:~» xa(.L7tUAEe; -YLa. 'to xoo-roc, YLa. 'tYjv «XPYjaL(.Lo'tYj'ta» X .A7t.- O'tEpouV'taL a11:oAlhw~ vol1(.La'to~. Elvm aA118ELa O'tL 'to '{OLO Sl1"tYJ(.La apxYi~ E(.LcpavLSE'taL o'tYjv x[3aV'tLxYj CPUOLXl1, 011:0U XPYjaL(.Lo- 7tOLEL'tm 0 oLacpopLxo~ AOYLo(.LO~, EVW 'ta. cpaLvo(.LEva EXOUV m8avw~ (.LLa. U7tO-Xd(.LEVYj oLaxEXpL(.LEVYj 00(.L11. 'H

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axpt[3w~, 7tOV 1:'L7t01:'E ae:v atOtOcpOtALSEt o"n Orx. dvm opot~. IIpooawp£sE1:'m .tAo~ a7to 'rijv 1:'OtstxYJ XOtl ES '(OOU a7tpo[3AE7t."1] OU(.l7tEptcpOprx. .Wv EpyOtsO[ltvwv (~ 1:'ao"1] .OU~ ytrx. aLEXatx-IjOEL~ E7tl 7tOtpOtadY(.lOt1:'t, XOtl ~ aUVOt1:'01:'"1]1:'Ot vo: 1:'l~ 7tE.UXOUV, U7tOXEt.Ott oe: 7tOtpayonE~ cJ;UxoAoytXOU~, 7t0- Amxov~ x .A7t.) .

11. «Notes on the economics of technical progress», (no The Rate of Interest and Other Essays, 1951, a. 56: «If future innovation were foreseen in full detail it would begin to be made at once ... » To emxdp"lJfla aU1:o auvav1:ihm xal ae: ua1:e:p(S"i:e:pa Xe:Lfle:va 1:0U Karl Popper, mxAt yta. va. (5e:L1;e:t 1:0 cmp6f3Ae:mo 1:ijc; 1:e:XVtxijc; TIpo6(5ou.

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a"t"aaE~~ (.J.CXS~x1j~ aVEpyicx~ W~ xcx"t"CXa"t"aaE~~ Laoppo7tiCX~ xcx"t"a "t"0 (.J.iiAAOV Yj ~TIOV txcxV07tOnJ"t"~xE~, ESYjyWV"t"CX~ o"t"~ ol eXvEpym Epya"t"E~ dxcxv aTYjv 7tpcxy(.J.cx"t"~xo"t"Yj"t"cx «a7toaup81j a7tO "t"1jv ayopa», <5~0"t"~ apvouV"t"cxv (.J.~a EAax~a"t"Yj (.J.EiwaYj "t"wv ~(.J.Epo(.J.~a8iwv "t"ou~ 7tpOXE~(.J.EVOU va [3pouv a7tcxaxoAYjaYj. (Mno "t"0 d<5o~ avoYjalwv LaxuE~ 7tA1jpw~ xcxl a1j(.J.Epcx, O"t"cxv l>7tomYjpisE"t"CX~ o"t"~ ~ aVEpYLcx a"t"Y)v E UPW7tYj 8a (.J.7tOpOUaE vo. a7toppocpYj81j, (:Xv ~ «rrpocoop« Epycxaicx~» y~vo"t"cxv mo «EUXCX(.J.7t"t"Yj», (:Xv <5YjAcx<51j ol Epya"t"E~ E<5EXOV"t"0 (.J.E~waE~~ "t"WV ~(.J.Epo(.J.~a8iwv "t"OU~ xcxl eXAAWV 7tAEOVEx"t"Yj(.J.a"t"wv.) "o(.J.w~ ~ (.J.ov~(.J.Yj xcx"t"amcxaYj "t"1j~ xcxm"t"CXA~a"t"~x1j~ oLxovo(.J.icx~ dvcx~ (.J.~a <5~cx<5ox1j (.J.E"t"CX[3cxAAO(.J.EVWV av~aoppomwv, 7tpiiy(.J.cx 7tOU EXE~ w~ a7to"t"EAEa(.J.cx acp' EVO~ vix xcx8~a"t"ii "t"uxcxicx TYjv Ex[3cxaYj "t"WV 7tpoa<5ox~wv, xcxl acp' hEPOU vix <5Yj(.J.wupYEi aTYjv Examo"t"E l>7tarxouacx <50(.J.1j, roco "t"OU «XECPCXACXiou» oao xcxl 'rii~ s1j"t"YjaYJ~, 7tAYj- 8wpcx «a7toA~8w(.J.a"t"wv» (Joan Robinson).

<H gyepyoe; npavuatixorqta rife; Xa7!lraAlorlXije; oixovouico;

«To i;~T'T]fJ.a dvaG », elne ~ }U{X'T]. «av fJ.1WPE:iTE: va XtXvE:TE: T1c; Ati;E:Gc; va onpatvoov tooa 8GarpopE:",xa 7r:paYfJ.aTa».

«To i;~T'T]fJ.a elvai», a7r:aVT'T]aE: 6 XafJ.7r:TU NTafJ.7r:TU, «7r:OGOC; Oa elvat TO arpE:v",xo, ailTl) dvaG OM ».12

E 7tl 7tapcx 7tOAU XPOVO, ~ VECX «OLXOVO(.J.~x1j Ema"t"1j(.J.Yj» a7tcxaxoA1j8YjXE (.J.OVO (.J.E: 7tCXpaYOV"t"E~ 7tOU xrx- 80PLSOUV "t"l~ "t"~(.J.E:~ "t"WV btL (.J.EpOU~ E(.J.7tOpEU(.J.a"t"wv, U7tO auv81jxE~ a"t"cx"t"~x1j~ «Laopp07tLCX~». Ol OLXOVO(.J.oAoym 7tLa"t"EUcxv, Yj ExCXVCXV 7tW~ 7tLa"t"EUcxv, O"t"~ ol '(<5w~ 7tCXpayoV"t"E~ 7tOU 7tpoa<5wpLSouV "t"1jv "t"~(.J.1j EVO~ «L<5CXV~xoii» E(.J.7tOPEU(.J.CX"t"O~, U7tO «L<5CXV~XE:~» auv81jxE~ ("t"EAEW~ aV"t"cxywv~a(.J.o~ X.A7t.) 7tpoa<5~op~scxv 7tEPL7tOU OAE~ "t"l~ "t"~(.J.E:~ (au(.J.7tEp~ACX(.J.[3cxVO(.J.EVYj~ 'rii~ «"t"~(.J.1j~ 'rii~ EpycxaLcx~»

12. ~:-t:o 1tpw-ro-rU1to: «which is to be master», ''AAAa xwp(a -r'ijc; :AA(X"IlC; 3dxvouv O-rL 6 ouyypacpeac;, oe eXcppaoEtC; au-rou -rou -ru- 1tOU, XP"llaL[.101tOLEL EvaAAaS xat &3Lacpopwc; -rouC; opOUC; which (<<1tOLOC; ex -rwv 3vo») xat who (<<1tOLOC;>;): 1t .X' o-ro -rEAEU-r()(LO XEcpaA()(LO -rou Through the Looking-Glass, f3PLOXOU[lE «which dreamed it?» xat «who it was that dreamed it all».

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H ENEPrOE nPArMATIKOTHTA

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xed. "t'Yje; «"tL[l'Yje; "tOU XEcpaAa(ou»), rtou [lE "t~ aELpa "toue; npoachopLsav xaOE "tL "to a'Yj[laV"tLXO a~v olxovoutce: ~V aUVOALX~ iooppomtx "t'Yje;, "t~V OLaVO[l~ "tOU EOVLXOU clooo1j[l(X"toe;, "t~V xa"taVO[lYj "tWV napaYO[lEVWV rtopcov a"tle; OLacpopEe; xa"t'YjYOp(Ee; XP'Yja"tWV xal xp1ja'Yje;, xal --<;1j"t'Yj[la ttoi» 1tlXpe[lEVS oe !J.LCt VSCPSAWO'Yj aopw"t(a- ~V !J.W<pOnpoOEa!J.Yl E~EAL~'Yj. "OAO au"to OCPELAE, !J.E !J.LXpEe; OLapOWaELe;, va npoxut»EL ano "tle; Xa[lnUAEe; xoo-rouc xal "tWV apLaxwv XP'YjaL[lO"t1j"tWV, yLCt "tle; anolEe; OCt urropoiioe vo: anOOELX0'Yj, aXEOOV !J.E "to as'Yj!J.(w"tO, O"tL OLaa"taupwvovrov 1taVTOTE oe apLaTa a'Yj[lsIa «iaoppon(ae;». To YEyovoe; on "to OE[lEALWOEe; xapax"t'Yjpw"tLXO "tou xamTaALa[lou e:tvaL ~ ap[l'Yj"tLx~ xal ~(aL'Yj avaa"ta"twa'Yj "t'Yje; olxovO[l(ae; xal TYje; xOLvwv(ae;, 1tpay[la nou G'Yj[la(vEL aOLaxo- 1t'Yj ava1tapaywn aauvEXELWV, oe:v cpa(vETaL va TOUe; o'Yj[lwupyouaE au1tv(se;.

