GOSPEL acc. to... MARK WHO? "John Mark of Jerusalem" traditionally (Acts 12:12; 15:37; Col attributed author?

4:10; Phlm 1:24; 1Pet 5:13) WHO? implied author? bilingual (Aramaic & Greek) Christian of the 2nd generation; "young man" of 14:51-52?

MATTHEW tax collector & apostle (Mark 3:18; Matt 9:9; 10:3; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13) multi-lingual (Aramaic & Greek) early Jewish Christian; trained "scribe"of 13:52?



physician & companion of John, son of Zebedee; Paul (Col 4:14; 2Tim 4:11; one of 12 apostles (Mark Phlm 1:24 only) 1:19; 3:17; cf. John 21:2) Gentile Christian convert; well educated Greek "historian"; client of Theophilus (1:1-4)? the "beloved disciple" and his Jewish Christian followers (19:35; 21:2024) very mixed: mostly Jews, some Gentiles, Samaritans, etc.

TO WHOM? mostly Gentiles, fairly new better educated Jews who wealthier Gentile implied audience? in their faith, and facing believe in Jesus, but Christians in an urban persecutions argue over the Law setting, becoming complacent WHERE? written from and/or to? WHEN? approximate date? WHAT? subtype of "Gospel" genre?

probably Rome; possibly possibly Galilee; probably probably Greece; possibly originally Galilee or Syria; Decapolis, Syria or in or near Antioch in Syria Syria/Antioch (Pauline traditionally Ephesus Alexandria? missions) (Asia Minor) first written "Gospel"; very late 70's or 80's (w/ older mid to late 80's (incl. late 60's or early 70's sources, incl. one written "many" earlier written (Jewish War 66-70) by Matthew?) sources) narrated "good news" (1:1) about Jesus, esp. his actions & his death book of "heritage" of an "orderly account" for Jesus (1:1) & much of his attaining "secure "teaching" (28:20) knowledge" (1:1-4) main edition 90's (early edition 50's? epilogue after 100?) much "testimony" and "signs" for believers (20:30-31; 21:24-25)

WHY? community to encourage a group to teach a community with to challenge believers to to strengthen a group circumstances & undergoing difficult trials internal divisions and put their faith into practice ostracized by other Jews author's purpose? and persecutions external enemies more fully for their faith See also my related webpage: Who Really Wrote the Gospels?

Literary, Stylistic and Thematic Comparisons: # GOSPEL acc. to... 1 Number of chapters (verses and words) 2 Style of Greek 3 Geographical Focus MARK 16 ( 678 / 11304 ) MATTHEW 28 ( 1071 / 18345 ) LUKE 24 ( 1151 / 19482 ) JOHN 21 ( 879 / 15635 )

grammatically poor Greek Galilean towns & villages; some Gentile territory

Semitic influenced Greek good, elegant, literary Greek Galilee, esp. mountains; one long journey to the mostly Jewish areas goal: Jerusalem

simple, but highly symbolic Greek multiple visits back & forth to Jerusalem

4 Literary Features quick action ("and then"; five major discourses; "immediately"); well-organized sections episodes connected of collected pericopes loosely, but grouped 5 Literary Introduction "Beginning of Good News" (1:1) "Book of Genealogy" (1:1) Jesus' heritage: David (royal), Abraham

any story pairs (with "Amen, Amen, I say to male/female characters); you."; irony; paradox; focus on prayer; many double-meanings extra parables "Orderly Account" (1:1-4) Cosmic Hymn (1:1-18) parallel birth stories: J. B. points to "Lamb of John the Baptist & Jesus God"; first disciples come

