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4

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q&mawmf OD;OwWr

16 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

q&mawmf OD;OwWr

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 17

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EkdifiHa&;w&m;a[m&ef a&muf&Sdvm-uaom ae&l;ESifh orD; tif'&m*END

q&mawmf OD;OwWr. !$ef-um;csuft& ppfawGòrd ha&$apwDausmif;okd h
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a&$apwD q&mawmf/ usm;&kyfq&mawmfESifh &cdkihfEkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;
18 vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol

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rSm &Sio f mra%b0od@k a&mufv#if rdbESirhf qdik I f ud. om.c|epf mG wwf ajrmufz@kd cufco J nf? od@k a=umifyh if &Sio f mra%t0wfjzifh wòrd@w&GmrS ynm&Sx d H enf.qdck ahJ v onf? rdcif}uD.vd&k um.&.f yg? tarwd@k xH.f jzifh &Sif rðy=u? tarwd@k u.=uavmh? avmueDwyd sKd h wòrd@w&Gmod@k omG . od@k ynmoif&ef a&mufawmhrnf[k . / &So d nf=um. tjrefyif&iS ðf y&eff awmif.d &Guaf qmifI rsm.f atmifukd zGi[ hf ajymqdak vonf? 0rf.vmcGi&hf &dS m b.q&mawmf OD.ajrmifow k / qD.=uyf=uyfyif cGiyhf efawmif.om&jcif.+yD.em / odvrd mR onfh ynm&Srd sm. kd w f ikd f 0gzwfAikd .cGg / w&yfrmS vnf.u oabmwln+D yD.rl ajrjcm. k o f mG .wvnf 0rf.a0.fwkH ayg ºuG.ud&k iS ðf ycJo h nf&adS omf qdik rf 0S . ta=umif.f iif+y.f om. vd&k m vmav&mod@k oGm.ESirhf qdk umvuwWm.avawmhonf? rSwo f m. pdwf"gwf rsdK.D &ufaomouFe.f wpfpjkH zifh &Sio f mra%0wfawmh rnf[I l wif.k pHtwdik .f vdu k =f uavawmhonf? vGwfvyfa&.fenf.ajrmuf0rf.wd@k onfvnf.H=k unfaoma=umifjh zpfonf? 16-ESpt f 0ifwiG f rdbESpyf g.cH&ef oGm.faom ouFe. G f / wa=umif. r&SmrS.OwWr v#iðf yyg / rðyvdu k bke.f ESihf ðyyg&ap” [k ajymojzifh om.ajrmuf0rf.f avonf? ay:xGef.f 'Dvakd wmh rvkyyf ge@J ? tarwd@k tazwd@k bJ &Siðf yyg&ap/ wESpw f mr#qikd .om jzpf a=umif.yl.D bJ twwfynmYxl. rdrdusdwfI }uHpnfaeaom t}uH tpnfrmS atmifjrifawmhrnf[k txl.&SmawG@atmif / usK.mufukd 0rf.rSm xdt k }udrw f iG rf aeEdik af wmhbJ “om. oGm.atmifrSm xdktcsdefrSp+yD.wif.odv.omyif &Sit f jzpfo@kd oGwo f iG .0.f }u. nDausmx f eG . &Siðf yzd@k &m wpfEpS q f ikd .ESpaf .D xHrS oCFe.ef nf.aphcscJhol 39 .

odk x h u G If ynm&SmrS. vdck siaf om xd&k rS .musfm.D aemuf Ak'b < mom pmay usr.ausmaf usmf wGif vltjzpfESifh umvuwWm.av.wpfqu l o hJ @kd emrnfausmf =um.a. pdwaf epdwx f m..0acwf aumif.}uD.vm&mrS awmifiòl rd@ u|e.q&mawmf OD.vdu k umvuwWm.pOftcgu Edik if aH usmf &SiOf wWrausmf yk*K~ v d f xl.ta=umif. jzpfavonf? tcef.trsKd.a=umifh vlcspv f cl ifrsm.f *efw@kd ukd avhvmoif=um.=um. &SiOf .D OwWronf ppfawGrrS tlyifo@kd ºuGvmaom bke.yHw k jl cif. d &Sjd cif.odk@a&mufoGm.f uke.yg&ap[k bke..? &Sr.D *E<rmxH csO./ vkv0† &d .vdu k f onf? tif. ay:xGe.pm.f }uD.D jcif.f uyfI f vl0wfvu J m vdu k yf gvmcJo h nf? vl0wfEiS v hf u kd yf gvmcJ&h m rtlyifo@kd a&mufonf? rtlyifrw S qifh &efuek /f &efuek rf S awmifiòl rd@o@kd a&muf oGm.aumif.u vGwyf grnf[k oabmwl.onfh yckuLU òr@d a&póupd moifwu kd }f u.D jri‡ ahf y.D .OwWr &SiOf wWrESihf &Sit f &d. &ojzifh xdw k u kd o f @kd omG . pdwf"gwf rsdK.jf yef@aom ydËu d wf wd@k ukd oiftaH vhusu&f m ygVw d uUov kd }f uD.pm.pm. 'g.? yxr&aomowif.udk owif.? ynmwwf om.odk@ a&mufI t*Fvyd pf moif=um.orD.aphcscJhol .q&mawmfO. axmufyaHh omaiGjzifh 17-ESpo f m.vd&k um. (2) &yfa0.wpfOD.a.u Tod@k aombG@J ukd ay.ojzifh awmifiw l iG f &Sif omra% pmjyefyGJ0ifajz&m yxr&.f r}uD.xH &SiOf wWrudak wmif. q&mawmf}uD.&m &SiOf wWru “u|eaf wmfu h kd om.f atmif &Sit f jzpfo@kd a&muf+y.ESiw hf uG ynmvdv k m.musmf .f jynf0h aom &Srf.vdu k jf cif.udk ynmoifz@dk vGwrf vm. od& 40 vGwfvyfa&. wd@k ukd axmuf&+_ yD.tjzpf arG.tjzpf arG.ae&mrS eufeu J s..&m umvuwWm.” [k ar.f r}uD.f &yfwiG f ypPn.ae+y[ D k ponfrh yS if ppfawGrS rdbrsm.? awmifiòl rd@Y &uftawmf=umanmif.u om.u bG@J trnf cs.[lI q&mawmfb&k m.f awmf}uD.