Ol a'Yj[lEpLVol axao'Yj[ldixol otxoVO[lOAOyOL E:~aXOAOuOouv vo: uno"tovOopusouv "tov '(OLaV aiho oxorro , sotto voce nAEov, aAACt xavEvae; OEV cpa(vE"taL ma va "tov 1talpVEL a"tCt ao~apa. AacpaAWe; -roirro ocpdAE"taL o-ro OTL TO nAaa[la "tOU "tEAELOU aV"taywVLa[lOU, xaOapou xat "tEAELou Yj "tEAdwe; TEAELOU, oLaMO'YjxE oo» xanvoe; -OCt E1taVEAOW a' aUTD 1tapaxa"tw - xal a"tD O"tL, axo[la xal a"tCt xap"tLa, e:tVaL aouvaTOV va 1tEpaaOU[lE anD ~v 1tpaY[la"tLxo"t'Yj"ta "twv oALyonwALaxwv ayopwv ae: YEVLXe:e; «loopponlEe;», xWple; va apLa"tonOL1jaOu[lE "tCt xepo'Yj "tWV OALYOnWAlWV ll, axpL~Ea"tEpa, TWV cpaTpLWV 1tOU "tCt OLWOUvouv. Kal E1tl 1tAeOV, ~ ElIEPYO; 1tayxOa[lLOnOl'YjG'Yj "tYje;

Xa1tL"taALanxYje; napaywy'Yje;, !J.E "tle; xOAoaawiEe; OLacpOpEe; "tWV auvO'Yjxwv 1tapaywyYje; 1tOU E[lcpaVlSEL, [lE"ta~u "tWV a1tD [laxpou EX~W[l'YjxaVLa[lEVWV xal "tWV llO'Yj «avoOUO[levwv» XwpWV, xaOLa"ta anAoua"ta"ta YEAolo xaOE aY-r'Yj[la a[lOLoyEVEWe;. e:a"tw xal xa"tCt npoaeYYLaLV, "tWV «auVTEAEa"tWV 1tapaywyYje;» aE 1tAaV'YjTLx~ XAl[laxa.

na ~V «XAaaaLX~» cpaa'Yj "tou Xa1tL"taALa[lOU, ll"tOL nEplnou [lEXPL "to 1975, "tpEle; a[laoEe; 1tpO~A'Yj[la"twv E"tlOEV"tO aE xaOE otXOVO[lLXYj avaAua'Yj 1tOU OCt llOEAEva xpa"t'ijaEL [lLCt ao~apo"t'Yj"ta aXE"tLXCt [lE "t~v npay[la"tLxo"t'Yj"ta xal [lE "tle; Ot»ELe; TYje; otxovO[llae; - "tlC; a'Yj[lalvOUaEe; Ot»ELe;. "toao YLCt ~V xa"tamaa'Yj, oao xal YLa "tYjv E~EAL~'Yj "t'Yje; xOLvwvlae;. T~v npWT'Yj a[laoa "t~V opLaE [lE [lEyaA'Yj aacp1jvELa a Ricardo xal "t~v EnE~Epyam'YjxE Ex VEOU a Marx. IIpoXELTaL yLCt "t~ oLaVO[lYj "tou XOLVWVLXOU npo'iovroc (<<EOVLXO daoo'Yj[la»). 'E1tYjpEaSEL Ev"tova ~v xa"tavO[lYj "tWV reopcov aVa[lEaa mle; oLacpopEe; xa"t'YjyoplEe; (<<"to[lEle;») TYje; napaywyYje;. 'H OEU"tEP'Yj acpopii a~ aXEoYj [lE"ta~u oLaeEal[lwV 1tapaywYLxwV 1tOpWV (<<xEcpaAaw» xal Epyaa(a) xal TYje; npay[laTLXYje; XOLVWVLXYje; s1j"t'Yja'Yje;, aXEa'Yj, a1tD ~v a1tOla E~ap"taTaL ~ nA1jp'Yje; a1taaxoA'Yja'Yj Yj ~ unoanaaxoA'Yja'Yj aUTwv TWV rtopcov. ~UVOEE"taL a"tEvCt [le: TYjV "tPl"t'Yj, 1tOU avacpEpE"taL a"tYjv E~EAL~'Yj TYje; otxovo[llae;, o'YjAao~ TIjv npay[laTLx~ Yj E1tLOU[l'Yj"t~ aU~'Yja'Yj TYje; napaywyYje;. Ol "tpEle; a[laoEe; ~plaxov"taL aE a"tEv~ E1tLXOLVWVla, OLO"tL, napaody[la"toe; xapLV, ~ oLaVO[l~ "tou daoo1j[la"toe; e:tvaL a xupwe; 1tapaywv rrou pue[llSEL "t~V xa"taVO[l~ "tWV rtopcov, xal au"t1j, [lE "t~ aEtpa

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H «OP00AOrIKOTHTA» TOY KAIIITAAIEMOY

H ENEPrOI: IIPArMATIKOTHTA

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"t'YjS, 7t()(a;;ct obouxcnixi» POAO "t'oao a"t'1jv 7tOao"t'Yj"t'()( boo X()(L o-ro 7tcpte:XO(le:VO "t'YjS E7tEv(50G'Y1S, X()(L WS EX "t'olhoo O"t'LS (le:AAOV"t'LXES E~e:AL~e:tS "t'YjS otxOVO(lL()(S·

')\v 7t()(P()(~AEq;OO(le: "t'lS Ae:7t"t'O(lEpe:te:S, "t'LS 7te:pWptO"t'tXES aov8Yjxe:S X()(L "t'LS d(5LXES 7te:pm"t'wae:LS X()(L <Xv, aE ev()( 7tpw'Co a'Co:(5w, (5EV aOV07tOAoy[aOO(lc "t'OV 7t()(PO:YoV"t'()( "t'ou E~W"t'e:PLXOU E(l7tOPLOO (7t .x. 8e:wpwV"t'()(S (lLa rtrxyxOa(lL()( oixovout« x()(8' l.l7to8e:CiLV 7te:PL7tOO O(lowye:vYj), ~ lmO:V"t'YjaYj a' oirio: "t'a EPWTIJ(l()("t'()( dV()(L EX7tAYjx"t'Lxa tX7tAYj. 'H (5L()(VO(l~ "t'WV dao(5Yj(lO:"t'wv (le:"t'()(~U XOLVWVLXWV "t'o:~e:wv x()(l EV aove:xe:L~ (le:"t'()(~U "t'WV XOLVWVLXWV o (lo:(5wv , E~()(p'tiX"t'()(L OUCiL()(a'tLxa ana 'tOY aoaxe:'tLa(lO 'tWV (le:'t()(~U "t'OOS (5ovO:(le:wv. AuTIj ~ (5L()(VO(l1j p08(lLSe:L aE 7tpw'tYj rrpoaEYYLaYj TIjv X()("t'()(VO(l~ 'tWV rropcov (le:'t()(~U X()('t()(vO:AwaYjS X()(L E7tEv(5oaYjS. ~E ye:VLXES ypa(l(lES, ol EPY()(SO(le:VOL (5arrovouv O,'tL Xe:p(5LsooV, ol xa'tExoV"t'e:c; xe:p(5£soov O,'tL (5a- 1taVOUV - xa'tavaALaxoov eva (lLXPO (lEPOS 'tou dao(5~(l()('toC; 't00C; xaL E7te:v(5uoov 'to (le:yaAU'te:po - ~ (5b 'to Ene:v(5uoov, 01to'te: 'to (lEPOC; au'to 'tou e:tao(5~(la'toc; E~acpavLse:'t()(L, EVW aoyxpovwC; E(lcpavLSe:'t()(L (l La xa'to:maaYj l.l7tOa1taaxoA~ae:wc;. l\no 'to a'tOLxe:Io au'to npoa(5wpLSe:"t'()(L E1tLaYjC; ~ (5LaVO(l~ "t'YjC; E1tEv(5oaYjC; (le:"t'a~u ~W(lYjxaVLWV 1tOU 7tapo:yoov x()('tavaAw"t'Lxa aya8a xat ~W(lYjxaVLWV 1tOU 1tapo:yoov (lEaa 1tapaywnc;. 'R «aOVOALx~ iooppo- 1tLa» -~ xa"t'a 7tpoaEYYLCiLv tao"t'Yj"t'a "t'YjC; Ex()(vo"t'Yj"t'OC; rrpoacpopiic;, ~"t'OL anaaXOA~ae:wc; "t'oao "t'ou (5La8e:aL(lOO xe:cpa}aLOO xat "t'YjC; (5La8wL(l00 Epya"t'LXYjc; (50VO:(le:WC;, boo xal "t'YjC; npay(la"t'LxYjc;, ~"t'OL EVe:pyou sYjTIJae:wc; - E~ap"t'ii"t'()(L EV

