# Density of states and Fermi energy.

Rohlf Ch. 12 Sec.12.6

V ⎛ 2m ⎞ Number of states up to E : N = ⎜ ⎟ 6π 2 ⎝  2 ⎠

3/2

E 3/2 .

dN Vm 3/2 1/2 Density of states:            = E 2 3 dE 2π 

(3 / π ) h 2 2/3 Fermi energy:                     EF = ne 8m

2/3

Application of zero point energy to astrophysics. which makes the star become smaller and the Fermi energy. which makes the star become larger. . Some aspects of the structure of a star may be understood by considering the opposing forces of gravitational energy.

2 × 10 57 G = 6.3 Ee = 40 ( 4π ) 34/3 2 2/3 5/3 h2 5/3 = CN e N 2 e me R R2 2 2 2 3 GM 2 3 GmN N N BN N EG = − =− =− 5 R 5 R R Use the following data to find B and C for the Sun. mN = 1.67 × 10 −11 m 3kg-1s −2 N e = 0.6 × 10 57     h = 6.63 × 10 −34 J-s C = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg M  = 2 × 10 30 kg me = 9.36 × 10 −38                  B = 1.12 × 10 −64 .1× 10 31 kg N N = 1.

Find the equilibrium radius by mimimizing the energy with respect to R.2 × 10 3 km . CN 5/3 R2 2 BN N EG = − R Ee = E = Ee + EG = 5/3 CN e R2 2 BN N − R 5/3 2 dE 2CN e BN N =− + 2 = 0 3 dR R R 5/3 2CN e 2 BN N   R = = 7.

Exercises Density and gravitational energy of white dwarf M ρ          V 2 BN N EG = −        R Fermi energy and zero-point energy of electrons: Ee = 5/3 CN e R2 5 Ee EF = 3 Ne Data: R = 7.2 × 10 6 m M  = 2 × 10 30 kg N N = 1.2 × 10 57 N e = N N / 2      .

5 × 10 42 J = 2.2 × 10 6 3 ( 2 × 10 30 kg ) 3 m3 = 1.6 × 10 57 Density of white dwarf ρ 4 π 7.2 × 10 6 m M  = 2 × 10 30 kg N e = N N / 2 = 0.36 × 10 = 2 3 7.6 × 10 5 1.194 × 10 6 eV ⇒ non relativistic kinematics is becoming invalid.2 × 10 6 ( R2 = 3.1× 10 −14 J = .R = 7.28 × 10 6 gm-cm -3 Fermi Energy of electrons: 5 Ee EF = 3 Ne 5 EF = 3 2/3 CN e 2 Ee = 5/3 CN e R 0.28 × 10 9 kg-m -3 = 1.2 × 10 61 eV −38 ( )( 57 2/3 ) ) = 3. .

46RW Ee = 5/3 CN e R2         Ee =    5/3 2 EeW   = 2.3 × 10  eV   3m c 6 e 2 .46 2 N eW R 5 4.8 × 10 63 5/3 2 N e RW 10 5/3 EF =  5 Ee =  3 Ne 3 6 × 10 57 ( ( ) ) = 1.2 × 10 61 = 4.What about more massive stars: assume M = 10M  R= 5/3 Ne N2 N 5/3 Ne N 2 nW 5/3 N 2 N eW N R= RW = 10 5/3 10 2 RW = 10 −1/3 RW = 0.8 × 10 63  eV 0.

Fermi energy. to the Fermi energy EF − m c Ne = V 3π 2 c 3 3 ( 2 2 4 3/2 ) . electrons fill all states. 6 L Number of states up to k : vk L3 3 N= = 2k . vs 6π Number of states up to E : k = 2 p2  2 = 2 E 2 − me c 4 c2 2 N k3 1 E − me c                = = 2 V 6π 6π 2 c 3 3 ( 2 2 4 3/2 ) At T=0. 2 per state.Relativistic number of states up to k.     Volume per state vs = 3 .! π 3 π3 Volume up to k vk = k .

Relativistic number of states up to k. Fermi energy.! Density of states: E −m c 1 dN dn = = 8π V dE dE c 3h 3 ( 2 2 4 1/2 ) E          E >> m E2 3c 3h 3 8π dne 8π =   3 3 E 2 dE c h .

Total zero point electron energy: Ef Total energy = N e E = N 0 e Ef ∫ dN e E dE dE dN e dE dE Ef =N ∫ 0 0 e Ef ∫ E 3 dE 2 ∫E 0 dE 3 = N e EF 4 .

Read lecture notes to be posted and compare with text for photons – p343-4.Repeat of previous analysis for relativistic electrons. 1/3 EF = 3π ( ) 2 1/3 ⎛ Ne ⎞ c ⎜ ⎝ V ⎟ ⎠ dN e 8π V 2 = 3 3E dE c h 3 Total energy = N e E = N e EF 4 . Homework: Verify the following.

54 × 10 −26 4/3 (6.466)(6.Compare Fermi and gravitational energies.35) R 4/3 Ne R Ee = 4.5 × 10 −26 .75 × 10 4/3 = Ne 1/3 4 ⎛4 3⎞ ⎜ πR ⎟ ⎝3 ⎠ ( ) = 4.75 × 10 −26 ⎜ e ⎟ ⎝ V ⎠ 4 4/3 4/3 Ne Ne =α R R ) 1/3 −26 3 9.24)(. Total zero point energy Ee = N e 3 E 4 eF −26 EeF = 3π ( ) ( 2 1/3 ⎛N ⎞ c ⎜ e ⎟ ⎝ V ⎠ 1/3 = 9.6 × 10 −34 )(3 × 10 8 ) N e = 2(6.75 × 10 ⎛ Ne ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ V ⎟ ⎠ 1/3 3 ⎛N ⎞ Ee = N e 9.