6 Gospel Beginning John the Baptist's preaching;

"Word became flesh and angels. of the poor) healing sick & impaired people. to his parents in Jerusalem]: "Why were you searching for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father's house?" (2:49) (1:19-51) [to two disciples of John the Baptist]: "What are you looking for?" (1:38) and "Come and See" (1:39) 8 Birth of Jesus (narrative emphasis) 9 Inaugural Event focus on women: theology of incarnation: Elizabeth. 26-27) Great Commission. Emmanuel ("God with us") LUKE great Prophet (in word & deed). Passover Lamb. revealing his intimate . Mary. and the kingdom of God has come near. sent from Father. rich & corrupt people Pharisees. New Lawgiver & Great Teacher (like Moses). Lord (of Israel. 15 Christology I: Main Titles for Jesus 16 Christology II: Jesus' Major Actions miracles. your mother" (19:26-27). Magi. before his baptism]: "Let it be so now. 22±23) "Woman.Pharisees "scribes & Pharisees". Anna. 21:24-25] MATTHEW Son of David. "hypocrites & blind 2. Emmanuel (1:5±2:52) (God with us) (1:2±2:23) [to John the Baptist.. High Priest Caiaphas "Father. powers..Jesus' ministry begins (1:2-15) 7 First Words of Jesus [to unspecified crowds]: "The time is fulfilled. &Herodians. forgiving sinners & JOHN Eternal Logos. in Jerusalem). for it is proper for us in this way to fulfill all righteousness" (3:15) focus on men: David. Holy dwelt among us" (1:14) Spirit Wedding Feast at Cana: first of Jesus' "signs" (2:1-11) Exorcism in the Sermon on the Mount: Jubilee reading from Synagogue Fulfillment of Torah/Law Isaiah 61: of Capernaum (1:21-28) (ch. 5±7) Rejection at Nazareth (4:14-30) 1. doing God's works. Only-begotten Son. my God. and believe in the good news" (1:15) Jesus' birth is not narrated. tragic death (ch. scribes & guides" elders "My God. but esp. from Bethany 1: disciples & Thomas just East of Jerusalem (20:19-29) (24:50-53) 2: [Peter & Beloved Disciple (21:1-23)] 14 Final Literary Ending women leave tomb in fear & silence (16:8) [16:9-20 added only later] MARK Christ/Messiah & Son of God. 14±15) authorities' plots & treachery (ch. behold. decrying religious arguing with religious hypocrisy . overcoming evil teaching his disciples. repent. "Father. Joseph. outside of Jerusalem (16:1-8) Ascension. Suffering Son of Man. Savior (of all. why [same as in Mark] have you forsaken me?" (Mt 27:46) (15:34) 10 Jesus' Major Opponents unjust authorities (civil & "the Jews" (esp. "I am thirsty" (19:28). Eschatological Judge Jesus tells the disciples. disciples return to 1: many more signs "I am with you always" Jerusalem temple with (20:30-31) (28:20) joy praising God (24:53) 2: [many other books. leaders religious)." (23:34). your son". "It is finished" (19:30) 11 Jesus' [Seven] Last Words on the Cross 12 Focus of Passion horrible suffering. forgive them. and of all nations). into your hands I commend my Spirit" (23:46) Jesus' innocence. to. forgiveness (ch. on Mountain in Galilee (28:16-20) Jesus' exaltation/glorification (ch. shepherds.. power: King of Jews? murder of infants! [12-year-old. Son of Abraham. but he's called "Son of Mary" (6:3) and "the Nazarene" (14:67) (Jewish). Herod. King of the Jews.. GOSPEL acc. "Behold. 18±19) 13 Last Major Event Empty Tomb. "You will be with me in Paradise" (23:43). Divine Word made Flesh.chief priests. "I Am" / "Equal to God" speaking God's words.

all who hear & believe have eternal life already now. 14:3). in charitable deeds Peter (16:13-20). final separation of good vs. 7:24. many will fall away. Bartimaeus (10:46) be righteous. Rev 4:7) 23 Liturgical Feast Day 24 Use in Sunday Lectionary 25 Typical Portrait 26 Emphasized by Whom? April 25 Year B Jesus on the Cross Modern Historians (oldest historical account) Ox October 18 Year C Jesus Heals the Sick Catholics (esp. pray! (21:20-24. 12:41. Paraclete = Holy Spirit. follow Jesus Disc. not so soon. be ready for his return 18 Discipleship II: Role Models for Disc. share with poor. Lent&Easter Christ the Revealer Orthodox Xns (esp. main disciples don't understand. Good Samaritan (10:2537). are not judged (5:21-25) whether or not you believe in Jesus (3:16-18. "on the way" to the cross. love one another. faithful servants (24:45± 25:46) debtors leave everything to follow Jesus. social structures) justice focus) . so "Keep awake!" (13:137) whether you persevere in faith despite persecutions (13:13) Messianic secret. serve humbly John [the Baptizer] (ch. Christian unity. outcasts. 5:19-24. divisions within the community. live ethically (Golden Rule). (13:23ff). esp. be in unity.Martha (11:27). know. enemies Mary of Nazareth (1:26± 2:51). Sheep & Goats parable (25:31-46) fulfillment of Scripture. Symbols Lion (cf. but minor characters do believe false prophets will arise. bad Human [or Angel] September 21 Year A Sermon on the Mount 20 Basis for Final Judgment 21 Other Major Themes 22 Evang. 1). Mary Magdalene (20:1-18) realized eschatology. but no one knows when.authorities 17 Discipleship I: persevere in faith despite Teachings about suffering. forgive always. anon. Gospel must first be preached to all (24:1014) what you do for "the least" people. 28. women (5:25. logos Christology) 19 Eschatological Expectations imminent and suddenly. 12:4450) "eternal life" = "life in his name". Zacchaeus (19:1-10) after Jerusalem is destroyed & Gentiles' time is fulfilled. remain in Jesus & God. 9). believe. Jairus (5:21).D. women. parables of Rich & Poor (16:1-31) fulfillment of God's plan. mutual indwelling of God/Jesus/us Eagle December 27 mixed. despite hostility. 36) how you use wealth / possessions. esp. esp. ecclesial Protestants (esp. accept everyone. the B. tax collectors & sinners favored relationship with God see. man born blind (ch. children (18:1-5). fulfill God's commands. eschatological reversal.

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