7tPW"t'OLS ano TIjv noaotvrta 'tYjC; EnEv(5oaYjC;. ')\ v 8cwp~oooue (5e:(50(lEvo 'to auvoAo "t'WV (lLa8wv xal 'twv e:tao(5Yj(lO:"t'wv nou 7tPOOPLSOV"t'()(L YLa xa"t'avO:AwaYj, ~ taopponLa 8a l.l7tO:p~e:L uovov Eav ol E1tLxe:Lp~ae:LC; Ene:v(5uaoov O,"t'L a7t()(L'te:t't()(L wme: va anoppocpYj8Yj axe:(50v ~ n()(paywYLx~ ~X()(vo"t'Yj'r()( 'rWV ~W(lYjX()(VLWV ttoi: 7t()(po:yoov (lEa()( n()(p()(ywnc;. TL1tO"'C'a ()EV anayope:ue:L va xO:voov XO:'tL 'rE"t'ow. l\AAa EnLaYjC; 'tLnO"'C'()( ()EV (5Laacp()(ALSe:L O"t'L 8a "t'0 xO:VOOV. Aoro E~ap"t'ii"t'()(L ana 1tOAAOUC; 1tapo:yov'te:C;, (le:'t()(~U "t'wv 07tOLWV 0 XOPLO"t'e:pOC; ()La(lOpcpwve:'t()(L ano 'ttC; npoa()ox£e:S "t'ooS axe:'tLxa (lE TIjv (le:AAOV"t'LX1j s~"t'YjaYj "t'wv rrpotovrcov "t'OOS .13 I'i' au"t'ES 'ttS npOa()OXLe:c; ALya AOYLxa npo:y(l<X"t'a (lnopouv vix e:t1tw80uv, ye:vLxa xal EX "t'wv 1tPO"'C'EpWV. 'E~ oi') ol EnaV()(Aa(l~avo(le:ve:S ()LaXO(lo:vae:LC; "t'ou E7tmE()OO ()p()(a"t'YjpLo'tYj'tOC; xat "t'a «a"t'oX~(l()('ta» nou (l7tOPOOV vo: cp'to:aoov (lEXPL (le:Lsove:s ucpEae:LC; ~ cpo:ae:LC; E:v"t'ovoo nAYj8wpLa(lou. ')\ v 8e:wp~aoo(le: xa'ta npw'tYj

13. '0 Keynes 1tpoatBE'tE 'to «xocrroc. TIje; E1ttvaUa'Y)e; [J.E: [J.t'tpo 'to E1tL'tOXW. 'AAAa YLa i5 ,'tL EVaLacptPEL, ol [J.E'ta~OAE:e; 'tou E1tL'tOX[ou dVaL ALyO'tEPO o(1tocpaaLa'tLXE:e; a1to 'tle; 1tpOO1t'tLXE:e; 'tou xtpaoue; xal xup[we; 'ta a1to'tEAta[J.a'ta 'toue; dVaL aau[J.[J.E'tpa. at XEV"t"pLXE:e; 'tpa1tESEe; [J.1tOPOUV va 1tv[souv [J.La ObWVO[J.LXYj E1ttX'taa'Y). avulj>wvovrc«; a'Y)[J.aV"t"Lxa 'ta E1tL"t"OXLa, 'toue; dvm o[J.we; TIOAU ALyO'tEPO EUXOAO. YLa va [J.Yjv 1tOU[J.E xa6oAou, va 'tYjv 1tpOxaAtaouv. Toirro (.Lap'tDpouV 1tOAAE:e; 1tEpLmWaELe; 1]a'Y) a1to 'to 1945 XL axo(.L'Y) 1j a'Y)!leptvYj xa'taa'taa'Y) a'tYj lEp[J.av[a, 'tYj laAAta xal XDptWe; 'tYjv 'Irx- 1twvta. Ta 1tpay(.La'tLxa E1tL'toxLa a'tYj laAAta xal 'tYj lEp(.Lavta ~ptaxoV"t"m a'to xa[J.'Y)"AO'tEpO E1tt1tEaO 'tODe; EaW xal 1t0Al> xonpo , EVW a'tYjv 'I~1twvta 0 1tpOESOcpA'Y)"t"LXOe; roxoc dvaL 0,5% xal 1j 1tpOaOaOe; 'twv O!lOAOYLWV xa'tw'tep'Y) 'tou 2%.

52

H ENEPrOI: IIPArMATIKOTHTA

53

H «OP00AOrIKOTHTA» TOY KAllITAAIl;MOY

7tpOOEYYLOYj 'tOV pu8(..t0 't1je; 't€XVLX1je; 7tpooi5ou (OUV€7tWe; xa1 'tY)V iXvooo 't1je; 7tapaYWYLXO'tYj'tOe; 't1je; EpyaoLae;) We; xa'ta 'to (..tiiAAOV 'ij ~'t'tOV ma8€po, aU'tEe; of. 7tPOOOOXL€e; xa1 'to E7tL7t€i50 't1je; E7tEVOUOYje; 7tOV E7tLf3aAAOUV, 8a 7tPOOi5WPLOOUV (..taxpo7tpo8€o(..ta 'to 7tOOOO'tO 't1je; (..tEYE- 8uvoYje; 't1je; OLXOVO(..tLae;, ~'tYjV 7t€PL7t'tWOYj au'tYj of. 'taO€Le; 8a E7tYjp€aSOV'taL a7tO 'to OUVOAO 't1je; 7tap€A80uoYje; E(..t7t€LpLae; 't1je; Xa7tL'taALO'tLX1je; OLXOVO(..tLae; 7tOV dVaL ~ E(..t7t€LpLa (..tLiie; (..tEOYje; aVa7t'tUsYje;. 0a lmaPS€L AOmOV «(..taxpo7tpo8€o(..ta» (..tLa €UVO'r:XY) 7tpOe; 'tYjV (..tEYE'8uvoYj mp€f3AW(..tEVYj 'taoYj. aAAa E7tLOYje; xa1 Eva 7t€pL8wpw OYj(..taV'tLx1je; af3€f3mo'tYj'toe; OE xa8€ Li5LaL't€pYj O'tLY(..tY) YLa xa- 8€ S€XWPLO'tY) E7tLXELPYjOYj, 7tOV OE ouvouao(..to (..tE 'ta a7to't€AEo(..ta'ta 'tWV 7tpOYjyOU(..tEVWV oLaxu(..taVo€wv E7t1 'too lma(JXoV'tOe; ma8€poo X€<paAaLou, a7tOXAEL€L (..taxpo7tpo- 8€o(..ta (..tLa ESLOOpp07tYj(..tEVYj xa1 «o'taaL(..tYj» (..tEYE8uvoYj (OE rcoooo-ro ALYO we; 7tOAV o'ta8€po, steady). Meo« 0' au'to 'to Y€VLXO 7tAaLaLO (..t7topd, xal7tpE7t€L 7tpo<pavwe;, vo: AYj<p800v U7t' o(jnv xa1 iXAAOi 7tapaY0V't€e; (EnL'taxuvoYj r, EnLf3paouvoYj 't1je; 't€XVLXYje; 7tpooi5ou, i5Yj(..toypaqnxEe; i5Laxu(..taVO€Le;, iXvOLy(..ta VEWV y€wypa<pLxwv sWvwv 7tpOe; aSW7tOLYjOYj x.o.x.).

"OAa aU'ta OEV (..tiie; E7tL'tPE7tOUV va O(..tLAOO(..t€ Ot>-r€ YLa (..tLa ESao<paALo(..tEvYj LOOpp07tLa, ot>-r€ YLa Evav iXPLO'tO pu8(..t0 (..tEYE8uvoYje; 'ij Eva E7tL7t€OO iXpLO'tYje; 7tapaywyYje;, oU't€ YLa (..tLa (..tEYLO't07tOLYjOYj 'tYje; XOLVWVLXYje; XPYjaL(..to'tYj'toe;, oU't€ YLa a(..tOLf3Y) 't1je; EpyaoLae; oU(..t<pwva (..tE 'to «opLaxo rtporov» 'tYje;, oU't€ YLa Eva <pUaLXO rroooo-ro 'too

XEpi50ue; r, 'too 'toxou, oU't€ YLa xavEvav iXAAOV a7to 'tove; 'EPW'tLO€~e; r, 't1e; NU(..t<p€e; 7tOV oLaxoo(..toov 'ta EYX€LpLOLa oLxovo(..tLae;. ELoLxa,.a XEPOYj 'tWV EnLX€LP'ijO€WV OEV xce- 80pLsov'tm a7to 'to «opLaxo xocrroc» 'too 7tpo'r:oV'toe; 'tOUe; (7tOV OPLS€L uovo , xa1 au'to OE o(..taAo Xpovo, Eva xa'tw'ta'to opw o'tYjv 'tL(..tY) 7tWA'ijO€We;). aAAa a7tO 'tYjv 'tL(..tY) 7tOV (..t7tOPOOV vc: EnL'tUXouv (E7tLf3aAAouv, a7too7taoouv) YLa 'to 7tpo'r:ov 'tOue;. O€OO(..tEVYje; 'tYje; xa'tao'tao€We;, o'tY)v o7to£a f3pLOX€'tm ~ s'ij'tYjaYJ 'tou. To y€yovoe; au'to a7to (..tovo 'tou a7tOXAEL€L xa8€ out;'ij'tYjoYj YLa 'tY)v «Op80AoyLXO'tYj'ta» 't1je; xa'tavo(..tYje; 'twv 7tOpWV (..tEoa o'tYjv oixovout«.