vS.udk qufvufoif=um.d wpawmfol ) u yO…i.vdu k af vonf? vGwfvyfa&.fbm.Y pGef@pm.? . twGuf xºuGEdk.I a&póudwu kd f wGif &Si0f wfEiS hf Ak'b < mom pmayusr. tcGio hf moGm.onfh wdik f atmif t&SifOwWrtm.bJ rdrw d wfouJo h @kd tjcm.f *efrsm.od@k a&mufaomtcsed w f iG f tdE. 0wfEiS o hf mG .f wGif &[ef.xGef.? t&SiOf wWronf yckuLU rSaeIwzef umvuwWm. aqGwprsK.yGu J kd tvGwyf nmoiftjzpfEiS hf ajzqdEk ikd cf o hJ nf? xdEk pS w f iG f yif umvuwWm.odk h jyefºujG cif.OwWrtm.aphcscJhol 41 .onfh rav#mah om vkv0† &d .jyvsu&f jdS yef.? xdkodk@oif=um.ðyvdkaom pdwf"gwf&Sdav&m Ak'<bmomr[kwfaom tjcm.od@k &[ef.&Hk udpw P ckuo kd m tmodoxm.onf uH&I dS a=u. pmar.jcif.udpP+yD. kd w f ikd u f r&rae[laom óud.umðyvsuf touf 19 ESpf 2-v pGe.bmom0ifw@kd o@kd jzef@jzL.f a[mif.aepOfyif yckuULwGifaeaom bHkb. udk. dN acgi.pD.if.rS jyefvm+yD. wwf atmif aus.tr_jzifh raeao.pOfukd vdu k f pm. rdrd.oluv kd nf. dN Edik if aH &.d wpfzakH jymif.atmifausmf (ppfawGwGifaepOfu oda[mif.odk@ óuHóudufjcif.onf[k rqdo k m? olu.rm.vdak om tmodojyif.ðyI atmifjrifjcif.f 'g.onfhtcdkuftwef@ESifh óuHóudufae.=um. tdE.f ay.onfyifvsif OD.v#uf orx0dy\emvrf. tusKd.fpm. avmukwfw&m. EdkifiHa&.csifaom pdw"f mwfukd oGi.Zl.aemuf yckuLU òrd@o@kd omG . Ak'b < mom pmayusr.f aqmifw@kd vGwv f yfa&.vJ+yD.rSm wrsK. pdwf"gwf rsdK. u|r. d udk ta=umif. jyef.f *efw@kd Y avhvmwwfu|r.q&mawmf OD.f +yD.cHonf? Tod@k yxrtqifh atmifjrifjcif.OwWr avonf? touf 17 -ESpf / 18-ESpf / 19 ESpw f iG f t*Fvyd yf nm 10wef.a&wwfEiS hf awG@+yD.f OD.pm. [k qd&k ayrnf? Edik if jH cm.jyefonf? umvuwWm.

f wdu k zf su&f efyifóud.udk jyif.Y ygVdya&mfzuffqmtjzpf aqmif&GufaepOfyif trsKd.wuf cef@xm.om. Edik if aH &.? tdE.tjypfay.pm.jcif. aqmif v suf ql y G u f u ef @ uG u f v m=u&m ynmwwf y k * ~ d K vf trsm.enf.udpPtwGuf &Gwf&Gwfc|efc|ef aqmif&Guf vm=uonf? trsK.pvmcJyh kH xdt k csed u f yifv#if ArmjynfArmrsm. pdwf"gwf rsdK.q&mawmf OD. udkwnfaxmif=uonfjzpf&m tawmfrsm.rsm.om.wdk@ rcHr&yfEdkifI qlyGufvm=uonf? xdktcsdefY a'gufwm &mbif'&m ewf o f w *d k .cGJjcm. dN Edik if aH &.aphcscJhol .aumvdyw f pfcu k kd wnfaxmif=u&m AifE*kd &kd fS qd k o nf h td k i f p D t uf p f t&m&S d } uD .=u+yD. 42 vGwfvyfa&. aqmif E d k i f o avmuf jyojcif .a[mif.xefxefyif raqmif&Guf=uao.udk tajcðyay.tjzpfjzifh aqmif&u G I f xdak umvdyw f iG f t&Sif OwWru ygVd E S i f h A k ' < b momud k rd r d p G r f .bk&ifccH sKyfu 1904-ckEpS w f iG f b*Fvm.v#if v#Kd @0u S o f yl ek t f oif.f jynftwGuf &oif&h xdu k af om tcGit hf a&.vdkuf&mu b*Fvm.yif zrf.jyefonf? xdkausmif. ES i f h p d t m'wf ( pf ) qd k a om ynm&S d y k * ~ d K vf } uD .pm wdk@udkoif=um. jyif. v#if ausmif. tajctae tdE.d om. cH&onf? 4if. [dENLusrf. wOD . twGuf aqmif&u G v f pkd w d f jyif. wqifx h uf wqifw h ufI rdrw d @kd wikd .jyvmjyef. ES p f O D .tky}f uD.uyifv#if xdkta&.e.k &Xme wd@k ukd òzdciG .jzifh tpd.rSmvnf. jzif h ulnDaqmif&Gufavonf? odk@aqmif&Guf&if.rsm.rS trsKd. jcif. dN Y 1899-ck bk&ifccH sKyftjzpfjzifh avmhumZif a&muf vmcJh&m tkyfcsKyfcef@cGJr_wGif tvGefawmfonfqdk+yD. dN trsK.d om.apumrl EdkifiHa&.qD.qdv k m=u&m ajymufusm. u acgif .jzifhyif ouUË/ b*FvD/ em*&Dpaoma&S.fukd ta&S@ESifhtaemuf ESpfydkif.OwWr tdE.cH&cJo h nf? ArmhEikd if aH &.wd@k um. u tvk y f r S x G u f + yD . ESpfESpfwdk.wd@k ukd awmif.