67 × 10 −11 1.1 × 10 = − R R R .Gravitational energy 2 2 3 GM 2 3 Gm N N N EG = − = − 5 R 5 R ⎛ 3⎞ = − ⎜ ⎟ 6.67 × 10 −27 ⎝ 5⎠ ( )( ) 2 2 2 NN β −64 N N = − 1.

4/3 Ne Ee = R 4/3 Ne = α R EG = −1. dR R2 R R ( ) There is no stable minimum! .1 × 10 −64 2 2 NN NN = −β R R 4/3 2 4/3 2 Ne NN α Ne − β N N E = Ee + EG = α −β = R R R Minimize the energy: 4/3 2 α Ne βNN dE 1 4/3 2 =− + 2 = 2 −α N e + β N N = 0.

5 × 10 −26 N e             N e = 1 NN 2 2/3 N N > 1.  N  ≈ 1.1 × 10 57.7 M  For a more accurate measure. ( ) Gravity always wins out over the Fermi energy and the star collapses.1 × 10 −64 N N > 4.4 M  .6 × 10 38      N N > 2. A more careful calculation gives the Chandrasekhar mass M  1.dE 1 4/3 2 = 2 −α N e + β N N = 0. dR R 2 4/3 IF β N N > α N e the energy always decreases R becomes small. 2 4/3 −1.2 × 10 57 M  1. should not assume E >> mc 2 .

8 MeV Inverse β decay (electron capture) e + p → n + ν requires minumum electron energy. emitting a neutrino. and this speeds up the process as the Fermi energy increases. . Then. the number of electrons in the star may begin to reduce. With the reduction in electron Fermi pressure the star collapses under gravity until balanced by the increasing Fermi pressure of the nucleons. until all the electrons have been used up.Compare a white dwarf’s energy with a neutron star. In a nucleus it may be energetically favorable for an inner atomic electron to be captured by a proton and turn into a neutron. β decay: n → p + e + ν mn − m p − me ≈ 0.

Energetics of neutron star.1× 10 31 kg N N = 1.63 × 10 −34 J-s Cn = 7.67 × 10 −11 m 3kg-1s −2 h = 6. m N = 1.2 × 10 57 G = 6.3 × 10 −42                  Bn = 1.67 × 10 −27 kg M  = 2 × 10 30 kg me = 9. 3h ⎛ 3 ⎞ En = ⎜ ⎟ 40mN ⎝ π V ⎠ 2 2/3 3h 5/3 NN = ⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 40mN ⎜ 4π 2 ⎟ 2 2/3 5/3 NN R 2 = 5/3 CN N N R2 2 2 2 3 GM 2 3 GmN N N BN N N EG = − =− =− 5 R 5 R R Use the following data to find Bn and Cn for the neutron star.3 km Exercise Verify this result .12 × 10 −64 5/3 2C N N N 2 BN N N  R = = 12.3 × 10 3 m = 12.

ds 2 = c 2 dt 2 − dr 2 − r 2 dθ 2 − r 2 sin 2 θ dφ 2 = c 2 dt 2 − dx 2 − dy 2 − dz 2     →       flat spacetime.Schwartzschild solution to Einstein's gravitational field equation. −1 dr 2 − r 2 dθ 2 − r 2 sin 2 θ dφ 2 . 2GM ⎞ 2 ⎛ 2GM ⎞ 2 2⎛ ds = c ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ dt − ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ c r ⎠ c r ⎠ For M → 0.

2GM ⎞ ⎛ dr = c ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ dt ⎝ c r ⎠ R ⎞ dr ⎛ = c ⎜1 − S ⎟ ⎝ dt r ⎠ RS = −1 dr 2 2GM c2 RS = Schwartzschild radius. dt ≈ 3 × 10 3 = 3km RS = 2GM c2 ( 3 × 10 8 ) 2 For several solar masses. → Black hole. When r = RS dr = 0     When r < RS dt = 2 × 6.2GM ⎞ 2GM ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ Radial motion: ds 2 = c 2 ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ dt 2 − ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ c r ⎠ c r ⎠ Light: ds 2 = 0. RS crosses neutron star RN . .7 × 10 −11 × 2 × 10 30 dr is always negative.

(Eddington-Finkelstein coords.) Schwartzschild radius: r = (event horizon) 2GM c2 .cdt = ± 1− dr =± 2GM c2 r dr R 1− S r World line of object falling toward large mass.

2GM ⎞ 2GM ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ Radial motion: ds = c ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ dt 2 − ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ c r ⎠ c r ⎠ 2 2 −1 dr 2 2GM ⎞ ⎛ c dt = ds ⎜ 1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ c r ⎠ 2 2 2 −1 2GM ⎞ ⎛ + ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ⎝ c r ⎠ −2 dr 2 .

cdt = ± 1− dr =± 2GM c2 r r dr R 1− S r ⎛ r − RS ⎞ dr ∫ cdt =t − t0 = ± ∫ RS = ± ⎜ r − r0 + RS ln r0 − RS ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ t0 r0 1 − r ct = ± ( r + RS ln r − RS + Const ) t .