'Ioov (..tLa a1tapL8(..tYjoYj y€yovo'twv 1tOV OELXVOUV ouYX€XpL(..tEva 'ta ouo'ta'tLxa 't1je; oLXOVO(..tLX1je; «Op80AOYLXO'tYj'toe;» o-rov XanL'taALo(..to.

• Ka8€ EnLXELPYjOYj E1t€vi5U€L xa'ta 7tpw'tov AOYO o'tY)v OLX'ij 'tYje; ypa(..t(..tY) 1tapaywyYje; xa1 0XL Exd 07tOU 'to XEpOOe; 8a ~'tav «opLaxa Utj>YjAO't€PO» (OUV€1tWe; «XOLVWvLxa 1tPO'tL(..tO't€PO»). 'l\.v oLaXLVOUV€UO€L va E1t€Vi5UO€L OE iXAAOUe; 'to (..t de; , -roirro o<pElA€'taL o eo o·t:L 1tpof3AE1t€L 1tWe; EX€~ 'to rroooo-ro XEpOOUe; 8a dvm aio()r;rt'x Utj>YjAO't€PO.

• "OA€e; 0X€OOV of. EnLX€Lp'ijO€Le; (axo(..ta XL aU'tEe; 'too OUVOLXLaxoo E(..t1tOpLOU), f3pLOXOV'tm OE xa'tao'taoYj OALY07tWALOU, xa1 0XL aV'taYWVLO(..tOO - YLa vo: (..tY)V 7t00(..t€ (..tOV01tWALOU r, OUV€VVOYjOYje; 'tWV 1tapaywywv U7tO 'tYj (..tLa r, 'tYjv iXAAYj (..top<p'ij.

• To y€yovoe; au'to oi5Yjy€~ mov oUYX€XU(..tEVO xapax't1jpa 'tYje; EWOLae; 'too «E(..t1tOp€u(..ta'toe;» we; O(..tOLoY€VOOe; 7tpo'r:oV'toe; xa1 'too «'to(..tEWe;» we; OUVOAOU EnLX€LP'ijO€WV

54

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ol ()7t01:Ee;; mxpayouv «ti» raw 1tPo"~ov».

• at cmo<paOELe;; -rYje;; E1tLxdpYjoYje;;, vix E1tEVMOEL ~ DXL, va. aU~"f]OEL ~ va 1tEPLOpiOEL -rYjv 1tapaywy"f], ACX{1[3avovrm 1tancx E1tL -rfj [3aoEL {1LIie;; 1tAYjP0<P0p"f]OEWe;; a1to- 01tCX0{1CX-rLXYje;; xaL O-rPE[3AW{1EVYje;; - O-rLe;; OYj{1anLXZe;; E1tLXELp"f]OELe;;, CXu-rze;; ol a1to<paOELe;; e:lVCXL -ro a1tmEAEO{1a EOW-rEPLXWV anL{1CXXLWV aVa{1Eoa oz «daLXOVe;;» xaL ypa<pELOxpCX-rLXZe;; xAixEe;;, azv dVCXL -ro a1to-rEAEO{1CX {1LIie;; «Op80AOYLXYje;; aLCXaLXCXOtCXe;; a1to<paoEWe;;» (Simon X.A1t.). IICXPEXXAivouv Enova 1tpOe;; {1La. xcx-rEu8uvoYj EUVo"~XYj YLa. -rYjv aLCX-r"f]pYjOYj -rYje;; aLw8uv-rLXYje;; o!1aaoe;;, 01tWC; -ro EaEL~cxv ~aYj a1to -rYjv aExaE-ricx -rou 1960 ol {1EAt-rEe;; -rou Robin Marris.

• 'H EOW-rEPLXYj xcx-raG-raoYj -.Yje;; E1tLXdpYjoYje;; E{1<pcxviSE-rCXL Aiyo we;; 1tOAV aaLa<pcxVYje;; YLa. -rove;; aLw8uvonEe;;, Myw -rYjC; YPcx<pEwxpa-rLX01tOtYjoYjC; -rYjC; E1tLXdpYjoYje;; XCXL -.Yje;; aniG-raoYje;; -rwv Epyas0{1EVWV.14

.• 'H «ayopa. xE<paAatOu>; (XCXL -rYje;; 1ttO-rEWe;;) dvaL xaO' OAOXAYjptCXV «a-rEA"f]e;;»' 1tpw-rov, aLO-rL -ra. aLCX-rL8E{1Eva xE<paACXLa, 01tWe;; ~aYj EXEL El1tw8Yj, xcx-rw8uvonCXL xatix 1tPO-ri{1YjOLV 1tpOe;; -rLe;; 1tEpLOXZe;; a1t' 01tOU anA"f]87joov . aEU-rEpOV, aLO-rL Yj xa-rao-raoYj -rwv aavELo-rwV dVCXL aaLa<pcxV"f]e;;, xcxl -rpt-rov, Myw -rwv loxupma-rwv aEO{1WV 1tOV L)1ta(JXouv {1E-ra~v -rpcx1td;;wv xal [3w{1Yjxavtae;;.

• ~z O-rEVYj 0XEOYj {1Z -ro 1tp07jyOU{1EVO OYj{1E1:0, -ro «XE<paACXW», we;; E~OUOta aLa8EOEWe;; 1tapcxywYLXWV 1t0PWV xcxl laiwe;; -.Yje;; Epyaoicxe;; -rwv a.AAWV, dVCXL tv {1EPEL a1tOXwPLO{1EVO a1ta -rYjv laLOX-rYjOLCX ~ -rYjv xa-roxYj a~Lwv. To OUOLWaEe;; dVCXL Yj auvcx-ro-rYj-ra 7rp6o{3aaYJ~ oz -rE-rOWUe;; 7tOpOUe;;,1tOV {17t0PE1: va E~ao<paALo8Yj {1EOW a.AAWV aLOawv (-rPCX1tESLXYj 1ttG-rYj, E7tl1tapcxadY{1a-rL).

• 'H «EX-rt{1YjOYj» -rwv L)1tCXPXOUowv o-.Yjv ayopa E1tLXELP"f]0EWV dVCXL VE<pEAWOYje;;, aLO-rL E;ap-rIi-rCXL a1to -rle;; 7tpOOaOXtEe;; -rle;; 0XE-rLXZe;; !1z -ra. {1EAAOnLxa -roue;; XEpaYj )(CXt TO 1tPO[3AE1tO{1EVO «!1EOO rtoooo-ro» XEpaOUe;;.

• 'H 1tcxpaywyYj (xal Yj ayopa. EpycxOtae;;, (1EXpLe;; EVOe;; oYj{1dou) dVCXL 7tA"f]pYje;; EUXCXLPLCXXWV 1tpOOoaWV.

• 'H a-rO{1LXYj lawx-rYjota E1tt TYje;; ne;; aYj{1LOupyE1: {1La. a1tOAU-rYj EYYEW 1tpOOOaO (Marx) 1tOV azv EXEL xcxl azv {11tOpE1: va. EXEL XCX{1{1tCX olxovo!1LXYj aLxCXLoMyYjoYj.

• 'H Epya-rLxYj Mva!1Yj ah dVCXL E{11tOPW{1cx. 'H 1tapaywyYj xal Yj avcx1tapcxywy"f] -rYje;; azv {17tOpOUV va pU8{1Lo8ouv a1ta {1La. «ayopa».15

• 'H 1tpay{1a-rLxYj a1tOamLxo-rYj-rCX -.Yje;; EpycxOtCXe;; (~ -ro

14. I1p!3A.. 1:bxa~ev6~ou «To rce:PLe:X0[Le:vo 1:0U aOaLaA.LO[LOu. III» (ynAA.. 1958). &va1:lJ1twGrj oTYjv Ileipa TOU ipya-w(Ou xwf;[J.aroc;. 1:.2. (I1apLaL 1974). EA.A.. [Le:1:acpp. EXO. 'TtjJLA.OV. M~va 1984, Ge:A. 9 x.ES.