f awmf}uD.pD.xGuo f . aoG.fodk@xGuf+yD.ESifh 0wfvHkawmf& OD.u pwifwnf axmifc&hJ mrS tajctaet&ajymif.k ajAmhu OuUXtjzpf aqmif&u G +f yD.rlvblwtoif. H rkd jzpfaom tm%mzDqefrt _ wGuf .uawmf a': jrarausmif. jzpfonf? bmoma&. pdwf"gwf rsdK.f y&m pmawmfjyefòrd@tyk f OD. zGifhvSpf&efvdktyfonf[k qHk.xef vsu&f adS e+yD.bu OuUXtjzpf aqmif&u G o f nf? 1910-ckEpS w f iG f 0efaxmufO.vrf.rHk.jzwf=uv#uf ynm0ef axmuf OD.az) OD. (trfat)ESifh OD.q&mawmf OD.onf awmfawmfjrifI h jyif.baz (. Edik if aH &.f qdo k l t*Fvyd v f rl sK.vJ+yD.ta0.ckacgi.k wufvmcJah vonf? ArmhEikd if aH &. Edik if aH &.ywWeðyvsufom &Sdayao.}u.udk usK. Armjynf 0dik t f rfbaD ttoif.f aqmif}uD.rsm.armif}uD.[lI zGi=hf u+yD.rsm.I oufawmf&n S f ygap[k qkawmif.v#if omoema&.Y Ak'b < mom Ek*[ ~ toif.f aqmif=uonf? 1908-ckEpS f 4if.rsm.D bd.pif=unfI h ucJ=h u. tdE.}u.v#if e.H }uD..ae&l. wGif usi.acgi.Yvnf.jrwf bke.}uD.tqift h wef.aratmifwdk@u e.rsm.jynfwGif vnf. pvsu&f adS e+yD.pdefvSatmif (0wfvakH wmf&) wd@k u OD.wlyif Armjynf 0dik t f rfbaD ttoif.oufoufukd aqmif&u G =f uonf? 9-ESpaf vmuf=um+yD.ESiw hf uG uGe*f &uftoif.OwWr vdu k af om 0dik /f trf/ bD/ at toif.aphcscJhol 43 . yxrpcef.rsm.vsiS f 1920-ckEpS Yf r[wWr *EN}D uD.frsm.um.? jrefrm vGwfvyfa&.udk &efukefòrd@wGif pwifzGifh&m OD.onf? tdENd.toif. 1906-ckESpfwGif 0dkiftrfbDattoif.onf xdpk Of u umvHa'oH t*~"H ge[ H k qdo k uJo h @kd rD. 3000-ausmf axmifus cJ=h uonf? xdek nf. rif.ck b}uD.d wOD.[lI 1897 ckESpf (jrefrmouU&mZf 1259-ckEpS )f wGirf E aW v.tawmftoifh wd.D onf 1885-ckEpS w f iG f attd[ k rG .rSmum.jzpfaomfvnf.0dik t f rf bDat tpnf. xkcd sed t f cguqdv k siS f a*smb h &k ifrif.D [k qdt k yfaom uGe*f &uftoif.om. dN . aqmif&u G =f uI tvif.

if.&ayvdrrhf nf? Edik if aH &.rsuv f .D bk&m.+y. wd@k .aphcscJhol .yg.}uD.*k%ðf yxm. azmfðyI” tp&So d jzifh &Snv f sm.k udk usKH .I oufawmf&mausmf &SnfEdkifygapom.k Y jrwfbek .f 0&Zde/f &efrsuEf rdS af om/ t&dErN m/ p}uFmtyg.d tpkp/k owWK&wemtrsK.0dik t f rfbD at toif. aemufrS 0dik t f rfbaD t[k xdek nf.onf ArmvlrsK.xdyx f m. t&Sit f aomu[lI ay:aygu&f m xdyk *k Kd~ vfu avmuta&. Edik if aH &.ywWjrm.jzifh a&$jynfawmfo/l a&$jynfawmfom.aom/ ausmufrsK.f }uD.to#i/f a&$wiG .wd@k tm.d ESiw hf uG raemr.f xif.wd@k onf bkefawmf}uD.Y a*smb h &k ifrif. t&Sit f pd.I acgi.D tpd.f cGe@f Y “bke.atmif&nf}uH / xufaom^m%fjzifh / pDrt H yk f csKyfawmfral om +Aw d o d #Eikd if aH wmf}u.ocif yÌrajrmuf a*smb h &k ift&Si{f u&mZf rif.opPmawmf udk apmifo h &d akd oaomtm.f aqmif / aumif.Zl.utjzpfaqmif&u G I f OuUXrde.udv k u kd I f xGi=f ujcif. k yf mG .[k qkawmif. uGezf &ifrh sm. ywWemðy=uonf? pwkwt W t}urd f [oFmwòr@d ueG zf &ifw h iG f OD.wd@k .pGm cs.cJo h nfukd cs..rsm.q&mawmf OD.yg.d Ak'b < mom bke.f awmf tvGew f &m }u.jrwfukd bk&m.f jynf/ c&dik /f Edik if t H vH. pdwf"gwf rsdK.vif./ taemr/ &wem t aygi. aus.D usL.awmftppfjzpfawmfral om wdik .D usK.k yg./ tyg.f uGi.f awmf}uD.awmf *k%af wmfw@kd uakd xmufI opPmawmfapmifo h d &dak or_rS tpcsI D yifv#if ynm&Syd *k Kd~ v}f u.jrwf}u. ESihf ud.D trsm.OwWr ouU&mZf 1294-ckEpS w f iG f t*Fvyd v f rl sK.k &rif.Zl./ "rRta&.ywWemðy=uonf? 1915-ck/ atmufwb kd mv 26 &ufae@ 0dik t f rfbaD t uGezf &ifh qH.wd@k EiS w hf uG a*smb h &k ifEiS hf ar&drzd &k m. a[majymojzifh ykord òf rd@wiG f taomutoif.wd@k .D vsif t&Sif t*Fvyd t f pd.k &rif.k jzwfcsut f yd'k f (2) ESihf (3) wGif &wemoH.f aiGwiG .f wd@k .acgi.d rsK.eufukd uGuu f u G u f iG .f / uyftvH.d wd@k tm.D jrwfawmfral om vufeufp}umF ocif/ ajrjyifa&jyifa0[ifywfuek .ocifapmifrh ygap[lI qkawmif.f / y.k &rif.kH udk rodrom wpwp zGiahf y.jzpfavonf? ESppf Ofusi.onfukd awG@&ay onf? xdx k akd us.[lI yxray:aygu+f yD.aratmif u em.qdo k nfrmS bk&if 44 vGwfvyfa&.f yaom xdt k oif. aus.yg0ifaom 4if.Zl. OD.