15. 'Ercave:LA.'Yj[L[Levw<; &verc'tusa mho 'to o'Yj[Le:lo: L'ta xd[Le:va [LOU «Sur la dynamique du capitalisme» (Socialisme ou barbarie, 'te:uX. 12, Le:rc't.-'Ox't .. 1953) -«Le mouvement revolutionnaire sous Ie capitalisme moderne» (1960). 'twpcx o-rov 'to[LO Capitalisme moderne et revolution, 2.EXO. 10/18, I1apLaL.1979 (EAA. [Le:'tacpp., EXO. "ytjJLAOV, 1\e~va 1987. oe:A.. 177 x.ES.). - «1\sta. too't'Yj'ta, OLXCXWOUV'Yj, rcoA.mx~: &rco -rov MapS o-rov 1\pLo't01:eA.'Yj xcxl &rco -rov 1\pLo'to'teA'Yj OE [LiX<;» (YCXAA. 1975). 'twpa 01:a Eravpoi'Jpo[J.la TouAa{jvp{vBo» (YCXA.A. 1978), EA.A. [Le:'tacpp., EXO. 'TtjJLA.OV, 1\e~vcx 1991.

56

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rr:paYlla:nxo rr:00001:0 aIlOLf3'iie;/c:pumx'iie; arr:OOOO'Yje;, II.II.A.A.16,<) dvm OE: lle:yaAo f3a81l0 arr:pOOOLOPLO-C'Yj.

l:-c~ O'YjIle:PLV~ c:pao'Yj -cou Xa1tL-caALOIlOU, 'lj-COL EOW XL Eva -ct-cap-co -COU aLwva, OAa -cex rr:apcmavw oLa-c'Yjpouv ~v op80-C'Yj-ca -coue;, VtOL 0llwe; rr:apayoV"Ce:e; ava-cptrr:ouv ~v OUVOALX~ rr:POOrr:-CLXTj. "Erot , ~ eve:pyoe; rr:ayxooIlLOrr:0['Yj0'Yj -c'fie; rr:apaywy'fie;, rcou xa-cto-c'Yj ouva-c~ xapLe; a-rle; vte:e; E;e:A[;e:Le;, 1'e:XVOAOYLXE:e; E;e:A[;e:Le; (EV OA[YOLe;, -c~v oXe:oov 6AOXA'YjPW-CLX~ E;aAe:itjJ'Yj, arr:o ~v rr:OOO-CLX~ i'Xrr:0- tjJ'Yj, -c'iie; o'Yjllao(ae; -c'iie; E;e:LOLXe:UOe:We; -c'iie; Epyao[ae; o-c~v UALX~ rr:apaywyTj, rr:ou 1t8e:0e: hm o-c~ oLa8e:0'Y) -cou rtrxyxooll[ou xe:c:paAa[ou oLoe:xa-C0llllupLa rr:e:waolltvwv avex -cov XOOIlO) xal E;e:A[;e:Le; rr:OAmxte; (rov ac:porr:ALoIlO -cwv xUf3e:pvTjoe:wv we; rr:poe; ~v OLxovOIlLxTj -coue; rr:OAmxTj, xal xup[we; ~v rr:ATjp'Yj arr:e:Aw8tpwo'Yj -cwv oLe:8vwv porov xcc:paAa[ou), e:LXe: au-co -co C:PawOIle:VLxex rr:apaoo;o arr:O"CtAe:ou« , vex xa-cao-cpttjJe:L -c~v 6llOLoytve:La -cwv OLXOVOIlLXWV ouv8'Y)xwv rr:apaywy'fie; avex -cov XOOIlO, ~v '(oLa axpLf3wc; O-CLYIl~ rcou Eyxa8io-ca-c0 IlLex rr:paYlla-CLxex rr:ayxoollLa ayopex. Ka8e: ousTj-c'Y)o'Y) rr:e:plrr:pooOLOPLolloU -cwv -CLIlWV ~ xal 6rr:owuaTjrr:0-ce: i'XAAou lle:yt80uC; -<7UIlrr:e:pLAallf3avoIltvwv xal -cwv xam-caALo-CLxWV xe:pawv- arr:o rr:apayoV"Ce:c; «Op8QAOYLXOUe;» xa8io-ca-cm urr:o -cle; ouv8'iixe:e; aU1'E:e; ye:Aoia. 0ex Err:avtA8w Err:' au-cou a-ro -ce:Ae:u-calo Iltpoe; au-cou -cou xe:q.ltvou.

2Jx~'w<~ anor~kGfl-aTtXOrrrra, ~vxafl-</J{a xai aV(JcXTtXOTYlra TOU xatt ctasunioi)

H xaAu-ce:p'Y) aLxmoA6y'Yjo'Y) -cOU xam-caALollOu dvm au-c~ rr:ou Itawoe: o-ro -ctAoe; -c'fie; sw'iie; -cou 6 Schumpeter o-co f3Lf3Aio -cou Kattrtassauo«, 1;0- aiasiauoc. .dYJ{).oxpaT{a, xal rr:ou OUVOtjJLOe: ~ Joan Robinson :17 -co aua''Yjlla dvaL aoc:paAWe; OXA'YjpO, i'XaLxo, -capaxorr:OLO - aAAex rr:POOc:ptpe:L 1'0 EIlrr:ope:ulla, xalrr:atjJ,e: vex YXPLvLaSe:-ce:, YLa1'i axpLf3We; au1'o "to EIlrr:opwlla dvm Exe:lvo rr:ou 8tAe:1'e:.

~LxaLOA6y'Yja'Yj xUXALXTj, XL EaW. l:-cle; «rr:Aoume:e;» Xwpe:C; ol i'XV8PWrr:OL «8tAOUV» au1'o ,0 EI-lrr:opWl-la, aLO,L arr:o -c~v mo ,puc:pe:pTj ,oue; ~ALxia ExyullvaSoV"Cm 0,0 vex 1'0 8tAouV (Emoxe:c:p8d1'e: Eva o'YjIle:PLVO v'Yjmaywye:lo) xal aLO,L 1'0 xa8e:01'we; ,oue; EI-lrr:oaiSe:L 1lE: x[ALOUe; 1'porr:oue; vex 8tAouV 6,LaTjrr:O"Ce: i'XAAO. l:E: OAe:e; 1'le; xwpe:e; 1'OU-CO OUI-lf3a[ve:L, aLO,L, (Xv 6 xam-caALoIlOe; aE:V E1tLVO'YjOe: ab ovo au1'o rr:ou xaAoulle: C:Pmvolle:vo Err:iae:L;'Yje;, -co EVaUVal-lwoe: a' Eva f3a81l0 i'XYVW01'O crib rr:ape:A8ov. llpoe; o,tYI-lTjv,

-_ - _- ~---=-=--

16. IIp(3A. ,0 (3~(3Aio (J.OU Mnpoora OTOll nok:f.1.o (yrxAA. 1981,0. 132,

<Trl(J.. 1), E:AA. (J.e,acpp., E:xo. "TIj-nAOV, 1\O~vrx 1986,0. 153, 0'YJ(J.. 1.

58

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CXtYt"O "Co E[l7tOPW[lCX EscxXOAou8EL, Aiyo we; 7toM, vix "Co 7tpOa<PEPE~, 'H ou~1j"CYjOYj EOW otv [l7tOpe:i: 7tCXpa. vo: O"CCX[lCX"C1jOEL "000 OL rXv8pw7tm 8a. 8EAouv whY) "CYj oooooipWOYj ep"CYjvo7tpaywhwv, ouoowpwoYj 01..0 xal. mo xawoYj y~a. 01..0 xal. mo [lEYrXAo ap~8[l0 av8pw7twv, xcxl. [It 't"Yjv a7toia 8a. [l7tOpEOOUV Yj oX~ [l~a. [lEpa vo: xopeoflobv, Yj xn"CrXo"CaoYj otv 8' aAArXsE~.

IIapcx[lEvouv o[lWe; [lEP~Xa. Epw"C1j[la"Ccx. "Oe; 7tOU 7tYjyaivE~ xal. ot "Ci O"CYjpi~E"CW au"CYj Yj «a7to"CEAEO[lcx"C~xo"CYj"Ca» "COU xa7tnaA~o[lou, 7tap' oAoue; "Cove; 7tEPWp~O[lOUe; "CYje; ; IIwe; yiVE"CW xal. "Co xa8EO"CWe; I-l7tOPEOE va Em(3~woEL [lEOCX a7to [lLa [laxpa. OELpa. XpiOEWV xal. LO"COPLXWV 7tEPL- 7tE"CELWV xcxi, [lEXpLe; EVOe; oYj[ldou "CouArXXLo"Cov, vo: (3ycxiVE~ EVLOXU[lEVO ; I1mte; dvw, tv 7tpOXEL[lEVCP, 01 aAAayte; 7tOV I-J.7tOPOUV va 7tpoEA80uv a7to "CYj VECX rou CprXoYj o"CYjv a7toia (3piOXE"CW ;

'H a7trXV"CYjoYj o't"Yjv 7tpw"CYj E:pw"CYjoYj otv dvaL "Cooo 00- oxoAYj. '0 xcxm"CaALO[lOe; dvw "Co xa8EO"CWe; 7tOV a7tooxo- 7tEL 01:0 va aUSrXVEL [It oAa "Ca. [lEOa "CYjv 7tapaywyYJ -i.Ha. xrX7tOLa 7tapcxywy1j, [lYjv 1:0 SExviX[lE- xal. va 7tEpLOp[~EL [It oAa 1:a. [lEoa 'to «xocrroq» -7tOAV 7tEPWPLO"CLXa. xa80p~O[lEVO, [lYjv "Co SExviX[lE E7tioYje;: OEv 7tEpLAa[l(3rXvEL oihE 1:Yjv xa'tao'tpoepYj 'tOU 7tEPL(3rXAAoV"Coe;, oiire 'tYjv LOO7tEOWOYj 'rije; ~wYje; "CWV av8pw7twv, oirte 't"Yjv aOxil[lLa 'twv 7tOAEWV, olhE 't"Yjv 7tayxoo[lLa vixYj 'rije; aVEu8uvo1:Yj1:0S; xal. 'tOU xuvcouoii, olhE 'tYjv aV1:Lxcx'trXo'taoYj "CYje; "Cpaywoiae; xal. 'rijs; AdCxYje; ywp'rije; [It 1:l.S; 1:YjAE07t'tLxte; OELpEe; - "CL[l~[la'ta 7tOV otv l)7tOAoy[~oV"CaL, XL OU1:E 7t01:t 8a. [l7topouoav vo:

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xal (lE~waE~~ TYj~ olapxE~(x~ TYj~ Epyaala~. 6Yj(lwupy'Yja(Xv hm Tl~ "CEpaaT~E~ Eaw"CEplxe:~ x(xT(XvaAWTtxe:~ ayopE~, o~(XawsoV'ta~ "Cov x(Xm"CaAlO(lO a7to f3Ef3mo 7tV~y(lO (lEaa a"CY) OlX~ TOU axp~f3w~ 7tapaywn. E'Loa(lE E7tlO'Yj~, "Co yvwPlsOU(lE x(Xl (l7tOpOU(lE va "Co a7toQdSOU(lE -07tW~ "Co a7tEOE~sE 6 Keynes- 0"C~ (Xv "Co aua't'Yj(la a<pE8Yj (lOVO "COU, oev 60'YjYEI"Cm aU'tO(laTa 7tpO~ (l~a «ioopporno;», 07tOL(x Xl (Xv dvm (xu~, aAAa (liiAAOV oe (lta EvaAAayYJ <paaEWV Em~xTao'Yj~ x(Xl oua"COAYj~ -Tl~ OLXOVO(ltxe~ XPlOEl~ - EX TWV 67tOlWV ol mo EV"COVE~ (l7tOPOUV va 6O'Yjnaouv, 07tW~ xal. "Co Exavav, oe: (l~a a'Yj(laVTtxY) x(X"C(XaTpo<py) ooootoPEU(lEVOU 7tAOU"COU xal ae: (l~a tA~YY~WO'Yj aVEpYla (30% TYj~ EPY(xT~XYj~ ouva(l'Yj~ aTl~ H.ll.A. TO 1933). K~ EOW E7tla'Yj~, ot XOWWV~XE:~ xal. 7tOA~T~Xe~ aVTtopaOEt~ E7tEf3aAav a7tO TO 1933 x(Xl (lETa, 7tpWTa aTl~ H.ll.A., VEE~ 7tOAt"CtXe:~ 7t(XpE(lf3aaE~~ TOU Kpa"Cou~ a.-Yjv OLXOVO(lla.

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~pwa~ 'rii~ yaAALxYj~ otXOVO[lLXYj~ 7tOAL't'LXYj~, opyavwvE 't'OV «a7t07tAYJ8wPLO[l0 Laval» 't'ou 1932, Evw, a7to 't'Y)v aAAYJ [lEpLa 't'Yje; MayxYJ~, 't'o EhJoaupocpuMxw xal ~ Tpa7tESa 't'Yj~ }\YYALa~ ouoowpwav 't'a [lvYJw'>vLa 7tOU a7td5dxvuav lhL xa8E aVa8Ep[lavoYJ 't'Yj~ s1j't'YJO"fje; [lEOc.p oYJ[looiwv EPYWV 8a E7tECPEPE otxOVO[lLXY) xa't'ampocp1j.

Movo [lE't'Cx 't'ov ~El)'t'EPO TIayxoo[lw TIoAE[lO, au~1jOELe; [lLo8wv ALYo w~ 7tOAU 't'ax't'LXE:~ xal xpa't'LxY) pU8[lLOYJ 't'Yj~ ouvoALxYj~ s1j't'YJoYJ~ EYLvav YEvLxa a7tOOEX't'E:e; a7to 't'ou~ EpyoOO't'E~ xal 't'ou~ axao"fj[laixou~ oixovouoxoyou~. }\7tO't'EAEo[la ~'t'av ~ [laXpo't'Ep"fj xal 0XEOOV aOLaX07tYJ cpao"fj 't'Yj~ xa7tL't'aALo't'LxYj~ ava7t't'u~"fje; (~ «XpuoY) 't'pLaxov't'aE't'La»). "07tW~ 't'o 7tpoE[3AEtVE 0 Kalecki +joYJ a7to't'o 1943, ~ OUVE7tELa ~'t'av [lLa au~ouoa 7tLEOYJ moue; j.Ho80u~ xal 't'l.~ 't'L[lE:~ xal. Exo"fjAw8"fjxE xa8apa a7to 't'o 1960 xal [lE't'a. TL7tO't'E OE:V OdXVEL lhL OE:V 8a [l7tOpOUOE vo: [lE't'pLao8Yj [lS [lE't'pw7ta8ELe; 7toAmxE~. }\AAa EOW l>7tELaYjAEk Eva~ 7tapaywv xa8apa 7toAmxo~. Au't'Y) ~ +j7tLa 7tAYJ8wpLo't'LXy) xa't'ao't'aO"fj EOWOE 't'0 ouv8YJ[la xal 't'0 7tpooXYJ[la [lLa~ aV't'LopaO't'LxYj~ aV't'E7tLeEoYJ~ (Thatcher, Reagan), Eva doo~ oUV't'"fjPYJ't'LXYj~ aV't'E7taVao't'ao"fj~ 7tOU EOW xal. OEXa7tEV't'E XPovLa E:7tE~E't'a8YJ os oMxAYJpo 't'OV 7tAav1j't'"fj. ~'t'0 1toAmxo 1tEOLO au't'Y) ~ aV't'E1tLeEO"fj Ex[lE't'aAAEu't'YjxE 't'Y)v XPEOX01tLa 't'WV 1tapaoomaxw:v «apLO't'EPWV» xOflfla't'wV, 't'Yjv 't'Epao't'w a1tWAELa E7tLPPOYj~ 't'WV ouvoLxa't'wv, 't'Y)v 't'Epa't'woCa 't'WV xa8Eo't'w't'WV 't'OU «l>7tapx't'ou oOOLaALo[lou» 1tOU dXE yCVEL EXOYjA"fj xal. rtplv a1tO 't'1)V xa't'appwa1j -rouc, 't'1)V a1ta8ELa xal. 't'1)V tOLW't'W-

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. y~a 'tYjv Aa't~ VLXYj 1\[le:PLX1j, YLa 'tYjv 1\CPPLXYj xal YLa 'tYjv 1\ va'toALxYj EUpw7t1). Kal dvat ye:AOLOC; 0 lOXUPLO[lOC; O'tL [l~a [le:'ta[3a't~x1j 7te:pLoc3oc; xwplc; ouyxpOUOe:LC; fla [l7t0- poooe va o(31)y1jae:~ xwpe:c;, ol 07tOLe:C; E[lcpavLC;;o.Uv 'tE'tme:c; ex7tOXALOW; <1'tlC; expx~xe:c; ouvflljxe:c;, oe: [lLa xa'tao'tao'Yl ap[lOvLxOU xa'ta[le:pLO[lOU ~c; EpyaoLac; c3Le:6vwc;. Ilnpeup~oxo[lao'te: oe: [l~a [le:'ta[3a'tLxYj cpa(1) [3LaLa, ayp~a, U7tO XAL[laXa (1)[lcxV't~xa e:upu'te:(1) xal ae: 7tOAV 7tLO rrsproprO[lEVO xpovo E:X'tUALOOO[le:V'Yl, ex7tO boo 01. aAAe:c; [le:'ta[3a'tLXe:C; cpaoe:LC; ~c; ta'topLac; 'tOU Xa7tL'tcxALO[lOU, <pao'Yl 7tOV 6EAOUV va c3~xawAoy1joouv [le: 'to 7tapaAoyo 7tpooX'Yl[la O'tL fj O'Yl[le:p~v1j 7topda dvm exva7tocpeux't1) xal o't~ xcqr[lLa 7tOAL'tLXYj <>e:v [l7tOpe:i vo. exv't~o'ta6lj o'to juggernauts ~c; ESEALS'YlC; ~c; OlXOvO[lLac;.