f 0ef}uD.f a'oE &W tkycf sKyfa&.u t}uHay.v#if awG@qEkH .jzjz em.udk toif.jcm.aphcscJhol 45 .ESihf t&wdu k .avmh&pfyGef.udk ajymqdjk cif.ausm&f efu axmufco H nft h wdik .aratmif/ OD. k yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&.rnf[k a=ujim+yD. dN tm.fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&. pdwf"gwf rsdK.udk vdv k m.OwWr {u&mZfukd tr_xm. OD. wd.xdu k f vGwfvyfa&.DS aESm&ef [oFmwòrd@ 0wfvakH wmf&rif. wdkufcdkufcJhaom yxrurBm ppf}uD.bwl/ OD.twGi. udk. k .tjym.csKyf rGefaw*lu bdvyfygvDrefwGif tdENd.uGezf &ifu h atmufygq.t f jzpfjzifh twGi.tkycf sKyfa&. ay.udk pwifum ay. rpPwmrGeaf w*locifonf tdE.q&mawmf OD./ awmif.udk ac:.0ef}uD. aomif.OD. f &oif&h xdu k f aom tcGit hf a&.yifv#if jzpf&m 1914-ckrS 1918-ckESpftwGif.f tdE.a&S@awmfo@kd 0ifI c&D.f 0efrif. OuUXvl}uD.f oabmwlq.}uD. k pf m.onfjzpfap/ rxm.rsm.k0 toif.òrd@ Ak'o < moemðytoif.k jzwfcsut f rSwf (1)? ? r=umcifumvtwGi.f Y xdo k @kd aomtcGit hf a&.OD.bk&ifcHcsKyf}uD. wdk. dN wdik .kH jzwfcsuf wckukd csrw S cf o hJ nf? qH.xGuv f mavonf? xdt k cgwiG f Arm jynfrS 0dik t f rfbaD ttoif.udk tkycf sKyfa&. t*Fvyd w f @kd onf *smreD ESiw hf u kd &f ef tdE. pum.bazESihf rE aW v.jrOD.onfjzpfap ud. dN wdik .f &if. f jl cif.l&av&m tdE. aomif.qdck =hJ u&m Armjynftm.wGiv f nf.ud.óud ðy+yD.rsm.kH jzwf twnfðyonf? OD.onf rdrw d @dk tcGit hf a&.vnfr_ &vm=uayawmhonf? 1898 wGif tdENd.k wufðyjyifay.cHjcif.csKyfv}l uD.rsm.qdik &f m toif.jzifh òrd@/ &Gm/ ud.f om.wk@d onf ud.cJ&h mrS tdE. dN Edik if aH wmfqikd &f m twGi.udk vufrv$w&f atmif 1917-ckEpS f ysO.f rem. ppfwyftrsm. dN od@k apv$waf wmif. dN od@k vmawmhrnf[k owif.cJ=h u onf? yxrurBmppf}uD. OD.u jrLeDpy.ajymqdk vm=uI tdENd. k yf ikd t f yk cf sKyfa&.aemuf 1017-ckEpS w f iG f tdE. dN Edik if H awmfo@kd ºuGvmawmfral omtcg jrefrmjynf Ak'b < momuvsm%.pkw@kd ukd tdE.wd@k ukd &xdu k af =umif.onfukd rE aW v.wufapoifha=umif.vS.twGif. oD.om.

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f armif/ OD.bkef.av&m tqd.[lI oH.f u&ufa'guu f vnf.oif.f [lI ESpyf ikd . pdwf"gwf rsdK.f ay:xGuv f monf? vl}uD.q&mawmf OD.oif. xºuGE.udk zGifhay.I trsKd.f rSmyif jrefrmh tvif.f .pðyvmcJ=h u&m 0dik f / trf / bD / at toif. ArmhEikd if aH &.cspv f id_ w f @kd uwzuf twdu k t f cHjzpfc=hJ u&onf? bk&ifcq H m&.baz/ bdvyfrS jyefvmpjzpfaom 0wfvkH awmf& OD.[lI todtrSwfðy+yD.om.f wGif trwfO.d ðyjyif ay.f*seD .vJvmcJo h nf? yxrurBmppf}u.om. twdik yf ifcH trwf}uD.pmonfvnf.rsm.om. d / jrefrmhtvif.kd =um.k jzwfjyef vGwfvyfa&.k Oya'rSm xdt k csed u f owif. ydwv f u kd &f av&m ol&.f wGif OD.ydik .rsm.ydik .owif.òrd@ 9-}udraf jrmuf *sD / pD / bD / at ESpyf wfvnf tpnf.k om/ OD.d rsK.tm.vmaygif.tjzpf cef@xm.aphcscJhol 61 .}uD.D bul/ OD.u OD.rSm tmrcH rwifEikd I f awmfawmfrsm.udk a&.f *smrefw@kd u ta&.}uD.f }u.pmESifh *sme. vl}uD.folzwfol awmfawmf uav. ol&d.pm.) Armjynfo@kd tvnfvm rnfjzpf&m rE aW v.rsufvHk. oydwaf rSmuf&ef qH.rsm.fuav.ydik .k 0g.omae onfudkom awG@vdkjrifvdk=u&m owif.k OD.r_ukd tqifoifo h vdk ESrd ef if.pGe@f b&k if tuf'yG 0f ifqmòrd@pm. h ? 1918-ckEpS rf S p+yD.ta0.owif.qH.&ef Oya'rsm.D Y *smrefEiS t hf *Fvyd f t}uD.cJ.w f u kd w f ikd .aom &[ef.oHCmF awmfawmfyifenf.vmonfhtwdkif. vlrsm.tm.yg.u a0vrif. tajctaeum.bd.v#if Edik if aH &.fyikd .f jzpfap xkwaf 0v#if tmrcHaiG (3000)wif&rnf[I l yxr ynwfcsuf yifjzpfavonf? xdktcgu aemufxyfay:vmaom owif.ESihf AE<Kv*sme.rSmvnf.twGi.[laom &ufjcm.odr.fyikd .f ESihf vli.OwWr od@k aomfvnf.v#uf &Sad vonf? 1914-ckrS 18-ck yxrurBmppf}uD. awmfawmfyifajymif.pmESpaf pmif xyfraH y: vm+yD.ESib hf ek .f 4-apmif om &efuek òf rd@wiG f useaf eawmhonf? 1921-ckEpS w f iG f a0vrif.wd@k u xifay: vm=uv#uf vli.pmjzpfap/ *sme.rsm.tus. omref EdkifiHa&. trsK.fyikd .D rsm. tcgtcGifh &oavmuf awmfawmfóud. oGm.f rS 3OD.wyg./ ynmtvif.pm0.OwWrtm. / ynmtvif.}uD.ck eef. vl}uD. (.vsuf vli.om.