1:e: [lLa 'tE'tmcx xa'tao'tao'Yl, dvaL [la'taw va ouC;;1)'tOU[l~ YLa o7tmcxc31j7to'te: «6p60Aoy~xo't'Yl'ta» 'tOU Xa7tL'taA~O[lOu. To xcx6e:o'twC; 7tapa!-lEpLOe: !-lovo 'tou 'ta xa7tma [lEoa EAEYXOU 7tOV Exa'tov 7te:v-rjV'ta xpovLa 7tOAL'tLXWV, XOLVWVLXWV xal lc3e:oAoy~xwv exywvwv dXav E7tL'tOxe:L va 'tOU e7tL(3aAouv. 'H avo[l1l XUpLapxLa 'twv «(3apwvwv» 611- peu'twv ~C; [3w[lYlxaVLCXC; xcxl 'tou XP1l[lCX'tLXOU xe:<paAaLou o'tlC; H.rr.A. 'tOU 'tEAOUC; 'tOU 7tape:AfloV'toC; alwvoc;, wXPLii I.mpoo'ta o'tYj 01l[le:PLV1j xa'tao'ta(1). at c3~e:flvLxe:C; <pLp[le:C;, fj XP'Yl[la'tLo't'YlpLaxYj xe:pc3ooxo7tLCX XCXL E7tL(1)C; ol [la<p£e:c;

66

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EXETIKH AIIOTEAEEMATIKOTHTA

67

67tO TIjv a'tEVYj EVVma 'tOU opOU, xoopoeuoov 'tOY 7tAaV~'tYj, OOYjYOUflEVEe; CmOXAELa'tLXa a7tO TIjv [3paXU7tpOeEaflYj eEa 'tWV XEPOWV -couc, 'H S:7taVaAafl[3avoflEVYj a7tO'tux£a xaeE 7tpOamXeELae; 7tpoa'taa£ae; 'tou 7tEpL[3aAAOV'tOe; a7tO 'ta a7tO'tEAtafla'ta 't'ije; s:x~WflYjxaVLaYje;, 7tOAmaflEVYje; ~ a.ypLae;, a7to'tEAEi Cx7tAWe; 'to eEafla'tLxo'tEPO aYjflaoL 't'ije; fluW7t£ae; -couc. Ta 7tPo[3AttjJLfla xat 'tPOflEpa a7tO'tEAEafla'ta 'tou «s:xauYXPovLaflOu» 'twv a.AAWV 'tEaaapwv 7tEfl7t'twV 'tou xoouou OEV 7taa;OUV xavEva POAO a'tte; auyxpOVEe; 7taV'tOELOEie; 7tOAL'tLXEe; .18

'H 7tPOO7t'tLXYj 7tOU a7t0ppEEL OEV dvaL 7tPOO7t'tLxYj flLiie; «Of.XOVoflLx'ije; xp£aYje;» 'tou xam'taALaflOu S:V YEVEL flE TIjv 7tapaooaLaxYj Evvma. eEWpYj'tLxa, 6 xam'taALaflOe; (or. 7tayxoaflLEe; s:mXELp~aELe;) ea fl7tOpouaE vo: [3aa'ta~EL OAO xat mo xaAa, flEXPL 'tYjv 1]flEpa 7tOU 6 oupavoe; ea 7tEaEL a'to xEcpaAL [l(xe;. Au'to ea 7tpOU7tEeE'tE S:V 'tou'tme;, flE'ta~u a.AAWV, O'tL 1] xa'taa'tpocpYj 'tWV 7taAaLWV s:x[3wflYjxavLaflEvwv xwpwv, f.O£We; aTIjv Eupw7tYj, xal. 1] E~OOOe; flUpLaowv a'toflwv a7to 'tOY 7tapaooaLaxo af.wvo[3w xoouo 'toue; a'tte; 0XL axoflYj s:x[3wflYjxavLaflEVEe; XWpEe;, 7tpOe; 'tl.e; 'tExvLX07tmYjflEVEe;, aa'tLX07tmYjflEVEe; XOLVWV£Ee;, ea fl7tOpouorxv va auv'tEAEaeOUV xwpte; flEyaAEe; xorvcovrxsc xat 7tOAmXEC; oov~aELe;. Ilpoxerrm YLa flLa ouvaTIj 7tPOO7t'tL-

~. dEV dVaL a£youpo O'tL dVaL 1] 7tAEOV mea~.

'H eEWpYj'tLXYj avaAuaYj fl7tOPEi'to 7tOAU vo: cpeaaEL flEXpL a' au'tov 'tOY 'tU7tO S:pw'tYjfla'twv. Ta 67tOAOL7ta s:~a(J'twV'taL a7to 'tte; opaaELe; xat aV'tLopaaELe; 'tWV 7tAYjeUaflwv 'tWV s:voLacpEpoflEVWV xwpwv.

E tmTif.l./3pUX; 1996 - AUYOUOTO<; 1997

18. 'Y1tE:veui~~G( 1:ex 1tpo~Abl)L(.LG( a1t01:EAE(J(.L<X1:G( nj~ E:X~W(.L'YlXcXV~(J'Yl~ 1:WV «(.LYJ aVE1t1:uY(.LEVWV» xwpwv, tj3'Yl (J1:0 XE£(.LEVD (.LOU 1:00 1974 1tOU aVG(cptpE1:G(~ (J1:YJ (J'Yl(.L. 2. xG(1. a(JcpG(Aw~ 3EV tj(.LOUV 6 1tpW1:0~.

LHMEIQLEIL TOY META<l>PALTH

a - Henri-Desire Landry

raAAOe; «3paxoe;» (y. 1869. EX,eAe<J1""YJxe ,(1922). Ka,a ouppoYjv d3ex6Yje; 30AOcpOVOe; YUVCXLXWV. ,wv a1to(wv, [le: -rYjv COta'"YJAYj ll1tOaxea"YJ ya[lou, EXap1tOlJTO ,Yjv 1tepwua(a. 'R «o-m- 3wop0[l£a» roo 6e[la,01tot'ij6"YJxe a,o 1tep£cp"YJ[lo epyo ,au

Charly Chaplin, Monsieur Verdoux. '

Serge Alexandre Stavisky

Ataf30"YJ,oe; raAAOe; (ma,ewvae;, pwaatx1je; xa,aywy1je; (y. 1886, 30AOcpov'ij6"YJxe «[lua'"YJptw3we;» ,0 1934). I1poxaAeae [le: ,te; 1tapavo[lee; XP"YJ[lana-r"YJptaxe:e; 3paa'"YJPto'"YJ,se; ,au -rYjv 1t,wa"YJ T1je; ,o,e < 1933) yaAAtx1je; xuf3epv'ijaewe;, [lSA"YJ T1je; a1to£ae;, 01tWe; xnl T1je; [leyaAoaa,tx1je; xOLVwv(ae;. dxav E[l1tAaxd a-ro axav- 3aAo. l\1tO ,a 3taa"YJ[l0,epa white collar crimes ,wv Eyxetpt- 3£wv EyxA"YJ[la,oAoy£ae;.

f3 - 'Enupaveia. ~ (epiphanie)

l\1tO ,0 p. Emcpa(vO[lat. ~-rYjv 6p"YJaxewAoy£a axe30v auvwvu[lO [le: -rYjv Heoipaveia, Elvoa a terminus technicus yta -rYjv E1tt y1je; «E[lcpaVta"YJ» ,1je; 6eo'"YJ,0e;. 'R EmcpaVW)( [l1topei: va [leaOAaf3"YJ61j 3ta ,au tepswe; 'Ij xat ,au f3amMwe; <1tpf3A. I1,oAe[lai:oe; E' o 'EmcpavYje;) 'Ij va avax61j a-rYjv «ta,OptXa» aUAAa[lf3aVO[lev"YJ ava3ua"YJ ,au [lov06e"ia,txou 6eou <1tpf3A. xpta,. 6eoAoy(a, EOp-rYj ,wv 0eocpav(wv, ,a 'Emcpavta).

y - Kuptapxrpy/

'R MS"YJ xuptapxy/ay/ 1tOV ul06e-r'ijaa[le yta vo: ExcppaaOu[le rov opo maitrise ,au 1tPW,O,U1tOU, AeS"YJ avayo[lev"YJ trtbv EAA"YJVtXO [leaa(wva, Excppaset ma,euou[leaxptf3sa,epa -rYjv EvepY"YJ,txYj xat 3uva[ltxYj ewma ,au opou (a1t' o.,t 1t .X. ~ ASS"YJ xuptapx{a, ~ o1to(a, oihwe; 1) liAAwe;, a1to3£3et rov opo domination, Herrschaft). l\vcta,a6'ijxa[le. a tort ou a raison, orov 1tetpaa[lo va XP"YJat[lo1tot'ijaou[le -cov opo ~ye!1-611E:uar; 1tOV [liXe; ll1te3e(x6"YJ.

70

H «OPElOAOrIKOTHTA» TOY KAIIITAAILMOY

B - flpdaAYJt/JYJ (reprise)

'H ulo6e"C1Ja1J, obcew1to[1Ja1J EVOC; epyou, EVOC; 6eallou x.m. "Cou mxpeA66VLoc;.01tWC; a.U"CO 6ewpehm xa.l11e"Ca.aX1Jlla."C[~e"CCl.l lleoo: Imo TIjv omncYj TIic; E1tO)(YiC; "Cou 1tpoaAa.ll13avoVLOC;. (mo "Co Btx6 "C1JC; llaYlla. "Cwv XOtvwVtxwV <pa.VLa.ata.XWV a1Jlla.atwV, "Co ()1tolo llaYlla. llE: TIj aetpa "COU E1t1jpea~e"Ca.t xa.l yovtllo1toteI"CCl.l 1mo "Co 1tpOaAa.1l13a.v611evo. "O,"Ct 1tepL1tOU xa.l "Co yeplla.VtXO Rezeption, 1t.X. 1tp6aA1J\jJ1J "Cou PWll<XLXOU otxa.[ou aTIjv replla.vLa.. t) "Co taW, 01tWC; xa.l "Co ya.AA. reception 1tpoa<pa'twC;. a'to 1teoLo TIic; 6ewpLa.c; TIic; Aoyo-cexvLa.c;. 'Qa"C6ao 6 opoe; "COU 1tPW"CO"Cl)1tOU -i'eprise- Ex<ppa~et EVLovw"Cepa. rov BuVa.lltxb Xa.Pa.xTIipa. TIie; ota TIic; 1tpOaA1j\jJeWe; ytvOlleV1JC; otepya.a[a.c; xa.111e"Ca.1tAaaewc;.

BexGLAYJC; K. foV'tLxexC;

~ - Juggernaut

«'Oooa"Cpw"C'ijpa.C;», aBuaw1t1J"C1J xa.'ta.a"Cpo<ptxYj BuVa.ll1J. LTIjV xupwAe!;La. 1tp6xet"Ca.t yta "Co &plla. "COU Kpiava. 1tOV e<pepe "Cb eYawAo "Cou 6eou. L"COVC; "Cpoxove; "Cou &pWX't"OC; e1teq>"Ca.v ol <pa.va."Ctxolo1ta.ooL -rou,

rUtOC; "Cou Kwva"Ca.VLivou rOVLtXa. ~ 61totoC; elXe aU!l!le"COcaxet ae: xu[3epv~oetC; "Cou 'EA. BevtseAou Xa.L a1to "t~ 6eo1J "COU lmoupyou IICl.tada.C; d~ya.ye TIjv EX1ta.ti5W"CtX~ !le"Cappu6!lto1J "Cou 1927-1928-, yevv~61Jxe o"C~v 'A6~va "Co 1918. Me"Ca "CLC; EyxuxAtec; o1toui5ec; "Cou o"Co KOAAeyw 'A61Jvwv, axoAou61Joe "CLC; EVLau6a. 1ta.vemo"C1J!ltaxec; -rou o1toui5ee;. 'A1t0 "Co Ilrxverrto"C~!lW XPovoAoyet"Ca.t Yj yvwpt!lia. "Cou !le: "Cov KOPV~AW Kncnoptai51J xaL Yj [3a.6eta <ptAia Xa.L aAA'flAoex"C[!l1Jo1J 1tOV ouvel5eaav E<p' opou sw'ije; au"Ca "Ca Mo 1tpotxto!leva. 1tveu!la"Ca, ~v ~pe!l1J !le: TIjv 6p!l1J"Ctx~ oO<pia.

rpa<pet o"Co xa"Cwoi5to "Cou yta "Cov Bao[A'fl I'ovnx« 6 axa.i5'fl!ldCxoe; K. 1. ~ea1tO"Co1tOUAOe; ('EAW{)epOTun{a, 30.12.97): «'Oe; <pot"C1J"C~C; NO!ltx'ije;, uo"Cepa xaL Olxovourxeov 'Emo"C1J!lwv, xa6wc; xaL WC; !leAOe; "Cwv <l>POVLto"C1Jpiwv "Cou II. KaveAAOnDuAOu xaL "Cou 'I. LUXOl)"CP'ij, Em[3e[3aiwoe "CYj xapto!la,txYj <pU01J 'TOU. 'ApyO-repa., 6 aei!1v1Jo'TOC; rewpywc; Ka.p'TaA1JC;, o'Tav yvwproe 'TOVC; i5uo <piADuC; !lOU Kao'Toptai51J xaL rOVLtXa, !lOU elne:

"N6!1tSa o"Ct ol E1tCl.tVOl OOl) xaL yta ,ove; BUD ~"tav lmeP!le,pot. ~tamo'Twvw 'Twpa O'Tt ~"tav Bixawt"».

'A<pou aox1Joe yta Aiyo 'TYj Btx1Jyop[a, !le'Te[3ll yta !le'Ta7t'TUxtaxe:e; o7touBe:C; OLXOVO!ltXWV EmO'T'fl!lwv O'TO Cambridge. TYjv E7tayyeA!la"ttx~ "Cou o'TaBwi5po!lla i5t~vl)oe O'TO IIaplat a:rco 'TO 1950, we; !leAoc; 'T'ije; eAA'flVtx'ije; aVLt1tpOOW7tLae; o-rov O.O.L.A., xaL EV Ol)veXd<;t 'T'ije; rpa!l!la"tdae; "tou 'Opyavto!lou, 07t0l) i5te- 7tpe\jJe we; U\jJ'flAO[3a6!l0 o"teAexoe; !lexpt TIjv cmOXwp'fl~ "tOU 'TO 1984, E7tovo!1ao6ele; «6 oo<poe; 'TOU O.O.L.A.»· i5tO"Ct 6 B. ToVLtXae;, Bw6e'Tov'Tae; Xpio1J V1J<paAw, aAAa xaL o;eia, l>e:v u7t'ijp;e a7tAOe; 'Texvoxpa"C'fle;. aAAa xaL [3a.6ve; yvwo"C'Yle; oxt !l6- vov "tWV OLXOVO!ltXWV, aAAa xaL 'TWV 7tOAt"ttXWV, <ptAOOO<ptXWV xaL Emo"C'fl!lOvtXWV EV yevet 7tpaY!la"Cwv, yta "ta (mota "to Evi5ta<pepov -eou 1tape!letve a!ldw"to we; 'TO "teAOe;.

L"tOV xUXAO 'TOU 'I. LUXOU"tP'ij yvwptoe ~v !lEAAouoa aUsu-

e-IIflAA.

To 1t1jA[XOV "COU 1tA1jpwlleVOU !lta6ou ota TIie; 1tPa.Ylla."Ctxa rtpoo<pep6eLa1Je; Epya.oLa.e;.

72

H «OP90AOrIKOTHTA» Tor KAIIITAAILMor

yo wu, cptAOAOYO 'Rpw KOPIl7tE'tYj, 't~S; a7totas; lJ II A(XTWVO; 'E7ttCrroAY; Z' , EPYO Aall7tpO, lmoi'5EtYlla'ttXO xal O"tlllEpa, xuXAOCPOpYj<1E 1l0AtS; 7tpo<1cpa'tws; <1E ti'5tat'tEpo 'tollO (exi'5. ~'ttYIl1j, J\!.l1jva, 1997). xal 1lE: 't-Yjv a7tota Ot7tEX'tYj<1E i'5vo 7tmi'5ta. rov Iletpo xal "t"-Yjv Moprt».

'0 KOPV1jAWS; Ka<1'toptai'5YjS; <1UV-lj!.lt~E va. i'5tVEt o-rov Ba<1tAYj I'ovnx« xEtpoypacpa 'tou yta. 7tpw'tYj Cxvayvw<1Yj, ~Yj'twv'tas; 't-Yjv yvwllYj 'tou. 'as i'5ELYlla Euxapt(J"t"tas; yta. OAES; 'tls; <1UIl[30UAES; 7tOU 7tavca Cxxovpa<1'ta 7tPO<1ECPEPE a Ba<1tAYjS; I'ovnxcec, a Cxi'5EAcptXOS; -cou cptAOS; 'tou CxcptEPW<1E au'to 'to Xe:LIlEVO 7tOU EIlEAAE vo: dvat 'to 'tEAw'taLo 'tou.

'0 Ba<1tAYjS; rOVCtxas; Cx7tE[3tW<1E <1't0 Ilrxptot "t"-Yjv 21 Yj ~EXEIl[3ptOU 1997, 7tEV'tE 1l0AtS; lJIlEPES; rtplv CX7tO 'tov !.lava'to 'tou cp(AOU 'tou KOpv-fJALOU.

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