) [k EdkifiHa&.toGifudk vHk.pdev f aS tmifu a&G.wd@k tm.onf uGu J mG aumif.vS. tqdw k ifoiG .f }u.d csppf w d w f u. OuUXtjzpf wifajr‡mufco hJ nf? *sD / pD / bD / at [laom trnfukd &J&J awmuf owWAd vESihf jynfph o kH l 0wfvakH wmf& OD. Edik if H a&.f rsm.aEG.rsm. rsK.D aom yk*Kd~ vfw@kd onf / tanmned\w d m tcsi.onf r[kw[ f al om v_@H aqmfcsuf bk&m. armfvòrdiòf rd@ ode.pGmºuG.udk / t&EN.aphcscJhol .f yaom 0dik f / trf / bD / at ESpyf wfvnf uGezf &ifph +y.onfukd awG@&onf? vlEiS hf &[ef.wdik yf if vm=u avonf? 4if.ujzLqkjd zLI rJqv kd #if rJ=ujcif.csKyfukd *s/D pD/ bD/ at (*sief &.q&mawmf OD.k Edik v f mcJ&h m bk&ifcq H m&. toif. d owif. d ? (teufum.D =oZm róuduaf omvl[I l &Sm.ESihf a&.wd@k onf 4if.E dW o'NrHR / a.xkw=f u&m.vJvdkufav+yD? 1919-ckEpS f ykord u f eG zf &ifu h p+yD.E dW yl.k0toif.f wOD.f cJI h xdjk ynfòrd@ (8) }udraf jrmuf uGezf &ifrh S p+yD. trSDo[Jðyv#uf ae=uukef. &Sif.ESiw hf OD. “tm*g&mtem*g&mp / Oabm / tanmned\w d m/ t&EN .wGI J om tm.ESiv hf rl sm.D &[ef.f0wfvakH wmf& OD.rD.f csi.rSm v#ijf refpmG pnf. / tem*g&mp &[ef.&H.om.uav./ Oabm ESpOf .bJ yifah c:I aqG.awmfrsm.cspv f id_ t f m.m*auQrH tEkw&W ”H [lI ygVad wmfvm&S.w&m.jynfòr@d uGezf &ifh rwdik rf u DS av.f*seD .iSm/ o'<rHR olawmf aumif.jzifh Edik if aH &.pmrSaeI &[ef.f aumifpD atmh bm.jzifyh ifv#if bke.D 0dik f / trf / bD / at Ak'b < mom uvsm%.csyd rf xm.m*auQrH udavomwdk@ ukef&m jzpfaom/ tEkw&W H jrwfaom edAmŠ efuakd &mufapjcif.tm*g&mp vlw@kd onf4if. tm.yif ol&.toif.fwef.a[m w&m. pdwf"gwf rsdK.csKyf}uD. tqdpk aD t.f }u.f aygi.f }uD.f 62 vGwfvyfa&.udk ab.OwWr onf? 1920-ckEpS f jynfòr@d Yusi.v#if oCFmawmfrsm.udk ajcpHyk pfvsu0f ifatmif v_@H aqmfvm&m ArmjynfY bke.0ajymif.? a.rsm.? bke.f +yD..cs.?) TuJo h @kd aom w&m.&Sad om vli.f 0+yD.

fpifppf bk&ifcHuvnf. f wif.twGuf txl.” [k &J&aJ wmuf &G@H &dak oae&aomacwfY bk&ifcu H kd “a[h ajym0Hyh gayonf[k txl..aphcscJhol 63 .D OwWronf bk&ifcx H o H @kd pmwpfapmifa&.OwWru wd@k ArmvlrsK.fu&ufa'gu.? a0vrif.OwWr u&ufa'guu f (bdik .mufukd oydwf arSmufv#if axmif'g%ftjypfay.k =um.}uD. OD.ao. onf? xdt k csed u f q&mawmfO.f azmfjy vdkuf&m [m[.omjzpfonf? aemufwpfcrk mS tpd.” [lI qdo k nfh twdkif. d owif.om.rSm t*Fvyd b f momwGif “jynfo@l 0efxrf.csurf sm.udk vlwikd . v_@H aqmfay.bpD/ owif.onfuv kd nf.apjyef.vdu k yf g” pmrSm “qm&.v#if a0vrif.yif pdwx f ºuGvm=ujcif.fESifhArmrsm.aom ArmvlrsK.jzpf.u &efuek rf zS rf.pmu xnfo h iG .k & t&m&Sd qdak ompum. / puFmyl paom&yfa0.D oifay.q&mawmf OD.zGifhvmavonf? yGifhyHkum.f*seD . rsufvHk.Edkifaom Oya'wdk@udk xkwfjyefvm cJjh yef.bvdi_ f wd@k ukd ykvyd f rif.tm.om.f aumh) tufOya'[lI vlwa.f E_ww f iG f wzGzaG jymqdv k m=uav&m xdt k csed w f iG f q&mawmfO.om.faomtcgr# arhEdkif=urnf r[kwaf y? vGwfvyfa&.I awmif}uD.rnfr[kwf? odk@ aomf OD.yifjzpf.ta&. t&m&Sdr[kwf? jynfol@tapcHawGomjzpfI olwdk@udk bmrS a=umufp&mrvd[ k k v_aH qmfa&.kH udk uJo G mG . ArmjynfrS xGuo [laom pum.fq+kd y.onfh oydwf wpfv.cspv f i_d Ef iS hf 'k-OuUX OD.wrf. arSmufxm.f*seD . pdwf"gwf rsdK.ydik Ef iS hf ykvyd t f &m&Sad vmufuykd if 'l.aom tkycf sKyfa&.D OwWr.+yD.onf rEd.[m &Sad e w.? wu. &efukefudka&mufcsdef eD.? xdk f mG . u|Eykf w f @kd zwf&&_ ao.cf sKyfcsxm.fu&ufa'guf rif.yg t&ma&mufaom v_H@aqmfcsufjzpfonfudk u|Efkyfwdk@ b.vdu k jf cif.om.uyfvmaomtcg OuUX OD.ay.d awGrmS 'Dvakd jymEdik w f t hJ cGit hf a&.Y acwW tus.d rsm.rm=urf.yd@k . xGuo f mG .wkeaf tmif a=umuf a[h rif.xGufoGm.pmq&mOD.? bk&ifcq H m&.? xdpk mudk ol&.OwWru ta&.

D csKy)f udk yxrqH.vJaom tkycf sKyfa&. twdik yf ifct H rwf}uD.+yD. oabmus &moufyef a*gyu vl}uD.k &.v#if a&$w*d b kH &k m.f oljynf om. Edik if aH &.q&mawmf OD.D csKyrf eG af w*l tdE.xkwóf ud.f armif (.f 0ef}u.fpm.bd.cJ&h m wdik .rsO.awG.om.f &if.m.ode.kH =u&ef E_d.jzifh 'Dru kd a&pDtyk cf sKyfa&.aphcscJhol .oumv a*gyuvl}uD. qlyrl r_ sm.ojzifh 0dik f / trf / bD / atrS apv$wo f nf[k qdk&aom udk.ckEikd if aH wmf w&m.vS.oif.aqmf+yD.f u txl.udk wwfEikd o f r#aom enf.y&d.ppfqifykH vufatmufcH Armwdik .toGiu f kd wrsK.f ESihf bk&ifcq H m&. tpd. (5)ESpfwpf}udrfus a&G.twGuf qlqyl yl l vkyv f mav/ tkycf sKyfol vlrsK.twGi.d wzHak jymif.udk ay. wpfae&mvpfvyfonfudk bdvyfrjS yefvmump 0wfvakH wmf& OD. a&G.k om / OD.f [lI uGjJ ym.f rsm.onfvnf.SOòf yid t f a&G.tjzpf OD.f Y 1919-ckEpS rf pS +yD.odr.ra&mufcahJ cs? 64 vGwfvyfa&.vJ+yD. dN od@k ðyjyif ajymif.rS a&.cHz@kd v_@H aqmfay. bmwpfcrk S c&D.udk vufawG@usio hf .f armifrmS vlxrk q J ENjzifh ta&G.r a&muf&adS e&onft h jyif 0dik f / trf / bD / at toif.cH&avonf? 1917 ckEpS /f tdE. vl}uD.v#if tkycf sKyfa&.OwWr.cJ&h m ol&. b¾m awmfxrd .ydik .qGJ wifjyxm.jyefavonf? xdt k cgwiG f 0dik f / trf / bD / at toif. a&.aemuf Arm jynfraS pv$waf om txl.d jcm.fyikd .csKyf.avav jzpfvmawmh&m bk&ifcH qm&.tyf&efvmI jyefomG .rsm.0ifoabmaygucf o hJ jzifh OD.k .rsm.bwlw@kd ukd cef@xm.f tzG@J onfyif vl}uD.qGw J ifjyaom Armjynftyk cf sKyaf &.u rdrw d @kd &oif&h xdu k f aom tcGit hf a&. pmrSm/ vli.wd@k vnf.yg0if v_@H aqmf+yD.aumufwifajr‡mufxm. d owif.+yD.pnf. pdwf"gwf rsdK. tawmfyifem..fu&ufa'guu f vnf.pm. dN twGi.fawmfrsm.0ef}u.OwWr OD.fyikd .f *seD . wifjyajymqdkcsufrsm..aom pnf.rsO.f &ef tm.rSm c&D.ESihf OD.aumufwifajrm‡ ufjcif. &mZyv†irf mS v_y&f mS .rnfhtpm.f vli.f*seD .fu&ufa'guf a&.fw@kd jzifh òzdciG .

jcm. xuf0ufpD tm%m.udk pm. udk =um.k &ESihf jynfo@l u. udk OD.m.? xdkrS aemufwiG f penf.xd.f Y rkew f ikd .aphcscJhol 65 .tyfaomtcgY Armjynf udk rnfonft h yk cf sKyfa&.vS.udv k nf.fyikd . txl.k u aomif..rvS r=umc% ysufpD.pD&if&mY csyd ukwt f pm.? vGwfvyfa&.l )udk twdtus&onf[k rqdEk ikd af omfvnf.vmcJah vonf? xdo k @kd jzpf&m 0dik /f trf/ bD/ at toif.qdk rnf[k qH.aom aumfr wDtzG@J wckukd pHpk rf.f 0ef.ao.vS. tkycf sKyfae&mrS *g0gembk&ifcH tkycf sKyfaom jynfe.k +yD. Nd jynftm.rf sm.foabmw&m. d )/ OD. ('dik t f mcD) ac: tpd.&zl.waygief map&m rke@f onfrom.D v#if yxrt}urd f OD.f &deS w f @kd ukd a&G.y&d. tdE.tm.qHk. 1921-ckEpS f tdE. ArmEdkifiHa&.rSwo f m.apv$w+f yD.udk ay.rsm. tpm.f u Tr#EiS hf auseyfae=u&efr[kw?f bdvyfygvrD efo@kd a&mufatmif ud.bJ rpPwm0du _ f }uD.f =uavonf? aemufwpf}udrYf 1920-ckEpS w f iG f OD.zk@d oifhojzifh atmufwGifazmfjyvdkufonf? EdkifiHa&.fom.vli.ojzifh b.xGe.r_uav.vSL'ge.&.f armiftm.r# ray.OwWr Armjynftm.jzjz p&dwpf u 0dik . aemuf Ekid if aH &.cs.q&mawmf OD. pdwf"gwf rsdK.yk (0wfvakH wmf &) ESihf OD.v f eG o f mG .udk rpm. dN vufatmufcH vufzwif eif*g0gem wOD.OwWrum. kd pf m.kH jzpfapxdu k f onfqakd om tcsuEf pS cf suo f m xl. wmu pEN*w k rf if.f &deS f uG. d H [kr&R .twGi. awmif.lI tkycf sKy&f aom tkycf sKyaf &.rf sm..wGif yg0ifpGufzuf+yD.om.baz ( ol&.&H_.pGmwdkufojzifh ta&. [du k u f w k &f .f jynfwpfjynf vH.fwpfco k m jzpfap&rnf? w&m. apv$w=f ujyefonf? xdo k @kd apv$w=f u&ojzifh Armjynfrv S v kd m.onf rke@f tem.rSL.aomif. ppfqifro _ nf A[dpk cef. k pf m.aom ('drk eD .f qifI wdu k af om Edik if aH &.bJ cv.odr.jzihf v_y&f mS .xGe.onf trSefpifppf ppfqifrw _ pf&yfyifjzpf&m &mZ0ifY pEN*w k rf if.k raom pum.. ppfwu kd o f vdo k m&So d nf[k trduqH. ojzifh OD.tpD&ifc&H ef apv$wv f u kd af vonf? q&mawmfOD.fawmr# 0rnfr[kw/f eifrek @f pm.af pv$w=f uaomtcg wdik .k jzwf+y.

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'kw. pnf.ef.D aq.k =u&m 1936-ckEpS Yf aumvdyo f ydwf rSpI atmifausmaf o&+yD.q&mawmf OD.aom 'd@k ArmoDcsi. wufºuGaeaom pdw"f mwfukd &Jpw d &f aJ oG.faomtcgr# tem.I pwif oDqv kd m=u.p&mr&Sad y? od@k EiS yhf if q&mawmfonf oGm.ajymqd=k unfo h nf? wckr# c|w.&Jco H nf? od@k twGuf q&mawmf. onfh vuQ%mom awG@&onf? ysHvGefawmfrlaomtcgYyif . pum.=uonf? xdrk S aemufwiG f 'd@k Armocif[I l ausmif. rdru d .ESihf .xºuGaom tpdwftydkif.f vsuf t*Fvyd u f kd awmfveS . G I f wjym.u OD. xdak iGjzifh use.a&m*g ydq k .raebJ vrf.t&H.a&mufomoemðy&ef &nf&.OwWr olwpfO.D *syefuckd s.? vli.vm&if.rS qufo.D uJo h @kd oGm.D vufarmif.kd rnf[I l b..ryg? tm. k I l *syefEiS yhf .enf. pdwf"gwf rsdK.av#mufI om aeonfuakd wG@&.u ayG@x+l y.D OwWr ðypkysK.f +y.+cH+yD.k bJ qGr.d axmifcahJ om wufºuGonfh Edik if aH &.k pOfr# .rSmpd.Arm&du k yf aJG emufwiG f 'd@k Armtpnf.l aygi.aemuf 'd@k Armocifw@kd .dkudk [mrmpydpb d %fwu kd Yf ol@yikd f &HyakH iG .f rmv#if Edik if jH cm. xyfrjH znfph u G af y. f ? aemuf t*Fvyd Ef iS yhf .vmaewwf.tH.rnfo h rl &Sv d #if tiwfco H nftxd ac|wm òcd.? xdt k cgrpS I ocifb aomif.? awG@aomolrsm.&H.frsm. k u f sihf w&m.+yD.od@k oGm.aqmif+yD.&if.. wcsyrf S roH.ESifh &Jabmf 3-usw d w f @kd *syefo@kd xu G o f mG .[laom tcgaumif.f yifah u|. G I f 1292-ckEpS f ukvm.azgujf yefonf [lI rqdkom? u|Ekfyfudk.&Hyk @kd &onf? +ird +f ird af evsiS f ol.? od@k aomf pdwu f m.ckArmacwf OD. txl.f udk vufo. tm.? 1948-ckEpS w f iG f vGwv f yfa&.l aygi.Hrk mS . kd u f ykd if qif.+cHblwmtxGufwGif awG@qHk+yD. d urBmppfwnf.&&Scd &hJ m vGwfvyfa&.fwdkif uGrf. pdw"f gwrf sm.wef. f iG .-20000 &So d nf? xdt k cgu ArmaiG (25000)r# wefao.? q&mawmfO.trsm. ud.k trnfjzifh ocifygwaD y:vm.? aiGukd a&vko d .wGif t+rJacgif.enf.f aom pum.aphcscJhol 115 .aqmifIyg0ifum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef. om.k cifw@kd ocifwpkonf 0dik /f trf/ bD/ at q&mwifa&.ud.I wcg w&Hvu J s.kH Ekid af omfvnf.

okd h ykd ah qmif&m odr}f u.? 4if.=u.f yaom jynf axmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH ygvDrefwGifvnf.vH.k 0rf.f trSwjf zifh 5 -rdepf&yfem.odk@ vGwfawmfrSwfwrf.enf.onfh txdr.=u+yD. OD.q&mawmf OD.a=umif. qdx k m.D aps. t&dktaoðy=uonf? oufqdkif&maqGrsKd.enf.t&if.+yD.t& 0rf.w f 0ifh cs.wd@k wiG f q&mawmfO.ajc&if.u ta=umif. yxrqH.yaom Armjynf atmufvGwfawmf tpnf.ta0.OwWr xdt k qifq h ifah om awmfveS af &.Zl. tus.a'gift h a&mufwiG f awG &h yHk (&ufpGJ = 9/ 9/ 1939) xkad emuf 1954 ckEpS f pufwifbmvu usi.&H.k }uD. pdwf"gwf rsdK.D usL.aemuf pufwif bmv 11-&ufae@wGif usif.rsm.D OwWr.o0%fv$m ay.tm.Y trwfrsm.k pdw"f gwaf wmfveS af &.wdk@udk 116 vGwfvyfa&.OwWronf &efuek af q.aphcscJhol .jzpfonf? 1939-ckEpS f pufwifbmv 9-&uf (1301-ckEpS f 0gacgiv f qkwf 11-&uf) ae@wiG f q&mawmf OD. *k%faus.jzpfonf? q&mawmf OD.udk txufY azmfjy+yD.ydk@=uonf? vGwaf wmftrwfrsm.cHonfrmS rvGaJ =umif.Y b0ewfxH ysv H eG af wmfr&l m/ ysaH wmfrI l 2-&uf=um+yD. ygvrD ef vGwaf wmf t&yf&yfyif xkwaf zmfpum.OwWr &kyu f vmyfukd a&$w*d b kH &k m. h pum.teuf *ef*gqif.OwWr.

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jzpfxGef..oabmudik n hJ m‡ I aqmif&u G &f ef t"dXmefxm.pum.d udo k m apmifph m. ajymif. qdak vonf? Trm'&yfe.wd@k ukd txl.m.fvpf) [laom 0HomEktrsK.pdwt f aetxm.k &.f u Tod@k a&.f aqmifOuUXjzpfol a'guw f akd *:0g uvnf.d wd@k u tkycf sKyfEikd v f rd rhf nf[k awG.pm.rsm.q&mawmf OD.axmif=u bdavm? xdt k rwfonf bHb k ikd ef .ESifh rauseyfEikd af o.acgi.om.om.k ajzmifph mG aqmif&u G o f ifah =umif. vdu k =f uayonf? 'Dru kd &ufwpfygwD ac: 'Dru kd &ufwpfacwftvdu k f trsm.k &wd@k onf +Adwo d #w@kd .udkr# rvdkufacsaomf tdE.wdk@teuf wenf.f Edik I f wdik . ac: jynfwGif.fuo hJ @kd +Adwo d # vlrsK.vJjcif. em.f wd@k ukd tb..cktcsurf mS &d.jzifv h nf.&Sad yvdrrhf nf jzpfa=umif. wnf.f }uD.om.aom (tv [mowf) owif. dN jynfonf (ae&Sief .f rif.qdkif&m jAL&dku&uftrwf}uD.udv k nf.tjypfqjkd cif.d om.wGif w0ufwpdwrf # pdw0f ifpm.aphcscJhol 141 .xifr&a=umif.[k woif.&eftwGuf .xm.tusK.pm acgi.tusKd. tpd.f&@H_ csI ajymqdjk cif. xdo k @kd yif qdak vonf? tvdak wmf&t d pd. qdak vonf? +Adwo d #tpd.ESpfenf. tcspfawmftrwf jzpf ayonf? xdt k rwfuvGecf ahJ om&ufaygi.wdkifyiftrwf rpPwmtm.faumifpt D zG@J rS [kr. jynfow l @kd u owdtxl.f jynfa&.wdik yf if trwf toif.OwWr Tenf.a&.pum.r=umrDu 'dik t f mcDukd jypfy.fu rif.v#i/f bHb k ikd ef .enf.=unf&h o _ nfh twGuf .ftrwf.k &bufu xm0&aeI a&.? xdu k o hJ @kd jzpf&cdS ahJ omf pdwaf uscsr.f rsm.? 'Dru kd &ufwpfacwf +Adwdo#trwfvdrRmwdk@u tdENd.aom rif.ckuo hJ @kd jzpf&adS eonf[k od&EdS ikd af =umif.udv k nf.ol 35-ukaËaom Adv k af jc taygi.udv k nf.ydik . pdwf"gwf rsdK.I pOf.vsuyf g&o dS nf? vGwfvyfa&.

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ifI ay. cGv J rf. 'dik t f mcDaumifpo D @kd 0ifv=kd uaom rdwaf qGw@kd onf rpPwma&.k & &mxl. f bifa*:vD ac: owif.f }uHpnfjcif.&Edik af om enf. vGwfvyfa&.pmyifjzpfonft h jyif jynfow l @kd onf tpd.Xme wd@k ukd tpd.jzifh rsm.OwWr rpPwm*GdKufrnfaom qm'l&efewfbifem*sDydkifaom bifa*:vD ac: owif.I (&DZAfywf*su)f oD.uJo h @kd toufygvmcJo h nfh emrfr&Sad om &kyf tavmif.Xme/ w&m.pm.ok@d a&muf aomtajccHr[kwf xkx d uftvGe.q&mawmf OD.qH. trsm. onfrmS 'dik t f mcDðyjyiftyk cf sKyfa&.pDraH pjcif.pmonf tpOf rjywf tpd.aom Xme rsm.rS vGw+f idr.k &vuf&x dS m.pepfw@kd onf t*FvefygvrD efu ðyjyifqif.f ” ac: tm%mwnf.xm.onfrmS tdE.u Av0tjypfqI kd y.xdu k =f uonf? xdyk *k K~ v d af jymaompum.fcgG a&Smif&mS .I pOf.kH jynfow l @kd tm.D jcif.Y yg0ifapor# umvywfv.om.cef@xm.uJo h @kd yif &Sb d .pepfonf jynfow l @kd ud.zl. cHc&hJ avonf? rGezf @kd puif.pmwGif azaz:0g&v D u a&.oef@cjJG cm.k &bufuyifaeI a&.k od@k a&muf&adS e+yD[al om pmacgi.aomom. ac: rGeaf w*lEiS hf avmhcsipf zd@k w@dk 'dik t f mcDtyk cf sKyfa&. k yf ikd f tkycf sKyfa&.vrf.&Edik rf nf[k t+rJxifjrif. enf.rSm aumifpw D iG f trwfw@kd u jynfo@l tusK.aomom. u aemufxyfajymqdak ompum.f wyfvsuf azmfjya&.aphcscJhol 143 .=ua=umif. d ? ykvyd Xf me/ tpd.udk owdxm.enf.q l oabm&aom owif. dN jynfonf vrf.a&.d udk pDr=H uaomtcg bk&ifc.pGmzdEydS zf suq f .[lI qd. wm0efcaJG y.[laom twnfjzpfap/ ysufap wcsufvGwftrdef@ vufeufawZrsm.enf.aygi.om.k &ESihf yl.pmyifwnf. H “ADw”kd ac: tm%mESihf “qmwDzikd .? taozGm.a=umif. f w k ef rd ahf vjcif. pdwf"gwf rsdK.pD&ifa&.f jcif. k ? xdo k @kd qakd omyk*K~ v d .vrf.vdu k af omtcg uyif taozGm.jzpfatmif pDrjH cif.aeaom owif.

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vGwfvyfa&; pdwf"gwf rsdK;aphcscJhol 155

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